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Sample records for recorded thrust earthquakes

  1. Crustal earthquake triggering by pre-historic great earthquakes on subduction zone thrusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, Brian; Gomberg, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Triggering of earthquakes on upper plate faults during and shortly after recent great (M>8.0) subduction thrust earthquakes raises concerns about earthquake triggering following Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes. Of particular regard to Cascadia was the previously noted, but only qualitatively identified, clustering of M>~6.5 crustal earthquakes in the Puget Sound region between about 1200–900 cal yr B.P. and the possibility that this was triggered by a great Cascadia thrust subduction thrust earthquake, and therefore portends future such clusters. We confirm quantitatively the extraordinary nature of the Puget Sound region crustal earthquake clustering between 1200–900 cal yr B.P., at least over the last 16,000. We conclude that this cluster was not triggered by the penultimate, and possibly full-margin, great Cascadia subduction thrust earthquake. However, we also show that the paleoseismic record for Cascadia is consistent with conclusions of our companion study of the global modern record outside Cascadia, that M>8.6 subduction thrust events have a high probability of triggering at least one or more M>~6.5 crustal earthquakes.

  2. Source of 1629 Banda Mega-Thrust Earthquake and Tsunami: Implications for Tsunami Hazard Evaluation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Liu, Z.; Harris, R. A.; Fisher, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    Using Dutch records of geophysical events in Indonesia over the past 400 years, and tsunami modeling, we identify tsunami sources that have caused severe devastation in the past and are likely to reoccur in the near future. The earthquake history of Western Indonesia has received much attention since the 2004 Sumatra earthquakes and subsequent events. However, strain rates along a variety of plate boundary segments are just as high in eastern Indonesia where the earthquake history has not been investigated. Due to the rapid population growth in this region it is essential and urgent to evaluate its earthquake and tsunami hazards. Arthur Wichmann's 'Earthquakes of the Indian Archipelago' shows that there were 30 significant earthquakes and 29 tsunami between 1629 to 1877. One of the largest and best documented is the great earthquake and tsunami effecting the Banda islands on 1 August, 1629. It caused severe damage from a 15 m tsunami that arrived at the Banda Islands about a half hour after the earthquake. The earthquake was also recorded 230 km away in Ambon, but no tsunami is mentioned. This event was followed by at least 9 years of aftershocks. The combination of these observations indicates that the earthquake was most likely a mega-thrust event. We use a numerical simulation of the tsunami to locate the potential sources of the 1629 mega-thrust event and evaluate the tsunami hazard in Eastern Indonesia. The numerical simulation was tested to establish the tsunami run-up amplification factor for this region by tsunami simulations of the 1992 Flores Island (Hidayat et al., 1995) and 2006 Java (Katoet al., 2007) earthquake events. The results yield a tsunami run-up amplification factor of 1.5 and 3, respectively. However, the Java earthquake is a unique case of slow rupture that was hardly felt. The fault parameters of recent earthquakes in the Banda region are used for the models. The modeling narrows the possibilities of mega-thrust events the size of the one

  3. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncio, Paolo; Liberi, Francesca; Caldarella, Martina; Nurminen, Fiia-Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike-slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9). Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding). For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r) and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ) were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ˜ 2150 m on the footwall and ˜ 3100 m on the hanging wall). Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( > ˜ 50 % at distances < ˜ 250 m). The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy) on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M) or flexural-slip (F-S) fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength), are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to remove outliers (e.g. 90 % probability of the cumulative distribution

  4. Stress triggering in thrust and subduction earthquakes and stress interaction between the southern San Andreas and nearby thrust and strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, J.; Stein, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that key features of thrust earthquake triggering, inhibition, and clustering can be explained by Coulomb stress changes, which we illustrate by a suite of representative models and by detailed examples. Whereas slip on surface-cutting thrust faults drops the stress in most of the adjacent crust, slip on blind thrust faults increases the stress on some nearby zones, particularly above the source fault. Blind thrusts can thus trigger slip on secondary faults at shallow depth and typically produce broadly distributed aftershocks. Short thrust ruptures are particularly efficient at triggering earthquakes of similar size on adjacent thrust faults. We calculate that during a progressive thrust sequence in central California the 1983 Mw = 6.7 Coalinga earthquake brought the subsequent 1983 Mw = 6.0 Nunez and 1985 Mw = 6.0 Kettleman Hills ruptures 10 bars and 1 bar closer to Coulomb failure. The idealized stress change calculations also reconcile the distribution of seismicity accompanying large subduction events, in agreement with findings of prior investigations. Subduction zone ruptures are calculated to promote normal faulting events in the outer rise and to promote thrust-faulting events on the periphery of the seismic rupture and its downdip extension. These features are evident in aftershocks of the 1957 Mw = 9.1 Aleutian and other large subduction earthquakes. We further examine stress changes on the rupture surface imparted by the 1960 Mw = 9.5 and 1995 Mw = 8.1 Chile earthquakes, for which detailed slip models are available. Calculated Coulomb stress increases of 2-20 bars correspond closely to sites of aftershocks and postseismic slip, whereas aftershocks are absent where the stress drops by more than 10 bars. We also argue that slip on major strike-slip systems modulates the stress acting on nearby thrust and strike-slip faults. We calculate that the 1857 Mw = 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas fault and subsequent interseismic slip brought

  5. Earthquake-by-earthquake fold growth above the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, Los Angeles, California: Implications for fold kinematics and seismic hazard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leon, L.A.; Christofferson, S.A.; Dolan, J.F.; Shaw, J.H.; Pratt, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Boreholes and high-resolution seismic reflection data collected across the forelimb growth triangle above the central segment of the Puente Hills thrust fault (PHT) beneath Los Angeles, California, provide a detailed record of incremental fold growth during large earthquakes on this major blind thrust fault. These data document fold growth within a discrete kink band that narrows upward from ???460 m at the base of the Quaternary section (200-250 m depth) to 82% at 250 m depth) folding and uplift occur within discrete kink bands, thereby enabling us to develop a paleoseismic history of the underlying blind thrust fault. The borehole data reveal that the youngest part of the growth triangle in the uppermost 20 m comprises three stratigraphically discrete growth intervals marked by southward thickening sedimentary strata that are separated by intervals in which sediments do not change thickness across the site. We interpret the intervals of growth as occurring after the formation of now-buried paleofold scarps during three large PHT earthquakes in the past 8 kyr. The intervening intervals of no growth record periods of structural quiescence and deposition at the regional, near-horizontal stream gradient at the study site. Minimum uplift in each of the scarp-forming events, which occurred at 0.2-2.2 ka (event Y), 3.0-6.3 ka (event X), and 6.6-8.1 ka (event W), ranged from ???1.1 to ???1.6 m, indicating minimum thrust displacements of ???2.5 to 4.5 m. Such large displacements are consistent with the occurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes (Mw > 7). Cumulative, minimum uplift in the past three events was 3.3 to 4.7 m, suggesting cumulative thrust displacement of ???7 to 10.5 m. These values yield a minimum Holocene slip rate for the PHT of ???0.9 to 1.6 mm/yr. The borehole and seismic reflection data demonstrate that dip within the kink band is acquired incrementally, such that older strata that have been deformed by more earthquakes dip more steeply than younger

  6. Recent Mega-Thrust Tsunamigenic Earthquakes and PTHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, S.

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of several mega-thrust tsunamigenic earthquakes in the last decade, including but not limited to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2010 Maule, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, has been a dramatic reminder of the limitations in our capability of assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk. However, the increasingly high-quality geophysical observational networks allowed the retrieval of most accurate than ever models of the rupture process of mega-thrust earthquakes, thus paving the way for future improved hazard assessments. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology, in particular, is less mature than its seismic counterpart, PSHA. Worldwide recent research efforts of the tsunami science community allowed to start filling this gap, and to define some best practices that are being progressively employed in PTHA for different regions and coasts at threat. In the first part of my talk, I will briefly review some rupture models of recent mega-thrust earthquakes, and highlight some of their surprising features that likely result in bigger error bars associated to PTHA results. More specifically, recent events of unexpected size at a given location, and with unexpected rupture process features, posed first-order open questions which prevent the definition of an heterogeneous rupture probability along a subduction zone, despite of several recent promising results on the subduction zone seismic cycle. In the second part of the talk, I will dig a bit more into a specific ongoing effort for improving PTHA methods, in particular as regards epistemic and aleatory uncertainties determination, and the computational PTHA feasibility when considering the full assumed source variability. Only logic trees are usually explicated in PTHA studies, accounting for different possible assumptions on the source zone properties and behavior. The selection of the earthquakes to be actually modelled is then in general made on a qualitative basis or remains implicit

  7. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes Beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.; Iwasaki, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2006-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40% of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In 2002, a consortium of universities and government agencies in Japan started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard produced by the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) mega-thrust earthquakes requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of PSP geometry and the overlying Honshu arc physical properties (e.g., seismic wave velocities, densities, attenuation), and local near-surface seism ic site effects. Our study addresses (1) improved regional characterization of the PSP geometry based on new deep seismic reflection profiles (Sato etal.,2005), reprocessed off-shore profiles (Kimura et al.,2005), and a dense seismic array in the Boso peninsular (Hagiwara et al., 2006) and (2) identification of asperities of the mega-thrust at the top of the PSP. We qualitatively examine the relationship between seismic reflections and asperities inferred by reflection physical properties. We also discuss the relation between deformation of PSP and intra-slab M7+ earthquakes: the

  8. Probability Assessment of Mega-thrust Earthquakes in Global Subduction Zones -from the View of Slip Deficit-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, R.; Mitsui, Y.; Ando, M.

    2014-12-01

    We studied inter-plate slip history for about 100 years using earthquake catalogs. On assumption that each earthquake has stick-slip patch centered in its centroid, we regard cumulative seismic slips around the centroid as representing the inter-plate dislocation. We evaluated the slips on the stick-slip patches of over-M5-class earthquakes prior to three recent mega-thrust earthquakes, the 2004 Sumatra (Mw9.2), the 2010 Chile (Mw8.8), and the 2011 Tohoku (Mw9.0) around them. Comparing the cumulative seismic slips with the plate convergence, the slips before the mega-thrust events are significantly short in large area corresponding to the size of the mega-thrust events. We also researched cumulative seismic slips after other three mega-thrust earthquakes occurred in this 100 years, the 1952 Kamchatka (Mw9.0), the 1960 Chile (Mw9.5), the 1964 Alaska (Mw9.2). The cumulative slips have been significantly short in and around the focal area after their occurrence. The result should reflect persistency of the strong or/and large inter-plate coupled area capable of mega-thrust earthquakes. We applied the same procedure to global subduction zones to find that 21 regions including the focal area of above mega-thrust earthquakes show slip deficit over large area corresponding to the size of M9-class earthquakes. Considering that at least six M9-class earthquakes occurred in this 100 years and each recurrence interval should be 500-1000 years, it would not be surprised that from five to ten times of the already known regions (30 to 60 regions) are capable of M9 class earthquakes. The 21 regions as expected M9 class focal areas in our study is less than 5 to 10 times of the known 6, some of these regions may be divided into a few M9 class focal area because they extend to much larger area than typical M9 class focal area.

  9. Coseismic fault-related fold model, growth structure, and the historic multisegment blind thrust earthquake on the basement-involved Yoro thrust, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Mueller, Karl; Sato, Hiroshi; Togo, Masami

    2007-03-01

    We use high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, boring transects, and mapping of fold scarps that deform late Quaternary and Holocene sediments to define the kinematic evolution, subsurface geometry, coseismic behavior, and fault slip rates for an active, basement-involved blind thrust system in central Japan. Coseismic fold scarps on the Yoro basement-involved fold are defined by narrow fold limbs and angular hinges on seismic profiles, suggesting that at least 3.9 km of fault slip is consumed by wedge thrust folding in the upper 10 km of the crust. The close coincidence and kinematic link between folded horizons and the underlying thrust geometry indicate that the Yoro basement-involved fold has accommodated slip at an average rate of 3.2 ± 0.1 mm/yr on a shallowly west dipping thrust fault since early Pleistocene time. Past large-magnitude earthquakes, including an historic M˜7.7 event in A.D. 1586 that occurred on the Yoro blind thrust, are shown to have produced discrete folding by curved hinge kink band migration above the eastward propagating tip of the wedge thrust. Coseismic fold scarps formed during the A.D. 1586 earthquake can be traced along the en echelon active folds that extend for at least 60 km, in spite of different styles of folding along the apparently hard-linked Nobi-Ise blind thrust system. We thus emphasize the importance of this multisegment earthquake rupture across these structures and the potential risk for similar future events in en echelon active fold and thrust belts.

  10. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga

  11. Fold and thrust partitioning in a contracting fold belt: Insights from the 1931 Mach earthquake in Baluchistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger; Schelling, Daniel; Kakar, Din Mohamed; Lodi, Sarosh

    2009-10-01

    Surface deformation associated with the 27 August 1931 earthquake near Mach in Baluchistan is quantified from spirit-leveling data and from detailed structural sections of the region interpreted from seismic reflection data constrained by numerous well logs. Mean slip on the west dipping Dezghat/Bannh fault system amounted to 1.2 m on a 42 km × 72 km thrust plane with slip locally attaining 3.2 m up dip of an inferred locking line at ˜9 km depth. Slip also occurred at depths below the interseismic locking line. In contrast, negligible slip occurred in the 4 km near the interseismic locking line. The absence of slip here in the 4 years following the earthquake suggests that elastic energy there must either dissipate slowly in the interseismic cycle, or that a slip deficit remains, pending its release in a large future earthquake. Elastic models of the earthquake cycle in this fold and thrust belt suggest that slip on the frontal thrust fault is reduced by a factor of 2 to 8 compared to that anticipated from convergence of the hinterland, a partitioning process that is presumably responsible for thickening of the fold and thrust belt at the expense of slip on the frontal thrust. Near the latitude of Quetta, GPS measurements indicate that convergence is ˜5 mm/yr. Hence the minimum renewal time between earthquakes with 1.2-m mean displacement should be as little as 240 years. However, when the partitioning of fold belt convergence to frontal thrust slip is taken into account the minimum renewal time may exceed 2000 years.

  12. Lake deposits record evidence of large post-1505 AD earthquakes in western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazoui, Z.; Bertrand, S.; Vanneste, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Van Der Beek, P.; Nomade, J.; Gajurel, A.

    2016-12-01

    According to historical records, the last large earthquake that ruptured the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) in western Nepal occurred in 1505 AD. Since then, no evidence of other large earthquakes has been found in historical records or geological archives. In view of the catastrophic consequences to millions of inhabitants of Nepal and northern India, intense efforts currently focus on improving our understanding of past earthquake activity and complement the historical data on Himalayan earthquakes. Here we report a new record, based on earthquake-triggered turbidites in lakes. We use lake sediment records from Lake Rara, western Nepal, to reconstruct the occurrence of seismic events. The sediment cores were studied using a multi-proxy approach combining radiocarbon and 210Pb chronologies, physical properties (X-ray computerized axial tomography scan, Geotek multi-sensor core logger), high-resolution grain size, inorganic geochemistry (major elements by ITRAX XRF core scanning) and bulk organic geochemistry (C, N concentrations and stable isotopes). We identified several sequences of dense and layered fine sand mainly composed of mica, which we interpret as earthquake-triggered turbidites. Our results suggest the presence of a synchronous event between the two lake sites correlated with the well-known 1505 AD earthquake. In addition, our sediment records reveal five earthquake-triggered turbidites younger than the 1505 AD event. By comparison with historical archives, we relate one of those to the 1833 AD MFT rupture. The others may reflect successive ruptures of the Western Nepal Fault System. Our study sheds light on events that have not been recorded in historical chronicles. Those five MMI>7 earthquakes permit addressing the problem of missing slip on the MFT in western Nepal and reevaluating the risk of a large earthquake affecting western Nepal and North India.

  13. Earthquakes, gravity, and the origin of the Bali Basin: An example of a Nascent Continental Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Robert; Nabelek, John

    1987-01-01

    We infer from the bathymetry and gravity field and from the source mechanisms and depths of the eight largest earthquakes in the Bali region that the Bali Basin is a downwarp in the crust of the Sunda Shelf produced and maintained by thrusting along the Flores back arc thrust zone. Earthquake source mechanisms and focal depths are inferred from the inversion of long-period P and SH waves for all events and short-period P waves for two of the events. Centroidal depths that give the best fit to the seismograms range from 10 to 18 km, but uncertainties in depth allow a range from 7 to 24 km. The P wave nodal planes that dip south at 13° to 35° (±7°) strike roughly parallel to the volcanic arc and are consistent with thrusting of crust of the Bali Basin beneath it. The positions of the earthquakes with respect to crustal features inferred from seismic and gravity data suggest that the earthquakes occur in the basement along the western end of the Flores thrust zone. The slip direction for the back arc thrust zone inferred from the orientation of the earthquake slip vectors indicates that the thrusting in the Bali Basin is probably part of the overall plate convergence, as it roughly coincides with the convergence direction between the Sunda arc and the Indian Ocean plate. Summation of seismic moments of earthquakes between 1960 and 1985 suggests a minimum rate of convergence across the thrust zone of 4 ± 2 mm/a. The presence of back arc thrusting suggests that some coupling between the Indian Ocean plate and the Sunda arc occurs but mechanisms such as continental collision or a shallow subduction of the Indian Ocean plate probably can be ruled out. The present tectonic setting and structure of the Bali Basin is comparable to the early forelands of the Andes or western North America in that a fold-and-thrust belt is forming on the continental side of an arc-trench system at which oceanic lithosphere is being subducted. The Bali Basin is flanked by the Tertiary Java

  14. Active thrusting offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Ata; Tapponnier, Paul; Singh, Satish C.; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Briais, Anne; Daëron, Mathieu; Carton, Helene; Sursock, Alexander; Jacques, Eric; Jomaa, Rachid; Klinger, Yann

    2007-08-01

    On 9 July A.D. 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami, destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). Tripoli is reported to have “drowned,” and Berytus (Beirut) did not recover for nearly 1300 yr afterwards. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveil the source of this event, which may have had a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.5 and was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, ˜100-150-km-long active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon thrust. Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west-facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The Mount Lebanon thrust trace comes closest (˜8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where, as 13 14C-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ˜80 cm in the sixth century A.D. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (˜1 m) of higher fossil benches suggests uplift by three more earthquakes of comparable size since the Holocene sea level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500-1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the Mount Lebanon thrust likely drove the growth of Mount Lebanon since the late Miocene.

  15. Preliminary earthquake locations in the Kenai Peninsula recorded by the MOOS Array and their relationship to structure in the 1964 great earthquake zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Abers, G. A.; Christensen, D. H.; Kim, Y.; Calkins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes in subduction zones are mostly generated at the interface between the subducting and overlying plates. In 2006-2009, the MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction) seismic array was deployed around the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, consisting of 34 broadband seismometers recording for 1-3 years. This region spans the eastern end of the Aleutian megathrust that ruptured in the 1964 Mw 9.2 great earthquake, the second largest recorded earthquake, and ongoing seismicity is abundant. Here, we report an initial analysis of seismicity recorded by MOOS, in the context of preliminary imaging. There were 16,462 events detected in one year from initial STA/LTA signal detections and subsequent event associations from the MOOS Array. We manually reviewed them to eliminate distant earthquakes and noise, leaving 11,879 local earthquakes. To refine this catalog, an adaptive auto-regressive onset estimation algorithm was applied, doubling the original dataset and producing 20,659 P picks and 22,999 S picks for one month (September 2007). Inspection shows that this approach lead to almost negligible false alarms and many more events than hand picking. Within the well-sampled part of the array, roughly 200 km by 300 km, we locate 250% more earthquakes for one month than the permanent network catalog, or 10 earthquakes per day on this patch of the megathrust. Although the preliminary locations of earthquakes still show some scatter, we can see a concentration of events in a ~20-km-wide belt, part of which can be interpreted as seismogenic thrust zone. In conjunction with the seismicity study, we are imaging the plate interface with receiver functions. The main seismicity zone corresponds to the top of a low-velocity layer imaged in receiver functions, nominally attributed to the top of the downgoing plate. As we refine velocity models and apply relative relocation algorithms, we expect to improve the precision of the locations substantially. When combined with image

  16. Width of the Surface Rupture Zone for Thrust Earthquakes and Implications for Earthquake Fault Zoning: Chi-Chi 1999 and Wenchuan 2008 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncio, P.; Caldarella, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the zones of coseismic surface faulting along thrust faults, whit the aim of defining the most appropriate criteria for zoning the Surface Fault Rupture Hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults. Normal and strike-slip faults were deeply studied in the past, while thrust faults were not studied with comparable attention. We analyze the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan (Mw 7.6) and 2008 Wenchuan, China (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the two earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials. For both the earthquakes, we collected from the literature, or measured in GIS-georeferenced published maps, data about the Width of the coseismic Rupture Zone (WRZ). The frequency distribution of WRZ compared to the trace of the main fault shows that the surface ruptures occur mainly on and near the main fault. Ruptures located away from the main fault occur mainly in the hanging wall. Where structural complexities are present (e.g., sharp bends, step-overs), WRZ is wider then for simple fault traces. We also fitted the distribution of the WRZ dataset with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to remove outliers (e.g., by selecting 90% or 95% probability) and define the zone where the probability of SFRH is the highest. This might help in sizing the zones of SFRH during seismic microzonation (SM) mapping. In order to shape zones of SFRH, a very detailed earthquake geologic study of the fault is necessary. In the absence of such a very detailed study, during basic (First level) SM mapping, a width of 350-400 m seems to be recommended (95% of probability). If the fault is carefully mapped (higher level SM), one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, 50 m-wide, that should be considered as a "fault-avoidance (or setback) zone". These fault zones should be asymmetric. The ratio of footwall to hanging wall (FW:HW) calculated here ranges from 1:5 to 1:3.

  17. New perspectives on self-similarity for shallow thrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denolle, Marine A.; Shearer, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    Scaling of dynamic rupture processes from small to large earthquakes is critical to seismic hazard assessment. Large subduction earthquakes are typically remote, and we mostly rely on teleseismic body waves to extract information on their slip rate functions. We estimate the P wave source spectra of 942 thrust earthquakes of magnitude Mw 5.5 and above by carefully removing wave propagation effects (geometrical spreading, attenuation, and free surface effects). The conventional spectral model of a single-corner frequency and high-frequency falloff rate does not explain our data, and we instead introduce a double-corner-frequency model, modified from the Haskell propagating source model, with an intermediate falloff of f-1. The first corner frequency f1 relates closely to the source duration T1, its scaling follows M0∝T13 for Mw<7.5, and changes to M0∝T12 for larger earthquakes. An elliptical rupture geometry better explains the observed scaling than circular crack models. The second time scale T2 varies more weakly with moment, M0∝T25, varies weakly with depth, and can be interpreted either as expressions of starting and stopping phases, as a pulse-like rupture, or a dynamic weakening process. Estimated stress drops and scaled energy (ratio of radiated energy over seismic moment) are both invariant with seismic moment. However, the observed earthquakes are not self-similar because their source geometry and spectral shapes vary with earthquake size. We find and map global variations of these source parameters.

  18. The 2013, Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, energetic strike-slip reactivation of a thrust fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Ayoub, Francois; Wei, Shengji; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Meng, Lingsen; Leprince, Sebastien; Jolivet, Romain; Duputel, Zacharie; Helmberger, Don

    2014-04-01

    We analyse the Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake of 09/24/2013 based on ground surface deformation measured from sub-pixel correlation of Landsat-8 images, combined with back-projection and finite source modeling of teleseismic waveforms. The earthquake nucleated south of the Chaman strike-slip fault and propagated southwestward along the Hoshab fault at the front of the Kech Band. The rupture was mostly unilateral, propagated at 3 km/s on average and produced a 200 km surface fault trace with purely strike-slip displacement peaking to 10 m and averaging around 6 m. The finite source model shows that slip was maximum near the surface. Although the Hoshab fault is dipping by 45° to the North, in accordance with its origin as a thrust fault within the Makran accretionary prism, slip was nearly purely strike-slip during that earthquake. Large seismic slip on such a non-optimally oriented fault was enhanced possibly due to the influence of the free surface on dynamic stresses or to particular properties of the fault zone allowing for strong dynamic weakening. Strike-slip faulting on thrust fault within the eastern Makran is interpreted as due to eastward extrusion of the accretionary prism as it bulges out over the Indian plate. Portions of the Makran megathrust, some thrust faults in the Kirthar range and strike-slip faults within the Chaman fault system have been brought closer to failure by this earthquake. Aftershocks cluster within the Chaman fault system north of the epicenter, opposite to the direction of rupture propagation. By contrast, few aftershocks were detected in the area of maximum moment release. In this example, aftershocks cannot be used to infer earthquake characteristics.

  19. Geodetic Insights into the Earthquake Cycle in a Fold and Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingleby, T. F.; Wright, T. J.; Butterworth, V.; Weiss, J. R.; Elliott, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic measurements are often sparse in time (e.g. individual interferograms) and/or space (e.g. GNSS stations), adversely affecting our ability to capture the spatiotemporal detail required to study the earthquake cycle in complex tectonic systems such as subaerial fold and thrust belts. In an effort to overcome these limitations we combine 3 generations of SAR satellite data (ERS 1/2, Envisat & Sentinel-1a/b) to obtain a 25 year, high-resolution surface displacement time series over the frontal portion of an active fold and thrust belt near Quetta, Pakistan where a Mw 7.1 earthquake doublet occurred in 1997. With these data we capture a significant portion of the seismic cycle including the interseismic, coseismic and postseismic phases. Each satellite time series has been referenced to the first ERS-1 SAR epoch by fitting a ground deformation model to the data. This allows us to separate deformation associated with each phase and to examine their relative roles in accommodating strain and creating topography, and to explore the relationship between the earthquake cycle and critical taper wedge mechanics. Modeling of the coseismic deformation suggests a long, thin rupture with rupture length 7 times greater than rupture width. Rupture was confined to a 20-30 degree north-northeast dipping reverse fault or ramp at depth, which may be connecting two weak decollements at approximately 8 km and 13 km depth. Alternatively, intersections between the coseismic fault plane and pre-existing steeper splay faults underlying folds may have played a significant role in inhibiting rupture, as evidenced by intersection points bordering the rupture. These fault intersections effectively partition the fault system down-dip and enable long, thin ruptures. Postseismic deformation is manifest as uplift across short-wavelength folds at the thrust front, with displacement rates decreasing with time since the earthquake. Broader patterns of postseismic uplift are also observed

  20. Recurrent Holocene movement on the Susitna Glacier Thrust Fault: The structure that initiated the Mw 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen; Crone, Anthony J.; Burns, Patricia A.; Reitman, Nadine G.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a trench investigation and analyzed pre‐ and postearthquake topography to determine the timing and size of prehistoric surface ruptures on the Susitna Glacier fault (SGF), the thrust fault that initiated the 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake sequence in central Alaska. In two of our three hand‐excavated trenches, we found clear evidence for a single pre‐2002 earthquake (penultimate earthquake [PE]) and determined an age of 2210±420  cal. B.P. (2σ) for this event. We used structure‐from‐motion software to create a pre‐2002‐earthquake digital surface model (DSM) from 1:62,800‐scale aerial photography taken in 1980 and compared this DSM with postearthquake 5‐m/pixel Interferometric Synthetic Aperature Radar topography taken in 2010. Topographic profiles measured from the pre‐earthquake DSM show features that we interpret as fault and fold scarps. These landforms were about the same size as those formed in 2002, so we infer that the PE was similar in size to the initial (Mw 7.2) subevent of the 2002 sequence. A recurrence interval of 2270 yrs and dip slip of ∼4.8  m yield a single‐interval slip rate of ∼1.8  mm/yr. The lack of evidence for pre‐PE deformation indicates probable episodic (clustering) behavior on the SGF that may be related to strain migration among other similarly oriented thrust faults that together accommodate shortening south of the Denali fault. We suspect that slip‐partitioned thrust‐triggered earthquakes may be a common occurrence on the Denali fault system, but documenting the frequency of such events will be very difficult, given the lack of long‐term paleoseismic records, the number of potential thrust‐earthquake sources, and the pervasive glacial erosion in the region.

  1. Dynamic Simulations for the Seismic Behavior on the Shallow Part of the Fault Plane in the Subduction Zone during Mega-Thrust Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, K.; Dorjapalam, S.; Dan, K.; Ogawa, S.; Watanabe, T.; Uratani, H.; Iwase, S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (M9.0) produced some distinct features such as huge slips on the order of several ten meters around the shallow part of the fault and different areas with radiating seismic waves for different periods (e.g., Lay et al., 2012). These features, also reported during the past mega-thrust earthquakes in the subduction zone such as the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the 2010 Chile earthquake (M8.8), get attentions as the distinct features if the rupture of the mega-thrust earthquakes reaches to the shallow part of the fault plane. Although various kinds of observations for the seismic behavior (rupture process and ground motion characteristics etc.) on the shallow part of the fault plane during the mega-trust earthquakes have been reported, the number of analytical or numerical studies based on dynamic simulation is still limited. Wendt et al. (2009), for example, revealed that the different distribution of initial stress produces huge differences in terms of the seismic behavior and vertical displacements on the surface. In this study, we carried out the dynamic simulations in order to get a better understanding about the seismic behavior on the shallow part of the fault plane during mega-thrust earthquakes. We used the spectral element method (Ampuero, 2009) that is able to incorporate the complex fault geometry into simulation as well as to save computational resources. The simulation utilizes the slip-weakening law (Ida, 1972). In order to get a better understanding about the seismic behavior on the shallow part of the fault plane, some parameters controlling seismic behavior for dynamic faulting such as critical slip distance (Dc), initial stress conditions and friction coefficients were changed and we also put the asperity on the fault plane. These understandings are useful for the ground motion prediction for future mega-thrust earthquakes such as the earthquakes along the Nankai Trough.

  2. Active Thrusting Offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the Tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Singh, S.; King, G.; Briais, A.; Daeron, M.; Carton, H.; Sursock, A.; Jacques, E.; Jomaa, R.; Klinger, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On July 9, AD 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). This was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveils the source of this Mw=7.5 event: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, 100?150 km-long, active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT). Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The MLT trace comes closest (~ 8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where as 13 radiocarbon-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing Vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ~ 80 cm in the 6th century AD. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (~ 1 m) of higher fossil benches, suggests uplift by 3 more comparable-size earthquakes since the Holocene sea-level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500?1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the MLT likely orchestrated the growth of Mt. Lebanon since the late Miocene. The newly discovered MLT has been the missing piece in the Dead Sea Transform and eastern Mediterranean tectonic scheme. Identifying the source of the AD 551 event thus ends a complete reassessment of the sources of the major historical earthquakes on the various faults of the Lebanese Restraining Bend of the Levant Fault System (or Dead Sea Transform).

  3. Active Thrusting Offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the Tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Singh, S.; King, G.; Briais, A.; Daeron, M.; Carton, H.; Sursock, A.; Jacques, E.; Jomaa, R.; Klinger, Y.

    2004-12-01

    On July 9, AD 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). This was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveils the source of this Mw=7.5 event: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, 100?150 km-long, active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT). Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The MLT trace comes closest (~ 8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where as 13 radiocarbon-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing Vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ~ 80 cm in the 6th century AD. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (~ 1 m) of higher fossil benches, suggests uplift by 3 more comparable-size earthquakes since the Holocene sea-level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500?1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the MLT likely orchestrated the growth of Mt. Lebanon since the late Miocene. The newly discovered MLT has been the missing piece in the Dead Sea Transform and eastern Mediterranean tectonic scheme. Identifying the source of the AD 551 event thus ends a complete reassessment of the sources of the major historical earthquakes on the various faults of the Lebanese Restraining Bend of the Levant Fault System (or Dead Sea Transform).

  4. Thrust faulting and 3D ground deformation of the 3 July 2015 Mw 6.4 Pishan, China earthquake from Sentinel-1A radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianbao; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Li, Tao; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Boosted by the launch of Sentinel-1A radar satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA), we now have the opportunity of fast, full and multiple coverage of the land based deformation field of earthquakes. Here we use the data to investigate a strong earthquake struck Pishan, western China on July 3, 2015. The earthquake fault is blind and no ground break features are found on-site, thus Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data give full play to its technical advantage for the recovery of coseismic deformation field. By using the Sentinel-1A radar data in the Interferometric Wide Swath mode, we obtain 3 tracks of InSAR data over the struck region, and resolve the 3D ground deformation generated by the earthquake. Then the Line-of-Sight (LOS) InSAR data are inverted for the slip-distribution of the seismogenic fault. The final model shows that the earthquake is completely blind with pure-thrust motion. The maximum slip is 0.48 m at a depth of 7 km, consistent with the depth estimate from seismic reflection data. In particular, the inverted model is also compatible with a south-dipping fault ramp among a group of fault interfaces detected by the seismic reflection profile over the region. The seismic moment obtained equals to a Mw 6.4 earthquake. The Pishan earthquake ruptured the frontal part of the thrust ramps under the Slik anticline, and unloaded the coulomb stress of them. However, it may have loaded stress to the back-thrust above the thrust ramps by 1-4 bar, and promoted it for future failure. Moreover, the stress loading on the west side of the earthquake fault is much larger than that on the east side, indicating a higher risk for failure to the west of the Zepu fault.

  5. Coseismic and postseismic stress changes in a subducting plate: Possible stress interactions between large interplate thrust and intraplate normal-faulting earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikumo, Takeshi; Yagi, Yuji; Singh, Shri Krishna; Santoyo, Miguel A.

    2002-01-01

    A large intraplate, normal-faulting earthquake (Mw = 7.5) occurred in 1999 in the subducting Cocos plate below the downdip edge of the ruptured thrust fault of the 1978 Oaxaca, Mexico, earthquake (Mw = 7.8). This situation is similar to the previous case of the 1997 normal-faulting event (Mw = 7.1) that occurred beneath the rupture area of the 1985 Michoacan, Mexico, earthquake (Mw = 8.1). We investigate the possibility of any stress interactions between the preceding 1978 thrust and the following 1999 normal-faulting earthquakes. For this purpose, we estimate the temporal change of the stress state in the subducting Cocos plate by calculating the slip distribution during the 1978 earthquake through teleseismic waveform inversion, the dynamic rupture process, and the resultant coseismic stress change, together with the postseismic stress variations due to plate convergence and the viscoelastic relaxation process. To do this, we calculate the coseismic and postseismic changes of all stress components in a three-dimensional space, incorporating the subducting slab, the overlying crust and uppermost mantle, and the asthenosphere. For the coseismic stress change we solve elastodynamic equations, incorporating the kinematic fault slip as an observational constraint under appropriate boundary conditions. To estimate postseismic stress accumulations due to plate convergence, a virtual backward slip is imposed to lock the main thrust zone. The effects of viscoelastic stress relaxations of the coseismic change and the back slip are also included. The maximum coseismic increase in the shear stress and the Coulomb failure stress below the downdip edge of the 1978 thrust fault is estimated to be in the range between 0.5 and 1.5 MPa, and the 1999 normal-faulting earthquake was found to take place in this zone of stress increase. The postseismic variations during the 21 years after the 1978 event modify the magnitude and patterns of the coseismic stress change to some extent but

  6. Stress transfer among en echelon and opposing thrusts and tear faults: Triggering caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, J.; Stein, R.S.; Meghraoui, M.; Toda, S.; Ayadi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Belabbes, S.

    2011-01-01

    The essential features of stress interaction among earthquakes on en echelon thrusts and tear faults were investigated, first through idealized examples and then by study of thrust faulting in Algeria. We calculated coseismic stress changes caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri earthquake, finding that a large majority of the Zemmouri afterslip sites were brought several bars closer to Coulomb failure by the coseismic stresses, while the majority of aftershock nodal planes were brought closer to failure by an average of ~2 bars. Further, we calculated that the shallow portions of the adjacent Thenia tear fault, which sustained ~0.25 m slip, were brought >2 bars closer to failure. We calculated that the Coulomb stress increased by 1.5 bars on the deeper portions of the adjacent Boumerdes thrust, which lies just 10–20 km from the city of Algiers; both the Boumerdes and Thenia faults were illuminated by aftershocks. Over the next 6 years, the entire south dipping thrust system extending 80 km to the southwest experienced an increased rate of seismicity. The stress also increased by 0.4 bar on the east Sahel thrust fault west of the Zemmouri rupture. Algiers suffered large damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1365 and 1716 and is today home to 3 million people. If these shocks occurred on the east Sahel fault and if it has a ~2 mm/yr tectonic loading rate, then enough loading has accumulated to produce a Mw = 6.6–6.9 shock today. Thus, these potentially lethal faults need better understanding of their slip rate and earthquake history.

  7. Coseismic fold scarp associated with historic earthquakes upon the Yoro active blind thrust, the Nobi-Ise fault zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, T.; Mueller, K.; Togo, M.

    2004-12-01

    We present structural models constrained by tectonic geomorphology, surface geologic mapping, shallow borehole transects and a high-resolution S-wave seismic reflection profile to define the kinematic evolution of a coseismic fold scarp along the Nobi-Ise fault zone (NIFZ). The NIFZ is an active intraplate fault system in central Japan, and consists of a 110-km-long array of active, east-verging reverse faults. Fold scarps along the Yoro fault are interpreted as produced during a large historic blind-thrust earthquake. The Yoro Mountains form the stripped core of the largest structure in the NIFZ and expose Triassic-Jurassic basement that are thrust eastward over a 2-km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Pleistocene strata deposited in the Nobi basin. This basement-cored fold is underlain by an active blind thrust that is expressed as late Holocene fold scarps along its eastern flank. Drilling investigations across the fold scarp at a site near Shizu identified at least three episodes of active folding associated with large earthquakes on the Yoro fault. Radiocarbon ages constrain the latest event as having occurred in a period that contains historical evidence for a large earthquake in A.D. 1586. A high resolution, S-wave seismic reflection profile at the same site shows that the topographic fold scarp coincides with the projected surface trace of the synclinal axis, across which the buried, early Holocene to historic sedimentary units are folded. This is interpreted to indicate that the structure accommodated coseismic fault-propagation folding during the A.D. 1586 blind thrust earthquake. Flexural-slip folding associated with secondary bedding-parallel thrusts may also deform late Holocene strata and act to consume slip on the primary blind thrust across the synclinal axial surfaces. The best-fitting trishear model for folded ca. 13 ka gravels deposited across the forelimb requires a 28\\deg east-dipping thrust fault. This solution suggests that a 4.2 mm/yr of slip rate

  8. Geomorphology, kinematic history, and earthquake behavior of the active Kuwana wedge thrust anticline, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Mueller, Karl; Togo, Masami; Okada, Atsumasa; Takemura, Keiji

    2004-12-01

    We combine surface mapping of fault and fold scarps that deform late Quaternary alluvial strata with interpretation of a high-resolution seismic reflection profile to develop a kinematic model and determine fault slip rates for an active blind wedge thrust system that underlies Kuwana anticline in central Japan. Surface fold scarps on Kuwana anticline are closely correlated with narrow fold limbs and angular hinges on the seismic profile that suggest at least ˜1.3 km of fault slip completely consumed by folding in the upper 4 km of the crust. The close coincidence and kinematic link between folded terraces and the underlying thrust geometry indicate that Kuwana anticline has accommodated slip at an average rate of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm/yr on a 27°, west dipping thrust fault since early-middle Pleistocene time. In contrast to classical fault bend folds the fault slip budget in the stacked wedge thrusts also indicates that (1) the fault tip propagated upward at a low rate relative to the accrual of fault slip and (2) fault slip is partly absorbed by numerous bedding plane flexural-slip faults above the tips of wedge thrusts. An historic earthquake that occurred on the Kuwana blind thrust system possibly in A.D. 1586 is shown to have produced coseismic surface deformation above the doubly vergent wedge tip. Structural analyses of Kuwana anticline coupled with tectonic geomorphology at 103-105 years timescales illustrate the significance of active folds as indicators of slip on underlying blind thrust faults and thus their otherwise inaccessible seismic hazards.

  9. Active Tectonics of Himalayan Faults/Thrusts System in Northern India on the basis of recent & Paleo earthquake Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Biswal, S.; Parija, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalaya overrides the Indian plate along a decollement fault, referred as the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The 2400 km long Himalayan mountain arc in the northern boundary of the Indian sub-continent is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) is characterized by an abrupt physiographic and tectonic break between the Himalayan front and the Indo-Gangetic plain. The HFT represents the southern surface expression of the MHT on the Himalayan front. The tectonic zone between the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the HFT encompasses the Himalayan Frontal Fault System (HFFS). The zone indicates late Quaternary-Holocene active deformation. Late Quaternary intramontane basin of Dehradun flanked to the south by the Mohand anticline lies between the MBT and the HFT in Garhwal Sub Himalaya. Slip rate 13-15 mm/yr has been estimated on the HFT based on uplifted strath terrace on the Himalyan front (Wesnousky et al. 2006). An out of sequence active fault, Bhauwala Thrust (BT), is observed between the HFT and the MBT. The Himalayan Frontal Fault System includes MBT, BT, HFT and PF active fault structures (Thakur, 2013). The HFFS structures were developed analogous to proto-thrusts in subduction zone, suggesting that the plate boundary is not a single structure, but series of structures across strike. Seismicity recorded by WIHG shows a concentrated belt of seismic events located in the Main Central Thrust Zone and the physiographic transition zone between the Higher and Lesser Himalaya. However, there is quiescence in the Himalayan frontal zone where surface rupture and active faults are reported. GPS measurements indicate the segment between the southern extent of microseismicity zone and the HFT is locked. The great earthquake originating in the locked segment rupture the plate boundary fault and propagate to the Himalaya front and are registered as surface rupture reactivating the fault in the HFFS.

  10. On the paleoseismic evidence of the 1803 earthquake rupture (or lack of it) along the frontal thrust of the Kumaun Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Anandasabari, K.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Rajendran, Kusala; Kumar, Pankaj; Chopra, Sundeep

    2018-01-01

    The foothills of the Himalaya bordered by the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) continue to be a locus of paleoseismological studies. One of such recent studies of trench stratigraphy near the central (Indian) Himalayan foothills (Malik et al., (2016) has reported multiple ruptures dated at 467-570, 1294-1587 and 1750-1932 CE. The last offset has been attributed to the Uttarkashi earthquake of 1803 and the penultimate faulting, with lesser confidence to an earthquake in 1505 CE. We tested these claims by logging an adjacent section on a shared scarp, and the new trench site, however, revealed a stratigraphic configuration partially in variance with from what has been reported in the earlier study. Our findings do not support the previous interpretation of the trench stratigraphy that suggested multiple displacements cutting across a varied set of deformed stratigraphic units leading up to the 1803 rupture. The current interpretation posits a single episode of a low-angle displacement at this site occurred between 1266 CE and 1636. Our results suggest a single medieval earthquake, conforming to what was reported from the previously studied neighboring sites to the east and west. The present study while reiterating a great medieval earthquake questions the assumption that the 1803 earthquake ruptured the MFT. Although a décollement earthquake, the 1803 rupture may have been arrested midway on the basal flat, and fell short of reaching the MFT, somewhat comparable to a suite of blind thrust earthquakes like the1905 Kangra and the 1833 Nepal earthquakes.

  11. SLAMMER: Seismic LAndslide Movement Modeled using Earthquake Records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Jibson, Matthew W.; Lee, Yong W.

    2013-01-01

    This program is designed to facilitate conducting sliding-block analysis (also called permanent-deformation analysis) of slopes in order to estimate slope behavior during earthquakes. The program allows selection from among more than 2,100 strong-motion records from 28 earthquakes and allows users to add their own records to the collection. Any number of earthquake records can be selected using a search interface that selects records based on desired properties. Sliding-block analyses, using any combination of rigid-block (Newmark), decoupled, and fully coupled methods, are then conducted on the selected group of records, and results are compiled in both graphical and tabular form. Simplified methods for conducting each type of analysis are also included.

  12. Structure and tectonics of the Main Himalayan Thrust and associated faults from recent earthquake and seismic imaging studies using the NAMASTE array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, M. S.; Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision zone presents a significant earthquake hazard, as demonstrated by the recent, devastating April 25, 2015 M=7.8 Gorkha earthquake and the following May 12, 2015 M=7.3 earthquake. Important questions remain, including distinguishing possible geometries of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the role of other regional faults, the crustal composition and role of fluids in faulting, and the details of the rupture process, including structural causes and locations of rupture segmentation both along-strike and down-dip. These recent earthquakes and their aftershocks provide a unique opportunity to learn more about this collision zone. In June 2015, funded by NSF, we deployed the Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake (NAMASTE) array of 46 seismic stations distributed across eastern and central Nepal, spanning the region with most of the aftershocks. This array remained in place for 11 months from June 2015 to May 2016. We combine new results from this aftershock network in Nepal with previous geophysical and geological studies across the Himalaya to derive a new understanding of the tectonics of the Himalaya and southern Tibet in Nepal and surrounding countries. We focus on structure and composition of the Main Himalayan Thrust and compare this continent-continent subduction megathrust with megathrusts in other subduction zones.

  13. Response of high-rise and base-isolated buildings to a hypothetical M w 7.0 blind thrust earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, T.H.; Hall, J.F.; Wald, D.J.; Halling, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    High-rise flexible-frame buildings are commonly considered to be resistant to shaking from the largest earthquakes. In addition, base isolation has become increasingly popular for critical buildings that should still function after an earthquake. How will these two types of buildings perform if a large earthquake occurs beneath a metropolitan area? To answer this question, we simulated the near-source ground motions of a Mw 7.0 thrust earthquake and then mathematically modeled the response of a 20-story steel-frame building and a 3-story base-isolated building. The synthesized ground motions were characterized by large displacement pulses (up to 2 meters) and large ground velocities. These ground motions caused large deformation and possible collapse of the frame building, and they required exceptional measures in the design of the base-isolated building if it was to remain functional.

  14. Earthquake location in island arcs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    -velocity lithospheric slab. In application, JHD has the practical advantage that it does not require the specification of a theoretical velocity model for the slab. Considering earthquakes within a 260 km long by 60 km wide section of the Aleutian main thrust zone, our results suggest that the theoretical velocity structure of the slab is presently not sufficiently well known that accurate locations can be obtained independently of locally recorded data. Using a locally recorded earthquake as a calibration event, JHD gave excellent results over the entire section of the main thrust zone here studied, without showing a strong effect that might be attributed to spatially varying source-station anomalies. We also calibrated the ray-tracing method using locally recorded data and obtained results generally similar to those obtained by JHD. ?? 1982.

  15. Temporal variation in fault friction and its effects on the slip evolution of a thrust fault over several earthquake cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Andrea; Hetzel, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The friction coefficient is a key parameter for the slip evolution of faults, but how temporal changes in friction affect fault slip is still poorly known. By using three-dimensional numerical models with a thrust fault that is alternately locked and released, we show that variations in the friction coefficient affect both coseismic and long-term fault slip (Hampel and Hetzel, 2012). Decreasing the friction coefficient by 5% while keeping the duration of the interseismic phase constant leads to a four-fold increase in coseismic slip, whereas a 5% increase nearly suppresses slip. A gradual decrease or increase of friction over several earthquake cycles (1-5% per earthquake) considerably alters the cumulative fault slip. In nature, the slip deficit (surplus) resulting from variations in the friction coefficient would presumably be compensated by a longer (shorter) interseismic phase, but the magnitude of the changes required for compensation render variations of the friction coefficient of >5% unlikely. Reference Hampel, A., R. Hetzel (2012) Temporal variation in fault friction and its effects on the slip evolution of a thrust fault over several earthquake cycles. Terra Nova, 24, 357-362, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2012.01073.x.

  16. Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis; DONET/ DONET2, Part2 -Development and data application for the mega thrust earthquakes around the Nankai trough-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, M.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Baba, T.; Ohori, M.; Hori, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneko, S.; Donet Research; Development Group

    2010-12-01

    Yoshiyuki Kaneda Katsuyoshi Kawaguchi*, Eiichiro Araki*, Shou Kaneko*, Hiroyuki Matsumoto*, Takeshi Nakamura*, Masaru Nakano*, Shinichirou Kamiya*, Keisuke Ariyoshi*, Toshitaka Baba*, Michihiro Ohori*, Narumi Takakahashi*, and Takane Hori** * Earthquake and Tsunami Research Project for Disaster Prevention, Leading Project , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) **Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) DONET (Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) is the real time monitoring system of the Tonankai seismogenic zones around the Nankai trough southwestern Japan. We were starting to develop DONET to perform real time monitoring of crustal activities over there and the advanced early warning system. DONET will provide important and useful data to understand the Nankai trough maga thrust earthquake seismogenic zones and to improve the accuracy of the earthquake recurrence cycle simulation. Details of DONET concept are as follows. 1) Redundancy, Extendable function and advanced maintenance system using the looped cable system, junction boxes and the ROV/AUV. DONET has 20 observatories and incorporated in a double land stations concept. Also, we are developed ROV for the 10km cable extensions and heavy weight operations. 2) Multi kinds of sensors to observe broad band phenomena such as long period tremors, very low frequency earthquakes and strong motions of mega thrust earthquakes over M8: Therefore, sensors such as a broadband seismometer, an accelerometer, a hydrophone, a precise pressure gauge, a differential pressure gauge and a thermometer are equipped with each observatory in DONET. 3) For speedy detections, evaluations and notifications of earthquakes and tsunamis: DONET system will be deployed around the Tonankai seismogenic zone. 4) Provide data of ocean floor crustal deformations derived from pressure sensors: Simultaneously, the development of data

  17. Magnitude Estimation for Large Earthquakes from Borehole Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.; Ghofrani, H.; Atkinson, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present a simple and fast method for magnitude determination technique for earthquake and tsunami early warning systems based on strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in Japan. This method incorporates borehole strong motion records provided by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net) stations. We analyzed strong ground motion data from large magnitude earthquakes (5.0 ≤ M ≤ 8.1) with focal depths < 50 km and epicentral distances of up to 400 km from 1996 to 2010. Using both peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) we derived GMPEs in Japan. These GMPEs are used as the basis for regional magnitude determination. Predicted magnitudes from PGA values (Mpga) and predicted magnitudes from PGV values (Mpgv) were defined. Mpga and Mpgv strongly correlate with the moment magnitude of the event, provided sufficient records for each event are available. The results show that Mpgv has a smaller standard deviation in comparison to Mpga when compared with the estimated magnitudes and provides a more accurate early assessment of earthquake magnitude. We test this new method to estimate the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and we present the results of this estimation. PGA and PGV from borehole recordings allow us to estimate the magnitude of this event 156 s and 105 s after the earthquake onset, respectively. We demonstrate that the incorporation of borehole strong ground-motion records immediately available after the occurrence of large earthquakes significantly increases the accuracy of earthquake magnitude estimation and the associated improvement in earthquake and tsunami early warning systems performance. Moment magnitude versus predicted magnitude (Mpga and Mpgv).

  18. Loss estimates for a Puente Hills blind-thrust earthquake in Los Angeles, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, E.H.; Seligson, H.A.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Campbell, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on OpenSHA and HAZUS-MH, we present loss estimates for an earthquake rupture on the recently identified Puente Hills blind-thrust fault beneath Los Angeles. Given a range of possible magnitudes and ground motion models, and presuming a full fault rupture, we estimate the total economic loss to be between $82 and $252 billion. This range is not only considerably higher than a previous estimate of $69 billion, but also implies the event would be the costliest disaster in U.S. history. The analysis has also provided the following predictions: 3,000-18,000 fatalities, 142,000-735,000 displaced households, 42,000-211,000 in need of short-term public shelter, and 30,000-99,000 tons of debris generated. Finally, we show that the choice of ground motion model can be more influential than the earthquake magnitude, and that reducing this epistemic uncertainty (e.g., via model improvement and/or rejection) could reduce the uncertainty of the loss estimates by up to a factor of two. We note that a full Puente Hills fault rupture is a rare event (once every ???3,000 years), and that other seismic sources pose significant risk as well. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. The 2006-2007 Kuril Islands great earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.; Ammon, C.J.; Hutko, Alexander R.; Furlong, K.; Rivera, L.

    2009-01-01

    The southwestern half of a ???500 km long seismic gap in the central Kuril Island arc subduction zone experienced two great earthquakes with extensive preshock and aftershock sequences in late 2006 to early 2007. The nature of seismic coupling in the gap had been uncertain due to the limited historical record of prior large events and the presence of distinctive upper plate, trench and outer rise structures relative to adjacent regions along the arc that have experienced repeated great interplate earthquakes in the last few centuries. The intraplate region seaward of the seismic gap had several shallow compressional events during the preceding decades (notably an MS 7.2 event on 16 March 1963), leading to speculation that the interplate fault was seismically coupled. This issue was partly resolved by failure of the shallow portion of the interplate megathrust in an MW = 8.3 thrust event on 15 November 2006. This event ruptured ???250 km along the seismic gap, just northeast of the great 1963 Kuril Island (Mw = 8.5) earthquake rupture zone. Within minutes of the thrust event, intense earthquake activity commenced beneath the outer wall of the trench seaward of the interplate rupture, with the larger events having normal-faulting mechanisms. An unusual double band of interplate and intraplate aftershocks developed. On 13 January 2007, an MW = 8.1 extensional earthquake ruptured within the Pacific plate beneath the seaward edge of the Kuril trench. This event is the third largest normal-faulting earthquake seaward of a subduction zone on record, and its rupture zone extended to at least 33 km depth and paralleled most of the length of the 2006 rupture. The 13 January 2007 event produced stronger shaking in Japan than the larger thrust event, as a consequence of higher short-period energy radiation from the source. The great event aftershock sequences were dominated by the expected faulting geometries; thrust faulting for the 2006 rupture zone, and normal faulting for

  20. Forearc deformation and great subduction earthquakes: implications for cascadia offshore earthquake potential.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, R; Goldfinger, C

    1995-02-10

    The maximum size of thrust earthquakes at the world's subduction zones appears to be limited by anelastic deformation of the overriding plate. Anelastic strain in weak forearcs and roughness of the plate interface produced by faults cutting the forearc may limit the size of thrust earthquakes by inhibiting the buildup of elastic strain energy or slip propagation or both. Recently discovered active strike-slip faults in the submarine forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone show that the upper plate there deforms rapidly in response to arc-parallel shear. Thus, Cascadia, as a result of its weak, deforming upper plate, may be the type of subduction zone at which great (moment magnitude approximately 9) thrust earthquakes do not occur.

  1. Seismic source study of the Racha-Dzhava (Georgia) earthquake from aftershocks and broad-band teleseismic body-wave records: An example of active nappe tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuenzalida, H.; Rivera, L.; Haessler, H.; Legrand, D.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, L.; McCormack, D.; Arefiev, S.; Langer, C.; Cisternas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Racha-Dzhava earthquake (Ms = 7.0) that occurred on 1991 April 29 at 09:12:48.1 GMT in the southern border of the Great Caucasus is the biggest event ever recorded in the region, stronger than the Spitak earthquake (Ms = 6.9) of 1988. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organised and a temporary seismic network of 37 stations was deployed to record the aftershock activity. A very precise image of the aftershock distribution is obtained, showing an elongated cloud oriented N105??, with one branch trending N310?? in the western part. The southernmost part extends over 80 km, with the depth ranging from 0 to 15 km, and dips north. The northern branch, which is about 30 km long, shows activity that ranges in depth from 5 to 15 km. The complex thrust dips northwards. A stress-tensor inversion from P-wave first-motion polarities shows a state of triaxial compression, with the major principal axis oriented roughly N-S, the minor principal axis being vertical. Body-waveform inversion of teleseismic seismograms was performed for the main shock, which can be divided into four subevents with a total rupture-time duration of 22 s. The most important part of the seismic moment was released by a gentle northerly dipping thrust. The model is consistent with the compressive tectonics of the region and is in agreement with the aftershock distribution and the stress tensor deduced from the aftershocks. The focal mechanisms of the three largest aftershocks were also inverted from body-wave records. The April 29th (Ms = 6.1) and May 5th (Ms = 5.4) aftershocks have thrust mechanisms on roughly E-W-oriented planes, similar to the main shock. Surprisingly, the June 15th (Ms = 6.2) aftershock shows a thrust fault striking N-S. This mechanism is explained by the structural control of the rupture along the east-dipping geometry of the Dzirula Massif close to the Borzhomi-Kazbeg strike-slip fault. In fact, the orientation and shape of the stress tensor produce a thrust on a N

  2. The 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy): Imaging the thrust fault system by accurate aftershock location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Marchetti, Alessandro; De Gori, Pasquale; Di Bona, Massimo; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Improta, Luigi; Chiarabba, Claudio; Nardi, Anna; Margheriti, Lucia; Agostinetti, Nicola Piana; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Latorre, Diana; Anselmi, Mario; Ciaccio, Maria Grazia; Moretti, Milena; Castellano, Corrado; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    Starting from late May 2012, the Emilia region (Northern Italy) was severely shaken by an intense seismic sequence, originated from a ML 5.9 earthquake on May 20th, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km, with thrust-type focal mechanism. In the following days, the seismic rate remained high, counting 50 ML ≥ 2.0 earthquakes a day, on average. Seismicity spreads along a 30 km east-west elongated area, in the Po river alluvial plain, in the nearby of the cities Ferrara and Modena. Nine days after the first shock, another destructive thrust-type earthquake (ML 5.8) hit the area to the west, causing further damage and fatalities. Aftershocks following this second destructive event extended along the same east-westerly trend for further 20 km to the west, thus illuminating an area of about 50 km in length, on the whole. After the first shock struck, on May 20th, a dense network of temporary seismic stations, in addition to the permanent ones, was deployed in the meizoseismal area, leading to a sensible improvement of the earthquake monitoring capability there. A combined dataset, including three-component seismic waveforms recorded by both permanent and temporary stations, has been analyzed in order to obtain an appropriate 1-D velocity model for earthquake location in the study area. Here we describe the main seismological characteristics of this seismic sequence and, relying on refined earthquakes location, we make inferences on the geometry of the thrust system responsible for the two strongest shocks.

  3. Background Stress State Before the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Dynamics of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaiying; Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Feng, Xiangdong; Ma, Shengli

    2018-02-01

    A stress reconstruction was performed based on focal mechanisms around the Longmen Shan region prior to the 2008 M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake using a newly developed algorithm (known as MCA). The method determines the stress tensor, including principal axes orientations, and quantitative stress values, such as the effective confining pressure and maximum shear stress. The results of the MCA application using data recorded by the regional network from 1989 to April 2008 show the background stress state around the Longmen Shan belt before the Wenchuan earthquake. The characteristics of the stress orientation reveal that the Longmen Shan region is primarily under the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau. Non-uniform quantitative stress distributions show low stress levels in the upper crust of the middle Longmen Shan segment, which is consistent with the observed high-angle reverse faulting associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In contrast, other study areas, such as the Bayankela block and the NW strip extending to the Sichuan basin, show high stress intensity. This feature coincides with heterogeneity in the wave speed image of the upper crust in this region, which shows high S-wave speed in the high stress areas and comparatively low S-wave speed in low stress areas. Deformation features across the Longmen Shan belt with the slow rates of convergence determined by GPS and the distribution of surface deformation rates also are in keeping with our stress results. We propose a dynamic model in which sloping uplift under the Longmen Shan, which partly counteracts the pushing force from the eastern plateau, causes the low-quantitative stresses in the upper crust beneath the Longmen Shan. The decreasing gravitational potential energy beneath the Longmen Shan leads to earthquake thrust faulting and plays an important role in the geodynamics of the area that results from ductile thickening of the deep crust behind the Sichuan basin, creating a narrow

  4. Fault Parameters of the 1868 and 1877 earthquakes, inferred from historical records: Run-up measurements, Isoseismals and coseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, S.; Ruiz, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Campos, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mega-thrust zone of southern Peru and northern Chile is recognized as a tsunamigenic zone. In Southern Peru and Northern Chile, large earthquakes have not occurred in the last 130 years. The 1868 and 1877 were the last earthquakes with rupture larger than 400 km. The fault parameters and slip distribution of these earthquakes is not well understood, because only a few tide gauges recorded these events at far field distance. We studied simultaneously the near field effect, run-up, isoseismals, coseismic historical descriptions and far field tide gauges in the Pacific Ocean. We define several rupture scenerios which are numerically modeled using NEOWAVE program obtaining the tsunami propagation and coseismic deformation. New coupling models from are used to model scenarios. These results are compared with historical near field and far field observations, our preferred scenario fitted well these records and it agrees with the proposed isoseismals. For 1868 southern Peru earthquake our preferred scenario has a seismic rupture starting at the south part of 2001 Camaná Peru earthquake 16.8°S to 19.3°S through the Arica bending at 18°S, with a rupture of 350-400 km, maximum slip of 15 meters and seismic magnitude between M_w~8.7-8.9. For the 1877 earthquake our preferred scenario has a length of 400 kilometers from 23°S to 19.3°S, a maximum slip of 25 meters and seismic moderate magnitude of M_w~8.8. In both earthquakes the dip (10°-20°) is controlled by the geometry of subducting Nazca plate and larger slip distributions are located in the shallow part of the contact, from the trench to 30 km depth. Finally strong slip distribution in the shallow seismic contact for these historical mega-earthquakes could explain the apparent dual behavior between these mega-earthquakes Mw > 8.5 and moderate magnitude earthquakes Mw ~ 8.0 which apparently only have occurred in the depth zone of the contact i.e., the earthquakes of 1967 Mw 6.7 and 2007 Mw 7.7 in Tocopilla

  5. New constraints on the late Quaternary slip rate and earthquake history of the Kalabagh fault from geomorphic mapping: Implications for slip rate and earthquake potential of the western Salt Range thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madugo, C. M.; Meigs, A.; Ramzan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Whether the basal décollement ruptures in great earthquakes and at what rate it slips are open questions for the Pakistani Himalaya. The fact that the southern expression of the décollement, the Salt Range thrust (SRT) is localized in a thick evaporate deposit implies the fault has low strength. The lack of a strong motion event in historic records suggests no large earthquakes have struck this region in the past 2000 years. Because 101 year GPS geodetic slip rates for the SRT (~3 mm/yr) are up to four times lower than 106 year geologic rates (9-14 mm/yr), it is unknown whether the convergence rate has decreased over time, or whether the geodetic data reflect a transient phenomenon such as fault creep on the SRT. To evaluate these end members, we obtained intermediate term (104 yr) slip rates from offset geomorphic markers along the Kalabagh fault (KF). The KF is a structurally complex tear fault and lateral ramp that bounds the western side of the SRT. The bending of the western end of the SRT into the KF, and their similar geologic slip rates, suggest the faults are kinematically linked. Thus intermediate-scale slip rates and perhaps earthquake history for the KF represent a proxy for behavior of the SRT. On a section of the KF that exhibits geomorphic evidence of primarily strike slip motion, we identify two partially eroded alluvial fan apexes that are offset up to 300×25 m and 210×30 m from their source channels. Fan reconstructions suggest the offsets are probably not significantly lower than these values. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of 23×3 ka and 16×2 ka constrain fan surface abandonment. Assuming that fan abandonment accompanied offset by the KF, both fans yield nearly identical slip rates of 13×3 mm/yr and 13×4 mm/yr for the KF. Within uncertainty, these rates are at the high end of the geologic rate for the KF and SRT, and at least several times higher than the geodetic rate for the SRT. We also identify evidence of liquefaction

  6. Shallow slip amplification and enhanced tsunami hazard unravelled by dynamic simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S.; Scala, A.; Herrero, A.; Lorito, S.; Festa, G.; Trasatti, E.; Tonini, R.; Romano, F.; Molinari, I.; Nielsen, S.

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake produced an unexpected large amount of shallow slip greatly contributing to the ensuing tsunami. How frequent are such events? How can they be efficiently modelled for tsunami hazard? Stochastic slip models, which can be computed rapidly, are used to explore the natural slip variability; however, they generally do not deal specifically with shallow slip features. We study the systematic depth-dependence of slip along a thrust fault with a number of 2D dynamic simulations using stochastic shear stress distributions and a geometry based on the cross section of the Tohoku fault. We obtain a probability density for the slip distribution, which varies both with depth, earthquake size and whether the rupture breaks the surface. We propose a method to modify stochastic slip distributions according to this dynamically-derived probability distribution. This method may be efficiently applied to produce large numbers of heterogeneous slip distributions for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis. Using numerous M9 earthquake scenarios, we demonstrate that incorporating the dynamically-derived probability distribution does enhance the conditional probability of exceedance of maximum estimated tsunami wave heights along the Japanese coast. This technique for integrating dynamic features in stochastic models can be extended to any subduction zone and faulting style. PMID:27725733

  7. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the skeletons of massive Porites corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral δ13C response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M ∼ 8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral δ13C was 0.6 ± 0.1 ‰ /m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and -0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll δ13C is 2.3 ‰ /m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites. Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal δ13C, we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceeding Mw ∼ 7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral 13C /12C paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral δ13C, light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the

  8. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios () in the skeletons of massive Porites   corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral  response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M∼8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral  was 0.6±0.1‰/m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and −0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites  microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll  is2.3‰/m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites  . Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal , we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceedingMw∼7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral  paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral , light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the same principles

  9. Distributed deformation in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt: insights from geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaid, Ahmed; Allen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is part of the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, and is an excellent region to study the interactions of tectonics and landscape. In this work we present results of a geomorphic analysis covering the entire range, coupled with more detailed analysis of the Kirkuk Embayment, Iraq. This particular region is a low elevation, low relief region of the Zagros, important for the enormous oil and gas reserves held in late Cenozoic anticlinal traps. Constraints from published earthquake focal mechanisms and hydrocarbon industry sub-surface data are combined with original fieldwork observations in northern Iraq, to produce a new regional cross-section and structural interpretation for the Kirkuk Embayment. We find that overall late Cenozoic shortening across the Embayment is on the order of 5%, representing only a few km. This deformation takes place on a series of anticlines, which are interpreted as overlying steep, planar, basement thrusts. These thrusts are further interpreted as reactivated normal faults, on the basis of (rare) published seismic data. The regional earthquake record confirms the basement involvement, although detachments within the sedimentary succession are also important, especially within the Middle Miocene Fat'ha Formation. Overall, the Zagros is sometimes represented as having a few major thrusts each persistent for 100s of km along the strike of the range. However, these faults are very rarely associated with major structural relief and/or surface fault ruptures during earthquakes. We have analysed the hypsometry of the range and find only gradational changes in the hypsometric integral of drainage basins across strike. This contrasts with regions such as the eastern Tibetan Plateau, where published analysis has revealed abrupt changes, correlating with the surface traces of active thrusts. Our interpretation is that the hypsometry of the Zagros reflects distributed deformation on numerous smaller faults, rather

  10. Earthquakes of Garhwal Himalaya region of NW Himalaya, India: A study of relocated earthquakes and their seismogenic source and stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R, A. P.; Paul, A.; Singh, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the continent-continent collision 55 Ma, the Himalaya has accommodated 2000 km of convergence along its arc. The strain energy is being accumulated at a rate of 37-44 mm/yr and releases at time as earthquakes. The Garhwal Himalaya is located at the western side of a Seismic Gap, where a great earthquake is overdue atleast since 200 years. This seismic gap (Central Seismic Gap: CSG) with 52% probability for a future great earthquake is located between the rupture zones of two significant/great earthquakes, viz. the 1905 Kangra earthquake of M 7.8 and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of M 8.0; and the most recent one, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake of M 7.8 is in the eastern side of this seismic gap (CSG). The Garhwal Himalaya is one of the ideal locations of the Himalaya where all the major Himalayan structures and the Himalayan Seimsicity Belt (HSB) can ably be described and studied. In the present study, we are presenting the spatio-temporal analysis of the relocated local micro-moderate earthquakes, recorded by a seismicity monitoring network, which is operational since, 2007. The earthquake locations are relocated using the HypoDD (double difference hypocenter method for earthquake relocations) program. The dataset from July, 2007- September, 2015 have been used in this study to estimate their spatio-temporal relationships, moment tensor (MT) solutions for the earthquakes of M>3.0, stress tensors and their interactions. We have also used the composite focal mechanism solutions for small earthquakes. The majority of the MT solutions show thrust type mechanism and located near the mid-crustal-ramp (MCR) structure of the detachment surface at 8-15 km depth beneath the outer lesser Himalaya and higher Himalaya regions. The prevailing stress has been identified to be compressional towards NNE-SSW, which is the direction of relative plate motion between the India and Eurasia continental plates. The low friction coefficient estimated along with the stress inversions

  11. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Precarious rock and overturned transformer evidence for ground shaking in the Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake: An analog for disastrous shaking from a major thrust fault in the Los Angeles basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brune, J.N.; Anooshehpoor, A.; Shi, B.; Zheng, Yen

    2004-01-01

    Precariously balanced rocks and overturned transformers in the vicinity of the White Wolf fault provide constraints on ground motion during the 1952 Ms 7.7 Kern County earthquake, a possible analog for an anticipated large earthquake in the Los Angeles basin (Shaw et al., 2002; Dolan et al., 2003). On the northeast part of the fault preliminary estimates of ground motion on the footwall give peak accelerations considerably lower than predicted by standard regression curves. On the other hand, on the hanging-wall, there is evidence of intense ground shattering and lack of precarious rocks, consistent with the intense hanging-wall accelerations suggested by foam-rubber modeling, numerical modeling, and observations from previous thrust fault earthquakes. There is clear evidence of the effects of rupture directivity in ground motions on the hanging-wall side of the fault (from both precarious rocks and numerical simulations). On the southwest part of the fault, which is covered by sediments, the thrust fault did not reach the surface ("blind" thrust). Overturned and damaged transformers indicate significant transfer of energy from the hanging wall to the footwall, an effect that may not be as effective when the rupture reaches the surface (is not "blind"). Transformers near the up-dip projection of the fault tip have been damaged or overturned on both the hanging-wall and footwall sides of the fault. The transfer of energy is confirmed in a numerical lattice model and could play an important role in a similar situation in Los Angeles. We suggest that the results of this study can provide important information for estimating the effects of a large thrust fault rupture in the Los Angeles basin, specially given the fact that there is so little instrumental data from large thrust fault earthquakes.

  13. Reading a 400,000-year record of earthquake frequency for an intraplate fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Randolph T.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Sharp, Warren D.; Mozley, Peter S.

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the frequency of large earthquakes at timescales longer than instrumental and historical records is based mostly on paleoseismic studies of fast-moving plate-boundary faults. Similar study of intraplate faults has been limited until now, because intraplate earthquake recurrence intervals are generally long (10s to 100s of thousands of years) relative to conventional paleoseismic records determined by trenching. Long-term variations in the earthquake recurrence intervals of intraplate faults therefore are poorly understood. Longer paleoseismic records for intraplate faults are required both to better quantify their earthquake recurrence intervals and to test competing models of earthquake frequency (e.g., time-dependent, time-independent, and clustered). We present the results of U-Th dating of calcite veins in the Loma Blanca normal fault zone, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, United States, that constrain earthquake recurrence intervals over much of the past ˜550 ka—the longest direct record of seismic frequency documented for any fault to date. The 13 distinct seismic events delineated by this effort demonstrate that for >400 ka, the Loma Blanca fault produced periodic large earthquakes, consistent with a time-dependent model of earthquake recurrence. However, this time-dependent series was interrupted by a cluster of earthquakes at ˜430 ka. The carbon isotope composition of calcite formed during this seismic cluster records rapid degassing of CO2, suggesting an interval of anomalous fluid source. In concert with U-Th dates recording decreased recurrence intervals, we infer seismicity during this interval records fault-valve behavior. These data provide insight into the long-term seismic behavior of the Loma Blanca fault and, by inference, other intraplate faults.

  14. 1957 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia, earthquake as a prototype for southern California's most devastating earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayarsayhan, C.; Bayasgalan, A.; Enhtuvshin, B.; Hudnut, K.W.; Kurushin, R.A.; Molnar, P.; Olziybat, M.

    1996-01-01

    The 1957 Gobi-Altay earthquake was associated with both strike-slip and thrust faulting, processes similar to those along the San Andreas fault and the faults bounding the San Gabriel Mountains just north of Los Angeles, California. Clearly, a major rupture either on the San Andreas fault north of Los Angeles or on the thrust faults bounding the Los Angeles basin poses a serious hazard to inhabitants of that area. By analogy with the Gobi-Altay earthquake, we suggest that simultaneous rupturing of both the San Andreas fault and the thrust faults nearer Los Angeles is a real possibility that amplifies the hazard posed by ruptures on either fault system separately.

  15. Seismicity and velocity structures along the south-Alpine thrust front of the Venetian Alps (NE-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, M.; Govoni, A.; De Gori, P.; Chiarabba, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we show the seismicity and velocity structure of a segment of the Alpine retro-belt front along the continental collision margin of the Venetian Alps (NE Italy). Our goal is to gain insight on the buried structures and deep fault geometry in a "silent" area, i.e., an area with poor instrumental seismicity but high potential for future earthquakes, as indicated by historical earthquakes (1695 Me = 6.7 Asolo and 1936 Ms = 5.8 Bosco del Cansiglio). Local earthquakes recorded by a dense temporary seismic network are used to compute 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images, yielding well resolved images of the upper crust underneath the south-Alpine front. We show the presence of two main distinct high Vp S-verging thrust units, the innermost coincides with the piedmont hill and the outermost is buried under a thick pile of sediments in the Po plain. Background seismicity and Vp/Vs anomalies, interpreted as cracked fluid-filled volumes, suggest that the NE portion of the outermost blind thrust and its oblique/lateral ramps may be a zone of high fluid pressure prone to future earthquakes. Three-dimensional focal mechanisms show compressive and transpressive solutions, in agreement with the tectonic setting, stress field maps and geodetic observations. The bulk of the microseismicity is clustered in two different areas, both in correspondence of inherited lateral ramps of the thrust system. Tomographic images highlight the influence of the paleogeographic setting in the tectonic style and seismic activity of the region.

  16. Potential for a large earthquake near Los Angeles inferred from the 2014 La Habra earthquake.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, Andrea; Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Parker, Jay W; Rundle, John B; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hensley, Scott

    2015-09-01

    Tectonic motion across the Los Angeles region is distributed across an intricate network of strike-slip and thrust faults that will be released in destructive earthquakes similar to or larger than the 1933  M 6.4 Long Beach and 1994  M 6.7 Northridge events. Here we show that Los Angeles regional thrust, strike-slip, and oblique faults are connected and move concurrently with measurable surface deformation, even in moderate magnitude earthquakes, as part of a fault system that accommodates north-south shortening and westerly tectonic escape of northern Los Angeles. The 28 March 2014 M 5.1 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left-lateral oblique thrust fault northeast of Los Angeles. We present crustal deformation observation spanning the earthquake showing that concurrent deformation occurred on several structures in the shallow crust. The seismic moment of the earthquake is 82% of the total geodetic moment released. Slip within the unconsolidated upper sedimentary layer may reflect shallow release of accumulated strain on still-locked deeper structures. A future M 6.1-6.3 earthquake would account for the accumulated strain. Such an event could occur on any one or several of these faults, which may not have been identified by geologic surface mapping.

  17. Potential for a large earthquake near Los Angeles inferred from the 2014 La Habra earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Grant Ludwig, Lisa; Parker, Jay W.; Rundle, John B.; Wang, Jun; Pierce, Marlon; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Hensley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tectonic motion across the Los Angeles region is distributed across an intricate network of strike‐slip and thrust faults that will be released in destructive earthquakes similar to or larger than the 1933 M6.4 Long Beach and 1994 M6.7 Northridge events. Here we show that Los Angeles regional thrust, strike‐slip, and oblique faults are connected and move concurrently with measurable surface deformation, even in moderate magnitude earthquakes, as part of a fault system that accommodates north‐south shortening and westerly tectonic escape of northern Los Angeles. The 28 March 2014 M5.1 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left‐lateral oblique thrust fault northeast of Los Angeles. We present crustal deformation observation spanning the earthquake showing that concurrent deformation occurred on several structures in the shallow crust. The seismic moment of the earthquake is 82% of the total geodetic moment released. Slip within the unconsolidated upper sedimentary layer may reflect shallow release of accumulated strain on still‐locked deeper structures. A future M6.1–6.3 earthquake would account for the accumulated strain. Such an event could occur on any one or several of these faults, which may not have been identified by geologic surface mapping. PMID:27981074

  18. Seismic constraints and coulomb stress changes of a blind thrust fault system, 2: Northridge, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, Ross S.; Lin, Jian

    2006-01-01

    We review seismicity, surface faulting, and Coulomb stress changes associated with the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake. All of the observed surface faulting is shallow, extending meters to tens of meters below the surface. Relocated aftershocks reveal no seismicity shallower than 2 km depth. Although many of the aftershocks lie along the thrust fault and its up-dip extension, there are also a significant number of aftershocks in the core of the gentle anticline above the thrust, and elsewhere on the up-thrown block. These aftershocks may be associated with secondary ramp thrusts or flexural slip faults at a depth of 2-4 km. The geological structures typically associated with a blind thrust fault, such as anticlinal uplift and an associated syncline, are obscured and complicated by surface thrust faults associated with the San Fernando fault that overly the Northridge structures. Thus the relationship of the geological structure and topography to the underlying thrust fault is much more complex for Northridge than it is for the 1983 Coalinga, California, earthquake. We show from a Coulomb stress analysis that secondary surface faulting, diffuse aftershocks, and triggered sequences of moderate-sized mainshocks, are expected features of moderate-sized blind thrust earthquakes.

  19. Lake sediment records as earthquake catalogues: A compilation from Swiss lakes - Limitations and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Katrina; Reusch, Anna; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Girardclos, Stéphanie; Strasser, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Intraplate settings are characterized by low deformation rates and recurrence intervals of strong earthquakes that often exceed the time span covered by instrumental records. Switzerland, as an example for such settings, shows a low instrumentally recorded seismicity, in contrast to strong earthquakes (e.g. 1356 Basel earthquake, Mw=6.6 and 1601 Unterwalden earthquake, Mw=5.9) mentioned in the historical archives. As such long recurrence rates do not allow for instrumental identification of earthquake sources of these strong events, and as intense geomorphologic alterations prevent preservation of surface expressions of faults, the knowledge of active faults is very limited. Lake sediments are sensitive to seismic shaking and thus, can be used to extend the regional earthquake catalogue if the sedimentary deposits or deformation structures can be linked to an earthquake. Single lake records allow estimating local intensities of shaking while multiple lake records can furthermore be used to compare temporal and spatial distribution of earthquakes. In this study, we compile a large dataset of dated sedimentary event deposits recorded in Swiss lakes available from peer-reviewed publications and unpublished master theses. We combine these data in order to detect large prehistoric regional earthquake events or periods of intense shaking that might have affected multiple lake settings. In a second step, using empirical seismic attenuation equations, we test if lake records can be used to reconstruct magnitudes and epicentres of identified earthquakes.

  20. A Classic Test of the Hubbert-Rubey Weakening Mechanism: M7.6 Thrust-Belt Earthquake Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, L.; Suppe, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Hubbert-Rubey (1959) fluid-pressure hypothesis has long been accepted as a classic solution to the problem of the apparent weakness of long thin thrust sheets. This hypothesis, in its classic form argues that ambient high pore-fluid pressures, which are common in sedimentary basins, reduce the normalized shear traction on the fault τb/ρ g H = μb(1-λb) where λb=Pf/ρ g H is the normalized pore-fluid pressure and μb is the coefficient of friction. Remarkably, there have been few large-scale tests of this classic hypothesis. Here we document ambient pore-fluid pressures surrounding the active frontal thrusts of western Taiwan, including the Chulungpu thrust that slipped in the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. We show from 3-D mapping of these thrusts that they flatten to a shallow detachment at about 5 km depth in the Pliocene Chinshui Shale. Using critical-taper wedge theory and the dip of the detachment and surface slope we constrain the basal shear traction τb/ρ g H ≍ 0.1 which is substantially weaker than common lab friction values of of Byerlee's law (μb= 0.85-0.6). We have determined the pore-fluid pressures as a function of depth in 76 wells, based on in-situ formation tests, sonic logs and mud densities. Fluid pressures are regionally controlled stratigraphically by sedimentary facies. The top of overpressures is everywhere below the base of the Chinshui Shale, therefore the entire Chinshui thrust system is at ambient hydrostatic pore-fluid pressures (λb ≍ 0.4). According to the classic Hubbert-Rubey hypothesis the required basal coefficient of friction is therefore μb ≍ 0.1-0.2. Therefore the classic Hubbert & Rubey mechanism involving static ambient excess fluid pressures is not the cause of extreme fault weakening in this western Taiwan example. We must look to other mechanisms of large-scale fault weakening, many of which are difficult to test.

  1. Dynamic rupture modeling of the transition from thrust to strike-slip motion in the 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Anderson, G.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    We use three-dimensional dynamic (spontaneous) rupture models to investigate the nearly simultaneous ruptures of the Susitna Glacier thrust fault and the Denali strike-slip fault. With the 1957 Mw 8.3 Gobi-Altay, Mongolia, earthquake as the only other well-documented case of significant, nearly simultaneous rupture of both thrust and strike-slip faults, this feature of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms responsible for development of these large, complex events. We find that the geometry of the faults and the orientation of the regional stress field caused slip on the Susitna Glacier fault to load the Denali fault. Several different stress orientations with oblique right-lateral motion on the Susitna Glacier fault replicate the triggering of rupture on the Denali fault about 10 sec after the rupture nucleates on the Susitna Glacier fault. However, generating slip directions compatible with measured surface offsets and kinematic source inversions requires perturbing the stress orientation from that determined with focal mechanisms of regional events. Adjusting the vertical component of the principal stress tensor for the regional stress field so that it is more consistent with a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting significantly improves the fit of the slip-rake angles to the data. Rotating the maximum horizontal compressive stress direction westward appears to improve the fit even further.

  2. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Iida, M.

    1990-01-01

    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong motion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30?? and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 ?? 1024 dyn cm, depending on the rupture model. -Authors

  3. New insights into fault activation and stress transfer between en echelon thrusts: The 2012 Emilia, Northern Italy, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.; Atzori, S.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the results of the inversion of a new geodetic data set covering the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence and the following 1 year of postseismic deformation. Modeling of the geodetic data together with the use of a catalog of 3-D relocated aftershocks allows us to constrain the rupture geometries and the coseismic and postseismic slip distributions for the two main events (Mw 6.1 and 6.0) of the sequence and to explore how these thrust events have interacted with each other. Dislocation modeling reveals that the first event ruptured a slip patch located in the center of the Middle Ferrara thrust with up to 1 m of reverse slip. The modeling of the second event, located about 15 km to the southwest, indicates a main patch with up to 60 cm of slip initiated in the deeper and flatter portion of the Mirandola thrust and progressively propagated postseismically toward the top section of the rupture plane, where most of the aftershocks and afterslip occurred. Our results also indicate that between the two main events, a third thrust segment was activated releasing a pulse of aseismic slip equivalent to a Mw 5.8 event. Coulomb stress changes suggest that the aseismic event was likely triggered by the preceding main shock and that the aseismic slip event probably brought the second fault closer to failure. Our findings show significant correlations between static stress changes and seismicity and suggest that stress interaction between earthquakes plays a significant role among continental en echelon thrusts.

  4. The Ms = 8 tensional earthquake of 9 December 1950 of northern Chile and its relation to the seismic potential of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausel, Edgar; Campos, Jaime

    1992-08-01

    The only known great ( Ms = 8) intermediate depth earthquake localized downdip of the main thrust zone of the Chilean subduction zone occurred landward of Antofagasta on 9 December 1950. In this paper we determine the source parameters and rupture process of this shock by modeling long-period body waves. The source mechanism corresponds to a downdip tensional intraplate event rupturing along a nearly vertical plane with a seismic moment of M0 = 1 × 10 28 dyn cm, of strike 350°, dip 88°, slip 270°, Mw = 7.9 and a stress drop of about 100 bar. The source time function consists of two subevents, the second being responsible for 70% of the total moment release. The unusually large magnitude ( Ms = 8) of this intermediate depth event suggests a rupture through the entire lithosphere. The spatial and temporal stress regime in this region is discussed. The simplest interpretation suggests that a large thrust earthquake should follow the 1950 tensional shock. Considering that the historical record of the region does not show large earthquakes, a 'slow' earthquake can be postulated as an alternative mechanism to unload the thrust zone. A weakly coupled subduction zone—within an otherwise strongly coupled region as evidenced by great earthquakes to the north and south—or the existence of creep are not consistent with the occurrence of a large tensional earthquake in the subducting lithosphere downdip of the thrust zone. The study of focal mechanisms of the outer rise earthquakes would add more information which would help us to infer the present state of stress in the thrust region.

  5. Sounds of earthquakes in West Bohemia: analysis of sonic and infrasonic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan; Kuna, Václav; Chum, Jaroslav; Horálek, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake sounds are usually observed during the occurrence of small earthquakes. The observations of audible manifestations of earthquakes date back to the ancient age and have been recently analyzed in more detail based both on macroseismic observations and audio recordings. In most cases the earthquake sounds resemble low-frequency underground thundering that is generated by seismic-acoustic conversion of P and SV waves at the earth surface. This is also supported by the fact that earthquake sounds usually precede shaking caused by S-waves. The less frequent are explosion-type sounds whose origin remains unclear. We analyze the observations of sounds associating the occurrence of earthquake swarms in the area of West Bohemia/Vogtland, Central Europe. Macroseismic data include 250 reports of sounds with 90% thundering and 10% of explosions. Additional data consist of sonic and infrasonic records acquired by microphones and microbarographs at seismic stations in the area. All the sonic and infrasonic records correspond to sounds of the thunder type; no explosions were recorded. Comparison of these records enabled to determine the seismic wave - air pressure transfer function. The measurements using a 3D microphone array confirm that in the epicentral area the sonic wave is propagating subvertically. We also compared the coda of seismograms and sonic records. It turned out that additional to seismo-acoustic coupling, a later acoustic wave of thunder type arrives at the observation site whose arrival time corresponds to sonic propagation from the epicenter. We analyse the possible generation mechanisms of this type of sonic wave.

  6. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar

    2016-04-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  7. Larger earthquakes recur more periodically: New insights in the megathrust earthquake cycle from lacustrine turbidite records in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moernaut, J.; Van Daele, M.; Fontijn, K.; Heirman, K.; Kempf, P.; Pino, M.; Valdebenito, G.; Urrutia, R.; Strasser, M.; De Batist, M.

    2018-01-01

    Historical and paleoseismic records in south-central Chile indicate that giant earthquakes on the subduction megathrust - such as in AD1960 (Mw 9.5) - reoccur on average every ∼300 yr. Based on geodetic calculations of the interseismic moment accumulation since AD1960, it was postulated that the area already has the potential for a Mw 8 earthquake. However, to estimate the probability of such a great earthquake to take place in the short term, one needs to frame this hypothesis within the long-term recurrence pattern of megathrust earthquakes in south-central Chile. Here we present two long lacustrine records, comprising up to 35 earthquake-triggered turbidites over the last 4800 yr. Calibration of turbidite extent with historical earthquake intensity reveals a different macroseismic intensity threshold (≥VII1/2 vs. ≥VI1/2) for the generation of turbidites at the coring sites. The strongest earthquakes (≥VII1/2) have longer recurrence intervals (292 ±93 yrs) than earthquakes with intensity of ≥VI1/2 (139 ± 69yr). Moreover, distribution fitting and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of inter-event times indicate that the stronger earthquakes recur in a more periodic way (CoV: 0.32 vs. 0.5). Regional correlation of our multi-threshold shaking records with coastal paleoseismic data of complementary nature (tsunami, coseismic subsidence) suggests that the intensity ≥VII1/2 events repeatedly ruptured the same part of the megathrust over a distance of at least ∼300 km and can be assigned to Mw ≥ 8.6. We hypothesize that a zone of high plate locking - identified by geodetic studies and large slip in AD 1960 - acts as a dominant regional asperity, on which elastic strain builds up over several centuries and mostly gets released in quasi-periodic great and giant earthquakes. Our paleo-records indicate that Poissonian recurrence models are inadequate to describe large megathrust earthquake recurrence in south-central Chile. Moreover, they show an enhanced

  8. Holocene turbidite and onshore paleoseismic record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone: relevance for the Sumatra 2004 Great Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Pastor, J.; Nelson, C. H.; Goldfinger, C.; Johnson, J.

    2005-05-01

    Marine turbidite stratigraphy, onshore paleoseismic records of tsunami sand beds and co-seismic subsidence (Atwater and Hemphill-Haley, 1997; Kelsey et al., 2002; Witter et al., 2003) and tsunami sands of Japan (Satake et al., 1996) all show evidence for great earthquakes (M ~ 9) on the Cascadia Subduction Zone. When a great earthquake shakes 1000 kilometers of the Cascadia margin, sediment failures occur in all tributary canyons and resulting turbidity currents travel down the canyon systems and deposit synchronous turbidites in abyssal seafloor channels. These turbidite records provide a deepwater paleoseismic record of great earthquakes. An onshore paleoseismic record develops from rapid coseismic subsidence resulting in buried marshes and drowned forests, and subsequent tsunami sand layer deposition. The Cascadia Basin provides the longest paleoseismic record of great earthquakes that is presently available for a subduction zone. A total of 17 synchronous turbidites have deposited along ~700 km of the Cascadia margin during the Holocene time of ~10,000 cal yr. Because the youngest paleoseismic event in all turbidite and onshore records is 300 AD, the average recurrence interval of Great Earthquakes is ~ 600 yr. At least 6 smaller events have also ruptured shorter margin segments. Linkage of the rupture length of these events comes from relative dating tools such as the "confluence test" of Adams (1990), radiocarbon ages of onshore and offshore events and physical property correlation of individual event "signatures". We use both 14C ages and analysis of hemipelagic sediment thickness between turbidites (H), where H/sedimentation rate = time between turbidite events to develop two recurrence histories. Utilizing the most reliable 14C and hemipelagic data sets from turbidites for the past ~ 5000 yr, the minimum recurrence time is ~ 300 yr and maximum time is ~ 1300 yr. There also is a recurrence pattern through the entire Holocene that consists of a long time

  9. Coseismic Contortion and Coupled Nocturnal Ionospheric Perturbations During 2016 Kaikoura, Mw 7.8 New Zealand Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Sunil, P. S.; Sunil, A. S.; Ramesh, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    The oblique-thrust Kaikoura earthquake of Mw 7.8 that struck New Zealand on 13 November 2016 at 11:02:56 UTC (local time at 00:02:56 a.m. on 14 November 2016) was one of the most geometrically and tectonically complex earthquakes recorded onshore in modern seismology. The event ruptured in the region of multisegmented faults and propagated unilaterally northeastward for more than 170 km from the epicenter. The GPS derived coseismic surface displacements reveal a larger widespread horizontal and vertical coseismic surface offsets of 6 m and 2 m, respectively, with two distinct tectonic thrust zones. We study the characteristics of coseismic ionospheric perturbations based on tectonic and nontectonic forcing mechanisms and demonstrate that these perturbations are linked to two distinct surface thrust zones with rotating horizontal reinforcement trending the rupture, rather than merely to the displacements oriented along the rupture propagation direction.

  10. Data quality of seismic records from the Tohoku, Japan earthquake as recorded across the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Marshall, B.; Hutt, C.R.; Storm, T.

    2012-01-01

    Great earthquakes recorded across modern digital seismographic networks, such as the recent Tohoku, Japan, earthquake on 11 March 2011 (Mw = 9.0), provide unique datasets that ultimately lead to a better understanding of the Earth's structure (e.g., Pesicek et al. 2008) and earthquake sources (e.g., Ammon et al. 2011). For network operators, such events provide the opportunity to look at the performance across their entire network using a single event, as the ground motion records from the event will be well above every station's noise floor.

  11. Blind Thrusting, Surface Folding, and the Development of Geological Structure in the Mw 6.3 2015 Pishan (China) Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainscoe, E. A.; Elliott, J. R.; Copley, A.; Craig, T. J.; Li, T.; Parsons, B. E.; Walker, R. T.

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between individual earthquakes and the longer-term growth of topography and of geological structures is not fully understood, but is key to our ability to make use of topographic and geological data sets in the contexts of seismic hazard and wider-scale tectonics. Here we investigate those relationships at an active fold-and-thrust belt in the southwest Tarim Basin, Central Asia. We use seismic waveforms and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to determine the fault parameters and slip distribution of the 2015 Mw6.3 Pishan earthquake—a blind, reverse-faulting event dipping toward the Tibetan Plateau. Our earthquake mechanism and location correspond closely to a fault mapped independently by seismic reflection, indicating that the earthquake was on a preexisting ramp fault over a depth range of ˜9-13 km. However, the geometry of folding in the overlying fluvial terraces cannot be fully explained by repeated coseismic slip in events such as the 2015 earthquake nor by the early postseismic motion shown in our interferograms; a key role in growth of the topography must be played by other mechanisms. The earthquake occurred at the Tarim-Tibet boundary, with the unusually low dip of 21°. We use our source models from Pishan and a 2012 event to argue that the Tarim Basin crust deforms only by brittle failure on faults whose effective coefficient of friction is ≤0.05 ± 0.025. In contrast, most of the Tibetan crust undergoes ductile deformation, with a viscosity of order 1020-1022 Pa s. This contrast in rheologies provides an explanation for the low dip of the earthquake fault plane.

  12. Understanding continental megathrust earthquake potential through geological mountain building processes: an example in Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huai; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Liangshu; Leroy, Yves; shi, Yaolin

    2017-04-01

    How to reconcile continent megathrust earthquake characteristics, for instances, mapping the large-great earthquake sequences into geological mountain building process, as well as partitioning the seismic-aseismic slips, is fundamental and unclear. Here, we scope these issues by focusing a typical continental collisional belt, the great Nepal Himalaya. We first prove that refined Nepal Himalaya thrusting sequences, with accurately defining of large earthquake cycle scale, provide new geodynamical hints on long-term earthquake potential in association with, either seismic-aseismic slip partition up to the interpretation of the binary interseismic coupling pattern on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), or the large-great earthquake classification via seismic cycle patterns on MHT. Subsequently, sequential limit analysis is adopted to retrieve the detailed thrusting sequences of Nepal Himalaya mountain wedge. Our model results exhibit apparent thrusting concentration phenomenon with four thrusting clusters, entitled as thrusting 'families', to facilitate the development of sub-structural regions respectively. Within the hinterland thrusting family, the total aseismic shortening and the corresponding spatio-temporal release pattern are revealed by mapping projection. Whereas, in the other three families, mapping projection delivers long-term large (M<8)-great (M>8) earthquake recurrence information, including total lifespans, frequencies and large-great earthquake alternation information by identifying rupture distances along the MHT. In addition, this partition has universality in continental-continental collisional orogenic belt with identified interseismic coupling pattern, while not applicable in continental-oceanic megathrust context.

  13. A comparison study of 2006 Java earthquake and other Tsunami earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Shao, G.

    2006-12-01

    We revise the slip processes of July 17 2006 Java earthquakes by combined inverting teleseismic body wave, long period surface waves, as well as the broadband records at Christmas island (XMIS), which is 220 km away from the hypocenter and so far the closest observation for a Tsunami earthquake. Comparing with the previous studies, our approach considers the amplitude variations of surface waves with source depths as well as the contribution of ScS phase, which usually has amplitudes compatible with that of direct S phase for such low angle thrust earthquakes. The fault dip angles are also refined using the Love waves observed along fault strike direction. Our results indicate that the 2006 event initiated at a depth around 12 km and unilaterally rupture southeast for 150 sec with a speed of 1.0 km/sec. The revised fault dip is only about 6 degrees, smaller than the Harvard CMT (10.5 degrees) but consistent with that of 1994 Java earthquake. The smaller fault dip results in a larger moment magnitude (Mw=7.9) for a PREM earth, though it is dependent on the velocity structure used. After verified with 3D SEM forward simulation, we compare the inverted result with the revised slip models of 1994 Java and 1992 Nicaragua earthquakes derived using the same wavelet based finite fault inversion methodology.

  14. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Relocation of the 2012 Ms 7.0 Lushan Earthquake Aftershock Sequences and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Wu, J.; Sun, Z.; Su, J.; Du, W.

    2013-12-01

    At 08:02 am on 20 April 2013 (Beijing time), an Ms 7.0 earthquake occurred in Lushan County, Sichuan Province. Lushan earthquake is another devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province after 12 May 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. 193 people were killed, 25 people were missing and more than ten thousand people were injured in the earthquake. Direct economic losses were estimated to be more than 80 billion yuan (RMB). Lushan earthquake occurred in the southern part of the Longmenshan fault zone. The distance between the epicenters of Lushan earthquake and Wenchuan earthquake is about 87 km. In an effort to maximize observations of the aftershock sequence and study the seismotetonic model, we deployed 35 temporal seismic stations around the source area. The earthquake was followed by a productive aftershock sequence. By the end of 20 July more than 10,254 aftershocks were recorded by the temporal seismic network. The magnitude of the aftershock ranges from ML-0.5 to ML5.6. We first located the aftershocks using Hypo2000 (Kevin, 2000) and refined the location results with HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000). The 1-D velocity model used in relocation is modified from a deep seismic sounding profile near Lushan earthquake (Wang et al., 2007). The Vp/Vs ratio is set to 1.83 according to receiver function h-k study. A total of 8,129 events were relocated. The average location error in N-S, E-W and U-D direction is 0.30, 0.29 and 0.59 km, respectively. The relocation results show that the aftershocks spread approximately 35 km in length and 16 km in width. The dominant distribution of the focal depth ranges from 10 to 20 km. A few earthquakes occurred in the shallow crust. Focal depth sections crossing the source area show that the seismogenic fault dips to the northwest, manifested itself as a listric thrust fault. The dip angle of the seismogenic fault is approximately 63° in the shallow crust, about 41° near the source of the mainshock, and about 17° at the

  16. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake of 17 January 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L.; Aki, K.; Boore, D.; Celebi, M.; Donnellan, A.; Hall, J.; Harris, R.; Hauksson, E.; Heaton, T.; Hough, S.; Hudnut, K.; Hutton, K.; Johnston, M.; Joyner, W.; Kanamori, H.; Marshall, G.; Michael, A.; Mori, J.; Murray, M.; Ponti, D.; Reasenberg, P.; Schwartz, D.; Seeber, L.; Shakal, A.; Simpson, R.; Thio, H.; Tinsley, J.; Todorovska, M.; Trifunac, M.; Wald, D.; Zoback, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The most costly American earthquake since 1906 struck Los Angeles on 17 January 1994. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake resulted from more than 3 meters of reverse slip on a 15-kilometer-long south-dipping thrust fault that raised the Santa Susana mountains by as much as 70 centimeters. The fault appears to be truncated by the fault that broke in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake at a depth of 8 kilometers. Of these two events, the Northridge earthquake caused many times more damage, primarily because its causative fault is directly under the city. Many types of structures were damaged, but the fracture of welds in steel-frame buildings was the greatest surprise. The Northridge earthquake emphasizes the hazard posed to Los Angeles by concealed thrust faults and the potential for strong ground shaking in moderate earthquakes.The most costly American earthquake since 1906 struck Los Angeles on 17 January 1994. The magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake resulted from more than 3 meters of reverse slip on a 15-kilometer-long south-dipping thrust fault that raised the Santa Susana mountains by as much as 70 centimeters. The fault appears to be truncated by the fault that broke in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake at a depth of 8 kilometers. Of these two events, the Northridge earthquake caused many times more damage, primarily because its causative fault is directly under the city. Many types of structures were damaged, but the fracture of welds in steel-frame buildings was the greatest surprise. The Northridge earthquake emphasizes the hazard posed to Los Angeles by concealed thrust faults and the potential for strong ground shaking in moderate earthquakes.

  17. Lateral Moho variations and the geometry of Main Himalayan Thrust beneath Nepal Himalayan orogen revealed by teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Lei, Jianshe; Yuan, Xiaohui; Xu, Xiwei; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Zhikun; Mi, Qi; Zhou, Lianqing

    2018-05-01

    The lateral Moho variations and the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust under the Nepal Himalayan orogen are investigated to determine a new crustal model using a large number of high-quality receiver functions recorded by the HIMNT and HiCLIMB portable seismic networks. Our new model shows an evident and complicated lateral Moho depth variation of 8-16 km in the east-west direction, which is related to the surface tectonic features. These results suggest a non-uniformed crustal deformation, resulted from the splitting and/or tearing of the Indian plate during the northward subduction. Our migrated receiver function images illustrate a discernible ramp structure of the Main Himalayan Thrust with an abrupt downward bending close to the hypocenter of the 2015 Gorkha Mw 7.8 earthquake. The distribution of the aftershocks coincides with the present decollement structure. Integrating previous magnetotelluric soundings and tomographic results, our results suggest that the ramp-shaped structure within the Main Himalayan Thrust could enhance stress concentration leading to the nucleation of the large earthquake. Our new crustal model provides new clues to the formation of the Himalayan orogen.

  18. Investigating Along-Strike Variations of Source Parameters for Relocated Thrust Earthquakes Along the Sumatra-Java Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hariri, M.; Bilek, S. L.; Deshon, H. R.; Engdahl, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Some earthquakes generate anomalously large tsunami waves relative to their surface wave magnitudes (Ms). This class of events, known as tsunami earthquakes, is characterized by having a long rupture duration and low radiated energy at long periods. These earthquakes are relatively rare. There have been only 9 documented cases, including 2 in the Java subduction zone (1994 Mw=7.8 and the 2006 Mw=7.7). Several models have been proposed to explain the unexpectedly large tsunami, such as displacement along high-angle splay faults, landslide-induced tsunami due to coseismic shaking, or large seismic slip within low rigidity sediments or weaker material along the shallowest part of the subduction zone. Slow slip has also been suggested along portions of the 2004 Mw=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake zone. In this study we compute the source parameters of 90 relocated shallow thrust events (Mw 5.1-7.8) along the Sumatra-Java subduction zone including the two Java tsunami earthquakes. Events are relocated using a modification to the Engdahl, van der Hilst and Buland (EHB) earthquake relocation method that incorporates an automated frequency-dependent phase detector. This allows for the use of increased numbers of phase arrival times, especially depth phases, and improves hypocentral locations. Source time functions, rupture duration and depth estimates are determined using multi-station deconvolution of broadband teleseismic P and SH waves. We seek to correlate any along-strike variation in rupture characteristics with tectonic features and rupture characteristics of the previous slow earthquakes along this margin to gain a better understanding of the conditions resulting in slow ruptures. Preliminary results from the analysis of these events show that in addition to depth-dependent variations there are also along-strike variations in rupture duration. We find that along the Java segment, the longer duration event locates in a highly coupled region corresponding to the

  19. Towards coupled earthquake dynamic rupture and tsunami simulations: The 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, Percy; van Dinther, Ylona

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given an unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds suggesting two rupture fronts, possibly due to slip reactivation caused by frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this rupture reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops (Galvez et al, 2015) . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of uplift close to the trench, which may be the cause of such a devastating tsunami followed by the Tohoku earthquake. To investigate the impact of such a huge uplift, we ran tsunami simulations with the slip reactivation model and plug the sea floor displacements into GeoClaw (Finite element code for tsunami simulations, George and LeVeque, 2006). Our recent results compare well with the water height at the tsunami DART buoys 21401, 21413, 21418 and 21419 and show the potential using fully dynamic rupture results for tsunami studies for earthquake-tsunami scenarios.

  20. Quantified sensitivity of lakes to record historic earthquakes: Implications for paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Bruno; Nomade, Jerome; Crouzet, Christian; Litty, Camille; Belle, Simon; Rolland, Yann; Revel, Marie; Courboulex, Françoise; Arnaud, Fabien; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2015-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is a challenging issue for modern societies. A key parameter to be estimated is the recurrence interval of damaging earthquakes. In moderately active seismo-tectonic regions, this requires the establishment of earthquake records long enough to be relevant, i.e. far longer than historical observations. Here we investigate how lake sediments can be used for this purpose and quantify the conditions that enable earthquake recording. For this purpose, (i) we studied nine lake-sediment sequences to reconstruct mass-movement chronicles in different settings of the French Alpine range and (ii) we compared the chronicles to the well-documented earthquake history over the last five centuries. The studied lakes are all small alpine-type lakes based directly on bedrock. All lake sequences have been studied following the same methodology; (i) a multi-core approach to well understand the sedimentary processes within the lake basins, (ii) a high-resolution lithological and grain-size characterization and (iii) a dating based on short-lived radionuclide measurements, lead contaminations and radiocarbon ages. We identified 40 deposits related to 26 mass-movement (MM) occurrences. 46% (12 on 26) of the MMs are synchronous in neighbouring lakes, supporting strongly an earthquake origin. In addition, the good agreement between MMs ages and historical earthquake dates suggests an earthquake trigger for 88% (23 on 26) of them. Related epicenters are always located at distances of less than 100 km from the lakes and their epicentral MSK intensity ranges between VII and IX. However, the number of earthquake-triggered MMs varies between lakes of a same region, suggesting a gradual sensitivity of the lake sequences towards earthquake shaking, i.e. distinct lake-sediment slope stabilities. The quantification of this earthquake sensitivity and the comparison to the lake system and sediment characteristics suggest that the primary factor explaining this variability is

  1. Main shock and aftershock records of the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Akkar, Sinan; Gulerce, U.; Sanli, A.; Bundock, H.; Salkin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). This significant event was followed by many significant aftershocks and another main event (Mw=7.2) that occurred on November 12, 1999 near Duzce (Turkey). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded by a handful of accelerographs (~30) in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, shown in Figure 1, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected (Çelebi, 1999, 2000). Following this main event, several organizations from Turkey, Japan, France and the USA deployed temporary accelerographs and other aftershock recording hardware. Thus, the number of recording stations in the earthquake affected area was quadrupled (~130). As a result, as seen in Figure 2, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations, indicating that because of the sparse networks, recording of larger motions during the main shock of August 17, 1999 were possibly missed.

  2. Major earthquakes recorded by Speleothems in Midwestern U.S. caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Lundstrom, C.C.; Hackley, Keith C.; Curry, B. Brandon; Fouke, B.W.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Historic earthquakes generated by the New Madrid seismic zone represent some of the largest recorded in the United States, yet prehistoric events are recognized only through deformation in late-Wisconsin to Holocene-age, near surface sediments (liquefaction, monoclinal folding, and changes in river meanders). In this article, we show that speleothems in caves of southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri may constitute a previously unrecognized recorder of large earthquakes in the U.S. midcontinent region. The timing of the initiation and regrowth of stalagmites in southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri caves is consistent with the historic and prehistoric record of several known seismic events in the U.S. midcontinent region. We conclude that dating the initiation of original stalagmite growth and later postearthquake rejuvenation constitutes a new paleoseismic method that has the potential for being applied to any region around the world in the vicinity of major seismic zones where caves exist. Use of this technique could expand the geographical distribution of paleoseimic data, document prehistoric earthquakes, and help improve interpretations of paleoearthquakes.

  3. The 2015 April 25 Gorkha Earthquake and its Aftershocks: Implications for lateral heterogeneity on the Main Himalayan Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, S.; Kumar, A.; Priestley, K. F.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw 7.8) occurred by thrust faulting on a ˜150 km long and ˜70 km wide, locked downdip segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), causing the Himalaya to slip SSW over the Indian Plate, and was followed by major-to-moderate aftershocks. Back projection of teleseismic P-wave and inversion of teleseismic body waves provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the mainshock rupture and source mechanism of aftershocks. The mainshock initiated ˜80 km west of Katmandu, close to the locking line on the MHT and propagated eastwards, along ˜117° azimuth, for a duration of ˜70 s, in multi-stage rupture. The mainshock has been modeled using four sub-events, propagating from west-to-east. The first sub-event (0-20 s) ruptured at a velocity of ˜3.5 km/s on a ˜6° N dipping flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion. The second sub-event (20-35 s) ruptured a ˜18° W dipping lateral ramp on the MHT in oblique thrust motion. The rupture velocity dropped from 3.5 km/s to 2.5 km/s, as a result of updip propagation of the rupture. The third sub-event (35-50 s) ruptured a ˜7° N dipping, eastward flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion and resulted in the largest amplitude arrivals at teleseismic distances. The fourth sub-event (50-70 s) occurred by left-lateral strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping transverse fault, at high angle to the MHT and arrested the eastward propagation of the mainshock rupture. Eastward stress build-up following the mainshock resulted in the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3), which occurred on the MHT, immediately east of the mainshock rupture. Source mechanism of moderate aftershocks reveal stress adjustment at the edges of the mainshock fault, flexural faulting on top of the downgoing Indian Plate and extensional faulting in the hanging wall of the MHT.

  4. Seismicity associated with the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Choy, G.; Presgrave, B.; Sipkin, S.; Tarr, A.C.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/ NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the Sumatra-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the Sumatra-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock, a period of about two hours following the Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, and occasionally during the Andaman Sea swarm of 26-30 January 2005. Moderate and larger (mb ???5.5) aftershocks are absent from most of the deep interplate thrust faults of the segments of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands subduction zone on which the 26 December mainshock occurred, which probably reflects nearly complete release of elastic strain on the seismogenic interplate-thrust during the mainshock. An exceptional thrust-fault source offshore of Banda Aceh may represent a segment of the interplate thrust that was bypassed during the mainshock. The 26 December mainshock triggered a high level of aftershock activity near the axis of the Sunda trench and the leading edge of the overthrust Burma plate. Much near-trench activity is intraplate activity within the subducting plate, but some shallow-focus, near-trench, reverse-fault earthquakes may represent an unusual seismogenic release of interplate compressional stress near the tip of the overriding plate. The interplate-thrust Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, in contrast to the 26 December aftershock sequence, was followed by many interplate-thrust aftershocks along the length of its inferred rupture zone.

  5. The July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki, Japan, earthquake: Coseismic slip pattern from strong-motion and teleseismic recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    1996-01-01

    We employ a finite fault inversion scheme to infer the distribution of coseismic slip for the July 12, 1993, Hokkaido-Nansei-Oki earthquake using strong ground motions recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency within 400 km of the epicenter and vertical P waveforms recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network at teleseismic distances. The assumed fault geometry is based on the location of the aftershock zone and comprises two fault segments with different orientations: a northern segment striking at N20??E with a 30?? dip to the west and a southern segment with a N20??W strike. For the southern segment we use both westerly and easterly dip directions to test thrust orientations previously proposed for this portion of the fault. The variance reduction is greater using a shallow west dipping segment, suggesting that the direction of dip did not change as the rupture propagated south from the hypocenter. This indicates that the earthquake resulted from the shallow underthrusting of Hokkaido beneath the Sea of Japan. Static vertical movements predicted by the corresponding distribution of fault slip are consistent with the general pattern of surface deformation observed following the earthquake. Fault rupture in the northern segment accounts for about 60% of the total P wave seismic moment of 3.4 ?? 1020 N m and includes a large circular slip zone (4-m peak) near the earthquake hypocenter at depths between 10 and 25 km. Slip in the southern segment is also predominantly shallower than 25 km, but the maximum coseismic displacements (2.0-2.5 m) are observed at a depth of about 5 km. This significant shallow slip in the southern portion of the rupture zone may have been responsible for the large tsunami that devastated the small offshore island of Okushiri. Localized shallow faulting near the island, however, may require a steep westerly dip to reconcile the measured values of ground subsidence.

  6. Stress Regime in the Nepalese Himalaya from Recent Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, M.; Karplus, M. S.; Velasco, A. A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; Adhikari, L. B.; Sapkota, S. N.; Klemperer, S. L.; Patlan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The two recent earthquakes, April 25, 2015 Mw 7.8 (Gorkha earthquake) and May 12, 2015 Mw 7.2, at the Indo-Eurasian plate margin killed thousands of people and caused billion dollars of property loss. In response to these events, we deployed a dense array of seismometers to record the aftershocks along Gorkha earthquake rupture area. Our network NAMASTE (Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake) included 45 different seismic stations (16 short period, 25 broadband, and 4 strong motion sensors) covering a large area from north-central Nepal to south of the Main Frontal Thrust at a spacing of 20 km. The instruments recorded aftershocks from June 2015 to May 2016. We used time domain short term average (STA) and long term average (LTA) algorithms (1/10s and 4/40s) respectively to detect the arrivals and then developed an earthquake catalog containing 9300 aftershocks. We are manually picking the P-wave first motion arrival polarity to develop a catalog of focal mechanisms for the larger magnitude (>M3.0) events with adequate (>10) arrivals. We hope to characterize the seismicity and stress mechanisms of the complex fault geometries in the Nepalese Himalaya and to address the geophysical processes controlling seismic cycles in the Indo-Eurasian plate margin.

  7. Growth stratal records of instantaneous and progressive limb rotation in the Precordillera thrust belt and Bermejo basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, TomáS. R.; Allmendinger, Richard W.

    1996-10-01

    Analysis of synorogenic deposits preserved near the thrust front zone of the Precordillera fold and thrust belt and in the Bermejo foreland basin in central Argentina documents the evolution of deformation during the last 5 Myr as well as the thrust system kinematics. Seismic lines across the area display examples of progressive and instantaneous limb rotations. The easternmost thrust plate of the Central Precordillera, the Niquivil thrust, experienced episodic motion in two main stages: a first thrust movement as a fault-propagation fold and a second movement as a high-angle anticlinal breakthrough fault after a period of quiescence. Growth strata deposited in the La Pareja intermontane basin and the Las Salinas and Bermejo anticline recorded continuous growth of Eastern Precordilleran structures beginning at ˜2.7 Ma, with uplift rates of ˜0.3 mm/yr for the Niquivil anticline, 1.08 mm/yr for the Las Salinas anticline, and between ˜0.6 and 0.38 mm/yr during the last ˜2 Myr for the Bermejo anticline. Once the Eastern Precordillera began to grow, the propagation of the Niquivil thrust stopped, restricting the deformation to the young Vallecito out-of sequence thrust. The complex geometry of growth strata deposited on the back limb of the Las Salinas anticline can be explained by using a model of a two-step fault propagation fold with constant layer thickness. The Bermejo anticline of the Eastern Precordillera is formed by the simultaneous propagation of a shallow fault, responsible for the fold shape, and a deep fault that produced vertical uplift. A growth triangle that documents instantaneous forelimb rotation for a fault-propagation fold is recorded for the first time in a published seismic line.

  8. Sumatra Megathrust Earthquakes Trigger Intraplate Seismicity in the Indo-Australian Oceanic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delescluse, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Cattin, R.

    2009-05-01

    The present-day intraplate deformation between India and Australia started 9 Myrs ago. In the Central Indian Basin (CIB), this deformation is recorded in the thick sediments of the Bengal fan. The equatorial, dense E-W thrust fault network in this region is the result of a massive reverse reactivation of normal faults at the onset of deformation. The Wharton Basin (WB), separated from the CIB by the NinetyEast Ridge (NyR), shows a contrasting style of deformation with mainly left-lateral strike-slip seismicity. The WB finite deformation and seismicity also involve pre-existing faults, in this case the N-S paleo-transforms of the fossile Wharton spreading-ridge system. The oceanic plate seismicity after the December 2004 Aceh subduction earthquake shows strike-slip events with a clear intraplate P-axis. No thrust faults are detected. This indicates short-term reactivation of the transform faults near the trench. Spatial and temporal distribution of intraplate erthquakes, as well as their anomalous moment release suggests triggering by the Aceh megathrust earthquake, which appears to have acted as an "accelerator" for the oceanic intraplate deformation. In this study, we use Coulomb stress static variations to confirm our seismicity observations. We first assume that the reactivated transform and the neoformed thrust fault plane families are present in the oceanic lithosphere. We then compute the coseismic stresses in the vicinity of the trench from the Aceh and Nias earthquakes slip distributions. Finally, we derive the normal and shear stresses on the fault planes. The results show that the strike-slip events are all favored by the subduction earthquakes coseismic stresses. They also show that the normal fault earthquakes at oceanic bulges are supported by the modeled coseismic stresses, except offshore Myanmar. The particularly interesting result is that all the possible neoformed thrust faults perpendicular to the intraplate P-axis are inhibited by the same

  9. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  10. Earthquake recording at the Stanford DAS Array with fibers in existing telecomm conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, B. C.; Martin, E. R.; Yuan, S.; Cole, S.; Karrenbach, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Stanford Distributed Acoustic Sensing Array (SDASA-1) has been continuously recording seismic data since September 2016 on 2.5 km of single mode fiber optics in existing telecommunications conduits under Stanford's campus. The array is figure-eight shaped and roughly 600 m along its widest side with a channel spacing of roughly 8 m. This array is easy to maintain and is nonintrusive, making it well suited to urban environments, but it sacrifices some cable-to-ground coupling compared to more traditional seismometers. We have been testing its utility for earthquake recording, active seismic, and ambient noise interferometry. This talk will focus on earthquake observations. We will show comparisons between the strain rates measured throughout the DAS array and the particle velocities measured at the nearby Jasper Ridge Seismic Station (JRSC). In some of these events, we will point out directionality features specific to DAS that can require slight modifications in data processing. We also compare repeatability of DAS and JRSC recordings of blasts from a nearby quarry. Using existing earthquake databases, we have created a small catalog of DAS earthquake observations by pulling records of over 700 Northern California events spanning Sep. 2016 to Jul. 2017 from both the DAS data and JRSC. On these events we have tested common array methods for earthquake detection and location including beamforming and STA/LTA analysis in time and frequency. We have analyzed these events to approximate thresholds on what distances and magnitudes are clearly detectible by the DAS array. Further analysis should be done on detectability with methods tailored to small events (for example, template matching). In creating this catalog, we have developed open source software available for free download that can manage large sets of continuous seismic data files (both existing files, and files as they stream in). This software can both interface with existing earthquake networks, and

  11. Paleoseismic evidence of the CE 1505 (?) and CE 1803 earthquakes from the foothill zone of the Kumaon Himalaya along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Naik, Sambit P.; Sahoo, Santiswarup; Okumura, Koji; Mohanty, Asmita

    2017-09-01

    The importance of understanding earthquake sources in India and Nepal was underscored by the disastrous 2015 earthquakes of 25 April Gorkha (Mw 7.8) and 12 May Kodari (Mw 7.3, aftershock) in Nepal. The Kumaon-Garhwal segment experienced strong earthquakes in CE 1505 and CE 1803, probably along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Of these, the CE 1505 was the greatest earthquake reported from the region in historical chronicles. However, no surface ruptures related to either of 1505 or 1803 have been identified from the Kumaon-Garhwal segment, and an ambiguity remained about their ruptures dispite recent reports of CE 1505 surface rupture in Western Nepal. We used high-resolution satellite (CARTOSAT-1) data for mapping active fault traces and carried out paleoseismic studies to identify paleo-earthquakes along the HFT. A trench excavated across the Kaladungi Fault (KF), a branching fault of HFT, revealed evidence of at least three earthquakes. Event I (the oldest) occurred between BCE 467 and CE 570; Event II occurred between CE 1294-1587. We infer that the Event II was the most likely historically-reported, great Himalayan earthquake of CE 1505. Event III occurred between CE 1750-1932, and may represent the large magnitude CE 1803 (7.5 > Mw < 8.0) earthquake. Our findings not only help in understanding the frontal fault dynamics, but also may aid seismic hazard evaluation in India and Nepal.

  12. Seismic imaging of the Main Frontal Thrust in Nepal reveals a shallow décollement and blind thrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Rafael V.; Hubbard, Judith; Liberty, Lee; Foster, Anna; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2018-07-01

    Because great earthquakes in the Himalaya have an average recurrence interval exceeding 500 yr, most of what we know about past earthquakes comes from paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology studies of the youngest fault system there, the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). However, these data are sparse relative to fault segmentation and length, and interpretations are often hard to validate in the absence of information about fault geometry. Here, we image the upper two km of strata in the vicinity of the fault tip of the MFT in central Nepal (around the town of Bardibas) applying a pre-stack migration approach to two new seismic reflection profiles that we interpret using quantitative fault-bend folding theory. Our results provide direct evidence that a shallow décollement produces both emergent (Patu thrust) and blind (Bardibas thrust) fault strands. We show that the décollement lies about 2 km below the land surface near the fault tip, and steps down to a regional 5 km deep décollement level to the north. This implies that there is significant variation in the depth of the décollement. We demonstrate that some active faults do not reach the surface, and therefore paleoseismic trenching alone cannot characterize the earthquake history at these locations. Although blind, these faults have associated growth strata that allow us to infer their most recent displacement history. We present the first direct evidence of fault dip on two fault strands of the MFT at depth that can allow terrace uplift measurements to be more accurately converted to fault slip. We identify a beveled erosional surface buried beneath Quaternary sediments, indicating that strath surface formation is modulated by both climate-related base level changes and tectonics. Together, these results indicate that subsurface imaging, in conjunction with traditional paleoseismological tools, can best characterize the history of fault slip in the Himalaya and other similar thrust fault systems.

  13. Continuous estimates on the earthquake early warning magnitude by use of the near-field acceleration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Zhang, Hongcai

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the seismic records of Japan's Kik-net are selected to measure the acceleration, displacement, and effective peak acceleration of each seismic record within a certain time after P wave, then a continuous estimation is given on earthquake early warning magnitude through statistical analysis method, and Wenchuan earthquake record is utilized to check the method. The results show that the reliability of earthquake early warning magnitude continuously increases with the increase of the seismic information, the biggest residual happens if the acceleration is adopted to fit earthquake magnitude, which may be caused by rich high-frequency components and large dispersion of peak value in acceleration record, the influence caused by the high-frequency components can be effectively reduced if the effective peak acceleration and peak displacement is adopted, it is estimated that the dispersion of earthquake magnitude obviously reduces, but it is easy for peak displacement to be affected by long-period drifting. In various components, the residual enlargement phenomenon at vertical direction is almost unobvious, thus it is recommended in this article that the effective peak acceleration at vertical direction is preferred to estimate earthquake early warning magnitude. Through adopting Wenchuan strong earthquake record to check the method mentioned in this article, it is found that this method can be used to quickly, stably, and accurately estimate the early warning magnitude of this earthquake, which shows that this method is completely applicable for earthquake early warning.

  14. Foreshock occurrence before large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured in two worldwide catalogs over ???20-year intervals. The overall rates observed are similar to ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California. The aftershock model was extended to the case of moderate foreshocks preceding large mainshocks. Overall, the observed worldwide foreshock rates exceed the extended California generic model by a factor of ???2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events, a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, had a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, had a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have found low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggests the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich. If this is so, then the California generic model may significantly underestimate the conditional probability for a very large (M ??? 8) earthquake following a potential (M ??? 7) foreshock in Cascadia. The magnitude differences among the identified foreshock-mainshock pairs in the Harvard catalog are consistent with a uniform

  15. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2016-07-01

    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  16. Crustal velocity structure and earthquake processes of Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya: Constraints from regional waveform inversion and array beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Cesca, Simone; Kamal; Kriegerowski, Marius; Mahesh, P.; Gupta, Sandeep

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand present day earthquake kinematics at the Indian plate boundary, we analyse seismic broadband data recorded between 2007 and 2015 by the regional network in the Garhwal-Kumaun region, northwest Himalaya. We first estimate a local 1-D velocity model for the computation of reliable Green's functions, based on 2837 P-wave and 2680 S-wave arrivals from 251 well located earthquakes. The resulting 1-D crustal structure yields a 4-layer velocity model down to the depths of 20 km. A fifth homogeneous layer extends down to 46 km, constraining the Moho using travel-time distance curve method. We then employ a multistep moment tensor (MT) inversion algorithm to infer seismic moment tensors of 11 moderate earthquakes with Mw magnitude in the range 4.0-5.0. The method provides a fast MT inversion for future monitoring of local seismicity, since Green's functions database has been prepared. To further support the moment tensor solutions, we additionally model P phase beams at seismic arrays at teleseismic distances. The MT inversion result reveals the presence of dominant thrust fault kinematics persisting along the Himalayan belt. Shallow low and high angle thrust faulting is the dominating mechanism in the Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya. The centroid depths for these moderate earthquakes are shallow between 1 and 12 km. The beam modeling result confirm hypocentral depth estimates between 1 and 7 km. The updated seismicity, constrained source mechanism and depth results indicate typical setting of duplexes above the mid crustal ramp where slip is confirmed along out-of-sequence thrusting. The involvement of Tons thrust sheet in out-of-sequence thrusting indicate Tons thrust to be the principal active thrust at shallow depth in the Himalayan region. Our results thus support the critical taper wedge theory, where we infer the microseismicity cluster as a result of intense activity within the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) system.

  17. One hundred years of earthquake recording at the University of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolt, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The best seismographs then available arrived from England in 1887 and were installed at Lick Observatory on Mt.Hamilton and at the Students Astronomical Observatory on the Berkeley campus. The first California earthquake recorded by the Lick instrument was on April 24, 1887. These seismographic stations have functioned continuously from their founding to the present day, with improvements in instruments from time to time as technology advanced. Now they are part of a sesimogrpahic network of 16 stations recording with great completeness both local and distant earthquakes

  18. Large paleoearthquake timing and displacement near Damak in eastern Nepal on the Himalayan Frontal Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Pierce, Ian K.; Reedy, Tabor; Angster, Stephen J.; Giri, Bibek

    2017-08-01

    An excavation across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust near Damak in eastern Nepal shows displacement on a fault plane dipping 22° has produced vertical separation across a scarp equal to 5.5 m. Stratigraphic, structural, geometrical, and radiocarbon observations are interpreted to indicate that the displacement is the result of a single earthquake of 11.3 ± 3.5 m of dip-slip displacement that occurred 1146-1256 A.D. Empirical scaling laws indicate that thrust earthquakes characterized by average displacements of this size may produce rupture lengths of 450 to >800 km and moment magnitudes Mw of 8.6 to >9. Sufficient strain has accumulated along this portion of the Himalayan arc during the roughly 800 years since the 1146-1256 A.D. earthquake to produce another earthquake displacement of similar size.

  19. Aftershock stress analysis of the April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake from the NAMASTE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, M.; Velasco, A. A.; Karplus, M. S.; Patlan, E.; Ghosh, A.; Nabelek, J.; Kuna, V. M.; Sapkota, S. N.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Continental collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, converging at 45 mm/yr, has uplifted the northern part of Nepal forming the Himalaya. Because of this convergence, the region has experienced large, devastating earthquakes, including the 1934 Mw 8.4 Nepal-Bihar earthquake and two recent earthquakes on April 25, 2015 Mw 7.8 (Gorkha earthquake) and May 12, 2015 Mw 7.2. These quakes killed thousands of people and caused billion dollars of property loss. Despite some recent geologic and geophysical studies of this area, many tectonic questions remain unanswered. Shortly after the Gorkha earthquake, we deployed a seismic network, NAMASTE (Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake), to study the aftershocks of these two large events. Our network included 45 different seismic stations (16 short period, 25 broadband, and 4 strong motion sensors) that spanned the Gorkha rupture area. The deployment extends from south of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) to the Main Central Thrust region (MCT), and it to recorded aftershocks for more than ten months from June 2015 to May 2016. We are leveraging high-precision earthquake locations by measuring and picking P-wave first-motion arrival polarity to develop a catalog of focal mechanisms for the larger aftershocks. We will use this catalog to correlate the seismicity and stress related of the Indo-Eurasian plate margin, hoping to address questions regarding the complex fault geometries and future earthquake hazards at this plate margin.

  20. The 2015 April 25 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake and its aftershocks: implications for lateral heterogeneity on the Main Himalayan Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Shashwat K.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Dayal, Shankar

    2017-02-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw 7.8) occurred by thrust faulting on a ˜150 km long and ˜70 km wide, locked downdip segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), causing the Himalaya to slip SSW over the Indian Plate, and was followed by major-to-moderate aftershocks. Back projection of teleseismic P-wave and inversion of teleseismic body waves provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the main-shock rupture and source mechanism of aftershocks. The main-shock initiated ˜80 km west of Katmandu, close to the locking line on the MHT and propagated eastwards along ˜117° azimuth for a duration of ˜70 s, with varying rupture velocity on a heterogeneous fault surface. The main-shock has been modelled using four subevents, propagating from west-to-east. The first subevent (0-20 s) ruptured at a velocity of ˜3.5 km s- 1 on a ˜6°N dipping flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion. The second subevent (20-35 s) ruptured a ˜18° W dipping lateral ramp on the MHT in oblique thrust motion. The rupture velocity dropped from 3.5 km s- 1 to 2.5 km s- 1, as a result of updip propagation of the rupture. The third subevent (35-50 s) ruptured a ˜7°N dipping, eastward flat segment of the MHT with thrust motion and resulted in the largest amplitude arrivals at teleseismic distances. The fourth subevent (50-70 s) occurred by left-lateral strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping transverse fault, at high angle to the MHT and arrested the eastward propagation of the main-shock rupture. Eastward stress build-up following the main-shock resulted in the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3), which occurred on the MHT, immediately east of the main-shock rupture. Source mechanisms of moderate aftershocks reveal stress adjustment at the edges of the main-shock fault, flexural faulting on top of the downgoing Indian Plate and extensional faulting in the hanging wall of the MHT.

  1. A teleseismic analysis of the New Brunswick earthquake of January 9, 1982.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.; Dewey, J.W.; Sipkin, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of the New Brunswick earthquake of January 9, 1982, has important implications for the evaluation of seismic hazards in eastern North America. Although moderate in size (mb, 5.7), it was well-recorded teleseismically. Source characteristics of this earthquake have been determined from analysis of data that were digitally recorded by the Global Digital Seismography Network. From broadband displacement and velocity records of P waves, we have obtained a dynamic description of the rupture process as well as conventional static properties of the source. The depth of the hypocenter is estimated to be 9km from depth phases. The focal mechanism determined from the broadband data corresponds to predominantly thrust faulting. From the variation in the waveforms the direction of slip is inferred to be updip on a west dipping NNE striking fault plane. The steep dip of the inferred fault plane suggests that the earthquake occurred on a preexisting fault that was at one time a normal fault. From an inversion of body wave pulse durations, the estimated rupture length is 5.5km.-from Authors

  2. Seismotectonics of the 6 February 2012 Mw 6.7 Negros Earthquake, central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurelio, M. A.; Dianala, J. D. B.; Taguibao, K. J. L.; Pastoriza, L. R.; Reyes, K.; Sarande, R.; Lucero, A.

    2017-07-01

    At 03:49 UTC on the 6th of February 2012, Negros Island in the Visayan region of central Philippines was struck by a magnitude Mw 6.7 earthquake causing deaths of over 50 people and tremendous infrastructure damage leaving hundreds of families homeless. The epicenter was located in the vicinity of the eastern coastal towns of La Libertad and Tayasan of the Province of Negros Oriental. Earthquake-induced surface deformation was mostly in the form of landslides, liquefaction, ground settlement, subsidence and lateral spread. There were no clear indications of a fault surface rupture. The earthquake was triggered by a fault that has not been previously recognized. Earthquake data, including epicentral and hypocentral distributions of main shock and aftershocks, and focal mechanism solutions of the main shock and major aftershocks, indicate a northeast striking, northwest dipping nodal plane with a reverse fault mechanism. Offshore seismic profiles in the Tañon Strait between the islands of Negros and Cebu show a northwest dipping reverse fault consistent in location, geometry and mechanism with the nodal plane calculated from earthquake data. The earthquake generator is here proposed to be named the Negros Oriental Thrust (NOT). Geologic transects established from structural traverses across the earthquake region reveal an east-verging fold-thrust system. In the latitude of Guihulngan, this fold-thrust system is represented by the Razor Back Anticline - Negros Oriental Thrust pair, and by the Pamplona Anticline - Yupisan Thrust pair in the latitude of Dumaguete to the south. Together, these active fold-thrust systems are causing active deformation of the western section of the Visayan Sea Basin under a compressional tectonic regime. This finding contradicts previous tectonic models that interpret the Tañon Strait as a graben, bounded on both sides by normal faults supposedly operating under an extensional regime. The Negros Earthquake and the active fold-thrust

  3. Radiated energy and the rupture process of the Denali fault earthquake sequence of 2002 from broadband teleseismic body waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Displacement, velocity, and velocity-squared records of P and SH body waves recorded at teleseismic distances are analyzed to determine the rupture characteristics of the Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 (MW 7.9, Me 8.1). Three episodes of rupture can be identified from broadband (???0.1-5.0 Hz) waveforms. The Denali fault earthquake started as a MW 7.3 thrust event. Subsequent right-lateral strike-slip rupture events with centroid depths of 9 km occurred about 22 and 49 sec later. The teleseismic P waves are dominated by energy at intermediate frequencies (0.1-1 Hz) radiated by the thrust event, while the SH waves are dominated by energy at lower frequencies (0.05-0.2 Hz) radiated by the strike-slip events. The strike-slip events exhibit strong directivity in the teleseismic SH waves. Correcting the recorded P-wave acceleration spectra for the effect of the free surface yields an estimate of 2.8 ?? 1015 N m for the energy radiated by the thrust event. Correcting the recorded SH-wave acceleration spectra similarly yields an estimate of 3.3 ?? 10 16 N m for the energy radiated by the two strike-slip events. The average rupture velocity for the strike-slip rupture process is 1.1??-1.2??. The strike-slip events were located 90 and 188 km east of the epicenter. The rupture length over which significant or resolvable energy is radiated is, thus, far shorter than the 340-km fault length over which surface displacements were observed. However, the seismic moment released by these three events, 4 ?? 1020 N m, was approximately half the seismic moment determined from very low-frequency analyses of the earthquake. The difference in seismic moment can be reasonably attributed to slip on fault segments that did not radiate significant or coherent seismic energy. These results suggest that very large and great strike-slip earthquakes can generate stress pulses that rapidly produce substantial slip with negligible stress drop and little discernible radiated

  4. Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, X.; Zhou, Z.; Yu, H.; Wen, R.; Lu, D.; Huang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Cu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation in the network system from the main shock, and over 20,000 components of acceleration records from strong aftershocks occurred before August 1, 2008 were also obtained by permanent free-field stations of the NSMONS and 59 mobile instruments quickly deployed after the main shock. The strong motion recordings from the main shock and strong aftershocks are summarized in this paper. In the ground motion recordings, there are over 560 components with peak ground acceleration (PGA) over 10 Gal, the largest being 957.7 Gal. The largest PGA recorded during the aftershock exceeds 300 Gal. ?? 2008 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer-Verlag GmbH.

  5. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  6. LIDAR Helps Identify Source of 1872 Earthquake Near Chelan, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Blakely, R. J.; Weaver, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the largest historic earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest occurred on 15 December 1872 (M6.5-7) near the south end of Lake Chelan in north-central Washington State. Lack of recognized surface deformation suggested that the earthquake occurred on a blind, perhaps deep, fault. New LiDAR data show landslides and a ~6 km long, NW-side-up scarp in Spencer Canyon, ~30 km south of Lake Chelan. Two landslides in Spencer Canyon impounded small ponds. An historical account indicated that dead trees were visible in one pond in AD1884. Wood from a snag in the pond yielded a calibrated age of AD1670-1940. Tree ring counts show that the oldest living trees on each landslide are 130 and 128 years old. The larger of the two landslides obliterated the scarp and thus, post-dates the last scarp-forming event. Two trenches across the scarp exposed a NW-dipping thrust fault. One trench exposed alluvial fan deposits, Mazama ash, and scarp colluvium cut by a single thrust fault. Three charcoal samples from a colluvium buried during the last fault displacement had calibrated ages between AD1680 and AD1940. The second trench exposed gneiss thrust over colluvium during at least two, and possibly three fault displacements. The younger of two charcoal samples collected from a colluvium below gneiss had a calibrated age of AD1665- AD1905. For an historical constraint, we assume that the lack of felt reports for large earthquakes in the period between 1872 and today indicates that no large earthquakes capable of rupturing the ground surface occurred in the region after the 1872 earthquake; thus the last displacement on the Spencer Canyon scarp cannot post-date the 1872 earthquake. Modeling of the age data suggests that the last displacement occurred between AD1840 and AD1890. These data, combined with the historical record, indicate that this fault is the source of the 1872 earthquake. Analyses of aeromagnetic data reveal lithologic contacts beneath the scarp that form an ENE

  7. Neotectonics of the Dinarides-Pannonian Basin transition and possible earthquake sources in the Banja Luka epicentral area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Herak, Marijan; Tomljenović, Bruno; Herak, Davorka; Matej, Srebrenka

    2014-12-01

    This study provides evidence for post-5 Ma shortening in the transition area between the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt and the Pannonian Basin and reviews possible earthquake sources for the Banja Luka epicentral area (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina) where the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake (ML 6.4) occurred on 27 October 1969. Geological, geomorphological and reflection seismic data provide evidence for a contractional reactivation of Late Palaeogene to Middle Miocene normal faults at slip rates below 0.1 mm/a. This reactivation postdates deposition of the youngest sediments in the Pannonian Basin of Pontian age (c. 5 Ma). Fault plane solutions for the main 1969 Banja Luka earthquake (ML 6.4) and its largest foreshock (ML 6.0) indicate reverse faulting along ESE-WNW-striking nodal planes and generally N-S trending pressure axes. The spatial distribution of epicentres and focal depths, analyses of the macroseismic field and fault-plane solutions for several smaller events suggest on-going shortening in the internal Dinarides. Seismic deformation of the upper crust is also associated with strike-slip faults, likely related to the NE-SW trending, sinistral Banja Luka fault. Possibly, this fault transfers contraction between adjacent segments of the Dinarides thrust system. The study area represents the seismically most active region of the Dinarides apart from the Adriatic Sea coast and the bend zone around Zagreb. We propose that on-going thrusting in the internal Dinarides thrust system takes up a portion of the current Adria-Europe convergence.

  8. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  9. Geometry of a large-scale, low-angle, midcrustal thrust (Woodroffe Thrust, central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, S.; Mancktelow, N. S.; Hawemann, F.; Camacho, A.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Musgrave Block in central Australia exposes numerous large-scale mylonitic shear zones developed during the intracontinental Petermann Orogeny around 560-520 Ma. The most prominent structure is the crustal-scale, over 600 km long, E-W trending Woodroffe Thrust, which is broadly undulate but generally dips shallowly to moderately to the south and shows an approximately top-to-north sense of movement. The estimated metamorphic conditions of mylonitization indicate a regional variation from predominantly midcrustal (circa 520-620°C and 0.8-1.1 GPa) to lower crustal ( 650°C and 1.0-1.3 GPa) levels in the direction of thrusting, which is also reflected in the distribution of preserved deformation microstructures. This variation in metamorphic conditions is consistent with a south dipping thrust plane but is only small, implying that a ≥60 km long N-S segment of the Woodroffe Thrust was originally shallowly dipping at an average estimated angle of ≤6°. The reconstructed geometry suggests that basement-cored, thick-skinned, midcrustal thrusts can be very shallowly dipping on a scale of many tens of kilometers in the direction of movement. Such a geometry would require the rocks along the thrust to be weak, but field observations (e.g., large volumes of syntectonic pseudotachylyte) argue for a strong behavior, at least transiently. Localization on a low-angle, near-planar structure that crosscuts lithological layers requires a weak precursor, such as a seismic rupture in the middle to lower crust. If this was a single event, the intracontinental earthquake must have been large, with the rupture extending laterally over hundreds of kilometers.

  10. Earthquake Signatures in the Modern Sediment Record of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, N. R.; Kuehl, S. A.; Dellapenna, T. M.; Miller, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    Geochemical signatures of earthquake-generated sediment gravity flows are investigated using X-ray fluorescence core scanning on a suite of sediment cores from Prince William Sound, Alaska. This study focused on the development of geochemical proxies for earthquake deposits with an emphasis on interpreting deposits initiated from large subduction earthquakes. A north-south transect of sediment cores from Prince William Sound, between Hinchinbrook Island and the Columbia Glacier, was used to examine a record of earthquakes in this tectonically active region for the past century. The sediments in Prince William Sound are sourced from two geologically distinct regions: the metamorphosed turbidites of coastal Prince William Sound, and the Copper River Basin that contains a significant amount of volcanic rocks. Geochemical studies of sediment cores and end-member sediment samples using X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allowed for the development of geochemical proxies for sediment provenance during the past 100 years. Downcore peaks in Sr/Pb are indicative of Copper River Basin sediments, whereas peaks in K/Ca are indicative of inputs of Prince William Sound sediments. Large subduction earthquakes in northern Prince William Sound initiate gravity flows of Prince William Sound provenance into the deep channel. Particularly robust provenance signatures are seen in the northernmost cores in the core transect, which are closer to the earthquake epicenters and the Columbia Glacier source region. The ages of the deposits, from core-averaged 210Pb sediment accumulation rates, correspond to large earthquakes that occurred in 1912, 1964, and 1983. A similar deposit from 1895 in northern Prince William Sound, prior to historical earthquake records, may have also been initiated from a large earthquake in the 1890's.

  11. Near-simultaneous great earthquakes at Tongan megathrust and outer rise in September 2009.

    PubMed

    Beavan, J; Wang, X; Holden, C; Wilson, K; Power, W; Prasetya, G; Bevis, M; Kautoke, R

    2010-08-19

    The Earth's largest earthquakes and tsunamis are usually caused by thrust-faulting earthquakes on the shallow part of the subduction interface between two tectonic plates, where stored elastic energy due to convergence between the plates is rapidly released. The tsunami that devastated the Samoan and northern Tongan islands on 29 September 2009 was preceded by a globally recorded magnitude-8 normal-faulting earthquake in the outer-rise region, where the Pacific plate bends before entering the subduction zone. Preliminary interpretation suggested that this earthquake was the source of the tsunami. Here we show that the outer-rise earthquake was accompanied by a nearly simultaneous rupture of the shallow subduction interface, equivalent to a magnitude-8 earthquake, that also contributed significantly to the tsunami. The subduction interface event was probably a slow earthquake with a rise time of several minutes that triggered the outer-rise event several minutes later. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the normal fault ruptured first and dynamically triggered the subduction interface event. Our evidence comes from displacements of Global Positioning System stations and modelling of tsunami waves recorded by ocean-bottom pressure sensors, with support from seismic data and tsunami field observations. Evidence of the subduction earthquake in global seismic data is largely hidden because of the earthquake's slow rise time or because its ground motion is disguised by that of the normal-faulting event. Earthquake doublets where subduction interface events trigger large outer-rise earthquakes have been recorded previously, but this is the first well-documented example where the two events occur so closely in time and the triggering event might be a slow earthquake. As well as providing information on strain release mechanisms at subduction zones, earthquakes such as this provide a possible mechanism for the occasional large tsunamis generated at the Tonga

  12. The relationship between earthquake exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in 2013 Lushan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Lu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between earthquake exposure and the incidence of PTSD. A stratification random sample survey was conducted to collect data in the Longmenshan thrust fault after Lushan earthquake three years. We used the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) and the Earthquake Experience Scale. Subjects in this study included 3944 school student survivors in local eleven schools. The prevalence of probable PTSD is relatively higher, when the people was trapped in the earthquake, was injured in the earthquake or have relatives who died in the earthquake. It concluded that researchers need to pay more attention to the children and adolescents. The government should pay more attention to these people and provide more economic support.

  13. Geomagnetic field observations in the Kopaonik thrust region, Yugoslavia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicskei, T.; Popeskov, M.

    1991-09-01

    In the absence of continuous registrations of the geomagnetic field variations in the surveyed region, the nearest permanent observatory records had to be used in the data reduction procedure. The proposed method estimates the differences between the hourly mean values at the particular measuring site, which are not actually known, and at the observatory on the basis of a series of instantaneous total field intensity values measured simultaneously at these two places. The application of this method to the geomagnetic field data from the wider area of the Kopaonik thrust region has revealed local field changes which show connection with pronounced seismic activity that has been going on in this region since it was affected by the M = 6.0 earthquake on May 18, 1980.

  14. New insights into seismic faulting during the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Si, J.; Sun, Z.; Pei, J.; Lei, Z.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    The WFSD project was implemented promptly after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. A series of research results on the seismogenic structure, fault deformation, sliding mechanism and fault healing have been obtained, which provide new insights into seismic faulting and mechanisms of the Wenchuan earthquake. The WFSD-1 and -2 drilling core profiles reveal that the Longmen Shan thrust belt is composed of multiple thrust sheets. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake took place in such tectonic setting with strong horizontal shortening. The two ruptured faults have different deformation mechanisms. The Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) is a stick-slip fault characterized by fault gouge with high magnetic susceptibility, Guanxian-Anxian fault (GAF) with creeping features and characterized by fault gouge with low magnetic susceptibility. Two PSZs were found in WFSD-1 and -2 cores in the southern segment of YBF. The upper PSZ1 is a low-angle thrust fault characterized by coseisimc graphitization with an extremely low frictional coefficient. The lower PSZ2 is an oblique dextral-slip thrust fault characterized by frictional melt lubrication. In the northern segment of YBF, the PSZ in WFSD-4S cores shows a high-angle thrust feature with fresh melt as well. Therefore, the oblique dextral-slip thrust faulting with frictional melt lubrication is the main faulting of Wenchuan earthquake. Fresh melt with quenching texture was formed in Wenchuan earthquake implying vigorous fluid circulation occurred during the earthquake, which quenched high-temperature melt, hamper the aftermost fault slip and welding seismic fault. Therefore, fluids in the fault zone not only promotes fault weakening, but also suppress slipping in theWenchuan earthquake. The YBF has an extremely high hydraulic diffusivity (2.4×10-2 m2s-1), implying a vigorous fluid circulation in the Wenchuan fault zone. the permeability of YBF has reduced 70% after the shock, reflecting a rapid healing for the YBF. However, the water

  15. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  16. Large earthquake rupture process variations on the Middle America megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    The megathrust fault between the underthrusting Cocos plate and overriding Caribbean plate recently experienced three large ruptures: the August 27, 2012 (Mw 7.3) El Salvador; September 5, 2012 (Mw 7.6) Costa Rica; and November 7, 2012 (Mw 7.4) Guatemala earthquakes. All three events involve shallow-dipping thrust faulting on the plate boundary, but they had variable rupture processes. The El Salvador earthquake ruptured from about 4 to 20 km depth, with a relatively large centroid time of ˜19 s, low seismic moment-scaled energy release, and a depleted teleseismic short-period source spectrum similar to that of the September 2, 1992 (Mw 7.6) Nicaragua tsunami earthquake that ruptured the adjacent shallow portion of the plate boundary. The Costa Rica and Guatemala earthquakes had large slip in the depth range 15 to 30 km, and more typical teleseismic source spectra. Regional seismic recordings have higher short-period energy levels for the Costa Rica event relative to the El Salvador event, consistent with the teleseismic observations. A broadband regional waveform template correlation analysis is applied to categorize the focal mechanisms for larger aftershocks of the three events. Modeling of regional wave spectral ratios for clustered events with similar mechanisms indicates that interplate thrust events have corner frequencies, normalized by a reference model, that increase down-dip from anomalously low values near the Middle America trench. Relatively high corner frequencies are found for thrust events near Costa Rica; thus, variations along strike of the trench may also be important. Geodetic observations indicate trench-parallel motion of a forearc sliver extending from Costa Rica to Guatemala, and low seismic coupling on the megathrust has been inferred from a lack of boundary-perpendicular strain accumulation. The slip distributions and seismic radiation from the large regional thrust events indicate relatively strong seismic coupling near Nicoya, Costa

  17. The 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake: A Metropolitan shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill; Stein, Ross S.

    1989-07-01

    Just 3 hours after the Whittier Narrows earthquake struck, it became clear that a heretofore unseen geological structure was seismically active beneath metropolitan Los Angeles. Contrary to initial expectations of strike-slip or oblique-slip motion on the Whittier fault, whose north end abuts the aftershock zone, the focal mechanism of the mainshock showed pure thrust faulting on a deep gently inclined surface [Hauksson et al., 1988]. This collection of nine research reports spans the spectrum of seismological, geodetic, and geological investigations carried out as a result of the Whittier Narrows earthquake. Although unseen, the structure was not unforeseen. Namson [1987] had published a retrodeformable geologic cross section (meaning that the sedimentary strata could be restored to their original depositional position) 100 km to the west of the future earthquake epicenter in which blind, or subsurface, thrust faults were interpreted to be active beneath the folded southern Transverse Ranges. Working 25 km to the west, Hauksson [1987] had also found a surprising number of microearthquakes with thrust focal mechanisms south of the Santa Monica mountains, another clue to a subsurface system of thrust faults. Finally, Davis [1987] had presented a preliminary cross section only 18 km to the west of Whittier Narrows that identified as "fault B" the thrust that would rupture later that year. Not only was the earthquake focus and its orientation compatible with the 10-15 km depth and north dipping orientation of Davis' proposed thrust, but fault B appears to continue beneath the northern flank of the Los Angeles basin, skirting within 5 km of downtown Los Angeles, an area of dense commercial high-rise building development. These results are refined and extended by Davis et al. [this issue].

  18. Potential earthquake faults offshore Southern California, from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Sorlien, C.C.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas in Southern California are at risk from major earthquakes, not only quakes generated by long-recognized onshore faults but also ones that occur along poorly understood offshore faults. We summarize recent research findings concerning these lesser known faults. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past five years indicates that these faults from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point pose a potential earthquake threat. Historical seismicity in this area indicates that, in general, offshore faults can unleash earthquakes having at least moderate (M 5-6) magnitude. Estimating the earthquake hazard in Southern California is complicated by strain partitioning and by inheritance of structures from early tectonic episodes. The three main episodes are Mesozoic through early Miocene subduction, early Miocene crustal extension coeval with rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges, and Pliocene and younger transpression related to plate-boundary motion along the San Andreas Fault. Additional complication in the analysis of earthquake hazards derives from the partitioning of tectonic strain into strike-slip and thrust components along separate but kinematically related faults. The eastern Santa Barbara Basin is deformed by large active reverse and thrust faults, and this area appears to be underlain regionally by the north-dipping Channel Islands thrust fault. These faults could produce moderate to strong earthquakes and destructive tsunamis. On the Malibu coast, earthquakes along offshore faults could have left-lateral-oblique focal mechanisms, and the Santa Monica Mountains thrust fault, which underlies the oblique faults, could give rise to large (M ??7) earthquakes. Offshore faults near Santa Monica Bay and the San Pedro shelf are likely to produce both strike-slip and thrust earthquakes along northwest-striking faults. In all areas, transverse structures, such as lateral ramps and tear faults, which crosscut the main faults, could

  19. Sedimentary earthquake records in the İzmit Gulf, Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çağatay, M. N.; Erel, L.; Bellucci, L. G.; Polonia, A.; Gasperini, L.; Eriş, K. K.; Sancar, Ü.; Biltekin, D.; Uçarkuş, G.; Ülgen, U. B.; Damcı, E.

    2012-12-01

    Sedimentary earthquake records of the last 2400 a, including that of the devastating 17 August 1999 İzmit earthquake (Mw = 7.4), were studied in cores from the 210 m-deep central Karamürsel Basin of the İzmit Gulf in the eastern Sea of Marmara, using laser grain-size, physical properties, stable O and C isotopes and XRF Core Scanner analyses, and dated by radionuclide and radiocarbon methods. The earthquake records are represented by turbidite-homogenite mass-flow units (THU) that commonly contain a basal coarse layer, a middle laminated silt layer and an overlying homogeneous mud layer. The coarse basal part has a sharp and sometimes scoured lower boundary, and includes multiple coarse (sand/silt) layers or laminae showing normal size grading. Multiple coarse layers and occasional bi-directional cross-bedding suggest deposition from a bed-load during water column oscillations, or seiche effect. The grain-size characteristics of the overlaying laminated silt and the homogeneous mud units indicate deposition from weak oscillating currents and homogeneous suspension, respectively. High Mn value just below the base of THUs suggests diagenetic enrichment at oxic/anoxic redox boundary before the mass-flow event. Sharp decrease in Mn with very low values within the THUs suggests transient redox conditions following the mass-flow. Variable geochemical compositions of the basal coarse layers indicate different sediment sources for different THUs. Eight sedimentary earthquake records observed in the last 2400 a in the İzmit Gulf can be confidently correlated with the historical earthquakes of 1999, 1509 AD (Ms = 7.2), 1296 AD (I = VII), 865 AD (I = VIII), 740 AD (I = VIII), 268 AD (I = VIII), 358 AD (I = IX), and 427 BC. This gives an earthquake recurrence time of ca. 300 a, with the interval between consecutive events ranging from 90 to 695 a.

  20. Analysis of Earthquake Recordings Obtained from the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS) Instruments Deployed off the Coast of Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Smith, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    For more than 20 years, a program has been underway to obtain records of earthquake shaking on the seafloor at sites offshore of southern California, near oil platforms. The primary goal of the program is to obtain data that can help determine if ground motions at offshore sites are significantly different than those at onshore sites; if so, caution may be necessary in using onshore motions as the basis for the seismic design of oil platforms. We analyze data from eight earthquakes recorded at six offshore sites; these are the most important data recorded on these stations to date. Seven of the earthquakes were recorded at only one offshore station; the eighth event was recorded at two sites. The earthquakes range in magnitude from 4.7 to 6.1. Because of the scarcity of multiple recordings from any one event, most of the analysis is based on the ratio of spectra from vertical and horizontal components of motion. The results clearly show that the offshore motions have very low vertical motions compared to those from an average onshore site, particularly at short periods. Theoretical calculations find that the water layer has little effect on the horizontal components of motion but that it produces a strong spectral null on the vertical component at the resonant frequency of P waves in the water layer. The vertical-to-horizontal ratios for a few selected onshore sites underlain by relatively low shear-wave velocities are similar to the ratios from offshore sites for frequencies less than about one-half the water layer P-wave resonant frequency, suggesting that the shear-wave velocities beneath a site are more important than the water layer in determining the character of the ground motions at lower frequencies.

  1. Active arc-continent collision: Earthquakes, gravity anomalies, and fault kinematics in the Huon-Finisterre collision zone, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; McCaffrey, Robert

    1994-04-01

    The Huon-Finisterre island arc terrane is actively colliding with the north edge of the Australian continent. The collision provides a rare opportunity to study continental accretion while it occurs. We examine the geometry and kinematics of the collision by comparing earthquake source parameters to surface fault geometries and plate motions, and we constrain the forces active in the collision by comparing topographic loads to gravity anomalies. Waveform inversion is used to constrain focal mechanisms for 21 shallow earthquakes that occurred between 1966 and 1992 (seismic moment 1017 to 3 × 1020 N m). Twelve earthquakes show thrust faulting at 22-37 km depth. The largest thrust events are on the north side of the Huon Peninsula and are consistent with slip on the Ramu-Markham thrust fault zone, the northeast dipping thrust fault system that bounds the Huon-Finisterre terrane. Thus much of the terrane's crust but little of its mantle is presently being added to the Australian continent. The large thrust earthquakes also reveal a plausible mechanism for the uplift of Pleistocene coral terraces on the north side of the Huon Peninsula. Bouguer gravity anomalies are too negative to allow simple regional compensation of topography and require large additional downward forces to depress the lower plate beneath the Huon Peninsula. With such forces, plate configurations are found that are consistent with observed gravity and basin geometry. Other earthquakes give evidence of deformation above and below the Ramu-Markham thrust system. Four thrust events, 22-27 km depth directly below the Ramu-Markham fault outcrop, are too deep to be part of a planar Ramu-Markham thrust system and may connect to the north dipping Highlands thrust system farther south. Two large strike-slip faulting earthquakes and their aftershocks, in 1970 and 1987, show faulting within the upper plate of the thrust system. The inferred fault planes show slip vectors parallel to those on nearby thrust

  2. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  3. Lateral propagation of folding and thrust faulting at Mahan, S.E. Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. T.

    2003-12-01

    Folding identified near the town of Mahan in S.E. Iran has no record of historical activity, and yet there are clear geomorphological indications of recent fold growth, presumably driven by movements on underlying thrust faults. The structures at Mahan may still be capable of producing destructive earthquakes, posing a considerable hazard to local population centres. We describe a drainage evolution that shows the effect of lateral propagation of surface folding and the effect of tilting above an underlying thrust fault. River systems cross and incise through the fold segments. Each of these rivers show a distinct deflection parallel to the fold axis. This deflection starts several kilometres into the hanging-wall of the underlying thrust fault. Remnants of several abandoned drainage channels and abandoned alluvial fans are preserved within the folds. The westward lateral propagation of folding is also suggested by an increase in relief and exposure of deeper stratigraphic layers across fold segments in the east of the system, implying a greater cumulative displacement in the east than in the west. The preservation of numerous dry valleys across the fold suggests a continual forcing of drainage around the nose of the growing fold, rather than an along strike variation in slip-rate.

  4. Stochastic strong motion generation using slip model of 21 and 22 May 1960 mega-thrust earthquakes in the main cities of Central-South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Ojeda, J.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pasten, C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Silva, R., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    In May 1960 took place the most unusual seismic sequence registered instrumentally. The Mw 8.1, Concepción earthquake occurred May, 21, 1960. The aftershocks of this event apparently migrated to the south-east, and the Mw 9.5, Valdivia mega-earthquake occurred after 33 hours. The structural damage produced by both events is not larger than other earthquakes in Chile and lower than crustal earthquakes of smaller magnitude. The damage was located in the sites with shallow soil layers of low shear wave velocity (Vs). However, no seismological station recorded this sequence. For that reason, we generate synthetic acceleration times histories for strong motion in the main cities affected by these events. We use 155 points of vertical surface displacements recopiled by Plafker and Savage in 1968, and considering the observations of this authors and local residents we separated the uplift and subsidence information associated to the first earthquake Mw 8.1 and the second mega-earthquake Mw 9.5. We consider the elastic deformation propagation, assume realist lithosphere geometry, and compute a Bayesian method that maximizes the probability density a posteriori to obtain the slip distribution. Subsequently, we use a stochastic method of generation of strong motion considering the finite fault model obtained for both earthquakes. We considered the incidence angle of ray to the surface, free surface effect and energy partition for P, SV and SH waves, dynamic corner frequency and the influence of site effect. The results show that the earthquake Mw 8.1 occurred down-dip the slab, the strong motion records are similar to other Chilean earthquake like Tocopilla Mw 7.7 (2007). For the Mw 9.5 earthquake we obtain synthetic acceleration time histories with PGA values around 0.8 g in cities near to the maximum asperity or that have low velocity soil layers. This allows us to conclude that strong motion records have important influence of the shallow soil deposits. These records

  5. Quasi-periodic recurrence of great and giant earthquakes in South-Central Chile inferred from lacustrine turbidite records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, M.; Moernaut, J.; Van Daele, M. E.; De Batist, M. A. O.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal paleoseismic records in south-central Chile indicate that giant megathrust earthquakes -such as in AD1960 (Mw9.5)- occur on average every 300 yrs. Based on geodetic data, it was postulated that the area already has the potential for a Mw8 earthquake. However, to estimate the probability for such a great earthquake from a paleo-perspective, one needs to reconstruct the long-term recurrence pattern of megathrust earthquakes. Here, we present two long lacustrine records, comprising up to 35 earthquake-triggered turbidites over the last 4800 yrs. Calibration of turbidite extent with historical earthquake intensity reveals a different macroseismic intensity threshold (≥VII½ vs. ≥VI½) for the generation of turbidites at the coring sites. The strongest earthquakes (≥VII½) have longer recurrence intervals (292 ±93 yrs) than earthquakes with intensity of ≥VI½ (139 ±69 yrs). The coefficient of variation (CoV) of inter-event times indicate that the strongest earthquakes recur in a quasi-periodic way (CoV: 0.32) and follow a normal distribution. Including also "smaller" earthquakes (Intensity down to VI½) increases the CoV (0.5) and fits best with a Weibull distribution. Regional correlation of our multi-threshold shaking records with coastal records of tsunami and coseismic subsidence suggests that the intensity ≥VII½ events repeatedly ruptured the same part of the megathrust over a distance of at least 300 km and can be assigned to a Mw ≥ 8.6. We hypothesize that a zone of high plate locking -identified by GPS data and large slip in AD 1960- acts as a dominant regional asperity, on which elastic strain builds up over several centuries and mostly gets released in quasi-periodic great and giant earthquakes. For the next 110 yrs, we infer an enhanced probability for a Mw 7.7-8.5 earthquake whereas the probability for a Mw ≥ 8.6 (AD1960-like) earthquake remains low.

  6. Nucleation process and dynamic inversion of the Mw 6.9 Valparaíso 2017 earthquake in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Aden-Antoniow, F.; Baez, J. C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Potin, B.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Poli, P.; Flores, C.; Satriano, C.; Felipe, L., Sr.; Madariaga, R. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Valparaiso 2017 sequence occurred in mega-thrust Central Chile, an active zone where the last mega-earthquake occurred in 1730. An intense seismicity occurred 2 days before of the Mw 6.9 main-shock. A slow trench ward movement observed in the coastal GPS antennas accompanied the foreshock seismicity. Following the Mw 6.9 earthquake the seismicity migrated 30 Km to South-East. This sequence was well recorded by multi-parametric stations composed by GPS, Broad-Band and Strong Motion instruments. We built a seismic catalogue with 2329 events associated to Valparaiso sequence, with a magnitude completeness of Ml 2.8. We located all the seismicity considering a new 3D velocity model obtained for the Valparaiso zone, and compute the moment tensor for events with magnitude larger than Ml 3.5, and finally studied the presence of repeating earthquakes. The main-shock is studied by performing a dynamic inversion using the strong motion records and an elliptical patch approach to characterize the rupture process. During the two days nucleation stage, we observe a compact zone of repeater events. In the meantime a westward GPS movement was recorded in the coastal GPS stations. The aseismic moment estimated from GPS is larger than the foreshocks cumulative moment, suggesting the presence of a slow slip event, which potentially triggered the 6.9 mainshock. The Mw 6.9 earthquake is associated to rupture of an elliptical asperity of semi-axis of 10 km and 5 km, with a sub-shear rupture, stress drop of 11.71 MPa, yield stress of 17.21 MPa, slip weakening of 0.65 m and kappa value of 1.70. This sequence occurs close to, and with some similar characteristics that 1985 Valparaíso Mw 8.0 earthquake. The rupture of this asperity could stress more the highly locked Central Chile zone where a mega-thrust earthquake like 1730 is expected.

  7. Broadband records of earthquakes in deep gold mines and a comparison with results from SAFOD, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Boettcher, M.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Sell, Russell; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.

    2009-01-01

    For one week during September 2007, we deployed a temporary network of field recorders and accelerometers at four sites within two deep, seismically active mines. The ground-motion data, recorded at 200 samples/sec, are well suited to determining source and ground-motion parameters for the mining-induced earthquakes within and adjacent to our network. Four earthquakes with magnitudes close to 2 were recorded with high signal/noise at all four sites. Analysis of seismic moments and peak velocities, in conjunction with the results of laboratory stick-slip friction experiments, were used to estimate source processes that are key to understanding source physics and to assessing underground seismic hazard. The maximum displacements on the rupture surfaces can be estimated from the parameter , where  is the peak ground velocity at a given recording site, and R is the hypocentral distance. For each earthquake, the maximum slip and seismic moment can be combined with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate the maximum slip rate within the rupture zone. Analysis of the four M 2 earthquakes recorded during our deployment and one of special interest recorded by the in-mine seismic network in 2004 revealed maximum slips ranging from 4 to 27 mm and maximum slip rates from 1.1 to 6.3 m/sec. Applying the same analyses to an M 2.1 earthquake within a cluster of repeating earthquakes near the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth site, California, yielded similar results for maximum slip and slip rate, 14 mm and 4.0 m/sec.

  8. Geomorphology, active duplexing, and earthquakes within the Central Himalayan seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K. D.; Sandiford, M.; Rajendran, C. C.; Rajendran, K.

    2013-12-01

    The ~500 km long 'Central Himalayan seismic gap' of northwest India, is the largest section of the Himalaya that has not experienced a very large earthquake (Mw > 7.0) in the past 200-500 years. The slip deficit associated with this seismic quiescence has led many to suggest that the region is overdue for a great earthquake (Mw >8), an event which could be potentially devastating given the region's high population (>10 million). Despite the recognition that the region is under considerable seismic risk, the geometry of active fault structures that could potentially fail during large earthquakes remains poorly defined. This has arisen, to a certain extent, because moderate earthquakes, such as the Mw 6.3 1999 event near the city of Chamoli and the Mw 7.0 1991 earthquake near Uttarkashi (responsible for ~1000 deaths), have not produced obvious surface ruptures and do not appear to coincide with surficially mapped faults. We present new geomorphic and river longitudinal profile data that define a prominent ~400 km long distinctive geomorphic transition at the base of the high Himalaya in the seismic gap, defined as a sharp dividing line north of which there are significant increases in normalized river steepness (ksn), hillslope angles, and local relief. We interpret the morphologic changes across the geomorphic boundary to be produced due to a northward increase in rock uplift rate, given that the boundary cross-cuts mapped structures and lithologic contacts, yet coincides exactly with: 1) the axial trace of the geophysically-imaged ramp-flat transition in the Main Himalayan Thrust, 2) significant northward increases in instrumentally-recorded seismicity, and 3) an order of magnitude change in published Ar-Ar bedrock cooling ages. The available datasets suggest that such an increase in rock uplift rate is best explained by a ~400 km long by ~50 km wide active duplex along the Main Himalayan Thrust ramp, with the leading edge of the duplex giving rise to the

  9. The susitna glacier thrust fault: Characteristics of surface ruptures on the fault that initiated the 2002 denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Personius, S.F.; Craw, P.A.; Haeussler, P.J.; Staft, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake sequence initiated on the newly discovered Susitna Glacier thrust fault and caused 48 km of surface rupture. Rupture of the Susitna Glacier fault generated scarps on ice of the Susitna and West Fork glaciers and on tundra and surficial deposits along the southern front of the central Alaska Range. Based on detailed mapping, 27 topographic profiles, and field observations, we document the characteristics and slip distribution of the 2002 ruptures and describe evidence of pre-2002 ruptures on the fault. The 2002 surface faulting produced structures that range from simple folds on a single trace to complex thrust-fault ruptures and pressure ridges on multiple, sinuous strands. The deformation zone is locally more than 1 km wide. We measured a maximum vertical displacement of 5.4 m on the south-directed main thrust. North-directed backthrusts have more than 4 m of surface offset. We measured a well-constrained near-surface fault dip of about 19?? at one site, which is considerably less than seismologically determined values of 35??-48??. Surface-rupture data yield an estimated magnitude of Mw 7.3 for the fault, which is similar to the seismological value of Mw 7.2. Comparison of field and seismological data suggest that the Susitna Glacier fault is part of a large positive flower structure associated with northwest-directed transpressive deformation on the Denali fault. Prehistoric scarps are evidence of previous rupture of the Sustina Glacier fault, but additional work is needed to determine if past failures of the Susitna Glacier fault have consistently induced rupture of the Denali fault.

  10. Differential energy radiation from two earthquakes in Japan with identical Mw: The Kyushu 1996 and Tottori 2000 earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine two closely located earthquakes in Japan that had identical moment magnitudes Mw but significantly different energy magnitudes Me. We use teleseismic data from the Global Seismograph Network and strong-motion data from the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention's K-Net to analyze the 19 October 1996 Kyushu earthquake (Mw 6.7, Me 6.6) and the 6 October 2000 Tottori earthquake (Mw 6.7, Me 7.4). To obtain regional estimates of radiated energy ES we apply a spectral technique to regional (<200 km) waveforms that are dominated by S and Lg waves. For the thrust-fault Kyushu earthquake, we estimate an average regional attenuation Q(f) 230f0:65. For the strike-slip Tottori earthquake, the average regional attenuation is Q(f) 180f0:6. These attenuation functions are similar to those derived from studies of both California and Japan earthquakes. The regional estimate of ES for the Kyushu earthquake, 3:8 ?? 1014 J, is significantly smaller than that for the Tottori earthquake, ES 1:3 ?? 1015 J. These estimates correspond well with the teleseismic estimates of 3:9 ?? 1014 J and 1:8 ?? 1015 J, respectively. The apparent stress (Ta = ??Es/M0 with ?? equal to rigidity) for the Kyushu earthquake is 4 times smaller than the apparent stress for the Tottori earthquake. In terms of the fault maturity model, the significantly greater release of energy by the strike-slip Tottori earthquake can be related to strong deformation in an immature intraplate setting. The relatively lower energy release of the thrust-fault Kyushu earthquake can be related to rupture on mature faults at a subduction environment. The consistence between teleseismic and regional estimates of ES is particularly significant as teleseismic data for computing ES are routinely available for all large earthquakes whereas often there are no near-field data.

  11. A Seismo-Tectonic Signal From Offshore Sedimentation: The 2010 Haiti Earthquake and Prior Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Cormier, M.; Hornbach, M.; Momplaisir, R.; Waldhauser, F.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw 7.0 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti was one of the deadliest in history. It involved multiple faults along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). This left-lateral transform is a branch of the northern Caribbean plate boundary across southern Hispaniola. The main rupture was strike-slip but almost all aftershocks had thrust mechanisms, and surface deformation may have been concentrated on anticline forelimbs driven by blind thrust faults. Earthquake generated mass-wasting and turbidity currents were sampled from the Canal du Sud slope (~1000 m water depth), a basin at 1500 m, and the deepest part of the strait at 1700 m. The turbidites were strongly correlated by 234Th with a half-life of 24 days. In the deepest area, a turbidite-homogenite unit (T-H) extends over 50 km2 and is composed of basal sand beds 5 cm thick and 50 cm of mud above. The sedimentary structures in the sand were linked to oscillatory motions by internal seiches. The T-H units recovered from the slope and deep basin are similar in composition. The Leogane Delta, upslope from the sampling sites, is rich in this lithology that has been linked to oceanic basement rocks exposed on the southern Haitian peninsula. In contrast, the T-H unit recovered from the basin at 1500 m is perched behind a thrust anticline and has a greater concentration of Ca derived from Ca rich sources such as the Tapion Ridge on the southern peninsula. The Tapion Ridge is a compressional structure associated with a restraining bend along the EPGF. The T-H unit beneath the 2010 deposit has a 14C age of 2400 cal yrs BP, and interpreted as an earthquake triggered deposit. It is nearly identical in thickness, composition and fine structures to the 2010 T-H. Notably absent from the record are younger turbidites that could have been linked to the historic 1770 AD and other similar earthquakes expected from GPS rates across the EPGF. Two hypotheses are being considered for this long gap in T-H sedimentation

  12. Holocene activity and seismogenic capability of intraplate thrusts: Insights from the Pampean Ranges, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Carlos H.; Owen, Lewis A.; Ricci, Walter R.; Johnson, William J.; Halperin, Alan D.

    2018-07-01

    Trench excavations across the El Molino fault in the southeastern Pampean Ranges of central-western Argentina have revealed a deformation zone composed of opposite-verging thrusts that deform a succession of Holocene sediments. The west-verging thrusts place Precambrian basement over Holocene proximal scarp-derived deposits, whereas the east-verging thrusts form an east-directed fault-propagation fold that deforms colluvium, fluvial and aeolian deposits. Ages for exposed fault-related deposits range from 7.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ka. Evidence of surface deformation suggests multiple rupture events with related scarp-derived deposits and a minimum of three surface ruptures younger than 7.1 ± 0.4 ka, the last rupture event being younger than 1 ka. Shortening rates of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm/a are near one order of magnitude higher than those estimated for the faults bounding neighboring crustal blocks and are considered high for this intraplate setting. These ground-rupturing crustal earthquakes are estimated to be of magnitude Mw ≥ 7.0, a significant discrepancy with the magnitudes Mw < 6.5 recorded in the seismic catalog of this region at present with low to moderate seismicity. Results highlight the relevance of identifying primary surface ruptures as well as the seismogenic potential of thrust faults in seemingly stable continental interiors.

  13. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  14. Links Between Earthquake Characteristics and Subducting Plate Heterogeneity in the 2016 Pedernales Ecuador Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  15. Dynamic rupture modeling of thrust faults with parallel surface traces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshette, P.; Lozos, J.; Yule, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fold and thrust belts (such as those found in the Himalaya or California Transverse Ranges) consist of many neighboring thrust faults in a variety of geometries. Active thrusts within these belts individually contribute to regional seismic hazard, but further investigation is needed regarding the possibility of multi-fault rupture in a single event. Past analyses of historic thrust surface traces suggest that rupture within a single event can jump up to 12 km. There is also observational precedent for long distance triggering between subparallel thrusts (e.g. the 1997 Harnai, Pakistan events, separated by 50 km). However, previous modeling studies find a maximum jumping rupture distance between thrust faults of merely 200 m. Here, we present a new dynamic rupture modeling parameter study that attempts to reconcile these differences and determine which geometrical and stress conditions promote jumping rupture. We use a community verified 3D finite element method to model rupture on pairs of thrust faults with parallel surface traces. We vary stress drop and fault strength to determine which conditions produce jumping rupture at different dip angles and different separations between surface traces. This parameter study may help to understand the likelihood of jumping rupture in real-world thrust systems, and may thereby improve earthquake hazard assessment.

  16. The 339 Years of Living Dangerously in Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Indonesian Region from 1538 to 1877

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. A.; Major, J.

    2013-05-01

    Using 339 years of Dutch records of geophysical events in Indonesia and tsunami modeling, we have identified previously unknown mega-thrust earthquake sources in eastern Indonesia that caused severe devastation in the past and are likely to reoccur in the near future. Indonesia has experienced some of the most extreme geohazards known (Toba, Krakatoa, Tambora, Indian Ocean tsunami). Although most of well known events occurred in western Indonesia, historical records reveal that eastern Indonesia is actually more hazardous. Strain rates in eastern Indonesia are twice those in Sumatra and tsunamis are much more frequent. Adding to the disaster potential in Indonesia is its rapid population growth and urbanization, especially in coastal regions. When the events documented in historical records reoccur in eastern Indonesia, as they have in western Indonesia, ten times more people and assets will be in harms way. Arthur Wichmann's Die Erdbeben Des Indischen Archipels [The Earthquakes of the Indian Archipelago] (1918) documents >100 destructive earthquakes and 68 tsunamis between 1600 and 1877. The largest and best documented are the events of 1629, 1674 and 1852 in the Banda Sea region, 1770 and 1859 in the Molucca Sea region, 1820 in Makassar, 1857 in Dili, Timor, 1815 in Bali and Lombak, 1699, 1771, 1780, 1815, 1848 and 1852 in Java and 1799, 1833 and 1861 in Sumatra. All of these events caused damage over a broad region notwithstanding high seismic attenuation rates, and are associated with years of temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes. Several tsunami are recorded with run-up heights > 15 meters. Many islands were engulfed and coastal communities washed away. The earthquakes associated with these events were felt over a region as large as the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan and were followed by decades of aftershocks. Over the past 160 years no major shallow earthquakes have struck eastern Indonesia, which is characterized as an area incapable of mega-thrust

  17. Tensile overpressure compartments on low-angle thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrothermal extension veins form by hydraulic fracturing under triaxial stress (principal compressive stresses, σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3) when the pore-fluid pressure, P f, exceeds the least compressive stress by the rock's tensile strength. Such veins form perpendicular to σ 3, their incremental precipitation from hydrothermal fluid often reflected in `crack-seal' textures, demonstrating that the tensile overpressure state, σ 3' = ( σ 3 - P f) < 0, was repeatedly met. Systematic arrays of extension veins develop locally in both sub-metamorphic and metamorphic assemblages defining tensile overpressure compartments where at some time P f > σ 3. In compressional regimes ( σ v = σ 3), subhorizontal extension veins may develop over vertical intervals <1 km or so below low-permeability sealing horizons with tensile strengths 10 < T o < 20 MPa. This is borne out by natural vein arrays. For a low-angle thrust, the vertical interval where the tensile overpressure state obtains may continue down-dip over distances of several kilometres in some instances. The overpressure condition for hydraulic fracturing is comparable to that needed for frictional reshear of a thrust fault lying close to the maximum compression, σ 1. Under these circumstances, especially where the shear zone material has varying competence (tensile strength), affecting the failure mode, dilatant fault-fracture mesh structures may develop throughout a tabular rock volume. Evidence for the existence of fault-fracture meshes around low-angle thrusts comes from exhumed ancient structures and from active structures. In the case of megathrust ruptures along subduction interfaces, force balance analyses, lack of evidence for shear heating, and evidence of total shear stress release during earthquakes suggest the interfaces are extremely weak ( τ < 40 MPa), consistent with weakening by near-lithostatically overpressured fluids. Portions of the subduction interface, especially towards the down-dip termination of

  18. Variable shortening on the Main Frontal Thrust in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, R. V.; Hubbard, J.; Lee, Y. S.; Liberty, L. M.; Paudel, L.; Shrestha, A.; Sapkota, S. N.; Joshi, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) is the youngest, most active, and southernmost thrust system in the Himalaya. It is located in the footwall of the Main Boundary thrust (MBT), deforming Miocene to Pliocene age Siwalik Group rocks. Although often considered a single, continuous fault, in reality as many as four subparallel faults, spaced 5-30 km apart, make up this fault system. Estimates of total shortening across the MFT for eastern and central Nepal vary from 15 to 40 km, based on cross-sections and surface measurements. However, when the same methods are applied, shortening does not vary significantly along strike (Hirschmiller et al., 2014), suggesting contrasting methodologies rather than a difference in interpreted along strike structural history. Based on high resolution seismic reflection imaging, we present new interpretations of total shortening recorded by the MFT system in central vs. eastern Nepal (200 km apart), together with a detailed transect of field observations in central Nepal. Our structural interpretations demonstrate that the geological shortening recorded on the MFT ranges from >20 km in central Nepal to <1 km in far eastern Nepal. Geodetic measurements show only a slight decrease in interseismic convergence from central (15±1 mm/yr) to eastern Nepal (14±1 mm/yr) and therefore cannot explain this dramatic difference (Lindsey et al., in prep). Taken at face value, these results imply that the MBT must have been much more recently active in eastern Nepal ( 70 ka) than central Nepal ( 1.4 Ma). We propose an alternative model that does not require this dramatic difference in the age of the MFT. As one end-member, it is indeed possible that the MFT may have broken forward much more recently in the east. However, it is also possible that older MFT thrust sheets have formed, and then have been consumed as the MBT passively slid south in the hanging wall of the MFT. Distinguishing between these models is important not only for understanding the

  19. Interaction between the Dauki and the Indo-Burman convergence boundaries from teleseismic and locally recorded earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M.; Moulik, P.; Seeber, L.; Kim, W.; Steckler, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan and the Burma Arcs converge onto the Indian plate from opposite sides near their syntaxial juncture and have reduced it to a sliver. Both geology and seismicity point to recent internal deformation and high seismogenic potential within this sliver. Large historical earthquakes, including the Great Indian earthquake of 1897 (Mw ~8.1), along with the recent seismicity, suggest that the cratonic blocks in the region are bounded by active faults. The most prominent is the E-W trending Dauki Fault, a deeply-rooted, north-dipping thrust fault, situated between the Shillong massif to the north and the Sylhet Basin to the south. Along the Burma Arc, the subducted seismogenic slab of the Indian plate is continuous north to the syntaxis. Yet the Naga and Tripura segments of the accretionary fold belt, respectively north and south of the easterly extrapolation of the Dauki fault, are distinct. Accretion has advanced far westward into the foredeep of the Dauki structure along the front of the Tripura segment, while it has remained stunted facing the uplifted Shillong massif along the Naga segment. Moreover, the Dauki topographic front can be traced eastwards across the Burma Arc separating the two segments. Recent earthquakes support the hypothesis that the Dauki convergence structure continues below the Burma accretionary belt. Using teleseismic and regional data from the deployment of a local network, we explore the interaction of the Dauki thrust fault with the Burma Arc subduction zone. Preliminary observations include: While seismicity is concentrated in the slab at the eastward extrapolation of the Dauki fault, shallow seismicity is diffuse and does not illuminate the Dauki fault itself. P-axes in moment-tensor solutions of earthquakes within the Indian plate tend to be directed N-S and are locally parallel to the India-Burma boundary, particularly in the slab. T-axes tend to be oriented E-W with a strong tendency to follow the slab down dip. This pattern

  20. Sedimentary record of the 1872 earthquake and "Tsunami" at Owens Lake, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, J.P.; Litwin, R.J.; Bischoff, J.L.; Lund, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1872, a magnitude 7.5-7.7 earthquake vertically offset the Owens Valley fault by more than a meter. An eyewitness reported a large wave on the surface of Owens Lake, presumably initiated by the earthquake. Physical evidence of this event is found in cores and trenches from Owens Lake, including soft-sediment deformation and fault offsets. A graded pebbly sand truncates these features, possibly over most of the lake floor, reflecting the "tsunami" wave. Confirmation of the timing of the event is provided by abnormally high lead concentrations in the sediment immediately above and below these proposed earthquake deposits derived from lead-smelting plants that operated near the eastern lake margin from 1869-1876. The bottom velocity in the deepest part of the lake needed to transport the coarsest grain sizes in the graded pebbly sand provides an estimate of the minimum initial 'tsunami' wave height at 37 cm. This is less than the wave height calculated from long-wave numerical models (about 55 cm) using average fault displacement during the earthquake. Two other graded sand deposits associated with soft-sediment deformation in the Owens Lake record are less than 3000 years old, and are interpreted as evidence of older earthquake and tsunami events. Offsets of the Owens Valley fault elsewhere in the valley indicate that at least two additional large earthquakes occurred during the Holocene, which is consistent with our observations in this lacustrine record.

  1. Earthquake Records of North Anatolian Fault from Sapanca Lake Sediments, NW Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalamaz, Burak; Cagatay, Namık; Acar, Dursun; Demirbag, Emin; Gungor, Emin; Gungor, Nurdan; Gulen, Levent

    2014-05-01

    We determined earthquake records in sediment cores of Sapanca Lake which is a pull-apart basin located along the North Anatolian Fault zone in NW Anatolia. The lake has a maximum depth of 55 m, and a surface area of 46.8 km2, measuring 16 km in E-W and 5 km in N-S directions. A systematic study of the sedimentological, physical and geochemical properties of three water-sediment interface cores, up to 75.7 cm long, located along depth transects ranging from 43 to 51.5 m water depths. The cores were analyzed using Geotek Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) for physical properties, laser particle size analyzer for granulometry, TOC Analyzer for Total Organic Content (TOC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) analysis, Itrax-XRF Core Scanner for elemental analysis and digital X-RAY Radiography. The geochronology was determined using AMS radiocarbon and radionuclide methods. The Sapanca Lake earthquake records are characterized by mass flow units consisting of grey or dark grey coarse to fine sand and silty mud with sharp basal and transional upper boundaries. The units commonly show normal size grading with their basal parts showing high density, and high magnetic susceptibility and enrichment in one or more elements, such as Si, Ca, Tİ, K, Rb, Zr and Fe, indicative of coarse detrial input. Based on radionuclide and radiocarbon analyses the mass flow units are correlated with 1999 İzmit and Düzce earthquakes (Mw=7.4 and 7.2, respectively) , 1967 Mudurnu earthquake (Mw= 6,8), and 1957 Abant (Mw= 7.1) earthquake. Keywords: Sapanca Lake, North Anatolian Fault, Earthquake, Grain size, Itrax-XRF, MSCL

  2. Shorter intervals between great earthquakes near Sendai: Scour ponds and a sand layer attributable to A.D. 1454 overwash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Yuki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Tamura, Toru; Nakashima, Rei; Tanigawa, Koichiro

    2015-06-01

    A sparsely documented tsunami in 1454 may subdivide the recurrence interval between the 869 and 2011 tsunamis near Sendai, as judged from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and archival evidence. Pond-filled breaches cut across beach ridges on century-old topographic maps. The basal pond deposit in one of these breaches postdates 1454. Stratigraphy on Sendai Plain includes a sand sheet that contains marine and brackish diatoms. Radiocarbon ages suggest that the sheet dates to 1406-1615 (2σ), and written records for this interval in Tohoku mention a tsunami in 1454. The inferred inundation extended 1.0-2.5 km inland from an approximate medieval shoreline. Simulated tsunamis that best account for the sand sheet require a thrust earthquake of moment magnitude 8.4 or larger. If the sand sheet represents the 1454 tsunami, the two most recent intervals between great thrust earthquakes in Sendai region spanned 585 and 557 years.

  3. Seismotectonics of the trans-Himalaya, Eastern Ladakh, India: constraints from Moment Tensor Solutions of local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern Ladakh-Karakoram zone, the northwest part of the Trans-Himalayan belt, bears signature of this collisional process in the form of suture zones, exhumed blocks that underwent deeper subduction and also intra-continental fault zones. The seismotectonic scenario of northwest part of India-Asia collision zone is studied by analyzing the local earthquake data (M 1.4-4.3) recorded by a broadband seismological network consisting of 14 stations. Focal Mechanism Solution (FMS) of 13 selected earthquakes were computed through waveform inversion of three-component broadband records. Depth distribution of the earthquakes and FMS of local earthquakes obtained through waveform inversion reveal the kinematics of the major fault zones present in Eastern Ladakh. The most pronounced cluster of seismicity is observed in the Karakoram Fault (KF) zone up to a depth of 65 km (Fig.1). The FMS reveals transpressive environment with the strike of inferred fault plane roughly parallel to the KF. It is inferred that the KF at least penetrates up to the lower crust and is a manifestation of active under thrusting of Indian lower crust beneath Tibet. Two clusters of micro seismicity is observed at a depth range of 5-20 km at north western and southeastern fringe of the Tso Morari gneiss dome which can be correlated to the activities along the Zildat fault and Karzok fault respectively. The FMSs estimated for representative earthquakes show thrust fault solutions for the Karzok fault and normal fault solution for the Zildat fault. It is inferred that the Zildat fault is acting as detachment, facilitating the exhumation of the Tso Morari dome. On the other hand, the Tso Morari dome is underthrusting the Karzok ophiolite on its southern margin along the Karzok fault, due to gravity collapse.

  4. Focal Mechanisms and Stress Environment of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw=7.9) was the largest earthquake in China ever recorded by modern seismic instruments. It generated numerous moderate sized aftershocks that were well recorded by both permanent stations as well as portable instruments deployed after the mainshock. These waveform records yield high-quality data for the determination of focal mechanisms of aftershocks, which in turn provide important information for the investigation of regional stress field and the seismogenic environment in the Wenchuan earthquake source region. In this study, we determine the focal mechanisms, depths and moment magnitudes of moderate-sized (Mw ≥ 4.0) Wenchuan aftershocks using broadband waveform records. The focal mechanism results are then used to obtain the orientation and ratio of the principle stresses by the damped linear stress inversion method of Hardebeck & Michael (2006). Our results show that the majority of the moderate aftershocks occur at a depth range of 10-20 km and outside of the major rupture zones of the mainshock. The Wenchuan source region remains under a nearly horizontal compression with mostly thrust and occasional strike-slip faulting, especially towards the two ends of the rupture of the main shock. There is also clearly local variations in the orientation of the principle stresses.

  5. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating

  6. Detection of Temporally and Spatially Limited Periodic Earthquake Recurrence in Synthetic Seismic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, O.; Arrowsmith, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of fault behavior are dominated by complex interactions among the multiple processes controlling the system. For example, temporal and spatial variations in pore pressure, healing effects, and stress transfer cause significant heterogeneities in fault properties and the stress-field at the sub-fault level. Numerical and laboratory fault models show that the interaction of large systems of fault elements causes the entire system to develop into a state of self-organized criticality. Once in this state, small perturbations of the system may result in chain reactions (i.e., earthquakes) which can affect any number of fault segments. This sensitivity to small perturbations is strong evidence for chaotic fault behavior, which implies that exact event prediction is not possible. However, earthquake prediction with a useful accuracy is nevertheless possible. Studies of other natural chaotic systems have shown that they may enter states of metastability, in which the system's behavior is predictable. Applying this concept to earthquake faults, these windows of metastable behavior should be characterized by periodic earthquake recurrence. The observed periodicity of the Parkfield, CA (M= 6) events may resemble such a window of metastability. I am statistically analyzing numerically generated seismic records to study these phases of periodic behavior. In this preliminary study, seismic records were generated using a model introduced by Nakanishi [Phys. Rev. A, 43, 6613-6621, 1991]. It consists of a one-dimensional chain of blocks (interconnected by springs) with a relaxation function that mimics velocity-weakened frictional behavior. The earthquakes occurring in this model show generally a power-law frequency-size distribution. However, for large events the distribution has a shoulder where the frequency of events is higher than expected from the power law. I have analyzed time-series of single block motions within the system. These time-series include

  7. Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G.; Lafromboise, E.; McNally, K.; Quintereo, R.; Segura, J.

    2007-12-01

    The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 - 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (~ 50 years) for large (Ms ~ 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co- collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. We are now collecting a database of strong motion records for moderate sized events to document this last stage prior to the next large earthquake. A recent event (08/18/06; M=4.3) located 20 km northwest of Samara was recorded by two stations (Playa Carrillo

  8. A plate boundary earthquake record from a wetland adjacent to the Alpine fault in New Zealand refines hazard estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K. J.; Howarth, J. D.; Biasi, G. P.; Langridge, R. M.; Villamor, P.; Berryman, K. R.; Vandergoes, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    Discovery and investigation of millennial-scale geological records of past large earthquakes improve understanding of earthquake frequency, recurrence behaviour, and likelihood of future rupture of major active faults. Here we present a ∼2000 year-long, seven-event earthquake record from John O'Groats wetland adjacent to the Alpine fault in New Zealand, one of the most active strike-slip faults in the world. We linked this record with the 7000 year-long, 22-event earthquake record from Hokuri Creek (20 km along strike to the north) to refine estimates of earthquake frequency and recurrence behaviour for the South Westland section of the plate boundary fault. Eight cores from John O'Groats wetland revealed a sequence that alternated between organic-dominated and clastic-dominated sediment packages. Transitions from a thick organic unit to a thick clastic unit that were sharp, involved a significant change in depositional environment, and were basin-wide, were interpreted as evidence of past surface-rupturing earthquakes. Radiocarbon dates of short-lived organic fractions either side of these transitions were modelled to provide estimates for earthquake ages. Of the seven events recognised at the John O'Groats site, three post-date the most recent event at Hokuri Creek, two match events at Hokuri Creek, and two events at John O'Groats occurred in a long interval during which the Hokuri Creek site may not have been recording earthquakes clearly. The preferred John O'Groats-Hokuri Creek earthquake record consists of 27 events since ∼6000 BC for which we calculate a mean recurrence interval of 291 ± 23 years, shorter than previously estimated for the South Westland section of the fault and shorter than the current interseismic period. The revised 50-year conditional probability of a surface-rupturing earthquake on this fault section is 29%. The coefficient of variation is estimated at 0.41. We suggest the low recurrence variability is likely to be a feature of

  9. Prediction of Strong Earthquake Ground Motion for the M=7.4 and M=7.2 1999, Turkey Earthquakes based upon Geological Structure Modeling and Local Earthquake Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, R.; Hutchings, L.

    2004-05-01

    We test a means to predict strong ground motion using the Mw=7.4 and Mw=7.2 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes. We generate 100 rupture scenarios for each earthquake, constrained by a prior knowledge, and use these to synthesize strong ground motion and make the prediction. Ground motion is synthesized with the representation relation using impulsive point source Green's functions and synthetic source models. We synthesize the earthquakes from DC to 25 Hz. We demonstrate how to incorporate this approach into standard probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). The synthesis of earthquakes is based upon analysis of over 3,000 aftershocks recorded by several seismic networks. The analysis provides source parameters of the aftershocks; records available for use as empirical Green's functions; and a three-dimensional velocity structure from tomographic inversion. The velocity model is linked to a finite difference wave propagation code (E3D, Larsen 1998) to generate synthetic Green's functions (DC < f < 0.5 Hz). We performed the simultaneous inversion for hypocenter locations and three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the Marmara region using SIMULPS14 along with 2,500 events. We also obtained source moment and corner frequency and individual station attenuation parameter estimates for over 500 events by performing a simultaneous inversion to fit these parameters with a Brune source model. We used the results of the source inversion to deconvolve out a Brune model from small to moderate size earthquake (M<4.0) recordings to obtain empirical Green's functions for the higher frequency range of ground motion (0.5 < f < 25.0 Hz). Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  10. Source modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake sequence: Implications for geodynamics and earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Yeck, W. L.; Barnhart, W. D.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Bergman, E.; Adhikari, L. B.; Dixit, A.; Hough, S. E.; Benz, H. M.; Earle, P. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard. Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the décollement defining the plate boundary at depth, over an area surrounding but predominantly north of the capital city of Kathmandu (3) the distribution of aftershock seismicity surrounds the mainshock maximum slip patch; (4) aftershocks occur at or below the mainshock rupture plane with depths generally increasing to the north beneath the higher Himalaya, possibly outlining a 10-15 km thick subduction channel between the overriding Eurasian and subducting Indian plates; (5) the largest Mw 7.3 aftershock and the highest concentration of aftershocks occurred to the southeast the mainshock rupture, on a segment of the MHT décollement that was positively stressed towards failure; (6) the near surface portion of the MHT south of Kathmandu shows no aftershocks or slip during the mainshock. Results from this study characterize the details of the Gorkha earthquake sequence and provide constraints on where earthquake hazard remains high, and thus where future, damaging earthquakes may occur in this densely populated region. Up-dip segments of the MHT should be considered to be high hazard for future damaging earthquakes.

  11. Source modeling of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake sequence: Implications for geodynamics and earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Yeck, William; Barnhart, William D.; Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Bergman, E.; Adhikari, L. B.; Dixit, Amod; Hough, S.E.; Benz, Harley M.; Earle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard.Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a ~ 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the décollement defining the plate boundary at depth, over an area surrounding but predominantly north of the capital city of Kathmandu (3) the distribution of aftershock seismicity surrounds the mainshock maximum slip patch; (4) aftershocks occur at or below the mainshock rupture plane with depths generally increasing to the north beneath the higher Himalaya, possibly outlining a 10–15 km thick subduction channel between the overriding Eurasian and subducting Indian plates; (5) the largest Mw 7.3 aftershock and the highest concentration of aftershocks occurred to the southeast the mainshock rupture, on a segment of the MHT décollement that was positively stressed towards failure; (6) the near surface portion of the MHT south of Kathmandu shows no aftershocks or slip during the mainshock. Results from this study characterize the details of the Gorkha earthquake sequence and provide constraints on where earthquake hazard remains high, and thus where future, damaging earthquakes may occur in this densely populated region. Up-dip segments of the MHT should be considered to be high hazard for future damaging earthquakes.

  12. New Field Observations About 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurboga, S.

    2013-12-01

    Some destructive earthquakes in the past and even in the recent have several mysteries. For example, magnitude, epicenter location, faulting type and source fault of an earthquake have not been detected yet. One of these mysteries events is 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake in Turkey. 19 August 1966 Varto earthquake (Ms = 6.8) was an extra ordinary event at the 40 km east of junction between NAFS and EAFS which are two seismogenic system and active structures shaping the tectonics of Turkey. This earthquake sourced from Varto fault zone which are approximately 4 km width and 43 km length. It consists of faults which have parallel to sub-parallel, closely-spaced, north and south-dipping up to 85°-88° dip amount. Although this event has 6.8 (Ms) magnitude that is big enough to create a surface rupture, there was no clear surface deformation had been detected. This creates the controversial issue about the source fault and the mechanism of the earthquake. According to Wallace (1968) the type of faulting is right-lateral. On the other hand, McKenzie (1972) proposed right-lateral movement with thrust component by using the focal mechanism solution. The recent work done by Sançar et al. (2011) claimed that type of faulting is pure right-lateral strike-slip and there is no any surface rupture during the earthquake. Furthermore, they suggested that Varto segment in the Varto Fault Zone was most probably not broken in 1966 earthquake. This study is purely focused on the field geology and trenching survey for the investigation of 1966 Varto earthquake. Four fault segments have been mapped along the Varto fault zone: Varto, Sazlica, Leylekdağ and Çayçati segments. Because of the thick volcanic cover on the area around Varto, surface rupture has only been detected by trenching survey. Two trenching survey have been applied along the Yayikli and Ağaçalti faults in the Varto fault zone. Consequently, detailed geological work in the field and trenching survey indicate that

  13. Teleseismically recorded seismicity before and after the May 7, 1986, Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Billington, S.; Kisslinger, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Andreanof Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) is the largest event to have occurred in that section of the Aleutian arc since the March 9, 1957, Aleutian Islands earthquake (Mw 8.6). Teleseismically well-recorded earthquakes in the region of the 1986 earthquake are relocated with a plate model and with careful attention to the focal depths. The data set is nearly complete for mb???4.7 between longitudes 172??W and 179??W for the period 1964 through April 1987 and provides a detailed description of the space-time history of moderate-size earthquakes in the region for that period. Additional insight is provided by source parameters which have been systematically determined for Mw???5 earthquakes that occurred in the region since 1977 and by a modeling study of the spatial distribution of moment release on the mainshock fault plane. -from Authors

  14. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  15. Preliminary analysis of strong-motion recordings from the 28 September 2004 Parkfield, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shakal, A.; Graizer, V.; Huang, M.; Borcherdt, R.; Haddadi, H.; Lin, K.-W.; Stephens, C.; Roffers, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Parkfield 2004 earthquake yielded the most extensive set of strong-motion data in the near-source region of a magnitude 6 earthquake yet obtained. The recordings of acceleration and volumetric strain provide an unprecedented document of the near-source seismic radiation for a moderate earthquake. The spatial density of the measurements alon g the fault zone and in the linear arrays perpendicular to the fault is expected to provide an exceptional opportunity to develop improved models of the rupture process. The closely spaced measurements should help infer the temporal and spatial distribution of the rupture process at much higher resolution than previously possible. Preliminary analyses of the peak a cceleration data presented herein shows that the motions vary significantly along the rupture zone, from 0.13 g to more than 2.5 g, with a map of the values showing that the larger values are concentrated in three areas. Particle motions at the near-fault stations are consistent with bilateral rupture. Fault-normal pulses similar to those observed in recent strike-slip earthquakes are apparent at several of the stations. The attenuation of peak ground acceleration with distance is more rapid than that indicated by some standard relationships but adequately fits others. Evidence for directivity in the peak acceleration data is not strong. Several stations very near, or over, the rupturing fault recorded relatively low accelerations. These recordings may provide a quantitative basis to understand observations of low near-fault shaking damage that has been reported in other large strike-slip earthquak.

  16. Kinematics and Seismotectonics of the Montello Thrust Fault (Southeastern Alps, Italy) Revealed by Local GPS and Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Anderlini, L.; Cavaliere, A.; Danesi, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Danecek, P.; Massa, M.; Lovati, S.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Alps fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) in northern Italy is a tectonically active area accommodating large part of the ~N-S Adria-Eurasia plate convergence, that in the southeastern Alps ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 mm/yr, as constrained by a geodetically defined rotation pole. Because of the high seismic hazard of northeastern Italy, the area is well monitored at a regional scale by seismic and GPS networks. However, more localized seismotectonic and kinematic features, at the scale of the fault segments, are not yet resolved, limiting our knowledge about the seismic potential of the different fault segments belonging to the southeastern Alps FTB. Here we present the results obtained from the analysis of data collected during local seismic and geodetic experiments conducted installing denser geophysical networks across the Montello-Bassano-Belluno system, a segment of the FTB that is presently characterized by a lower sismicity rate with respect to the surrounding domains. The Montello anticline, which is the southernmost tectonic features of the southeastern Alps FTB (located ~15 km south of the mountain front), is a nice example of growing anticline associated with a blind thrust fault. However, how the Adria-Alps convergence is partitioned across the FTB and the seismic potential of the Montello thrust (the area has been struck by a Mw~6.5 in 1695 but the causative fault is still largely debated) remained still unresolved. The new, denser, GPS data show that this area is undergoing among the highest geodetic deformation rates of the entire south Alpine chain, with a steep velocity gradient across the Montello anticline. The earthquakes recorded during the experiment, precisely relocated with double difference methods, and the new earthquake focal mechanisms well correlate with available information about sub-surface geological structures and highlight the seismotectonic activity of the Montello thrust fault. We model the GPS velocities using elastic

  17. Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

  18. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  19. Fold-and-thrust belt curvature in the Fars region, eastern Zagros, achieved by variable thrust slip vectors and fault block rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edey, Alex; Allen, Mark B.

    2017-04-01

    Many fold-and-thrust belts are curved in plan view, but the origins of this curvature are debated. Understanding which mechanism(s) is appropriate is important to constrain the behaviour of the lithosphere during compressional deformation. Here we analyse the active deformation of the Fars Arc region in the eastern part of the Zagros, Iran, including slip vectors of 92 earthquakes, published GPS and palaeomagnetism data, and the distributions of young and/or active folds. The fold-and-thrust belt in the Fars Arc shows pronounced curvature, convex southwards. Folds trends vary from NW-SE in the west to ENE-WSW in the east. The GPS-derived velocity field shows NNE to SSW convergence, towards the foreland on the Arabian Plate, without dispersion. Earthquake slip vectors are highly variable, spanning a range of azimuths from SW to SSE in an Arabian Plate reference frame. The full variation of azimuths occurs within small (10s of km) sub-regions, but this variation is superimposed on a radial pattern, whereby slip vectors tend to be parallel to the regional topographic gradient. Given the lack of variation in the GPS vectors, we conclude that the Fars Arc is not curved as a result of gravitational spreading over the adjacent foreland, but as a result of deformation being restricted at tectonic boundaries at the eastern and western margins of the Arc. Fault blocks and folds within the Fars Arc, each 20-40 km long, rotate about vertical axes to achieve the overall curvature, predominantly clockwise in the west and counter-clockwise in the east. Active folds of different orientations may intersect and produce dome-and-basin interference patterns, without the need for a series of separate deformation phases of different stress orientations. The Fars Arc clearly contrasts with the Himalayas, where both GPS and earthquake slip vectors display radial patterns towards the foreland, and gravitational spreading is a viable mechanism for producing fold-and-thrust belt curvature.

  20. Do submarine landslides and turbidites provide a faithful record of large magnitude earthquakes in the Western Mediterranean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes and associated tsunamis pose a potential risk to coastal communities. Earthquakes may trigger submarine landslides that mix with surrounding water to produce turbidity currents. Recent studies offshore Algeria have shown that earthquake-triggered turbidity currents can break important communication cables. If large earthquakes reliably trigger landslides and turbidity currents, then their deposits can be used as a long-term record to understand temporal trends in earthquake activity. It is important to understand in which settings this approach can be applied. We provide some suggestions for future Mediterranean palaeoseismic studies, based on learnings from three sites. Two long piston cores from the Balearic Abyssal Plain provide long-term (<150 ka) records of large volume turbidites. The frequency distribution form of turbidite recurrence indicates a constant hazard rate through time and is similar to the Poisson distribution attributed to large earthquake recurrence on a regional basis. Turbidite thickness varies in response to sea level, which is attributed to proximity and availability of sediment. While mean turbidite recurrence is similar to the seismogenic El Asnam fault in Algeria, geochemical analysis reveals not all turbidites were sourced from the Algerian margin. The basin plain record is instead an amalgamation of flows from Algeria, Sardinia, and river fed systems further to the north, many of which were not earthquake-triggered. Thus, such distal basin plain settings are not ideal sites for turbidite palaoeseimology. Boxcores from the eastern Algerian slope reveal a thin silty turbidite dated to ~700 ya. Given its similar appearance across a widespread area and correlative age, the turbidite is inferred to have been earthquake-triggered. More recent earthquakes that have affected the Algerian slope are not recorded, however. Unlike the central and western Algerian slopes, the eastern part lacks canyons and had limited sediment

  1. Tsunamigenic earthquake simulations using experimentally derived friction laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; Di Toro, G.; Romano, F.; Scala, A.; Lorito, S.; Spagnuolo, E.; Aretusini, S.; Festa, G.; Piatanesi, A.; Nielsen, S.

    2018-03-01

    Seismological, tsunami and geodetic observations have shown that subduction zones are complex systems where the properties of earthquake rupture vary with depth as a result of different pre-stress and frictional conditions. A wealth of earthquakes of different sizes and different source features (e.g. rupture duration) can be generated in subduction zones, including tsunami earthquakes, some of which can produce extreme tsunamigenic events. Here, we offer a geological perspective principally accounting for depth-dependent frictional conditions, while adopting a simplified distribution of on-fault tectonic pre-stress. We combine a lithology-controlled, depth-dependent experimental friction law with 2D elastodynamic rupture simulations for a Tohoku-like subduction zone cross-section. Subduction zone fault rocks are dominantly incohesive and clay-rich near the surface, transitioning to cohesive and more crystalline at depth. By randomly shifting along fault dip the location of the high shear stress regions ("asperities"), moderate to great thrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes are produced that are quite consistent with seismological, geodetic, and tsunami observations. As an effect of depth-dependent friction in our model, slip is confined to the high stress asperity at depth; near the surface rupture is impeded by the rock-clay transition constraining slip to the clay-rich layer. However, when the high stress asperity is located in the clay-to-crystalline rock transition, great thrust earthquakes can be generated similar to the Mw 9 Tohoku (2011) earthquake.

  2. Use of Fault Displacement Vector to Identify Future Zones of Seismicity: An Example from the Earthquakes of Nepal Himalayas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naim, F.; Mukherjee, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes occur due to fault slip in the subsurface. They can occur either as interplate or intraplate earthquakes. The region of study is the Nepal Himalayas that defines the boundary of Indian-Eurasian plate and houses the focus of the most devastating earthquakes. The aim of the study was to analyze all the earthquakes that occurred in the Nepal Himalayas upto May 12, 2015 earthquake in order to mark the regions still under stress and vulnerable for future earthquakes. Three different fault systems in the Nepal Himalayas define the tectonic set up of the area. They are: (1) Main Frontal Thrust(MFT), (2) Main Central Thrust(MCT) and (3) Main Boundary Thrust(MBT) that extend from NW to SE. Most of the earthquakes were observed to occur between the MBT and MCT. Since the thrust faults are dipping towards NE, the focus of most of the earthquakes lies on the MBT. The methodology includes estimating the dip of the fault by considering the depths of different earthquake events and their corresponding distance from the MBT. In order to carry out stress analysis on the fault, the beach ball diagrams associated with the different earthquakes were plotted on a map. Earthquakes in the NW and central region of the fault zone were associated with reverse fault slip while that on the South-Eastern part were associated with a strike slip component. The direction of net slip on the fault associated with the different earthquakes was known and from this a 3D slip diagram of the fault was constructed. The regions vulnerable for future earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya were demarcated on the 3D slip diagram of the fault. Such zones were marked owing to the fact that the slips due to earthquakes cause the adjoining areas to come under immense stress and this stress is directly proportional to the amount of slip occuring on the fault. These vulnerable zones were in turn projected on the map to show their position and are predicted to contain the epicenter of the future earthquakes.

  3. Slip distribution and tectonic implication of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Helmberger, D.V.; Song, T.-R.A.; Ma, K.-F.; Wald, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fault complexity of the large (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake obtained by inverting densely and well-distributed static measurements consisting of 119 GPS and 23 doubly integrated strong motion records. We show that the slip of the Chi-Chi earthquake was concentrated on the surface of a "wedge shaped" block. The inferred geometric complexity explains the difference between the strike of the fault plane determined by long period seismic data and surface break observations. When combined with other geophysical and geological observations, the result provides a unique snapshot of tectonic deformation taking place in the form of very large (>10m) displacements of a massive wedge-shaped crustal block which may relate to the changeover from over-thrusting to subducting motion between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates.

  4. Discriminating the tectonic and non-tectonic contributions in the ionospheric signature of the 2011, Mw7.1, dip-slip Van earthquake, Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Lucie M.; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Sladen, Anthony; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Tavakoli, Farokh; Nankali, Hamid Reza; Cappa, FréDéRic

    2013-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that ionospheric perturbations triggered by large dip-slip earthquakes might offer additional source parameter information compared to the information gathered from land observations. Based on 3D modeling of GPS- and GLONASS-derived total electron content signals recorded during the 2011 Van earthquake (thrust, intra-plate event, Mw = 7.1, Turkey), we confirm that coseismic ionospheric signals do contain important information about the earthquake source, namely its slip mode. Moreover, we show that part of the ionospheric signal (initial polarity and amplitude distribution) is not related to the earthquake source, but is instead controlled by the geomagnetic field and the geometry of the Global Navigation Satellite System satellites constellation. Ignoring these non-tectonic effects would lead to an incorrect description of the earthquake source. Thus, our work emphasizes the added caution that should be used when analyzing ionospheric signals for earthquake source studies.

  5. Stress Transfer Processes during Great Plate Boundary Thrusting Events: A Study from the Andaman and Nicobar Segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, V.; Rajendran, K.

    2010-12-01

    The response of subduction zones to large earthquakes varies along their strike, both during the interseismic and post-seismic periods. The December 26, 2004 earthquake nucleated at 3° N latitude and its rupture propagated northward, along the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone, terminating at 15°N. Rupture speed was estimated at about 2.0 km per second in the northern part under the Andaman region and 2.5 - 2.7 km per second under southern Nicobar and North Sumatra. We have examined the pre and post-2004 seismicity to understand the stress transfer processes within the subducting plate, in the Andaman (10° - 15° N ) and Nicobar (5° - 10° N) segments. The seismicity pattern in these segments shows distinctive characteristics associated with the outer rise, accretionary prism and the spreading ridge, all of which are relatively better developed in the Andaman segment. The Ninety East ridge and the Sumatra Fault System are significant tectonic features in the Nicobar segment. The pre-2004 seismicity in both these segments conform to the steady-state conditions wherein large earthquakes are fewer and compressive stresses dominate along the plate interface. Among the pre-2004 great earthquakes are the 1881 Nicobar and 1941 Andaman events. The former is considered to be a shallow thrust event that generated a small tsunami. Studies in other subduction zones suggest that large outer-rise tensional events follow great plate boundary breaking earthquakes due to the the up-dip transfer of stresses within the subducting plate. The seismicity of the Andaman segment (1977-2004) concurs with the steady-state stress conditions where earthquakes occur dominantly by thrust faulting. The post-2004 seismicity shows up-dip migration along the plate interface, with dominance of shallow normal faulting, including a few outer rise events and some deeper (> 100 km) strike-slip faulting events within the subducting plate. The September 13, 2002, Mw 6.5 thrust faulting earthquake at

  6. Normal Fault Type Earthquakes Off Fukushima Region - Comparison of the 1938 Events and Recent Earthquakes -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, S.; Satake, K.

    2017-12-01

    Off Fukushima region, Mjma 7.4 (event A) and 6.9 (event B) events occurred on November 6, 1938, following the thrust fault type earthquakes of Mjma 7.5 and 7.3 on the previous day. These earthquakes were estimated as normal fault earthquakes by Abe (1977, Tectonophysics). An Mjma 7.0 earthquake occurred on July 12, 2014 near event B and an Mjma 7.4 earthquake occurred on November 22, 2016 near event A. These recent events are the only M 7 class earthquakes occurred off Fukushima since 1938. Except for the two 1938 events, normal fault earthquakes have not occurred until many aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We compared the observed tsunami and seismic waveforms of the 1938, 2014, and 2016 earthquakes to examine the normal fault earthquakes occurred off Fukushima region. It is difficult to compare the tsunami waveforms of the 1938, 2014 and 2016 events because there were only a few observations at the same station. The teleseismic body wave inversion of the 2016 earthquake yielded with the focal mechanism of strike 42°, dip 35°, and rake -94°. Other source parameters were as follows: source area 70 km x 40 km, average slip 0.2 m, maximum slip 1.2 m, seismic moment 2.2 x 1019 Nm, and Mw 6.8. A large slip area is located near the hypocenter, and it is compatible with the tsunami source area estimated from tsunami travel times. The 2016 tsunami source area is smaller than that of the 1938 event, consistent with the difference in Mw: 7.7 for event A estimated by Abe (1977) and 6.8 for the 2016 event. Although the 2014 epicenter is very close to that of event B, the teleseismic waveforms of the 2014 event are similar to those of event A and the 2016 event. While Abe (1977) assumed that the mechanism of event B was the same as event A, the initial motions at some stations are opposite, indicating that the focal mechanisms of events A and B are different and more detailed examination is needed. The normal fault type earthquake seems to occur following the

  7. 2015 Volcanic Tsunami Earthquake near Torishima Island: Array analysis of ocean bottom pressure gauge records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.; Sandanbata, O.; Watada, S.; Satake, K.

    2016-12-01

    An array of ocean bottom pressure gauges was deployed off east of Aogashima island of the Izu-Bonin arc from May 2014 to May 2015. The array consists of 10 ocean bottom pressure gauges using ParoScientific quartz resonators which can measure absolute water pressure at 7000m depth with nano-resolution. The array configures equilateral triangles with minimum and maximum lengths of 10 and 30km. This array recorded seismic and tsunami waves from the CLVD-type earthquake (M5.7) of May 02, 2015, that occurred near Torishima Island 100 km distant from the array. Comparison with records of ordinary thrust earthquakes with similar magnitudes at similar distances indicates that this event generated anomalously large tsunamis relative to seismic waves. We made an array analysis for the phase speed, propagating azimuth and travel time of tsunami wave in a frequency range 1-10 mHz, where the dispersion effect is significant. The results show excellent agreements with the frequency-dependent ray-tracing calculations. The tsunami trace apparently starts with positive onset (pressure increase) and reaches a maximum amplitude of about 200Pa (≈2cm in tsunami height). A closer inspection, however, shows a preceding negative small pulse (Fig. 1), suggesting that the seafloor deformation at the tsunami source consists of a central large uplift and a peripheral small depression. This mode of deformation is qualitatively consistent with a finite CLVD source uniformly shortened laterally and uniformly stretched vertically without volume change. The detection of weak initial motions is indebted to the array deployment of sensitive pressure gauges far away from coastal regions. The bandpass-filtered waveform is drastically different between the lower and higher frequency ranges. The waveform is single-peaked in the lower frequency range (<5 mHz) but is ringing in the higher frequency range (>5 mHz), corresponding to the tsunami spectrum that consists of the broad primary peak around 3.5 m

  8. Seismic constraints and coulomb stress changes of a blind thrust fault system, 1: Coalinga and Kettleman hills, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Jian; Stein, Ross S.

    2006-01-01

    This report reviews the seismicity and surface ruptures associated with the 1982-1985 earthquake sequence in the Coalinga region in California, and the role of Coulomb stress in triggering the mainshock sequence and aftershocks. The 1982-1985 New Idria, Coalinga, and Kettleman Hills earthquakes struck on a series of west-dipping, en echelon blind thrust faults. Each earthquake was accompanied by uplift of a Quaternary anticline atop the fault, and each was accompanied by a vigorous aftershock sequence. Aftershocks were widely dispersed, and are seen above and below the thrust fault, as well as along the up-dip and down-dip projection of the main thrust fault. For the Coalinga and Kettleman Hills earthquakes, high-angle reverse faults in the core of the anticlines are evident in seismic reflection profiles, and many of these faults are associated with small aftershocks. The shallowest aftershocks extended to within 3-4 km of the ground surface. There is no compelling evidence for aftershocks associated with flexural slip faulting. No secondary surface rupture was found on any of the anticlines. In contrast, the 1983 Nu?ez rupture struck on a high-angle reverse fault 10 km west of the Coalinga epicenter, and over a 40-80-day period, up to 1 m of oblique surface slip occurred. The slip on this Holocene fault likely extended from the ground surface to a depth of 8-10 km. We argue that both the Nu?ez and Kettleman earthquakes were triggered by stresses imparted by the Coalinga mainshock, which was the largest of the four events in the sequence.

  9. Micro-seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz: Is there a link between micro-seismicity, high magnitude earthquakes and active faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Sónia; Terrinha, Pedro; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João C.; Roque, Cristina; Ranero, César R.; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Zitellini, Nevio

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz seismicity is characterized by persistent low to intermediate magnitude earthquakes, occasionally punctuated by high magnitude events such as the M 8.7 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake and the M = 7.9 event of February 28th, 1969. Micro-seismicity was recorded during 11 months by a temporary network of 25 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an area of high seismic activity, encompassing the potential source areas of the mentioned large magnitude earthquakes. We combined micro-seismicity analysis with processing and interpretation of deep crustal seismic reflection profiles and available refraction data to investigate the possible tectonic control of the seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz area. Three controlling mechanisms are explored: i) active tectonic structures, ii) transitions between different lithospheric domains and inherited Mesozoic structures, and iii) fault weakening mechanisms. Our results show that micro-seismicity is mostly located in the upper mantle and is associated with tectonic inversion of extensional rift structures and to the transition between different lithospheric/rheological domains. Even though the crustal structure is well imaged in the seismic profiles and in the bathymetry, crustal faults show low to negligible seismic activity. A possible explanation for this is that the crustal thrusts are thin-skinned structures rooting in relatively shallow sub-horizontal décollements associated with (aseismic) serpentinization levels at the top of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, co-seismic slip along crustal thrusts may only occur during large magnitude events, while for most of the inter-seismic cycle these thrusts remain locked, or slip aseismically. We further speculate that high magnitude earthquake's ruptures may only nucleate in the lithospheric mantle and then propagate into the crust across the serpentinized layers.

  10. Inversion of inherited thrusts by wastewater injection induced seismicity at the Val d’Agri oilfield (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttinelli, M.; Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; Chiarabba, C.

    2016-11-01

    Since 2006 wastewater has been injected below the Val d’Agri Quaternary basin, the largest on-land oilfield in Europe, inducing micro-seismicity in the proximity of a high-rate injection well. In this study, we have the rare opportunity to revise a massive set of 2D/3D seismic and deep borehole data in order to investigate the relationship between the active faults that bound the basin and the induced earthquakes. Below the injection site we identify a Pliocene thrusts and back-thrusts system inherited by the Apennines compression, with no relation with faults bounding the basin. The induced seismicity is mostly confined within the injection reservoir, and aligns coherently with a NE-dipping back-thrust favorably oriented within the current extensional stress field. Earthquakes spread upwards from the back-thrust deep portion activating a 2.5-km wide patch. Focal mechanisms show a predominant extensional kinematic testifying to an on-going inversion of the back-thrust, while a minor strike-slip compound suggests a control exerted by a high angle inherited transverse fault developed within the compressional system, possibly at the intersection between the two fault sets. We stress that where wastewater injection is active, understanding the complex interaction between injection-linked seismicity and pre-existing faults is a strong requisite for safe oilfield exploitation.

  11. Focal Mechanisms From Moment Tensor Solutions and First Motion Polarities of Shallow to Deep Local Earthquakes in Eastern Nepal and Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, T. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Monsalve, G.; Wu, F.

    2004-12-01

    We determined focal mechanisms using waveforms and first motion polarities from local earthquakes recorded during the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT). The HIMNT experiment included the deployment of 28 broad band seismometers in eastern Nepal and southern Tibet from September 2001 to April 2003. Using a regional moment tensor method (Ammon and Randall, 2001) and first motion polarities for displaying double-couple focal mechanisms (Snokes, 2003), we analyzed the fault plane solutions at three distinct zones of seismicity. Characteristic focal mechanisms in seismically concentrated areas may indicate the presence of fault ramps or a decollement in the Himalayan collision zone. Previous studies of focal mechanisms on the Tibetan Plateau predominantly indicate east-west extension and shallow thrusting at the Himalayan collision zone for shallow to intermediate earthquakes (Ni and Barazangi, 1984; Molnar and Lyon-Caen, 1989; Randall et al., 1995) and east-west extension for intermediate to deep earthquakes (Zhu and Helmberger, 1996; Chen and Yang, 2004). The first zone in southeast Nepal between the Main Boundary and Main Frontal faults consist of earthquakes < Mw 4.0 at depths 40 - 60 km near the epicenter of the 1988 Udaypur earthquake, Mb 6.1, depth 57 km. The second zone north of the Main Central Thrust outcrop in eastern Nepal consists of 14 earthquakes 3.0 - 5.0 Mw at depths < 30 km that indicate north-south strike normal faulting and east-west strike thrust faulting. The third zone is an arc parallel to the Himalayas in southern Tibet and a cluster in northeast Nepal. This zone consists of 45 earthquakes < 4.0 Mw at depths > 50 km. Four earthquakes indicate northwest-southeast compression resulting in northeast strike strike-slip faulting while one earthquake in the northeast cluster indicates east-west compression at a source depth below the crust-mantle boundary. Focal mechanisms from full waveform moment tensor inversions are cross checked

  12. A New Simplified Source Model to Explain Strong Ground Motions from a Mega-Thrust Earthquake - Application to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, A.

    2013-12-01

    A new simplified source model is proposed to explain strong ground motions from a mega-thrust earthquake. The proposed model is simpler, and involves less model parameters, than the conventional characterized source model, which itself is a simplified expression of actual earthquake source. In the proposed model, the spacio-temporal distribution of slip within a subevent is not modeled. Instead, the source spectrum associated with the rupture of a subevent is modeled and it is assumed to follow the omega-square model. By multiplying the source spectrum with the path effect and the site amplification factor, the Fourier amplitude at a target site can be obtained. Then, combining it with Fourier phase characteristics of a smaller event, the time history of strong ground motions from the subevent can be calculated. Finally, by summing up contributions from the subevents, strong ground motions from the entire rupture can be obtained. The source model consists of six parameters for each subevent, namely, longitude, latitude, depth, rupture time, seismic moment and corner frequency of the subevent. Finite size of the subevent can be taken into account in the model, because the corner frequency of the subevent is included in the model, which is inversely proportional to the length of the subevent. Thus, the proposed model is referred to as the 'pseudo point-source model'. To examine the applicability of the model, a pseudo point-source model was developed for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The model comprises nine subevents, located off Miyagi Prefecture through Ibaraki Prefecture. The velocity waveforms (0.2-1 Hz), the velocity envelopes (0.2-10 Hz) and the Fourier spectra (0.2-10 Hz) at 15 sites calculated with the pseudo point-source model agree well with the observed ones, indicating the applicability of the model. Then the results were compared with the results of a super-asperity (SPGA) model of the same earthquake (Nozu, 2012, AGU), which can be considered as an

  13. Seismicity in 2010 and major earthquakes recorded and located in Costa Rica from 1983 until 2012, by the local OVSICORI-UNA seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronnie, Q.; Segura, J.; Burgoa, B.; Jimenez, W.; McNally, K. C.

    2013-05-01

    This work is the result of the analysis of existing information in the earthquake database of the Observatorio Sismológico y Vulcanológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), and seeks disclosure of basic seismological information recorded and processed in 2010. In this year there was a transition between the software used to record, store and locate earthquakes. During the first three months of 2010, we used Earthworm (http://folkworm.ceri.memphis.edu/ew-doc), SEISAN (Haskov y Ottemoller, 1999) and Hypocenter (Lienert y Haskov, 1995) to capture, store and locate the earthquakes, respectively; in April 2010, ANTELOPE (http://www.brtt.com/software.html) start to be used for recording and storing and GENLOC (Fan at al, 2006) and LOCSAT (Bratt and Bache 1988), to locate earthquakes. GENLOC was used for local events and LOCSAT for regional and distant earthquakes. The local earthquakes were located using the 1D velocity model of Quintero and Kissling (2001) and for regional and distant earthquakes IASPEI91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) was used. All the events for 2010 and shown in this work were rechecked by the authors. We located 3903 earthquakes in and around Costa Rica and 746 regional and distant seismic events were recorded (see Figure 1). In this work we also give a summary of major earthquakes recorded and located by OVSICORI-UNA network between 1983 and 2012. Seismicity recorded by OVSICORI-UNA network in 2010

  14. Discriminating the tectonic and non-tectonic contributions in the ionospheric signature of the 2011, Mw 7.1, dip-slip Van earthquake, Eastern Turkey (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L. M.; Vergnolle, M.; Nocquet, J.; Sladen, A.; Dessa, J.; Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H.; Cappa, F.

    2013-12-01

    It has previously been suggested that ionospheric perturbations triggered by large dip-slip earthquakes might offer additional source parameter information compared to the information gathered from land observations. Based on 3D modeling of GPS- and GLONASS-derived total electron content signals recorded during the 2011 Van earthquake (thrust, intra-plate event, Mw = 7.1, Turkey), we confirm that coseismic ionospheric signals do contain important information about the earthquake source, namely its slip mode. Moreover, we show that part of the ionospheric signal (initial polarity and amplitude distribution) is not related to the earthquake source, but is instead controlled by the geomagnetic field and the geometry of the Global Navigation Satellite System satellites constellation. Ignoring these non-tectonic effects would lead to an incorrect description of the earthquake source. Thus, our work emphasizes the added caution that should be used when analyzing ionospheric signals for earthquake source studies.

  15. The 5th July 1930 earthquake at Montilla (S Spain). Use of regionally recorded smoked paper seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlló, J.; Stich, D.; Macià, R.; Morales, J.

    2009-04-01

    On the night of 5th July 1930 a damaging earthquake struck the town of Montilla (near Córdoba, S-Spain) and its surroundings. Magnitude estimation for this earthquake is M=5, and its epicentral intensity has been evaluated as VIII (MSK). Even it is an earthquake of moderate size, it is the largest one in-strumentally recorded in this region. This makes this event of interest for a better definition of the regional seismicity. For this reason we decided to study a new its source from the analysis of the available contemporary seismograms and related documents. A total of 25 seismograms from 11 seismic stations have been collected and digitized. Processing of some of the records has been difficult because they were obtained from microfilm or contemporary reproductions on journals. Most of them are on smoked paper and recorded at regional distances. This poses a good opportunity to test the limits of the use of such low frequency - low dynamics recorded seismograms for the study of regional events. Results are promising: Using such regional seismograms the event has been relocated, its magnitude recalculated (Mw 5.1) and inversion of waveforms to elucidate its focal mechanism has been performed. We present the results of this research and its consequences for the regional seismicity and we compare them with present smaller earthquakes occurred in the same place and with the results obtained for earthquakes of similar size occurred more to the East on 1951.

  16. North Anna Nuclear Power Plant Strong Motion Records of the Mineral, Virginia Earthquake of August 23, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.

    2012-12-01

    The MW 5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake was recorded at a relatively short epicentral distance of about 18 km at the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) by the SMA-3 magnetic tape digital accelerographs installed inside the plant's containment at the foundation and deck levels. The North Anna NPP is operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) and has two pressurized water reactors (PWR) units that began operation in 1978 and 1980, respectively. Following the earthquake, both units were safely shutdown. The strong-motion records were processed to get velocity, displacement, Fourier and 5% damped response spectra. The basemat record demonstrated relatively high amplitudes of acceleration of 0.26 g and velocity of 13.8 cm/sec with a relatively short duration of strong motion of 2-3 sec. Recorded 5% damped Response Spectra exceed Design Basis Earthquake for the existing Units 1 and 2, while comprehensive plant inspections performed by VEPCO and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission have concluded that the damage to the plant was minimal not affecting any structures and equipment significant to plant operation. This can be explained in part by short duration of the earthquake ground motion at the plant. The North Anna NPP did not have free-field strong motion instrumentation at the time of the earthquake. Since the containment is founded on rock there is a tendency to consider basemat record as an approximation of the free-field recording. However, comparisons of deck and basemat records demonstrate that the basemat recording is also affected by structural resonance frequencies higher than 3 Hz. Structural resonances in the frequency range of 3-4 Hz can at least partially explain significant exceedance of observed motions relative to ground motion calculated using ground motion prediction equations.cceleration, velocity and displacement at the North Anna NPP basemat level. Amplitudes of acceleration, velocity and displacement at basemat and deck levels

  17. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Two major traces of active thrust faults were identified in the Kashmir Basin (KB) using satellite images and by mapping active geomorphic features. The ~N130°E strike of the mapped thrust faults is consistent with the regional ~NE-SW convergence along the Indian-Eurasian collision zone. The ~NE dipping thrust faults have uplifted the young alluvial fan surfaces at the SW side of the KB. This created a major tectono-geomorphic boundary along the entire strike length of the KB that is characterised by (1) a low relief with sediment-filled sluggish streams to the SE and (2) an uplifted region, with actively flowing streams to the SW. The overall tectono-geomorphic expression suggests that recent activity along these faults has tilted the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Further, the Mw 7.6 earthquake, which struck Northern Pakistan and Kashmir on 8 October 2005, also suggests a similar strike and NE dipping fault plane, which could indicate that the KB fault is continuous over a distance of ~210 km and connects on the west with the Balakot Bagh fault. However, the geomorphic and the structural evidences of such a structure are not very apparent on the north-west, which thus suggest that it is not a contiguous structure with the Balakot Bagh fault. Therefore, it is more likely that the KB fault is an independent thrust, a possible ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust, which has uplifting the SW portion of the KB and drowning everything to the NE (e.g. Madden et al. 2011). Furthermore, it seems very likely that the KB fault could be a right stepping segment of the Balakot Bagh fault, similar to Riasi Thrust, as proposed by Thakur et al. (2010). The earthquake magnitude is measured by estimating the fault rupture parameters (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith in Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994). Therefore, the total strike length of the mapped KB fault is ~120 km and by assuming a dip of 29° (Avouac et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 249:514-528, 2006) and a down-dip limit

  18. Very low frequency earthquakes along the Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masataka; Tu, Yoko; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2012-02-01

    A total of 1314 very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) were identified along the Ryukyu trench from seismograms recorded at broadband networks in Japan (F-net) and Taiwan (BATS) in 2007. The spectra of typical VLFEs have peak frequencies between 0.02 to 0.1 Hz. Among those, waveforms from 120 VLFEs were inverted to obtain their centoroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions and locations using an examination grid to minimize a residual between the observed and synthetic waveforms within an area of 11° × 14° in latitude and longitude and at depths of 0 to 60 km. Most of the VLFEs occur on shallow thrust faults that are distributed along the Ryukyu trench, which are similar to those earthquakes found in Honshu and Hokkaido, Japan. The locations and mechanisms of VLFEs may be indicative of coupled regions within the accretionary prism or at the plate interface; this study highlights the need for further investigation of the Ryukyu trench to identify coupled regions within it.

  19. Apparent stress, fault maturity and seismic hazard for normal-fault earthquakes at subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Kirby, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of apparent stress for normal-fault earthquakes at subduction zones is derived by examining the apparent stress (?? a = ??Es/Mo, where E s is radiated energy and Mo is seismic moment) of all globally distributed shallow (depth, ?? 1 MPa) are also generally intraslab, but occur where the lithosphere has just begun subduction beneath the overriding plate. They usually occur in cold slabs near trenches where the direction of plate motion across the trench is oblique to the trench axis, or where there are local contortions or geometrical complexities of the plate boundary. Lower ??a (< 1 MPa) is associated with events occurring at the outer rise (OR) complex (between the OR and the trench axis), as well as with intracrustal events occurring just landward of the trench. The average apparent stress of intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes is considerably higher than the average apparent stress of interplate-thrust-fault earthquakes. In turn, the average ?? a of strike-slip earthquakes in intraoceanic environments is considerably higher than that of intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes. The variation of average ??a with focal mechanism and tectonic regime suggests that the level of ?? a is related to fault maturity. Lower stress drops are needed to rupture mature faults such as those found at plate interfaces that have been smoothed by large cumulative displacements (from hundreds to thousands of kilometres). In contrast, immature faults, such as those on which intraslab-normal-fault earthquakes generally occur, are found in cold and intact lithosphere in which total fault displacement has been much less (from hundreds of metres to a few kilometres). Also, faults on which high ??a oceanic strike-slip earthquakes occur are predominantly intraplate or at evolving ends of transforms. At subduction zones, earthquakes occurring on immature faults are likely to be more hazardous as they tend to generate higher amounts of radiated energy per unit of moment than

  20. InSAR Analysis of the 2011 Hawthorne (Nevada) Earthquake Swarm: Implications of Earthquake Migration and Stress Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, X.; Dai, Z.; Lu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Hawthorne earthquake swarm occurred in the central Walker Lane zone, neighboring the border between California and Nevada. The swarm included an Mw 4.4 on April 13, Mw 4.6 on April 17, and Mw 3.9 on April 27. Due to the lack of the near-field seismic instrument, it is difficult to get the accurate source information from the seismic data for these moderate-magnitude events. ENVISAT InSAR observations captured the deformation mainly caused by three events during the 2011 Hawthorne earthquake swarm. The surface traces of three seismogenic sources could be identified according to the local topography and interferogram phase discontinuities. The epicenters could be determined using the interferograms and the relocated earthquake distribution. An apparent earthquake migration is revealed by InSAR observations and the earthquake distribution. Analysis and modeling of InSAR data show that three moderate magnitude earthquakes were produced by slip on three previously unrecognized faults in the central Walker Lane. Two seismogenic sources are northwest striking, right-lateral strike-slip faults with some thrust-slip components, and the other source is a northeast striking, thrust-slip fault with some strike-slip components. The former two faults are roughly parallel to each other, and almost perpendicular to the latter one. This special spatial correlation between three seismogenic faults and nature of seismogenic faults suggest the central Walker Lane has been undergoing southeast-northwest horizontal compressive deformation, consistent with the region crustal movement revealed by GPS measurement. The Coulomb failure stresses on the fault planes were calculated using the preferred slip model and the Coulomb 3.4 software package. For the Mw4.6 earthquake, the Coulomb stress change caused by the Mw4.4 event increased by ~0.1 bar. For the Mw3.9 event, the Coulomb stress change caused by the Mw4.6 earthquake increased by ~1.0 bar. This indicates that the preceding

  1. Empirical Green's functions from small earthquakes: A waveform study of locally recorded aftershocks of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Wu, F.

    1990-02-10

    Seismograms from 52 aftershocks of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake recorded at 25 stations distributed across the San Fernando Valley are examined to identify empirical Green's functions, and characterize the dependence of their waveforms on moment, focal mechanism, source and recording site spatial variations, recording site geology, and recorded frequency band. Recording distances ranged from 3.0 to 33.0 km, hypocentral separations ranged from 0.22 to 28.4 km, and recording site separations ranged from 0.185 to 24.2 km. The recording site geologies are diorite gneiss, marine and nonmarine sediments, and alluvium of varying thicknesses. Waveforms of events with moment below aboutmore » 1.5 {times} 10{sup 21} dyn cm are independent of the source-time function and are termed empirical Green's functions. Waveforms recorded at a particular station from events located within 1.0 to 3.0 km of each other, depending upon site geology, with very similar focal mechanism solutions are nearly identical for frequencies up to 10 Hz. There is no correlation to waveforms between recording sites at least 1.2 km apart, and waveforms are clearly distinctive for two sites 0.185 km apart. The geologic conditions of the recording site dominate the character of empirical Green's functions. Even for source separations of up to 20.0 km, the empirical Green's functions at a particular site are consistent in frequency content, amplification, and energy distribution. Therefore, it is shown that empirical Green's functions can be used to obtain site response functions. The observations of empirical Green's functions are used as a basis for developing the theory for using empirical Green's functions in deconvolution for source pulses and synthesis of seismograms of larger earthquakes.« less

  2. Salient Features of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake in Relation to Earthquake Cycle and Dynamic Rupture Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampuero, J. P.; Meng, L.; Hough, S. E.; Martin, S. S.; Asimaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Two salient features of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake provide new opportunities to evaluate models of earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture. The Gorkha earthquake broke only partially across the seismogenic depth of the Main Himalayan Thrust: its slip was confined in a narrow depth range near the bottom of the locked zone. As indicated by the belt of background seismicity and decades of geodetic monitoring, this is an area of stress concentration induced by deep fault creep. Previous conceptual models attribute such intermediate-size events to rheological segmentation along-dip, including a fault segment with intermediate rheology in between the stable and unstable slip segments. We will present results from earthquake cycle models that, in contrast, highlight the role of stress loading concentration, rather than frictional segmentation. These models produce "super-cycles" comprising recurrent characteristic events interspersed by deep, smaller non-characteristic events of overall increasing magnitude. Because the non-characteristic events are an intrinsic component of the earthquake super-cycle, the notion of Coulomb triggering or time-advance of the "big one" is ill-defined. The high-frequency (HF) ground motions produced in Kathmandu by the Gorkha earthquake were weaker than expected for such a magnitude and such close distance to the rupture, as attested by strong motion recordings and by macroseismic data. Static slip reached close to Kathmandu but had a long rise time, consistent with control by the along-dip extent of the rupture. Moreover, the HF (1 Hz) radiation sources, imaged by teleseismic back-projection of multiple dense arrays calibrated by aftershock data, was deep and far from Kathmandu. We argue that HF rupture imaging provided a better predictor of shaking intensity than finite source inversion. The deep location of HF radiation can be attributed to rupture over heterogeneous initial stresses left by the background seismic activity

  3. Accelerating slip rates on the puente hills blind thrust fault system beneath metropolitan Los Angeles, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Morrow, Eric; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2017-01-01

    Slip rates represent the average displacement across a fault over time and are essential to estimating earthquake recurrence for proba-bilistic seismic hazard assessments. We demonstrate that the slip rate on the western segment of the Puente Hills blind thrust fault system, which is beneath downtown Los Angeles, California (USA), has accel-erated from ~0.22 mm/yr in the late Pleistocene to ~1.33 mm/yr in the Holocene. Our analysis is based on syntectonic strata derived from the Los Angeles River, which has continuously buried a fold scarp above the blind thrust. Slip on the fault beneath our field site began during the late-middle Pleistocene and progressively increased into the Holocene. This increase in rate implies that the magnitudes and/or the frequency of earthquakes on this fault segment have increased over time. This challenges the characteristic earthquake model and presents an evolving and potentially increasing seismic hazard to metropolitan Los Angeles.

  4. Paleoseismologic evidence for large-magnitude (Mw 7.5-8.0) earthquakes on the Ventura blind thrust fault: Implications for multifault ruptures in the Transverse Ranges of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuliffe, Lee J.; Dolan, James F.; Rhodes, Edward J.; Hubbard, Judith; Shaw, John H.; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Detailed analysis of continuously cored boreholes and cone penetrometer tests (CPTs), high-resolution seismic-reflection data, and luminescence and 14C dates from Holocene strata folded above the tip of the Ventura blind thrust fault constrain the ages and displacements of the two (or more) most recent earthquakes. These two earthquakes, which are identified by a prominent surface fold scarp and a stratigraphic sequence that thickens across an older buried fold scarp, occurred before the 235-yr-long historic era and after 805 ± 75 yr ago (most recent folding event[s]) and between 4065 and 4665 yr ago (previous folding event[s]). Minimum uplift in these two scarp-forming events was ∼6 m for the most recent earthquake(s) and ∼5.2 m for the previous event(s). Large uplifts such as these typically occur in large-magnitude earthquakes in the range of Mw7.5–8.0. Any such events along the Ventura fault would likely involve rupture of other Transverse Ranges faults to the east and west and/or rupture downward onto the deep, low-angle décollements that underlie these faults. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to major population centers, including the greater Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during ruptures extending offshore along the western parts of the system highlight the importance of understanding the complex behavior of these faults for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment.

  5. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  6. Magnitude Estimation for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Based on Ground Motion Prediction Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshaghi, Attieh; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Ghofrani, Hadi; Atkinson, Gail M.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates whether real-time strong ground motion data from seismic stations could have been used to provide an accurate estimate of the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. Ultimately, such an estimate could be used as input data for a tsunami forecast and would lead to more robust earthquake and tsunami early warning. We collected the strong motion accelerograms recorded by borehole and free-field (surface) Kiban Kyoshin network stations that registered this mega-thrust earthquake in order to perform an off-line test to estimate the magnitude based on ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). GMPEs for peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity (PGV) from a previous study by Eshaghi et al. in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103. (2013) derived using events with moment magnitude ( M) ≥ 5.0, 1998-2010, were used to estimate the magnitude of this event. We developed new GMPEs using a more complete database (1998-2011), which added only 1 year but approximately twice as much data to the initial catalog (including important large events), to improve the determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling. These new GMPEs were used to estimate the magnitude of the Tohoku-Oki event. The estimates obtained were compared with real time magnitude estimates provided by the existing earthquake early warning system in Japan. Unlike the current operational magnitude estimation methods, our method did not saturate and can provide robust estimates of moment magnitude within ~100 s after earthquake onset for both catalogs. It was found that correcting for average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m () improved the accuracy of magnitude estimates from surface recordings, particularly for magnitude estimates of PGV (Mpgv). The new GMPEs also were used to estimate the magnitude of all earthquakes in the new catalog with at least 20 records. Results show that the magnitude estimate from PGV values using

  7. Quaternary Deformation Constrained by River Terraces across the Longmen Shan Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Jiang, D., Sr.; Ding, R.; Li, W.; Gomez, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Longmen Shan is known for both the steep topography and the absence of Cenozoic foreland deposition. The 2008 Wenchuan Mw 7.9 earthquake, which ruptured the thrust faults along the range front, inspires vigorous debates about topography origin and seismic hazard. Two end-member models, crustal shortening and lower crustal flow, have been proposed. However, both of them need further verification. The Minjiang river and the Qingyijiang river run through the middle and the southern Longmen Shan respectively, which make it possible to study the strain distribution by relict river terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river terraces were restored by detailed field survey, high-precision measurement, sediment dating and chemical analyses. Deformed fluvial terraces shows that most thrust faults are active in the late Quaternary, and crust shortening dominates the fold-and-thrust belt, but the strain distributions are quite different between the south and north segments. In the north, thrust slips are mainly accommodated along the range front, the crustal shortening rate is 1.4 to 2.0 mm/yr, and only 25% of crust shortening are absorbed by the foreland. In the south, thrust slips are distributed among the thrust belt, the crustal shortening rate is 2.9 to 4.6mm/yr, and up to 83% of crustal shortening are absorbed by the foreland. Compared with other margins of the Tibetan Plateau, the Longmen Shan has much narrower thrust belt and nappe. The Himalayas, the Karakoram and the Qilian Shan thrust nappes are about 3 to 5 times wider than the Longmen Shan. However, all of these belts have comparable elevations above their foreland, respectively. Comparable altitude difference distributed across a narrow belt makes a greater topographic relief in the Longmen Shan, where narrow thrust nappe exerts less tectonic loading on the footwall which doesn't favor the formation of foreland basin. Our research results favor the model of crustal shortening, and reveal that all basement

  8. Effect of baseline corrections on response spectra for two recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Displacements derived from the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake at stations TCU078 and TCU129 show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero-level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero-level are unknown, but might include tilts in the instruments or the response of the instruments to strong shaking. This note illustrates the effect on the velocity, displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are unaffected by the baseline correction. The results suggest, however, that staticdisplac ements estimated from the instruments should be used with caution. Although limited to the analysis of only two recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  9. Signatures of the seismic source in EMD-based characterization of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we use empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to characterize the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake records and investigate the signatures carried over from the source rupture process. Comparison of the current study results with existing source inverse solutions that use traditional data processing suggests that the EMD-based characterization contains information that sheds light on aspects of the earthquake rupture process. We first summarize the fundamentals of the EMD and illustrate its features through the analysis of a hypothetical and a real record. Typically, the Northridge strong-motion records are decomposed into eight or nine intrinsic mode functions (IMF's), each of which emphasizes a different oscillation mode with different amplitude and frequency content. The first IMF has the highest-frequency content; frequency content decreases with an increase in IMF component. With the aid of a finite-fault inversion method, we then examine aspects of the source of the 1994 Northridge earthquake that are reflected in the second to fifth IMF components. This study shows that the second IMF is predominantly wave motion generated near the hypocenter, with high-frequency content that might be related to a large stress drop associated with the initiation of the earthquake. As one progresses from the second to the fifth IMF component, there is a general migration of the source region away from the hypocenter with associated longer-period signals as the rupture propagates. This study suggests that the different IMF components carry information on the earthquake rupture process that is expressed in their different frequency bands.

  10. Rupture directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John

    2010-01-01

    We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate rupture direction and rupture velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5≥M≥5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The rupture direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The rupture velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the rupture direction. Rupture velocities are generally subsonic (0.5β–0.9β); for stability, we limit the rupture velocity at v=0.92β, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the rupture direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have rupture directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 rupture partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes rupture updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes rupture predominantly updip. We compare the rupture directions for 10 M≥4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the rupture directivity calculated for the mainshock.

  11. Slip Behavior of the Queen Charlotte Plate Boundary Before and After the 2012, MW 7.8 Haida Gwaii Earthquake: Evidence From Repeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Tim W.; Bostock, Michael G.

    2017-11-01

    The Queen Charlotte plate boundary, near Haida Gwaii, B.C., includes the dextral, strike-slip, Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) and the subduction interface between the downgoing Pacific and overriding North American plates. In this study, we present a comprehensive repeating earthquake catalog that represents an effective slip meter for both structures. The catalog comprises 712 individual earthquakes (0.3≤MW≤3.5) arranged into 224 repeating earthquake families on the basis of waveform similarity and source separation estimates from coda wave interferometry. We employ and extend existing relationships for repeating earthquake magnitudes and slips to provide cumulative slip histories for the QCF and subduction interface in six adjacent zones within the study area between 52.3°N and 53.8°N. We find evidence for creep on both faults; however, creep rates are significantly less than plate motion rates, which suggests partial locking of both faults. The QCF exhibits the highest degrees of locking south of 52.8°N, which indicates that the seismic hazard for a major strike-slip earthquake is highest in the southern part of the study area. The 28 October 2012, MW 7.8 Haida Gwaii thrust earthquake occurred in our study area and altered the slip dynamics of the plate boundary. The QCF is observed to undergo accelerated, right-lateral slip for 1-2 months following the earthquake. The subduction interface exhibits afterslip thrust motion that persists for the duration of the study period (i.e., 3 years and 2 months after the Haida Gwaii earthquake). Afterslip is greatest (5.7-8.4 cm/yr) on the periphery of the main rupture zone of the Haida Gwaii event.

  12. Interseismic coupling, seismic potential and earthquake recurrence on the southern front of the Eastern Alps (NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheloni, Daniele; D'Agostino, Nicola; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of the African, Arabian, and Eurasia plates in the "greater" Mediterranean region yields to a broad range of tectonic processes including active subduction, continental collision, major continental strike-slip faults and "intra-plate" mountain building. In this puzzling region the convergence between Adria microplate and Eurasia plate is partly or entirely absorbed within the South-Eastern Alps, where the Adriatic lithosphere underthrusts beneath the mountain belt. Historical seismicity and instrumentally recorded earthquakes show thrust faulting on north-dipping low-angle faults in agreement with geological observations of active mountain building and active fold growing at the foothills of the South-Eastern Alps. In this study, we use continuous GPS observations to document the geodetic strain accumulation across the South-Eastern Alps (NE Italy). We estimate the pattern of interseismic coupling on the intra-continental collision north-dipping thrust faults that separate the Eastern Alps and the Venetian-Friulian plain using the back-slip approach and discuss the seismic potential and earthquake recurrence. Comparison between the rigid-rotation predicted motion and the shortening observed across the studied area indicates that the South-Eastern Alpine thrust front absorbs about 80% of the total convergence rate between the Adria microplate and Eurasia plate. The modelled thrust fault is currently locked from the surface to a depth of approximately 10 km. The transition zone between locked and creeping portions of the fault roughly corresponds with the belt of microseismicity parallel and to the north of the mountain front. The estimated moment deficit rate is 1.27±0.14×10^17 Nm/yr. The comparison between the estimated moment deficit and that released historically by the earthquakes suggests that to account for the moment deficit the following two factors or their combination should be considered: (1) a significant part of the observed

  13. Structural context of the 2015 pair of Nepal earthquakes (Mw 7.8 and Mw 7.3): an analysis based on slip distribution, aftershock growth, and static stress changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, Revathy M.; Rajendran, Kusala

    2017-04-01

    The Great Himalayan earthquakes are believed to originate on the Main Himalayan Thrust, and their ruptures lead to deformation along the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The rupture of the April 25, 2015 (Mw 7.8), earthquake was east-directed, with no part relayed to the MFT. The aftershock distribution, coseismic elevation change of 1 m inferred from the InSAR image, and the spatial correspondence of the subtle surface deformations with PT2, a previously mapped out-of-sequence thrust, lead us to explore the role of structural heterogeneities in constraining the rupture progression. We used teleseismic moment inversion of P- and SH-waves, and Coulomb static stress changes to map the slip distribution, and growth of aftershock area, to understand their relation to the thrust systems. Most of the aftershocks were sourced outside the stress shadows (slip >1.65 m) of the April 25 earthquake. The May 12 (Mw 7.3) earthquake that sourced on a contiguous patch coincides with regions of increased stress change and therefore is the first known post-instrumentation example of a late, distant, and large triggered aftershock associated with any large earthquake in the Nepal Himalaya. The present study relates the slip, aftershock productivity, and triggering of unbroken stress barriers, to potential out-of-sequence thrusts, and suggests the role of stress transfer in generating large/great earthquakes.

  14. Testing Earthquake Links in Mexico From 1978 to the 2017 M = 8.1 Chiapas and M = 7.1 Puebla Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, Margarita; Parsons, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The M = 8.1 Chiapas and the M = 7.1 Puebla earthquakes occurred in the bending part of the subducting Cocos plate 11 days and 600 km apart, a range that puts them well outside the typical aftershock zone. We find this to be a relatively common occurrence in Mexico, with 14% of M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1900 striking more than 300 km apart and within a 2 week interval, not different from a randomized catalog. We calculate the triggering potential caused by crustal stress redistribution from large subduction earthquakes over the last 40 years. There is no evidence that static stress transfer or dynamic triggering from the 8 September Chiapas earthquake promoted the 19 September earthquake. Both recent earthquakes were promoted by past thrust events instead, including delayed afterslip from the 2012 M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake. A repeated pattern of shallow thrust events promoting deep intraslab earthquakes is observed over the past 40 years.

  15. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Mw 9.3: Seismological and Geophysical Investigations in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.

    2007-05-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (MW 9.3) is the fourth largest event (M>9.0) in the world during the last 100 years. It occurred by thrust faulting on the interplate thrust zone of the subducting India plate and overriding Burma platelet. The main shock rupture, ~1300 km long and ~200 km wide, propagated from north of Sumatra to Andaman - Nicobar Islands; the slow rupture generated Tsunami which killed about 300,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake is located at 3.90N and 94.260E with a focal depth at 28 km (USGS). This mega seismic event triggered giant tsunamis that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and even the east coast of Africa. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in India, in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Air-base in the Car- Nicobar island was totally devastated by the tsunami and killed about 200 people. Macroseismic survey was carried out by different teams of GSI in North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Havelock Hut Bay and also in the Nicobar Islands. A maximum intensity VIII was recorded in the Andaman Islands. The mega thrust event was followed by an intense aftershock activity spreading over an area extending between 30-140N along the Andaman - Nicobar - Sumatra Island arc region. The aftershocks are distributed northwards from the epicenter of the main shock suggesting a unilateral rupture propagation. The aftershock (M >4.5) area covers a length of about 1300 km and a width of about 200 km, in a 'banana' shape. The national network (IMD) recorded almost all aftershocks M >5.0; about 350 were recorded till 31.01.2005. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) deployed six temporary seismograph stations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and also in Havelok and Narkunda (volcanic) islands. About 20,000 aftershocks (M >3.0) were recorded until end of March, 2005. About 1000 aftershocks (M >3.0) located by the GSI network until January 31, 2005

  16. Geological perspectives of shallow slow earthquakes deduced from deformation in subduction mélanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, K.; Saishu, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Nishiyama, N.; Otsubo, M.; Ohta, K.; Yamashita, Y.; Ito, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow (< 15 km depth) slow earthquakes are important to understand, as they occur along the subduction thrust where devastating tsunamis are generated. Geophysical studies have revealed that shallow slow earthquakes are not restricted to specific temperature conditions and depths but occur in regions of high fluid pressure. In the Nankai subduction zone, the shallow slow slip appears to trigger tremor and very-low-frequency-earthquake. However, the geologic perspectives for shallow slow earthquakes remain enigmatic. The Makimine mélange in the Late Cretaceous Shimanto accretionary complex of southwest Japan was formed during the subduction of young oceanic plate. Within the mélange, the quartz-filled veins and viscous shear zones are concentrated in the zones of 10 to 60 m-thick. The veins consist of shear veins showing low-angle thrust or normal faulting mechanisms and extension veins parallel or at high angle to mélange foliation. The geometrical relationship between shear and extension veins indicates that shear slip and tensile fracturing occur by small differential stress under elevated fluid pressure. The shear and extension veins typically show crack-seal textures defined by the solid inclusions bands. The time scale of each crack-seal event, which is determined from the quartz kinetics considering inclusion band spacing and vein length, is a few years. The shear slip increments estimated from the spacing of inclusions bands at dilational jogs are 0.1 mm. The viscous shear is accommodated by pressure solution creep and consistently shows low-angle thrust shear sense. These geologic features are suggested to explain seismogenic environment for shallow slow earthquakes. The shear veins and viscous shear zones showing low-angle thrust faulting mechanism could represent episodic tremor and slip, while the shear veins showing low-angle normal faulting mechanism may represent the tremor that occurred after the passage of slow slip front.

  17. Kinematic Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, a MW6.9 thrust earthquake in northeast Japan, using Strong Motion Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (MJMA7.2) on June 14, 2008, is a thrust type inland crustal earthquake, which occurred in northeastern Honshu, Japan. In order to see strong motion generation process of this event, the source rupture process is estimated by the kinematic waveform inversion using strong motion data. Strong motion data of the K-NET and KiK-net stations and Aratozawa Dam are used. These stations are located 3-94 km from the epicenter. Original acceleration time histories are integrated into velocity and band- pass filtered between 0.05 and 1 Hz. For obtaining the detailed source rupture process, appropriate velocity structure model for Green's functions should be used. We estimated one dimensional velocity structure model for each strong motion station by waveform modeling of aftershock records. The elastic wave velocity, density, and Q-values for four sedimentary layers are assumed following previous studies. The thickness of each sedimentary layer depends on the station, which is estimated to fit the observed aftershock's waveforms by the optimization using the genetic algorithm. A uniform layered structure model is assumed for crust and upper mantle below the seismic bedrock. We succeeded to get a reasonable velocity structure model for each station to give a good fit of the main S-wave part in the observation of aftershocks. The source rupture process of the mainshock is estimated by the linear kinematic waveform inversion using multiple time windows (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). A fault plane model is assumed following the moment tensor solution by F-net, NIED. The strike and dip angle is 209° and 51°, respectively. The rupture starting point is fixed at the hypocenter located by the JMA. The obtained source model shows a large slip area in the shallow portion of the fault plane approximately 6 km southwest of the hypocenter. The rupture of the asperity finishes within about 9 s. This large slip area corresponds to the area with surface

  18. Geological and seismotectonic characteristics of the broader area of the October 15, 2016, earthquake (Ioannina, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlides, Spyros; Ganas, Athanasios; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Sboras, Sotiris; Valkaniotis, Sotiris; Papathanassiou, George; Thomaidou, Efi; Georgiadis, George

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the seismotectonic setting of the moderate earthquake of October 15, 2016, Μw=5.3 (or 5.5), in the broader area of ​​Ioannina (Epirus, Greece). In this region the problem of reviewing the geological structure with new and modern methods and techniques, in relation to the geological-seismological evidence of the recent seismic sequence, is addressed. The seismic stimulation of landslides and other soil deformations is also examined. The earthquake is interpreted as indicative of a geotectonic environment of lithospheric compression, which comprises the backbone of Pindos mountain range. It starts from southern Albania and traverses western Greece, in an almost N-S direction. This is a seismically active region with a history of strong and moderate earthquakes, such as these of 1969 (Ms=5.8), 1960 (South Albania, M> 6.5, maximum intensity VIII+) and 1967 (Arta-Ioannina, M = 6.4, maximum intensity IX). The recent earthquake is associated with a known fault zone as recorded and identified in the Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS, www.gredass.unife.it). Focal mechanism data indicate that the seismic fault is reverse or high-angle thrust, striking NNW-SSE and dipping to the E. The upper part of Epirus crust (brittle), which have an estimated maximum thickness of 10 km, do not show any significant seismicity. The deeper seismicity of 10-20 km, such as this of the recent earthquake, is caused by deep crustal processes with reverse - high-angle thrust faults. We suggest that the case of this earthquake is peculiar, complex and requires careful study and attention. The precise determination of the seismogenic fault and its dimensions, although not possible to be identified by direct field observations, can be assessed through the study of seismological and geodetic data (GPS, satellite images, stress transfer), as well as its seismic behavior. Field work in the broader area, in combination with instrumental data, can contribute to

  19. Earthquake in Hindu Kush Region, Afghanistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-27

    On Oct. 26, 2015, NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of northeastern Afghanistan where a magnitude 7.5 earthquake struck the Hindu Kush region. The earthquake's epicenter was at a depth of 130 miles (210 kilometers), on a probable shallowly dipping thrust fault. At this location, the Indian subcontinent moves northward and collides with Eurasia, subducting under the Asian continent, and raising the highest mountains in the world. This type of earthquake is common in the area: a similar earthquake occurred 13 years ago about 12 miles (20 kilometers) away. This perspective image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, looking southwest, shows the hypocenter with a star. The image was acquired July 8, 2015, and is located near 36.4 degrees north, 70.7 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20035

  20. Sliding history and energy budget recorded in a frozen mantle earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, Thomas P.; Labrousse, Loïc; Hilairet, Nadège; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    In the Balmuccia massif (NW Italy), pseudotachylytes (PST) are found within a spinel lherzolite. Coming from the solidification of the melt generated during seismic rupture, these rocks constitute a geological record of fossilized earthquakes. Here, combining field observations, Raman spectrometry and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD), we decipher the sliding history of an ancient Mw >6 earthquake. The earthquake fault displays a 1-1.2 m strike-slip component. The average width of the principal fault plane is about 5 mm. A dense network of thin (20-200 µm) faults and injection veins decorates this principal slip surface. Ultramylonitic faults, filled with olivine (0.2-2 µm), pyroxenes and Al-spinel exhibit strong olivine fabric, with (010) planes parallel to the sliding of the fault and [100] direction parallel to the slip direction. The EBSD pole figure for the [100] direction shows an angle of about 40° with respect to Z-axis, indicating a non-negligible dip-slip component of 1.2-1.5 m, i.e. a probable total relative displacement of 1.6-1.9 m. The olivine fabric is consistent with partial melting and/or high temperature (> 1250 °C) diffusion-accommodated grain boundary sliding, which proves: 1) that the ultramylonite originates from a recrystallized melt; 2) that the earthquake occurred at a depth greater than 35 km (stable Al-spinel, no plagioclase). Raman spectrometry in micrometric injectites reveals amorphous material, with water content of 1-2 wt%, structurally bounded. Assuming a peak temperature of 1600-1800°C during sliding, the melt viscosity was < 1 Pa s. Fracture surface energy and thermally dissipated energy are estimated from fracture density and melt volume (including injected volume) around 50 kJ/m2 and 50 MJ/m2 respectively. Considering a metric displacement, an average melting width of 1 cm and high normal stress, > 1 GPa, this yields a dynamic friction coefficient << 0.1, which demonstrates that complete fault lubrication occurred

  1. Using giant piston coring within IODP to track past earthquakes in the sedimentary record along the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    "Submarine paleoseismology" is a promising approach to investigate deposits from the deep sea, where earthquakes leave traces preserved in stratigraphic succession. The concept of studying sedimentary event deposits for reconstructing past earthquake history and related impacts to the marine environment is increasingly being applied in various settings. However, at present we lack comprehensive data sets that allow conclusive distinctions between quality and completeness of the paleoseismic archives, as they may relate to different sediment transport, erosion and deposition processes vs. variability of intrinsic seismogenic behavior across different segments. Nevertheless, many recent studies, which are mostly based on conventional 10-m-long cores, demonstrate the potential of the research concept. With ECORD opening their mission specific platform approach to include giant piston coring within IODP, a new horizon has opened up for multi-coring expeditions fully dedicated to the rapidly growing field of submarine paleoseismology. IODP is uniquely positioned to address the complex feedback mechanisms between earthquake shaking and its manifestation in the marine archive, decipher related mass fluxes from the shallow to the deep see and to eventually provide longer records to constrain earthquake recurrence far beyond historical catalogues. Initially building on what sedimentary deposits were generated from the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the Japan Trench is a promising study area to investigate earthquake-triggered sediment remobilization processes and how they become embedded in the stratigraphic record, and has thus been identified as a primary target for proposing giant piston coring within IODP. In this presentation we summarize recent results and available site survey data collected since the 2011 earthquake, comprising >50, 5-10m long piston and gravity cores from (i) trench-fill and graben-fill basin across the entire trench axis from 36° to 40.3° N (ii

  2. Statistical characteristics of seismo-ionospheric GPS TEC disturbances prior to global Mw ≥ 5.0 earthquakes (1998-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Munawar; Jin, Shuanggen

    2015-12-01

    Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies are still challenging and unclear to obtain and understand, particularly for different earthquake magnitudes and focal depths as well as types of fault. In this paper, the seismo-ionospheric disturbances (SID) related to global earthquakes with 1492 Mw ≥ 5.0 from 1998 to 2014 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC) of GPS global ionosphere maps (GIM). Statistical analysis of 10-day TEC data before global Mw ≥ 5.0 earthquakes shows significant enhancement 5 days before an earthquake of Mw ≥ 6.0 at a 95% confidence level. Earthquakes with a focal depth of less than 60 km and Mw ≥ 6.0 are presumably the root of deviation in the ionospheric TEC because earthquake breeding zones have gigantic quantities of energy at shallower focal depths. Increased anomalous TEC is recorded in cumulative percentages beyond Mw = 5.5. Sharpness in cumulative percentages is evident in seismo-ionospheric disturbance prior to Mw ≥ 6.0 earthquakes. Seismo-ionospheric disturbances related to strike slip and thrust earthquakes are noticeable for magnitude Mw6.0-7.0 earthquakes. The relative values reveal high ratios (up to 2) and low ratios (up to -0.5) within 5 days prior to global earthquakes for positive and negative anomalies. The anomalous patterns in TEC related to earthquakes are possibly due to the coupling of high amounts of energy from earthquake breeding zones of higher magnitude and shallower focal depth.

  3. Stress change and fault interaction from a two century-long earthquake sequence in the central Tell Atlas (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariche, Jughurta; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Ayadi, Abdelhakim; Salah Boughacha, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    We study the role and distribution of stress transfer that may trigger destructive earthquakes in the Central Tell Atlas (Algeria). A sequence of historical events reaching Ms 7.3 and related stress tensors with thrust faulting mechanisms allows the modeling of the Coulomb Failure Function (deltaCFF). We explore here the physical parameters for a stress transfer along the Tell thrust-and-fold belt taking into account an eastward trending earthquake migration from 1891 to 2003. The Computation integrated the seismicity rate in the deltaCFF computation, which is in good agreement with the migration seismicity. The stress transfer progression and increase of 0.1 to 0.8 bar are obtained on fault planes at 7-km-depth with a friction coefficient µ' 0.4 showing stress loading lobes on targeted coseismic fault zone and location of stress shadow across other thrust-and-fold regions. The Coulomb modeling suggests a distinction in earthquake triggering between zones with moderate-sized and large earthquake ruptures. Recent InSAR and levelling studies and aftershocks that document postseismic deformation of major earthquakes are integrated into the static stress change calculations. The presence of fluid and related poroelastic deformation can be considered as an open question with regards to their contribution to major earthquakes and their implications in the seismic hazard assessment of northern Algeria.

  4. Boundary element analysis of active mountain building and stress heterogeneity proximal to the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. B.; Meade, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on Earth with ten peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest. The geometrically complex fault system at the Himalayan Range Front produces both great relief and great earthquakes, like the recent Mw=7.8 Nepal rupture. Here, we develop geometrically accurate elastic boundary element models of the fault system at the Himalayan Range Front including the Main Central Thrust, South Tibetan Detachment, Main Frontal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust, the basal detachment, and surface topography. Using these models, we constrain the tectonic driving forces and frictional fault strength required to explain Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These models provide a characterization of the heterogeneity of internal stress in the region surrounding the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

  5. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

    2008-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Earthquakes and depleted gas reservoirs: which comes first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Donda, F.; Valensise, G.

    2015-10-01

    While scientists are paying increasing attention to the seismicity potentially induced by hydrocarbon exploitation, so far, little is known about the reverse problem, i.e. the impact of active faulting and earthquakes on hydrocarbon reservoirs. The 20 and 29 May 2012 earthquakes in Emilia, northern Italy (Mw 6.1 and 6.0), raised concerns among the public for being possibly human-induced, but also shed light on the possible use of gas wells as a marker of the seismogenic potential of an active fold and thrust belt. We compared the location, depth and production history of 455 gas wells drilled along the Ferrara-Romagna arc, a large hydrocarbon reserve in the southeastern Po Plain (northern Italy), with the location of the inferred surface projection of the causative faults of the 2012 Emilia earthquakes and of two pre-instrumental damaging earthquakes. We found that these earthquake sources fall within a cluster of sterile wells, surrounded by productive wells at a few kilometres' distance. Since the geology of the productive and sterile areas is quite similar, we suggest that past earthquakes caused the loss of all natural gas from the potential reservoirs lying above their causative faults. To validate our hypothesis we performed two different statistical tests (binomial and Monte Carlo) on the relative distribution of productive and sterile wells, with respect to seismogenic faults. Our findings have important practical implications: (1) they may allow major seismogenic sources to be singled out within large active thrust systems; (2) they suggest that reservoirs hosted in smaller anticlines are more likely to be intact; and (3) they also suggest that in order to minimize the hazard of triggering significant earthquakes, all new gas storage facilities should use exploited reservoirs rather than sterile hydrocarbon traps or aquifers.

  7. Analysing the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes with recent instrumentally recorded aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, K.; Hough, S.E.; Bilham, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although dynamic stress changes associated with the passage of seismic waves are thought to trigger earthquakes at great distances, more than 60 per cent of all aftershocks appear to be triggered by static stress changes within two rupture lengths of a mainshock. The observed distribution of aftershocks may thus be used to infer details of mainshock rupture geometry. Aftershocks following large mid-continental earthquakes, where background stressing rates are low, are known to persist for centuries, and models based on rate-and-state friction laws provide theoretical support for this inference. Most past studies of the New Madrid earthquake sequence have indeed assumed ongoing microseismicity to be a continuing aftershock sequence. Here we use instrumentally recorded aftershock locations and models of elastic stress change to develop a kinematically consistent rupture scenario for three of the four largest earthquakes of the 1811-1812 New Madrid sequence. Our results suggest that these three events occurred on two contiguous faults, producing lobes of increased stress near fault intersections and end points, in areas where present-day microearthquakes have been hitherto interpreted as evidence of primary mainshock rupture. We infer that the remaining New Madrid mainshock may have occurred more than 200 km north of this region in the Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois-an area that contains abundant modern microseismicity, and where substantial liquefaction was documented by historic accounts. Our results suggest that future large midplate earthquake sequences may extend over a much broader region than previously suspected.

  8. Near field earthquake sources scenarios and related tsunamis on the French-Italian Riviera (Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroque, Christophe; Ioualalen, Mansour; Scotti, Oona

    2014-05-01

    The large system of thrust faults recently evidenced at the foot of the northern Ligurian margin accommodates the inversion of this ancient passive margin since at least 5 Ma (Messinian times). At depth, these faults are certainly connected to a major northward dipping thrust that accounts for the major part of the seismicity in the northern Ligurian Sea. The deformations of the Quaternary sediments along the faults attest to a compressive tectonic regime consistent with the focal mechanisms of earthquakes. The major event in the area (the Ligurian earthquake, 1887/02/23, Mw 6.7-6.9 and the related tsunami) could result from the activation of part of the Ligurian thrust. Starting from the Ligurian earthquake source characteristics (strike: N55°E, dip: 16°N, length: 35 km, width: 17 km, co-seismic slip: 1.5 m, focal depth: 15 km, Mw 6.9), we have built an exhaustive set of earthquake scenarios involving the 80 km long Ligurian thrust. (1) Two of these earthquake scenarios ruptured respectively the eastern (offshore Imperia) and western (offshore Nice) part of the Ligurian thrust. (2) As these scenarios must scan the range of potential events in accordance with the geology, a second group of scenarios tests an 80 km long rupture of the entire Ligurian thrust with different strikes (N55°E and N70°E) and different widths of the faulting surface (17 km and 27 km) and then co-seismic slips of 2 m and 3.3 m, respectively. As the Ligurian coast is a densely populated and industrial area, the vulnerability is high. We want to stress here that we are more concerned with tsunamis triggered by local earthquakes. This is because, considering their arrival times (a few minutes), the risk prevention cannot be handled by existing tsunami warning system. For all scenarios we evaluate the tsunami coastal impact. The spatial distribution of the maximum wave height (MWH) is provided with a tentative identification of the processes that are responsible for it. The predictions

  9. The 2009 Samoa-Tonga great earthquake triggered doublet.

    PubMed

    Lay, Thorne; Ammon, Charles J; Kanamori, Hiroo; Rivera, Luis; Koper, Keith D; Hutko, Alexander R

    2010-08-19

    Great earthquakes (having seismic magnitudes of at least 8) usually involve abrupt sliding of rock masses at a boundary between tectonic plates. Such interplate ruptures produce dynamic and static stress changes that can activate nearby intraplate aftershocks, as is commonly observed in the trench-slope region seaward of a great subduction zone thrust event. The earthquake sequence addressed here involves a rare instance in which a great trench-slope intraplate earthquake triggered extensive interplate faulting, reversing the typical pattern and broadly expanding the seismic and tsunami hazard. On 29 September 2009, within two minutes of the initiation of a normal faulting event with moment magnitude 8.1 in the outer trench-slope at the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, two major interplate underthrusting subevents (both with moment magnitude 7.8), with total moment equal to a second great earthquake of moment magnitude 8.0, ruptured the nearby subduction zone megathrust. The collective faulting produced tsunami waves with localized regions of about 12 metres run-up that claimed 192 lives in Samoa, American Samoa and Tonga. Overlap of the seismic signals obscured the fact that distinct faults separated by more than 50 km had ruptured with different geometries, with the triggered thrust faulting only being revealed by detailed seismic wave analyses. Extensive interplate and intraplate aftershock activity was activated over a large region of the northern Tonga subduction zone.

  10. Discrimination of Man-Made Events and Tectonic Earthquakes in Utah Using Data Recorded at Local Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibi, R.; Young, C. J.; Koper, K. D.; Pankow, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic event discrimination methods exploit the differing characteristics—in terms of amplitude and/or frequency content—of the generated seismic phases among the event types to be classified. Most of the commonly used seismic discrimination methods are designed for regional data recorded at distances of about 200 to 2000 km. Relatively little attention has focused on discriminants for local distances (< 200 km), the range at which the smallest events are recorded. Short-period fundamental mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) are commonly observed on seismograms of man-made seismic events, and shallow, naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes recorded at local distances. We leverage the well-known notion that Rg amplitude decreases dramatically with increasing event depth to propose a new depth discriminant based on Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios. The approach is successfully used to discriminate shallow events from deeper tectonic earthquakes in the Utah region recorded at local distances (< 150 km) by the University of Utah Seismographic Stations (UUSS) regional seismic network. Using Mood's median test, we obtained probabilities of nearly zero that the median Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios are the same between shallow events on one side (including both shallow tectonic earthquakes and man-made events), and deeper earthquakes on the other side, suggesting that there is a statistically significant difference in the estimated Rg-to-Sg ratios between the two populations. We also observed consistent disparities between the different types of shallow events (e.g., explosions vs. mining-induced events), implying that it may be possible to separate the sub-populations that make up this group. This suggests that using local distance Rg-to-Sg spectral amplitude ratios one can not only discriminate shallow from deeper events, but may also be able to discriminate different populations of shallow events. We also experimented with Pg-to-Sg amplitude ratios in multi

  11. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  12. Source Mechanisms of Destructive Tsunamigenic Earthquakes occurred along the Major Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Taymaz, Tuncay; Ulutaş, Ergin

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones, where an oceanic plate is subducted down into the mantle by tectonic forces, are potential tsunami locations. Many big, destructive and tsunamigenic earthquakes (Mw > 7.5) and high amplitude tsunami waves are observed along the major subduction zones particularly near Indonesia, Japan, Kuril and Aleutan Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Southern America. Not all earthquakes are tsunamigenic; in order to generate a tsunami, the earthquake must occur under or near the ocean, be large, and create significant vertical movements of the seafloor. It is also known that tsunamigenic earthquakes release their energy over a couple of minutes, have long source time functions and slow-smooth ruptures. In this study, we performed point-source inversions by using teleseismic long-period P- and SH- and broad-band P-waveforms recorded by the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) and the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) stations. We obtained source mechanism parameters and finite-fault slip distributions of recent destructive ten earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7.5) by comparing the shapes and amplitudes of long period P- and SH-waveforms, recorded in the distance range of 30° - 90°, with synthetic waveforms. We further obtained finite-fault rupture histories of those earthquakes to determine the faulting area (fault length and width), maximum displacement, rupture duration and stress drop. We applied a new back-projection method that uses teleseismic P-waveforms to integrate the direct P-phase with reflected phases from structural discontinuities near the source, and customized it to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic energy release of earthquakes. Inversion results exhibit that recent tsunamigenic earthquakes show dominantly thrust faulting mechanisms with small amount of strike-slip components. Their focal depths are also relatively shallow (h < 40 km). As an example, the September 16, 2015 Illapel (Chile) earthquake (Mw: 8.3; h: 26 km

  13. The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

    2004-12-01

    The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better

  14. Geodetic Imaging of the Earthquake Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaopeng

    In this dissertation I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) to recover crustal deformation caused by earthquake cycle processes. The studied areas span three different types of tectonic boundaries: a continental thrust earthquake (M7.9 Wenchuan, China) at the eastern margin of the Tibet plateau, a mega-thrust earthquake (M8.8 Maule, Chile) at the Chile subduction zone, and the interseismic deformation of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS). A new L-band radar onboard a Japanese satellite ALOS allows us to image high-resolution surface deformation in vegetated areas, which is not possible with older C-band radar systems. In particular, both the Wenchuan and Maule InSAR analyses involved L-band ScanSAR interferometry which had not been attempted before. I integrated a large InSAR dataset with dense GPS networks over the entire SAFS. The integration approach features combining the long-wavelength deformation from GPS with the short-wavelength deformation from InSAR through a physical model. The recovered fine-scale surface deformation leads us to better understand the underlying earthquake cycle processes. The geodetic slip inversion reveals that the fault slip of the Wenchuan earthquake is maximum near the surface and decreases with depth. The coseismic slip model of the Maule earthquake constrains the down-dip extent of the fault slip to be at 45 km depth, similar to the Moho depth. I inverted for the slip rate on 51 major faults of the SAFS using Green's functions for a 3-dimensional earthquake cycle model that includes kinematically prescribed slip events for the past earthquakes since the year 1000. A 60 km thick plate model with effective viscosity of 10 19 Pa · s is preferred based on the geodetic and geological observations. The slip rates recovered from the plate models are compared to the half-space model. The InSAR observation reveals that the creeping section of the SAFS is partially locked. This high

  15. Paleoseismic investigations at the Cal thrust fault, Mendoza, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Schmidt, Silke; Hetzel, Ralf; Mingorance, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Along the active mountain front of the Andean Precordillera between 30°S and 34°S in western Argentina several earthquakes occurred in recent times, including a 7.0 Ms event in 1861 which destroyed the city of Mendoza and killed two thirds of its population. The 1861 event and two other earthquakes (Ms = 5.7 in 1929 and Ms = 5.6 in 1967) were generated on the Cal thrust fault, which extends over a distance of 31 km north-south and runs straight through the center of Mendoza. In the city, which has now more than 1 million inhabitants, the fault forms a 3-m-high fault scarp. Although the Cal thrust fault poses a serious seismic hazard, the paleoseismologic history of this fault and its long-term slip rate remains largely unknown (Mingorance, 2006). We present the first results of an ongoing paleoseismologic study of the Cal thrust at a site located 5 km north of Mendoza. Here, the fault offsets Late Holocene alluvial fan sediments by 2.5 m vertically and exhibits a well developed fault scarp. A 15-m-long and 2-3-m-deep trench across the scarp reveals three east-vergent folds that we interpret to have formed during three earthquakes. Successive retrodeformation of the two youngest folds suggests that the most recent event (presumably the 1861 earthquake) caused ~1.1 m of vertical offset and ~1.8 m of horizontal shortening. For the penultimate event we obtain a vertical offset of ~0.7 m and a horizontal shortening of ~1.9 m. A vertical displacement of ~0.7 m observed on a steeply west-dipping fault may be associated with an older event. The cumulative vertical offset of 2.5 m for the three inferred events is in excellent agreement with the height of the scarp. Based on the retrodeformation of the trench deposits the fault plane dips ~25° to the west. In the deepest part of the trench evidence for even older seismic events is preserved beneath an angular unconformity that was formed during a period of erosion and pre-dates the present-day scarp. Dating of samples to

  16. Mechanics of Multifault Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, J. M.; Oskin, M. E.; Teran, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.2 produced the most complex rupture ever documented on the Pacific-North American plate margin, and the network of high- and low-angle faults activated in the event record systematic changes in kinematics with fault orientation. Individual faults have a broad and continuous spectrum of slip sense ranging from endmember dextral strike slip to normal slip, and even faults with thrust sense of dip slip were commonly observed in the aftershock sequence. Patterns of coseismic slip are consistent with three-dimensional constrictional strain and show that integrated transtensional shearing can be accommodated in a single earthquake. Stress inversions of coseismic surface rupture and aftershock focal mechanisms define two coaxial, but permuted stress states. The maximum (σ1) and intermediate (σ2) principal stresses are close in magnitude, but flip orientations due to topography- and density-controlled gradients in lithostatic load along the length of the rupture. Although most large earthquakes throughout the world activate slip on multiple faults, the mechanical conditions of their genesis remain poorly understood. Our work attempts to answer several key questions. 1) Why do complex fault systems exist? They must do something that simple, optimally-oriented fault systems cannot because the two types of faults are commonly located in close proximity. 2) How are faults with diverse orientations and slip senses prepared throughout the interseismic period to fail spontaneously together in a single earthquake? 3) Can a single stress state produce multi-fault failure? 4) Are variations in pore pressure, friction and cohesion required to produce simultaneous rupture? 5) How is the fabric of surface rupture affected by variations in orientation, kinematics, total geologic slip and fault zone architecture?

  17. Coseismic gravitational potential energy changes induced by global earthquakes during 1976 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Chao, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    We compute the coseismic change in the gravitational potential energy Eg using the spherical-Earth elastic dislocation theory and either the fault model treated as a point source or the finite fault model. The rate of the accumulative coseismic Eg loss produced by historical earthquakes from 1976 to 2016 (about 4, 2000 events) using the GCMT catalogue are estimated to be on the order of -2.1×1020 J/a, or -6.7 TW (1 TW = 1012 watt), amounting to 15% in the total terrestrial heat flow. The energy loss is dominated by the thrust-faulting, especially the mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.0) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.1). It's notable that the very deep-focus earthquakes, the 1994 Bolivia earthquake (Mw 8.2) and the 2013 Okhotsk earthquake (Mw 8.3), produced significant overall coseismic Eg gain according to our calculation. The accumulative coseismic Eg is mainly released in the mantle with a decrease tendency, and the core of the Earth also lost the coseismic Eg but with a relatively smaller magnitude. By contrast, the crust of the Earth gains Eg cumulatively because of the coseismic deformations. We further investigate the tectonic signature in these coseismic crustal gravitational potential energy changes in the complex tectonic zone, such as Taiwan region and the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Uranium/Thorium Dating and Growth Laminae Counting of Stalagmites Reveal a Record of Major Earthquakes in the Midwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Lundstrom, C.; Panno, S.; Hackley, K. C.; Fouke, B. W.; Curry, B.

    2009-12-01

    The recurrence interval of large New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) earthquakes is uncertain because of the limited number and likely incomplete nature of the record of dated seismic events. Data on paleoseismicity in this area is necessary for refining estimates of a recurrence interval for these earthquakes and for characterizing the geophysical nature of the NMSZ. Studies of the paleoseismic history of the NMSZ have previously used liquefaction features and flood plain deposits along the Mississippi River to estimate recurrence interval with considerable uncertainties. More precise estimates of the number and ages of paleoseismic events would enhance the ability of federal, state, and local agencies to make critical preparedness decisions. Initiation of new speleothems (cave deposits) has been shown in several localities to record large earthquake events. Our ongoing work in caves of southwestern Illinois, Missouri, Indiana and Arkansas has used both U/Th age dating techniques and growth laminae counting of actively growing stalagmites to determine the age of initiation of stalagmites in caves across the Midwestern U.S. These age initiations cluster around two known events, the great NMSZ earthquakes of 1811-1812 and the Missouri earthquake of 1917, suggesting that cave deposits in this region constitute a unique record of paleo-seismic history of the NMSZ. Furthermore, the U-Th disequilibria growth laminae ages of young, white stalagmites and of older stalagmites on which they grew, plus published Holocene stalagmite ages of initiation and regrowth from Missouri caves, are all coincident with suspected NMSZ earthquakes based on liquefaction and other paleoseimic techniques. We hypothesize that these speleothems were initiated by earthquake-induced opening/closing of fracture-controlled flowpaths in the ceilings of cave passages.

  19. Shallow depth of seismogenic coupling in southern Mexico: implications for the maximum size of earthquakes in the subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Sánchez, Osvaldo

    1996-01-01

    Studies of locally recorded microearthquakes and the centroidal depths of the largest earthquakes analyzed using teleseismic data show that the maximum depth of thrust faulting along the Mexican subduction zone is anomalously shallow. This observed maximum depth of about 25 ± 5 km is about half of that observed in most subduction zones of the world. A leveling line that crosses the rupture zone of the 19 September 1985 Michoacan event was revisited after the earthquake and it shows anomalously low deformation during the earthquake. The comparison between the observed coseismic uplift and dislocation models of the seismogenic interplate contact that extend to depths ranging from 20 to 40 km shows that the maximum depth at which seismic slip took place is about 20 km. This unusually shallow and narrow zone of seismogenic coupling apparently results in the occurrence of thrust events along the Mexican subduction zone that are smaller than would be expected for a trench where a relatively young slab subducts at a rapid rate of relative motion. A comparison with the Chilean subduction zone shows that the plate interface in Mexico is half that in Chile, not only in the down-dip extent of the seismogenic zone of plate contact, but also in the distance of the trench from the coast and in the thickness of the upper continental plate. It appears that the narrow plate contact produced by this particular plate geometry in Mexico is the controlling variable defining the size of the largest characteristic earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone.

  20. Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simila, G.; McNally, K.; Quintero, R.; Segura, J.

    2006-12-01

    The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (50 years) for large (Ms 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co-collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. Numerous international investigators are also studying this region with GPS and seismic stations (US, Japan, Germany, Switzerland, etc.). Also, there are various strong motion instruments operated by local engineers, for building purposes and mainly concentrated in the population centers of the Central Valley. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when

  1. Distinguishing thrust sequences in gravity-driven fold and thrust belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Marco, S.

    2018-04-01

    Piggyback or foreland-propagating thrust sequences, where younger thrusts develop in the footwalls of existing thrusts, are generally assumed to be the typical order of thrust development in most orogenic settings. However, overstep or 'break-back' sequences, where later thrusts develop above and in the hangingwalls of earlier thrusts, may potentially form during cessation of movement in gravity-driven mass transport deposits (MTDs). In this study, we provide a detailed outcrop-based analysis of such an overstep thrust sequence developed in an MTD in the southern Dead Sea Basin. Evidence that may be used to discriminate overstep thrusting from piggyback thrust sequences within the gravity-driven fold and thrust belt includes upright folds and forethrusts that are cut by younger overlying thrusts. Backthrusts form ideal markers that are also clearly offset and cut by overlying younger forethrusts. Portions of the basal detachment to the thrust system are folded and locally imbricated in footwall synclines below forethrust ramps, and these geometries also support an overstep sequence. However, new 'short-cut' basal detachments develop below these synclines, indicating that movement continued on the basal detachment rather than it being abandoned as in classic overstep sequences. Further evidence for 'synchronous thrusting', where movement on more than one thrust occurs at the same time, is provided by displacement patterns on sequences of thrust ramp imbricates that systematically increases downslope towards the toe of the MTD. Older thrusts that initiate downslope in the broadly overstep sequence continue to move and therefore accrue greater displacements during synchronous thrusting. Our study provides a template to help distinguish different thrust sequences in both orogenic settings and gravity-driven surficial systems, with displacement patterns potentially being imaged in seismic sections across offshore MTDs.

  2. Fluid-rock interaction recorded in fault rocks of the Nobeoka Thrust, fossilized megasplay fault in an ancient accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Fukuchi, R.; Kitamura, Y.; Kimura, G.; Hamada, Y.; Ashi, J.; Ishikawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between faulting and fluid behavior has been in debate. In this study, we clarify the fluid-rock interaction in the Nobeoka Thrust by major/trace element composition analysis using the boring core of the Nobeoka Thrust, an exhumed analogue of an ancient megasplay fault in Shimanto accretionary complex, southwest Japan. The hanging wall and the footwall of the Nobeoka Thrust show difference in lithology and metamorphic grade, and their maximum burial temperature is estimated from vitrinite reflectance analysis to be 320 330°C and 250 270°C, respectively (Kondo et al., 2005). The fault zone was formed in a fluid-rich condition, as evidenced by warm fluid migration suggested by fluid inclusion analysis (Kondo et al., 2005), implosion brecciation accompanied by carbonate precipitation followed by formation of pseudotachylyte (Okamoto et al., 2006), ankerite veins coseismically formed under reducing conditions (Yamaguchi et al., 2011), and quartz veins recording stress rotation in seismic cycles (Otsubo et al., 2016). In this study, first we analyzed the major/trace element composition across the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Nobeoka Thrust by using fragments of borehole cores penetrated through the Nobeoka Thrust. Many elements fluctuated just above the PSZ, whereas K increase and Na, Si decrease suggesting illitization of plagioclase, as well as positive anomalies in Li and Cs were found within the PSZ. For more detail understanding, we observed polished slabs and thin sections of the PSZ. Although grain size reduction of deformed clast and weak development of foliation were observed entirely in the PSZ by macroscopic observation, remarkable development of composite planar fabric nor evidence of friction melting were absent. In this presentation, we show the result of major/trace element composition corresponding to the internal structure of PSZ, and discuss fluid-rock interaction and its impact to megasplay fault activity in subduction zones.

  3. Frontal compression along the Apennines thrust system: The Emilia 2012 example from seismicity to crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Improta, Luigi; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Moretti, Milena; Govoni, Aladino; Di Bona, Massimo; Margheriti, Lucia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Nardi, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of the Apennines thrust-and-fold belt is related to heterogeneous process of subduction and continental delamination that generates extension within the mountain range and compression on the outer front of the Adria lithosphere. While normal faulting earthquakes diffusely occur along the mountain chain, the sparse and poor seismicity in the compressional front does not permit to resolve the ambiguity that still exists about which structure accommodates the few mm/yr of convergence observed by geodetic data. In this study, we illustrate the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence that is the most significant series of moderate-to-large earthquakes developed during the past decades on the compressional front of the Apennines. Accurately located aftershocks, along with P-wave and Vp/Vs tomographic models, clearly reveal the geometry of the thrust system, buried beneath the Quaternary sediments of the Po Valley. The seismic sequence ruptured two distinct adjacent thrust faults, whose different dip, steep or flat, accounts for the development of the arc-like shape of the compressional front. The first shock of May 20 (Mw 6.0) developed on the middle Ferrara thrust that has a southward dip of about 30°. The second shock of May 29 (Mw 5.8) ruptured the Mirandola thrust that we define as a steep dipping (50-60°) pre-existing (Permo-Triassic) basement normal fault inverted during compression. The overall geometry of the fault system is controlled by heterogeneity of the basement inherited from the older extension. We also observe that the rupture directivity during the two main-shocks and the aftershocks concentration correlate with low Poisson ratio volumes, probably indicating that portions of the fault have experienced intense micro-damage.

  4. Fault structure in the Nepal Himalaya as illuminated by aftershocks of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake recorded by the local NAMASTE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Mendoza, M.; LI, B.; Karplus, M. S.; Nabelek, J.; Sapkota, S. N.; Adhikari, L. B.; Klemperer, S. L.; Velasco, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), that accommodates majority of the plate motion between Indian and Eurasian plate, is being debated for a long time. Different models have been proposed; some of them are significantly different from others. Obtaining a well constrained geometry of the MHT is challenging mainly because of the lack of high quality data, inherent low resolution and non-uniqueness of the models. We used a dense local seismic network - NAMASTE - to record and analyze a prolific aftershock sequence following the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake, and determine geometry of the MHT constrained by precisely located well-constrained aftershocks. We detected and located more than 15,000 aftershocks of the Gorkha earthquake using Hypoinverse and then relatively relocated using HypoDD algorithm. We selected about 7,000 earthquakes that are particularly well constrained to analyze the geometry of the megathrust. They illuminate fault structure in this part of the Himalaya with unprecedented detail. The MHT shows two subhorizontal planes connected by a duplex structure. The duplex structure is characterized by multiple steeply dipping planes. In addition, we used four large-aperture continental-scale seismic arrays at teleseismic distances to backproject high-frequency seismic radiation. Moreover, we combined all arrays to significantly increase the resolution and detectability. We imaged rupture propagation of the mainshock showing complexity near the end of the rupture that might help arresting of the rupture to the east. Furthermore, we continuously scanned teleseismic data for two weeks starting from immediately after the mainshock to detect and locate aftershock activity only using the arrays. Spatial pattern of the aftershocks was similar to the existing global catalog using conventional seismic network and technique. However, we detected more than twice as many aftershocks using the array technique compared to the global catalog including many

  5. Rupture processes of the 2012 September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake constrained by improved geodetic and seismological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengli; Zheng, Yong; Xiong, Xiong; Wang, Rongjiang; López, Allan; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    On 2012 September 5, the anticipated interplate thrust earthquake ruptured beneath the Nicoya peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica close to the Middle America trench, with a magnitude Mw 7.6. Extensive co-seismic observations were provided by dense near-field strong ground motion, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) networks and teleseismic recordings from global seismic networks. The wealthy data sets available for the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya earthquake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the details of the rupture process of this earthquake. By implementing a non-linear joint inversion with high-rate GPS waveform, more static GPS offsets, strong-motion data and teleseismic body waveform, we obtained a robust and accurate rupture model of the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya earthquake. The earthquake is dominantly a pure thrust component with a maximum slip of 3.5 m, and the main large slip patch is located below the hypocentre, spanning ˜50 km along dip and ˜110 km along strike. The static stress drop is about 3.4 MPa. The total seismic moment of our preferred model is 3.46 × 1020 N m, which gives Mw = 7.6. Due to the fast rupture velocity, most of the seismic moment was released within 70 s. The largest slip patch directly overlaps the interseismic locked region identified by geodetic observations and extends downdip to the intersection with the upper plate Moho. We also find that there is a complementary pattern between the distribution of aftershocks and the co-seismic rupture; most aftershocks locate in the crust of the upper plate and are possibly induced by the stress change caused by the large slip patch.

  6. Testing earthquake links in Mexico from 1978 up to the 2017 M=8.1 Chiapas and M=7.1 Puebla shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segou, Margarita; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2018-01-01

    The M = 8.1 Chiapas and the M = 7.1 Puebla earthquakes occurred in the bending part of the subducting Cocos plate 11 days and ~600 km apart, a range that puts them well outside the typical aftershock zone. We find this to be a relatively common occurrence in Mexico, with 14% of M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1900 striking more than 300 km apart and within a 2 week interval, not different from a randomized catalog. We calculate the triggering potential caused by crustal stress redistribution from large subduction earthquakes over the last 40 years. There is no evidence that static stress transfer or dynamic triggering from the 8 September Chiapas earthquake promoted the 19 September earthquake. Both recent earthquakes were promoted by past thrust events instead, including delayed afterslip from the 2012 M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake. A repeated pattern of shallow thrust events promoting deep intraslab earthquakes is observed over the past 40 years.

  7. Updated determination of stress parameters for nine well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Stress parameters (Δσ) are determined for nine relatively well-recorded earthquakes in eastern North America for ten attenuation models. This is an update of a previous study by Boore et al. (2010). New to this paper are observations from the 2010 Val des Bois earthquake, additional observations for the 1988 Saguenay and 2005 Riviere du Loup earthquakes, and consideration of six attenuation models in addition to the four used in the previous study. As in that study, it is clear that Δσ depends strongly on the rate of geometrical spreading (as well as other model parameters). The observations necessary to determine conclusively which attenuation model best fits the data are still lacking. At this time, a simple 1/R model seems to give as good an overall fit to the data as more complex models.

  8. Slip model of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake from inversions of ALOS-2 and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang; Fialko, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    We use surface deformation measurements including Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired by the ALOS-2 mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to invert for the fault geometry and coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. Assuming that the ruptured fault connects to the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault between 84.34°E and 86.19°E, the best fitting model suggests a dip angle of 7°. The moment calculated from the slip model is 6.08 × 1020 Nm, corresponding to the moment magnitude of 7.79. The rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake was dominated by thrust motion that was primarily concentrated in a 150 km long zone 50 to 100 km northward from the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), with maximum slip of ˜ 5.8 m at a depth of ˜8 km. Data thus indicate that the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptured a deep part of the seismogenic zone, in contrast to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake, which had ruptured a shallow part of the adjacent fault segment to the east.

  9. Slip Model of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake from Inversions of ALOS-2 and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    We use surface deformation measurements including Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data acquired by the ALOS-2 mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to invert for the fault geometry and coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. Assuming that the ruptured fault connects to the surface trace of the of Main Frontal Thrust fault (MFT) between 84.34E and 86.19E, the best-fitting model suggests a dip angle of 7 degrees. The moment calculated from the slip model is 6.17*1020 Nm, corresponding to the moment magnitude of 7.79. The rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake was dominated by thrust motion that was primarily concentrated in a 150-km long zone 50 to 100 km northward from the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), with maximum slip of ~6 m at a depth of ~ 8 km. Data thus indicate that the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptured a deep part of the seismogenic zone, in contrast to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake, which had ruptured a shallow part of the adjacent fault segment to the East.

  10. Surface rupture of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and comparison with other strike-slip ruptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Dawson, T.E.; Stenner, Heidi D.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; Cinti, F.; Montone, Paola; Sherrod, B.; Craw, P.

    2004-01-01

    On 3 November 2002, an M7.9 earthquake produced 340 km of surface rupture on the Denali and two related faults in Alaska. The rupture proceeded from west to east and began with a 40-km-long break on a previously unknown thrust fault. Estimates of surface slip on this thrust are 3-6 m. Next came the principal surface break along ???218 km of the Denali fault. Right-lateral offsets averaged around 5 m and increased eastward to a maximum of nearly 9 m. The fault also ruptured beneath the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which withstood almost 6 m of lateral offset. Finally, slip turned southeastward onto the Totschunda fault. Right-lateral offsets are up to 3 m, and the surface rupture is about 76 km long. This three-part rupture ranks among the longest strike-slip events of the past two centuries. The earthquake is typical when compared to other large earthquakes on major intracontinental strike-slip faults. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. The 2009 Samoa-Tonga great earthquake triggered doublet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lay, T.; Ammon, C.J.; Kanamori, H.; Rivera, L.; Koper, K.D.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2010-01-01

    Great earthquakes (having seismic magnitudes of at least 8) usually involve abrupt sliding of rock masses at a boundary between tectonic plates. Such interplate ruptures produce dynamic and static stress changes that can activate nearby intraplate aftershocks, as is commonly observed in the trench-slope region seaward of a great subduction zone thrust event1-4. The earthquake sequence addressed here involves a rare instance in which a great trench-slope intraplate earthquake triggered extensive interplate faulting, reversing the typical pattern and broadly expanding the seismic and tsunami hazard. On 29 September 2009, within two minutes of the initiation of a normal faulting event with moment magnitude 8.1 in the outer trench-slope at the northern end of the Tonga subduction zone, two major interplate underthrusting subevents (both with moment magnitude 7.8), with total moment equal to a second great earthquake of moment magnitude 8.0, ruptured the nearby subduction zone megathrust. The collective faulting produced tsunami waves with localized regions of about 12metres run-up that claimed 192 lives in Samoa, American Samoa and Tonga. Overlap of the seismic signals obscured the fact that distinct faults separated by more than 50km had ruptured with different geometries, with the triggered thrust faulting only being revealed by detailed seismic wave analyses. Extensive interplate and intraplate aftershock activity was activated over a large region of the northern Tonga subduction zone. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Reevaluation of 1935 M 7.0 earthquake fault, Miaoli-Taichung Area, western Taiwan: a DEM and field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. N.; Chen, Y.; Ota, Y.

    2003-12-01

    A large earthquake (M 7.0) took place in Miaoli area, western Taiwan on April 21st, 1935. Right to its south is the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake fault, indicating it is not only tectonically but seismically active. As the previous study, the study area is located in the mature zone of a tectonic collision that occurred between Philippine sea Plate and Eurasia continental Plate. The associated surface ruptures of 1935 earthquake daylighted Tungtsichiao Fault, a tear fault trending NE in the south and Chihhu Fault, a back thrust trending N-S in the north, but no ruptures occurred in between. Strike-slip component was identified by the horizontal offset observed along Tungtsichiao Fault; however, there are still disputes on the reported field evidence. Our purposes are (1) to identify the structural behaviors of these two faults, (2) to find out what the seismogenic structure is, and (3) to reconstruct the regional geology by information given by this earthquake. By DEM interpretation and field survey, we can clearly recognize a lot of the 1935 associated features. In the west of Chihhu Fault, a series of N-S higher terraces can be identified with eastward tilted surfaces and nearly 200 m relative height. Another lower terrace is also believed being created during the 1935 earthquake, showing an east-facing scarp with a height of ca. 1.5~2 m. Outcrop investigation reveals that the late-Miocene bedrock has been easterly thrusted over the Holocene conglomerates, indicating a west-dipping fault plane. The Tungtsichiao Fault cuts through a lateritic terrace at Holi, which is supposed developed in Pleistocene. The fault scarp is only discernible in the northeastern ending. Other noticeable features are the fault related antiforms that line up along the surface rupture. There is no outcrop to show the fault geometry among bedrocks. We re-interpret the northern Chihhu Fault as the back thrust generated from a main subsurface detachment, which may be the actual seismogenic fault

  13. Instrumental intensity distribution for the Hector Mine, California, and the Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquakes: Comparison of two methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sokolov, V.; Wald, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two methods of seismic-intensity estimation from ground-motion records for the two recent strong earthquakes: the 1999 (M 7.1) Hector Mine, California, and the 1999 (M 7.6) Chi-Chi, Taiwan. The first technique utilizes the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), and it is used for rapid generation of the instrumental intensity map in California. The other method is based on the revised relationships between intensity and Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The results of using the methods are compared with independently observed data and between the estimations from the records. For the case of the Hector Mine earthquake, the calculated intensities in general agree with the observed values. For the case of the Chi-Chi earthquake, the areas of maximum calculated intensity correspond to the areas of the greatest damage and highest number of fatalities. However, the FAS method producees higher-intensity values than those of the peak amplitude method. The specific features of ground-motion excitation during the large, shallow, thrust earthquake may be considered a reason for the discrepancy. The use of PGA and PGV is simple; however, the use of FAS provides a natural consideration of site amplification by means of generalized or site-specific spectral ratios. Because the calculation of seismic-intensity maps requires rapid processing of data from a large network, it is very practical to generate a "first-order" map from the recorded peak motions. Then, a "second-order" map may be compiled using an amplitude-spectra method on the basis of available records and numerical modeling of the site-dependent spectra for the regions of sparse station spacing.

  14. Insights on the 1990 Bohol Tsunamigenic Earthquake, Bohol Island, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana, G. M.; Daligdig, J. A.; Abigania, M. T.; Talisic, J. E.; Evangelista, N.

    2004-12-01

    The February 8, 1990 earthquake at Bohol area is one of the few strong earthquakes that have affected central Philippines since the early 1900's. This M6.0 1990 Bohol event nonetheless wrought havoc to at least 16 municipalities, caused numerous casualties, injured about three hundred people, rendered several thousand homeless and evacuated from the coastal areas, and damaged at least P154 million worth of properties. The epicenter of this earthquake was initially placed onshore at 17km east of Tagbilaran City and was attributed to the movement along the Alicia Thrust Fault- a fault trending northeast-southwest. Noticeably, there was no surface rupture and the succeeding aftershocks clustered along a northeast-southwest trend off the eastern shore of Bohol island. In addition, the southeastern part of Bohol island experienced tsunami inundation particularly the municipalities of Jagna, Duero, Guindulman, Garcia Hernandez, and Valencia. In this study, several issues were resolved regarding this seismic event. First, the 1990 Bohol earthquake was generated along an offshore thrust fault based on the reviews of seismicity data from the NEIC. -Post-determined plots of the mainshock and aftershocks indicate offshore event with focal mechanism solutions that imply thrust fault activity. Intensity data likewise indicates that intense ground shaking was mainly felt in the southeastern part of the island. Second, recent field investigations undertaken clearly indicated a widespread tsunami inundation wherein the southeastern shorelines of Bohol likewise experienced a regional retreat in sea level several minutes after the strong ground shaking. Lastly, such tsunamigenic structure could somehow explain the anomalously large waves that impacted Camiguin island, an island more than 50km southeast of Bohol. A reconstruction of true tsunami heights and runup distances was also undertaken based from eyewitness accounts. Future works would involve relocation of aftershocks and

  15. High Frequency Cut-off Characteristics of Strong Ground Motion Records at Hard Sites, Subduction and Intra-Slab Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, T.; Tsurugi, M.; Irikura, K.

    2006-12-01

    A study on high frequency cut-off characteristics of strong ground motion is presented for subduction and intra- slab earthquakes in Japan. In the latest decade, observed records at hard sites are published by NIED, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, and JCOLD, Japan Commission on Large Dams. Especially, KiK-net and K-NET maintained by NIED have been providing high quality data to study high-frequency characteristics. Kagawa et al.(2003) studied the characteristics for crustal earthquakes. We apply the same methodology to the recently observed Japanese records due to subduction and intra-slab earthquakes. We assume a Butterworth type high-cut filter with limit frequency (fmax) and its power factor. These two parameters were derived from Fourier spectrum of observed records fitting the theoretical filter shape. After analyzing the result from view points of site, path, or source effects, an averaged filter model is proposed with its standard deviation. Kagawa et al.(2003) derived average as 8.3 Hz with power factor of 1.92. It is used for strong ground motion simulation. We will propose parameters for the high-cut filters of subduction and intra-slab earthquakes and compare them with the results by Kagawa et al.(2003). REFERENCES: Kagawa et al. (2003), 27JEES (in Japanese with English Abstract).

  16. Determination of tectonic shortening rates from progressively deformed flights of terraces above the Chelungpu and Changhua thrust ramps, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, L.; Suppe, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Chelungpu and Changhua thrust ramps in central Taiwan show contrasting hanging-wall structural geometries that suggest different kinematics, even though they involve the same stratigraphic section and basal detachment. The Chelungpu thrust shows a classic fault-bend folding geometry, which predicts folding solely by kink-band migration, whereas the hanging wall of the Changhua thrust demonstrates the characteristic geometry of a shear fault-bend folding, which predicts a progressive limb rotation with minor kink-band migration. We test the kinematic predictions of classic and shear fault-bend folding theories by analyzing deformed flights of terraces and coseismic displacements in the Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. The Chelungpu terraces shows differences in uplift magnitudes across active axial surfaces that closely approximate the assumptions of classical fault-bend folding, including constant fault-parallel displacement, implying conservation of bed length, and hanging-wall uplift rates that are proportional to the sine of the fault dip. This provides a basis for precise determination of total fault slip since the formation of each terrace and combined with terrace dating gives long- term fault-slip rates for the Chelungpu thrust system. An estimation of the long term fault-slip rate of the Chelungpu thrust in the north Hsinshe terrace yields 15 mm/yr over the last 55 ka, which is similar to the combined shortening rate of 16 mm/y on the Chelungpu and Chushiang thrusts in the south estimated by Simoes et al. in 2006. Evan the coseismic displacements of 3 to 9m in the Chi-Chi earthquake are approximately fault-parallel but have additional transient components that are averaged out over the timescale of terrace deformation, which represents 10-100 large earthquakes. In contrast, terrace deformation in the hanging wall of the Changhua thrust ramp shows progressive limb rotation, as predicted from its shear fault-bend folding geometry, which combined with terrace

  17. Determination of tectonic shortening rates from progressively deformed flights of terraces above the Chelungpu and Changhua thrust ramps, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, L.; Suppe, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Chelungpu and Changhua thrust ramps in central Taiwan show contrasting hanging-wall structural geometries that suggest different kinematics, even though they involve the same stratigraphic section and basal detachment. The Chelungpu thrust shows a classic fault-bend folding geometry, which predicts folding solely by kink-band migration, whereas the hanging wall of the Changhua thrust demonstrates the characteristic geometry of a shear fault-bend folding, which predicts a progressive limb rotation with minor kink-band migration. We test the kinematic predictions of classic and shear fault-bend folding theories by analyzing deformed flights of terraces and coseismic displacements in the Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. The Chelungpu terraces shows differences in uplift magnitudes across active axial surfaces that closely approximate the assumptions of classical fault-bend folding, including constant fault-parallel displacement, implying conservation of bed length, and hanging-wall uplift rates that are proportional to the sine of the fault dip. This provides a basis for precise determination of total fault slip since the formation of each terrace and combined with terrace dating gives long- term fault-slip rates for the Chelungpu thrust system. An estimation of the long term fault-slip rate of the Chelungpu thrust in the north Hsinshe terrace yields 15 mm/yr over the last 55 ka, which is similar to the combined shortening rate of 16 mm/y on the Chelungpu and Chushiang thrusts in the south estimated by Simoes et al. in 2006. Evan the coseismic displacements of 3 to 9m in the Chi-Chi earthquake are approximately fault-parallel but have additional transient components that are averaged out over the timescale of terrace deformation, which represents 10-100 large earthquakes. In contrast, terrace deformation in the hanging wall of the Changhua thrust ramp shows progressive limb rotation, as predicted from its shear fault-bend folding geometry, which combined with terrace

  18. The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are

  19. Comprehensive Studies on the Seismic Gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.

    2016-12-01

    An array of 20 short-period and 15 broadband seismometers were deployed to monitor the seismic gap between the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (31.01°N, 103.42°E) largely northeastward while the Lushan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (30.3°N, 103.0°E) largely southwestward. The region between the two earthquakes has recorded very few aftershocks and cataloged seismicity before and after the two big earthquakes compared to neighboring segments. As one small segment of the 500KM long Longmen Shan fault system, its absence of seismicity draws hot debate on whether a big one is still in brewing or steady creeping is in control of the strain energy release. The dense array is deployed primarily aimed to detect events that are much smaller than cataloged events and to determine if the segment is experiencing constantly creeping. The preliminary findings include: (1) source mechanisms show that the seismic gap appears to be a transitional zone between north and south segment. The events to the south are primarily thrust while events to north have more or less striking-slip components. This is also the case for both Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake; (2) The receiver function analysis shows that the Moho beneath the seismic Gap is less defined than its adjacent region with relatively weaker Ps conversion phases; (3) Both receiver function and ambient noise tomography show that the velocities in the upper crust is relatively lower in the Gap region than surrounding regions; (4) significant number of small earthquakes are located near surface in the gap region. Further examinations should be conducted before we can make a sounding conclusion on what mechanism is in control of the seismicity in this region.

  20. Tsunami history of an Oregon coastal lake reveals a 4600 yr record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.M.; Nelson, A.R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Witter, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bradley Lake, on the southern Oregon coastal plain, records local tsunamis and seismic shaking on the Cascadia subduction zone over the last 7000 yr. Thirteen marine incursions delivered landward-thinning sheets of sand to the lake from nearshore, beach, and dune environments to the west. Following each incursion, a slug of marine water near the bottom of the freshwater lake instigated a few-year-to-several-decade period of a brackish (??? 4??? salinity) lake. Four additional disturbances without marine incursions destabilized sideslopes and bottom sediment, producing a suspension deposit that blanketed the lake bottom. Considering the magnitude and duration of the disturbances necessary to produce Bradley Lake's marine incursions, a local tsunami generated by a great earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone is the only accountable mechanism. Extreme ocean levels must have been at least 5-8 m above sea level, and the cumulative duration of each marine incursion must have been at least 10 min. Disturbances without marine incursions require seismic shaking as well. Over the 4600 yr period when Bradley Lake was an optimum tsunami recorder, tsunamis from Cascadia plate-boundary earthquakes came in clusters. Between 4600 and 2800 cal yr B.P., tsunamis occurred at the average frequency of ??? 3-4 every 1000 yr. Then, starting ???2800 cal yr B.P., there was a 930-1260 yr interval with no tsunamis. That gap was followed by a ???1000 yr period with 4 tsunamis. In the last millennium, a 670-750 yr gap preceded the A.D. 1700 earthquake and tsunami. The A.D. 1700 earthquake may be the first of a new cluster of plate-boundary earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Local tsunamis entered Bradley Lake an average of every 390 yr, whereas the portion of the Cascadia plate boundary that underlies Bradley Lake ruptured in a great earthquake less frequently, about once every 500 yr. Therefore, the entire length of the subduction zone does not rupture in every earthquake, and Bradley

  1. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Motions during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes including Near-Field Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.

    2016-12-01

    During the two major earthquakes occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, at 21:26 on 14 April, 2016 (Mw 6.2, GCMT), and at 1:25 on 16 April, 2016 (Mw7.0, GCMT), a large number of strong ground motions were recorded, including those very close to the surface fault. In this study, we will discuss the attenuation characteristics of strong ground motions observed during the earthquakes. The data used in this study are mainly observed by K-NET, KiK-net, Osaka University, JMA and Kumamoto prefecture. The 5% damped acceleration response spectra (GMRotI50) are calculated based on the method proposed by Boore et al. (2006). PGA and PGV is defined as the larger one among the PGAs and PGVs of two horizontal components. The PGA, PGV, and GMRotI50 data were corrected to the bedrock with Vs of 1.5km/s based on the method proposed by Si et al. (2016) using the average shear wave velocity (Vs30) and the thickness of sediments over the bedrock. The thickness is estimated based on the velocity structure model provided by J-SHIS. We use a source model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2016) to calculate the fault distance and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the median line of the fault plane (Si et al., 2014). We compared the observed PGAs, PGVs, and GMRotI50 with the GMPEs developed in Japan using MED (Si et al., 2014). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations during the two Kumamoto earthquakes. The results of the comparison also indicated that, (1) strong motion records from the earthquake on April 14th are generally consistent with the predictions by GMPE, however, at the periods of 0.5 to 2 seconds, several records close to the fault plane show larger amplitudes than the predictions by GMPE, including the KiK-net station Mashiki (KMMH16); (2) for the earthquake on April 16, the PGAs and GMRotI50 at periods from 0.1s to 0.4s with short distance from the fault plane are slightly smaller than the predictions by

  2. Quantifying the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative thrust: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Downie, Aron S; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Bull, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review studies that quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal thrust, to qualitatively compare the apparatus used and the force-time profiles generated, and to critically appraise studies involving the quantification of thrust as an augmented feedback tool in psychomotor learning. A search of the literature was conducted to identify the sources that reported quantification of the HVLA spinal thrust. MEDLINE-OVID (1966-present), MANTIS-OVID (1950-present), and CINAHL-EBSCO host (1981-present) were searched. Eligibility criteria included that thrust subjects were human, animal, or manikin and that the thrust type was a hand-delivered HVLA spinal thrust. Data recorded were single force, force-time, or displacement-time histories. Publications were in English language and after 1980. The relatively small number of studies, combined with the diversity of method and data interpretation, did not enable meta-analysis. Twenty-seven studies met eligibility criteria: 17 studies measured thrust as a primary outcome (13 human, 2 cadaver, and 2 porcine). Ten studies demonstrated changes in psychomotor learning related to quantified thrust data on human, manikin, or other device. Quantifiable parameters of the HVLA spinal thrust exist and have been described. There remain a number of variables in recording that prevent a standardized kinematic description of HVLA spinal manipulative therapy. Despite differences in data between studies, a relationship between preload, peak force, and thrust duration was evident. Psychomotor learning outcomes were enhanced by the application of thrust data as an augmented feedback tool. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Theatre as Therapy, Therapy as Theatre Transforming the Memories and Trauma of the 21 September 1999 Earthquake in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ivy I-Chu

    2005-01-01

    On 21 September 1999, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake in Taiwan destroyed more than 100,000 houses, causing 2,294 deaths and 8,737 injuries. In the aftermath of the earthquake, a great number of social workers and cultural workers were thrust into Nantou County and Taichung County of central Taiwan, the epicentre of the earthquake, to assist the…

  4. The January 2006 Volcanic-Tectonic Earthquake Swarm at Mount Martin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, James P.; Power, John A.

    2009-01-01

    On January 8, 2006, a swarm of volcanic-tectonic earthquakes began beneath Mount Martin at the southern end of the Katmai volcanic cluster. This was the first recorded swarm at Mount Martin since continuous seismic monitoring began in 1996. The number of located earthquakes increased during the next four days, reaching a peak on January 11. For the next two days, the seismic activity decreased, and on January 14, the number of events increased to twice the previous day's total. Following this increase in activity, seismicity declined, returning to background levels by the end of the month. The Alaska Volcano Observatory located 860 earthquakes near Mount Martin during January 2006. No additional signs of volcanic unrest were noted in association with this earthquake swarm. The earthquakes in the Mount Martin swarm, relocated using the double difference technique, formed an elongated cluster dipping to the southwest. Focal mechanisms beneath Mount Martin show a mix of normal, thrust, and strike-slip solutions, with normal focal mechanisms dominating. For earthquakes more than 1 km from Mount Martin, all focal mechanisms showed normal faulting. The calculated b-value for the Mount Martin swarm is 0.98 and showed no significant change before, during, or after the swarm. The triggering mechanism for the Mount Martin swarm is unknown. The time-history of earthquake occurrence is indicative of a volcanic cause; however, there were no low-frequency events or observations, such as increased steaming associated with the swarm. During the swarm, there was no change in the b-value, and the distribution and type of focal mechanisms were similar to those in the period before the anomalous activity. The short duration of the swarm, the similarity in observed focal mechanisms, and the lack of additional signs of unrest suggest this swarm did not result from a large influx of magma within the shallow crust beneath Mount Martin.

  5. Evaluation of the recorded ground motions for the unusual earthquake of 13 August 2006 ( M w 5.3) in Michoacán México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Gaytán, Alejandro; Jaimes, Miguel A.; Bandy, William L.; Huerfano, Victor M.; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A.

    2015-10-01

    The focal mechanism of the moderate earthquake of 13 August 2006 M w = 5.3, which occurred in the border coastal area between Michoacán and Colima, México, is unusual. As shown by the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) project and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de Mexico (SSN), the thrust mechanism is striking almost perpendicularly to the majority of earthquakes occurring along the subduction zone of the Mexican Pacific continental margin which commonly strike nearly parallel to the trench. The purpose of this study is to analyze the observed ground motions of this particular event relative to those of the common events. First, we apply the H/V technique to verify that the stations involved in this study are nearly free of site effects. Then, we compare the observed ground motions with (i) three empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) appropriate for the region, (ii) ground motions of four real earthquakes with the common mechanism, and (iii) the Fourier spectrum of a selected common event.

  6. The 2002 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska: A large magnitude, slip-partitioned event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Freymueller, J.T.; Frankel, A.D.; Rubin, C.M.; Craw, P.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Anderson, G.; Carver, G.A.; Crone, A.J.; Dawson, T.E.; Fletcher, H.; Hansen, R.; Harp, E.L.; Harris, R.A.; Hill, D.P.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jibson, R.W.; Jones, L.M.; Kayen, R.; Keefer, D.K.; Larsen, C.F.; Moran, S.C.; Personius, S.F.; Plafker, G.; Sherrod, B.; Sieh, K.; Sitar, N.; Wallace, W.K.

    2003-01-01

    The MW (moment magnitude) 7.9 Denali fault earthquake on 3 November 2002 was associated with 340 kilometers of surface rupture and was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America in almost 150 years. It illuminates earthquake mechanics and hazards of large strike-slip faults. It began with thrusting on the previously unrecognized Susitna Glacier fault, continued with right-slip on the Denali fault, then took a right step and continued with right-slip on the Totschunda fault. There is good correlation between geologically observed and geophysically inferred moment release. The earthquake produced unusually strong distal effects in the rupture propagation direction, including triggered seismicity.

  7. Tsunami waves generated by dynamically triggered aftershocks of the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Wei, Y.; Fan, W.; Miller, N. C.; Granja, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamically-triggered aftershocks, thought to be set off by the passage of surface waves, are currently not considered in tsunami warnings, yet may produce enough seafloor deformation to generate tsunamis on their own, as judged from new findings about the January 12, 2010 Haiti earthquake tsunami in the Caribbean Sea. This tsunami followed the Mw7.0 Haiti mainshock, which resulted from a complex rupture along the north shore of Tiburon Peninsula, not beneath the Caribbean Sea. The mainshock, moreover, had a mixed strike-slip and thrust focal mechanism. There were no recorded aftershocks in the Caribbean Sea, only small coastal landslides and rock falls on the south shore of Tiburon Peninsula. Nevertheless, a tsunami was recorded on deep-sea DART buoy 42407 south of the Dominican Republic and on the Santo Domingo tide gauge, and run-ups of ≤3 m were observed along a 90-km-long stretch of the SE Haiti coast. Three dynamically-triggered aftershocks south of Haiti have been recently identified within the coda of the mainshock (<200 s) by analyzing P wave arrivals recorded by dense seismic arrays, parsing the arrivals into 20-s-long stacks, and back-projecting the arrivals to the vicinity of the main shock (50-300 km). Two of the aftershocks, coming 20-40 s and 40-60 s after the mainshock, plot along NW-SE-trending submarine ridges in the Caribbean Sea south of Haiti. The third event, 120-140 s was located along the steep eastern slope of Bahoruco Peninsula, which is delineated by a normal fault. Forward tsunami models show that the arrival times of the DART buoy and tide gauge times are best fit by the earliest of the three aftershocks, with a Caribbean source 60 km SW of the mainshock rupture zone. Preliminary inversion of the DART buoy time series for fault locations and orientations confirms the location of the first source, but requires an additional unidentified source closer to shore 40 km SW of the mainshock rupture zone. This overall agreement between

  8. Initial Thrust Measurements of Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Natalie R. S.; Scogin, Tyler; Liu, Thomas M.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dankanich, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Electronegative ion thrusters are a variation of traditional gridded ion thruster technology differentiated by the production and acceleration of both positive and negative ions. Benefits of electronegative ion thrusters include the elimination of lifetime-limiting cathodes from the thruster architecture and the ability to generate appreciable thrust from both charge species. While much progress has been made in the development of electronegative ion thruster technology, direct thrust measurements are required to unambiguously demonstrate the efficacy of the concept and support continued development. In the present work, direct thrust measurements of the thrust produced by the MINT (Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster) are performed using an inverted-pendulum thrust stand in the High-Power Electric Propulsion Laboratory's Vacuum Test Facility-1 at the Georgia Institute of Technology with operating pressures ranging from 4.8 x 10(exp -5) and 5.7 x 10(exp -5) torr. Thrust is recorded while operating with a propellant volumetric mixture ratio of 5:1 argon to nitrogen with total volumetric flow rates of 6, 12, and 24 sccm (0.17, 0.34, and 0.68 mg/s). Plasma is generated using a helical antenna at 13.56 MHz and radio frequency (RF) power levels of 150 and 350 W. The acceleration grid assembly is operated using both sinusoidal and square waveform biases of +/-350 V at frequencies of 4, 10, 25, 125, and 225 kHz. Thrust is recorded for two separate thruster configurations: with and without the magnetic filter. No thrust is discernable during thruster operation without the magnetic filter for any volumetric flow rate, RF forward Power level, or acceleration grid biasing scheme. For the full thruster configuration, with the magnetic filter installed, a brief burst of thrust of approximately 3.75 mN +/- 3 mN of error is observed at the start of grid operation for a volumetric flow rate of 24 sccm at 350 W RF power using a sinusoidal waveform grid bias at 125 kHz and +/- 350 V

  9. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  10. Normal Faulting in the 1923 Berdún Earthquake and Postorogenic Extension in the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Daniel; Martín, Rosa; Batlló, Josep; Macià, Ramón; Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Morales, Jose

    2018-04-01

    The 10 July 1923 earthquake near Berdún (Spain) is the largest instrumentally recorded event in the Pyrenees. We recover old analog seismograms and use 20 hand-digitized waveforms for regional moment tensor inversion. We estimate moment magnitude Mw 5.4, centroid depth of 8 km, and a pure normal faulting source with strike parallel to the mountain chain (N292°E), dip of 66° and rake of -88°. The new mechanism fits into the general predominance of normal faulting in the Pyrenees and extension inferred from Global Positioning System data. The unique location of the 1923 earthquake, near the south Pyrenean thrust front, shows that the extensional regime is not confined to the axial zone where high topography and the crustal root are located. Together with seismicity near the northern mountain front, this indicates that gravitational potential energy in the western Pyrenees is not extracted locally but induces a wide distribution of postorogenic deformation.

  11. Broadband Analysis of the Energetics of Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Sunda Forearc from 1987-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, G. L.; Kirby, S. H.; Hayes, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    In the eighteen years before the 2004 Sumatra Mw 9.1 earthquake, the forearc off Sumatra experienced only one large (Mw > 7.0) thrust event and experienced no earthquakes that generated measurable tsunami wave heights. In the subsequent eight years, twelve large thrust earthquakes occurred of which half generated measurable tsunamis. The number of broadband earthquakes (those events with Mw > 5.5 for which broadband teleseismic waveforms have sufficient signal to compute depths, focal mechanisms, moments and radiated energies) jumped six fold after 2004. The progression of tsunami earthquakes, as well as the profuse increase in broadband activity, strongly suggests regional stress adjustments following the Sumatra 2004 megathrust earthquake. Broadband source parameters, published routinely in the Source Parameters (SOPAR) database of the USGS's NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center), have provided the most accurate depths and locations of big earthquakes since the implementation of modern digital seismographic networks. Moreover, radiated energy and seismic moment (also found in SOPAR) are related to apparent stress which is a measure of fault maturity. In mapping apparent stress as a function of depth and focal mechanism, we find that about 12% of broadband thrust earthquakes in the subduction zone are unequivocally above or below the slab interface. Apparent stresses of upper-plate events are associated with failure on mature splay faults, some of which generated measurable tsunamis. One unconventional source for local wave heights was a large intraslab earthquake. High-energy upper-plate events, which are dominant in the Aceh Basin, are associated with immature faults, which may explain why the region was bypassed by significant rupture during the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. The majority of broadband earthquakes are non-randomly concentrated under the outer-arc high. They appear to delineate the periphery of the contiguous rupture zones of large earthquakes

  12. Modeling And Economics Of Extreme Subduction Earthquakes: Two Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Emerson, D.; Perea, N.; Moulinec, C.

    2008-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 and the 19/09/1985, two TSS earthquakes occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero and Michoacan, with Ms 7+ and 8.1. The economical losses for the later were of about 7 billion US dollars. Also, the largest Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, and the 9/10/1995 another similar, Ms 7.4 event occurred in the same region, the later produced economical losses of hundreds of thousands US dollars.The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. Therefore there is a lack of strong ground motions records for extreme TSS earthquakes in Mexico, which as mentioned above, recently had an important economical impact on MC and potentially could have it in G. In this work we obtained samples of broadband synthetics [2,3] expected in MC and G, associated to extreme (plausible) magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes, with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The economical impacts of the proposed extreme TSS earthquake scenarios for MC and G were considered as follows: For MC by using a risk acceptability criteria, the probabilities of exceedance of the maximum seismic responses of their construction stock under the assumed scenarios, and the estimated economical losses observed for the 19/09/1985 earthquake; and for G, by estimating the expected economical losses, based on the seismic vulnerability assessment of their construction stock under the extreme seismic scenario considered. ----------------------- [1] Nishenko S.P. and Singh SK, BSSA 77, 6, 1987 [2] Cabrera E., Chavez M., Madariaga R., Mai M, Frisenda M., Perea N., AGU, Fall Meeting, 2005 [3] Chavez M., Olsen K

  13. Earthquakes, geodesy, and the structure of mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark; Walters, Richard; Nissen, Ed

    2015-04-01

    Most terrestrial mountain belts are the topographic expression of thrust faulting and folding, which are how the continents deform in compression. Fold-and-thrust belts are therefore a global phenomenon, in existence since at least the onset of plate tectonics. They are typically described as wedge-shaped zones of deformation, overlying a basal low-angle thrust fault (≤10o dip). Here we use earthquake focal mechanisms and geodetic data from active continental fold-and-thrust belts worldwide, to test these concepts. We find that widespread, seismogenic, low-angle thrusting at the base of a wedge occurs only in the Himalayas, New Guinea, Talesh and far-eastern Zagros, which are plausibly underthrust by strong plates. In other ranges there is no focal mechanism evidence for a basal low-angle thrust, and well-constrained hypocentre depths are typically <20 km. Available geodetic data show that active deformation is focussed on a single, low-angle thrust in the Himalayas and New Guinea, but distributed in other ranges for which there are sufficient observations. We suggest that the more common style of deformation approximates to pure shear, with a brittle lid overlying the rest of the plate, where ductile or plastic deformation predominates. Interpretations of both active and ancient mountain belts will need re-evaluation in the light of these results.

  14. Thrust rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

  15. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface <200 m below the surface. The earthquake swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  16. Influence of lithostatic stress on earthquake stress drops in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver; McNamara, Daniel E.; Hartzell, Stephen; Choy, George

    2017-01-01

    We estimate stress drops for earthquakes in and near the continental United States using the method of spectral ratios. The ratio of acceleration spectra between collocated earthquakes recorded at a given station removes the effects of path and recording site and yields source parameters including corner frequency for, and the ratio of seismic moment between, the two earthquakes. We determine stress drop from these parameters for 1121 earthquakes greater than M∼3 in 60 earthquake clusters. We find that the average Brune stress drop for the few eastern United States (EUS) tectonic mainshocks studied (2.6–36 MPa) is about three times greater than that of tectonic mainshocks in the western United States (WUS, 1.0–7.9 MPa) and five times greater than mainshocks potentially induced by wastewater injection in the central United States (CUS, 0.6–5.6 MPa). EUS events tend to be deeper thrusting events, whereas WUS events tend to be shallower but have a wide range of focal mechanisms. CUS events tend to be shallow with strike‐slip to normal‐faulting mechanisms. With the possible exception of CUS aftershocks, we find that differences in stress drop among all events can be taken into account, within one standard deviation of significance, by differences in the shear failure stress as outlined by Mohr–Coulomb theory. The shear failure stress is a function of vertical stress (or depth), the fault style (normal, strike slip, or reverse), and coefficient of friction (estimated here to be, on average, 0.64). After accounting for faulting style and depth dependence, we find that the average Brune stress drop is about 3% of the failure stress. These results suggest that high‐frequency shaking hazard (>∼1  Hz) from shallow induced events and aftershocks is reduced to some extent by lower stress drop. However, the shallow hypocenters will increase hazard within several kilometers of the source.

  17. The 11 April 2012 east Indian Ocean earthquake triggered large aftershocks worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Stein, Ross S.; Sevilgen, Volkan; Burgmann, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Large earthquakes trigger very small earthquakes globally during passage of the seismic waves and during the following several hours to days1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, but so far remote aftershocks of moment magnitude M≥5.5 have not been identified11, with the lone exception of an M=6.9 quake remotely triggered by the surface waves from an M=6.6 quake 4,800 kilometres away12. The 2012 east Indian Ocean earthquake that had a moment magnitude of 8.6 is the largest strike-slip event ever recorded. Here we show that the rate of occurrence of remote M≥5.5 earthquakes (>1,500 kilometres from the epicentre) increased nearly fivefold for six days after the 2012 event, and extended in magnitude to M≥7. These global aftershocks were located along the four lobes of Love-wave radiation; all struck where the dynamic shear strain is calculated to exceed 10-7 for at least 100 seconds during dynamic-wave passage. The other M≥8.5 mainshocks during the past decade are thrusts; after these events, the global rate of occurrence of remote M≥5.5 events increased by about one-third the rate following the 2012 shock and lasted for only two days, a weaker but possibly real increase. We suggest that the unprecedented delayed triggering power of the 2012 earthquake may have arisen because of its strike-slip source geometry or because the event struck at a time of an unusually low global earthquake rate, perhaps increasing the number of nucleation sites that were very close to failure.

  18. Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Lasserre, C.; Pathier, E.; Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface slips distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. We show a quantitative assessment of the amount of co-seismic slip and its partitioning at the surface.

  19. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  20. Near-field observations of an offshore Mw 6.0 earthquake from an integrated seafloor and subseafloor monitoring network at the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Araki, E.; Saffer, D.; Wang, X.; Roesner, A.; Kopf, A.; Nakanishi, A.; Power, W.; Kobayashi, R.; Kinoshita, C.; Toczko, S.; Kimura, T.; Machida, Y.; Carr, S.

    2016-11-01

    An Mw 6.0 earthquake struck 50 km offshore the Kii Peninsula of southwest Honshu, Japan on 1 April 2016. This earthquake occurred directly beneath a cabled offshore monitoring network at the Nankai Trough subduction zone and within 25-35 km of two borehole observatories installed as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program's NanTroSEIZE project. The earthquake's location close to the seafloor and subseafloor network offers a unique opportunity to evaluate dense seafloor geodetic and seismological data in the near field of a moderate-sized offshore earthquake. We use the offshore seismic network to locate the main shock and aftershocks, seafloor pressure sensors, and borehole observatory data to determine the detailed distribution of seafloor and subseafloor deformation, and seafloor pressure observations to model the resulting tsunami. Contractional strain estimated from formation pore pressure records in the borehole observatories (equivalent to 0.37 to 0.15 μstrain) provides a key to narrowing the possible range of fault plane solutions. Together, these data show that the rupture occurred on a landward dipping thrust fault at 9-10 km below the seafloor, most likely on the plate interface. Pore pressure changes recorded in one of the observatories also provide evidence for significant afterslip for at least a few days following the main shock. The earthquake and its aftershocks are located within the coseismic slip region of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw 8.0), and immediately downdip of swarms of very low frequency earthquakes in this region, illustrating the complex distribution of megathrust slip behavior at a dominantly locked seismogenic zone.

  1. Did the Zipingpu Reservoir trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, S.; Liu, M.; Lu, N.; Godt, J.W.; Luo, G.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) resulted from thrust of the Tibet Plateau on the Longmen Shan fault zone, a consequence of the Indo-Asian continental collision. Many have speculated on the role played by the Zipingpu Reservoir, impounded in 2005 near the epicenter, in triggering the earthquake. This study evaluates the stress changes in response to the impoundment of the Zipingpu Reservoir and assesses their impact on the Wenchuan earthquake. We show that the impoundment could have changed the Coulomb stress by -0.01 to 0.05 MPa at locations and depth consistent with reported hypocenter positions. This level of stress change has been shown to be significant in triggering earthquakes on critically stressed faults. Because the loading rate on the Longmen Shan fault is <0.005 MPa/yr, we thus suggest that the Zipingpu Reservoir potentially hastened the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake by tens to hundreds of years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Source parameters and tectonic interpretation of recent earthquakes (1995 1997) in the Pannonian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Horváth, Frank; Tóth, László

    2001-01-01

    From January 1995 to December 1997, about 74 earthquakes were located in the Pannonian basin and digitally recorded by a recently established network of seismological stations in Hungary. On reviewing the notable events, about 12 earthquakes were reported as felt with maximum intensity varying between 4 and 6 MSK. The dynamic source parameters of these earthquakes have been derived from P-wave displacement spectra. The displacement source spectra obtained are characterised by relatively small values of corner frequency ( f0) ranging between 2.5 and 10 Hz. The seismic moments change from 1.48×10 20 to 1.3×10 23 dyne cm, stress drops from 0.25 to 76.75 bar, fault length from 0.42 to 1.7 km and relative displacement from 0.05 to 15.35 cm. The estimated source parameters suggest a good agreement with the scaling law for small earthquakes. The small values of stress drops in the studied earthquakes can be attributed to the low strength of crustal materials in the Pannonian basin. However, the values of stress drops are not different for earthquake with thrust or normal faulting focal mechanism solutions. It can be speculated that an increase of the seismic activity in the Pannonian basin can be predicted in the long run because extensional development ceased and structural inversion is in progress. Seismic hazard assessment is a delicate job due to the inadequate knowledge of the seismo-active faults, particularly in the interior part of the Pannonian basin.

  3. Effect of baseline corrections on displacements and response spectra for several recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Displacements derived from many of the accelerogram recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake show drifts when only a simple baseline derived from the pre-event portion of the record is removed from the records. The appearance of the velocity and displacement records suggests that changes in the zero level of the acceleration are responsible for these drifts. The source of the shifts in zero level are unknown, but in at least one case it is almost certainly due to tilting of the ground. This article illustrates the effect on the ground velocity, ground displacement, and response spectra of several schemes for accounting for these baseline shifts. A wide range of final displacements can be obtained for various choices of baseline correction, and comparison with nearby GPS stations (none of which are colocated with the accelerograph stations) do not help in choosing the appropriate baseline correction. The results suggest that final displacements estimated from the records should be used with caution. The most important conclusion for earthquake engineering purposes, however, is that the response spectra for periods less than about 20 sec are usually unaffected by the baseline correction. Although limited to the analysis of only a small number of recordings, the results may have more general significance both for the many other recordings of this earthquake and for data that will be obtained in the future from similar high-quality accelerograph networks now being installed or soon to be installed in many parts of the world.

  4. Detailed Design of a Pulsed Plasma Thrust Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbin, Andrew J.

    This thesis gives a detailed design process for a pulsed type thruster. The thrust stand designed in this paper is for a Pulsed Plasma Thruster built by Sun Devil Satellite Laboratory, a student organization at Arizona State University. The thrust stand uses a torsional beam rotating to record displacement. This information, along with impulse-momentum theorem is applied to find the impulse bit of the thruster, which varies largely from other designs which focus on using the natural dynamics their fixtures. The target impulse to record on this fixture was estimated to be 275 muN-s of impulse. Through calibration and experimentation, the fixture is capable of recording an impulse of 332 muN-s +/- 14.81 muN-s, close to the target impulse. The error due to noise was characterized and evaluated to be under 5% which is deemed to be acceptable.

  5. A 667 year record of coseismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes in central Italy reveals the role of fault interaction in controlling irregular earthquake recurrence intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedmore, L. N. J.; Faure Walker, J. P.; Roberts, G. P.; Sammonds, P. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Cowie, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    Current studies of fault interaction lack sufficiently long earthquake records and measurements of fault slip rates over multiple seismic cycles to fully investigate the effects of interseismic loading and coseismic stress changes on the surrounding fault network. We model elastic interactions between 97 faults from 30 earthquakes since 1349 A.D. in central Italy to investigate the relative importance of co-seismic stress changes versus interseismic stress accumulation for earthquake occurrence and fault interaction. This region has an exceptionally long, 667 year record of historical earthquakes and detailed constraints on the locations and slip rates of its active normal faults. Of 21 earthquakes since 1654, 20 events occurred on faults where combined coseismic and interseismic loading stresses were positive even though 20% of all faults are in "stress shadows" at any one time. Furthermore, the Coulomb stress on the faults that experience earthquakes is statistically different from a random sequence of earthquakes in the region. We show how coseismic Coulomb stress changes can alter earthquake interevent times by 103 years, and fault length controls the intensity of this effect. Static Coulomb stress changes cause greater interevent perturbations on shorter faults in areas characterized by lower strain (or slip) rates. The exceptional duration and number of earthquakes we model enable us to demonstrate the importance of combining long earthquake records with detailed knowledge of fault geometries, slip rates, and kinematics to understand the impact of stress changes in complex networks of active faults.

  6. Coulomb stress transfer and tectonic loading preceding the 2002 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, Charles G.

    2006-01-01

    Pre-2002 tectonic loading and Coulomb stress transfer are modeled along the rupture zone of the M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake (DFE) and on adjacent segments of the right-lateral Denali–Totschunda fault system in central Alaska, using a three-dimensional boundary-element program. The segments modeled closely follow, for about 95°, the arc of a circle of radius 375 km centered on an inferred asperity near the northeastern end of the intersection of the Patton Bay fault with the Alaskan megathrust under Prince William Sound. The loading model includes slip of 6 mm/yr below 12 km along the fault system, consistent with rotation of the Wrangell block about the asperity at a rate of about 1°/m.y. as well as slip of the Pacific plate at 5 cm/yr at depth along the Fairweather–Queen Charlotte transform fault system and on the Alaska megathrust. The model is consistent with most available pre-2002 Global Positioning System (GPS) displacement rate data. Coulomb stresses induced on the Denali–Totschunda fault system (locked above 12 km) by slip at depth and by transfer from the M 9.2 Prince William Sound earthquake of 1964 dominated the changing Coulomb stress distribution along the fault. The combination of loading (∼70–85%) and coseismic stress transfer from the great 1964 earthquake (∼15–30%) were the principal post-1900 stress factors building toward strike-slip failure of the northern Denali and Totschunda segments in the M 7.9 earthquake of November 2002. Postseismic stresses transferred from the 1964 earthquake may also have been a significant factor. The M 7.2–7.4 Delta River earthquake of 1912 (Carver et al., 2004) may have delayed or advanced the timing of the DFE, depending on the details and location of its rupture. The initial subevent of the 2002 DFE earthquake was on the 40-km Susitna Glacier thrust fault at the western end of the Denali fault rupture. The Coulomb stress transferred from the 1964 earthquake moved the Susitna Glacier thrust

  7. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 a TSS earthquake with Ms 7+ and epicentral distance of about 250 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero, a Maximum Mercalli Modified Intensity (MMI) of IX-X was reported in MC. Furthermore, the 19/09/1985 a Ms 8.1, Mw 8.01, TSS earthquake with epicentral distance of about 340 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Michoacan, a maximum MMI of IX-X was reported in MC. Also, the largest, Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, with epicentral distance of the order of 200 km from G in northwestern Mexico. The 9/10/1995 another similar event, Ms 7.4, Mw 8, with an epicentral distance of about 240 km from G, occurred in the same region and produced MMI IX in the epicentral zone and MMI up to VI in G. The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. On the other hand, the first recordings of strong ground motions in MC dates from the early 1960´s and most of them were recorded after the 19/09/1985 earthquake. In G there is only one recording of the later event, and 13 for the one occurred the 9/10/1995 [2]. In order to fulfill the lack of strong ground motions records for large damaging TSS earthquakes, which could have an important economical impact on MC [3] and G, in this work we have modeled broadband synthetics (obtained with a hybrid model that has already been satisfactorily compared with observations of the 9/10/1995 Colima-Jalisco Mw 8 earthquake, [4]) expected in MC and G, associated to extreme magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The proposed scenarios are based on the seismic history and up

  8. Borehole and High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Evidence for Holocene Activity on the Compton Blind-Thrust Fault, Los Angeles Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, L. A.; Dolan, J. F.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    Newly collected borehole and high-resolution seismic reflection data from a site ~6 km south of downtown Los Angeles demonstrate that the Compton blind-thrust fault has generated multiple large-magnitude earthquakes during the Holocene. This large blind thrust fault, which was originally identified by Shaw and Suppe (1996) using industry seismic reflection profiles and well data, extends northwest-southeast for 40 km beneath the western edge of the Los Angeles basin. The industry seismic reflection data define a growth fault-bend fold associated with the thrust ramp, which, combined with well data, reveal compelling evidence for Pliocene and Pleistocene activity. The industry data, however, do not image deformation in the uppermost few hundred meters. In order to bridge this gap, we acquired high-resolution seismic reflection profiles at two scales across the back limb active axial surface of the fault-bend fold above the Compton thrust ramp, using a truck-mounted weight drop and sledgehammer sources. These profiles delineate the axial surfaces of the fold from <20 m depth downward to overlap with the upper part of the industry reflection data within the upper 500 m. The seismic reflection data reveal an upward-narrowing zone of folding that extends to <100 m of the surface. These data, in turn, allowed us to accurately and efficiently site a fault-perpendicular transect of eight continuously cored boreholes across the axial surface of the fold observed in both industry and high-resolution seismic reflection data. The borehole data reveal folding within a discrete kink band that is <~150 m wide in the shallow subsurface. Preliminary analysis of the deformed, shallow growth strata reveals evidence for a number of discrete uplift events, which we interpret as having occurred during several large-magnitude (M >7) earthquakes on the Compton fault. Although we do not as yet have age control for this transect, numerous organic-rich clay and silt layers, as well as

  9. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of dynamic and earthquake motion recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, R.R.; Ma, S.; Safak, E.; Hartzell, S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the rationale of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for analyzing dynamic and earthquake motion recordings in studies of seismology and engineering. In particular, this paper first provides the fundamentals of the HHT method, which consist of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert spectral analysis. It then uses the HHT to analyze recordings of hypothetical and real wave motion, the results of which are compared with the results obtained by the Fourier data processing technique. The analysis of the two recordings indicates that the HHT method is able to extract some motion characteristics useful in studies of seismology and engineering, which might not be exposed effectively and efficiently by Fourier data processing technique. Specifically, the study indicates that the decomposed components in EMD of HHT, namely, the intrinsic mode function (IMF) components, contain observable, physical information inherent to the original data. It also shows that the grouped IMF components, namely, the EMD-based low- and high-frequency components, can faithfully capture low-frequency pulse-like as well as high-frequency wave signals. Finally, the study illustrates that the HHT-based Hilbert spectra are able to reveal the temporal-frequency energy distribution for motion recordings precisely and clearly.

  10. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  11. Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psimoulis, Panos; Houlié, Nicolas; Michel, Clotaire; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High-rate GPS data are today commonly used to supplement seismic data for the Earth surface motions focusing on earthquake characterisation and rupture modelling. Processing of GPS records using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can provide real-time information of seismic wave propagation, tsunami early-warning and seismic rupture. Most studies have shown differences between the GPS and seismic systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec) and static displacements. The aim of this study is the assessment of the consistency of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, the records of the GPS (GEONET) and the strong-motion (KiK-net and K-NET) networks corresponding to the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were analysed. The comparison of the displacement waveforms of collocated (distance<100m) GPS and strong-motion sites show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation. Differences are mainly due to the GPS noise at relatively short-periods (<3-4 s) and the saturation of the strong-motion sensors for relatively long-periods (40-80 s). Furthermore the agreement between the GPS and strong-motion records also depends on the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the epicentre. In conclusion, velocities and displacements recovered from GPS and strong-motion records are consistent for long-periods (3-100 s), proving that GPS networks can contribute to the real-time estimation of the long-period ground motion map of an earthquake.

  12. Stress and structure analysis of the Seismic Gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao

    2017-04-01

    An array of 20 short-period and 15 broadband seismometers were deployed to monitor the seismic gap between the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (31.01°N, 103.42°E) largely northeastward while the Lushan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (30.3°N, 103.0°E) largely southwestward. The region between the two earthquakes has recorded very few aftershocks and cataloged seismicity before and after the two big earthquakes compared to neighboring segments. As one small segment of the 500KM long Longmen Shan fault system, its absence of seismicity draws hot debate on whether a big one is still in brewing or steady creeping is in control of the strain energy release. The dense array is deployed primarily aimed to detect events that are much smaller than cataloged events and to determine if the segment is experiencing constantly creeping. The preliminary findings include: (1) source mechanisms show that the seismic gap appears to be a transitional zone between north and south segment. The events to the south are primarily thrust while events to north have more or less striking-slip components. This is also the case for both Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake; (2) The receiver function analysis shows that the Moho beneath the seismic Gap is less defined than its adjacent region with relatively weaker Ps conversion phases; (3) Both receiver function and ambient noise tomography show that the velocities in the upper crust is relatively lower in the Gap region than surrounding regions; (4) significant number of small earthquakes are located near surface in the gap region. Further examinations should be conducted before we can make a sounding conclusion on what mechanism is in control of the seismicity in this region.

  13. The September 19, 1985 Michoacan Earthquake: Aftershock acceleration data recorded by a temporary installation of strong motion instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; Simila, Gerry W.; McNally, Karen C.; Thompson, Howard

    1986-06-01

    We describe acceleration signals recorded for nine aftershocks of the September 19, 1985 Michoacan earthquake. To obtain this data set, three A-700 Teledyne-Geotech digital strong-motion instruments were operated temporarily at two sites on the José María Morelos (La Villita) Dam, and at a site located at about 12 km to the west of the town of Zihuatanejo. Peak horizontal accelerations of 0.005 g to 0.031 g were recorded at epicentral distances between 10 and 75 km, for earthquakes with magnitude (mb) between 4.5 and 5.3. It was observed that the peak accelerations recorded at a site on the embankment of the dam (near the crest ) are approximately three times those recorded on the abutment bedrock portion of the dam. Although these sites were spatially separated by no more than 300 m, differences among their records are also significant. Waveforms recorded at the embankment site look more complex than those from the abutment site. This fact, as well as the higher peak accelerations on the embankment, provides evidence of a strong influence of the structure of the dam on the ground motion at the embankment site.

  14. Effects of structural heterogeneity on frictional heating from biomarker thermal maturity analysis of the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, G. L.; Savage, H. M.; Polissar, P. J.; Rowe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Faults are generally heterogeneous along-strike, with changes in thickness and structural complexity that should influence coseismic slip. However, observational limitations (e.g. limited outcrop or borehole samples) can obscure this complexity. Here we investigate the heterogeneity of frictional heating determined from biomarker thermal maturity and microstructural observations along a well-exposed fault to understand whether coseismic stress and frictional heating are related to structural complexity. We focus on the Muddy Mountain thrust, Nevada, a Sevier-age structure that has continuous exposure of its fault core and considerable structural variability for up to 50 m, to explore the distribution of earthquake slip and temperature rise along strike. We present new biomarker thermal maturity results that capture the heating history of fault rocks. Biomarkers are organic molecules produced by living organisms and preserved in the rock record. During heating, their structure is altered systematically with increasing time and temperature. Preliminary results show significant variability in thermal maturity along-strike at the Muddy Mountain thrust, suggesting differences in coseismic temperature rise on the meter- scale. Temperatures upwards of 500°C were generated in the principal slip zone at some locations, while in others, no significant temperature rise occurred. These results demonstrate that stress or slip heterogeneity occurred along the Muddy Mountain thrust at the meter-scale and considerable along-strike complexity existed, highlighting the importance of careful interpretation of whole-fault behavior from observations at a single point on a fault.

  15. Active accommodation of plate convergence in Southern Iran: Earthquake locations, triggered aseismic slip, and regional strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, William D.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-01

    We present a catalog of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) constraints on deformation that occurred during earthquake sequences in southern Iran between 1992 and 2011, and explore the implications on the accommodation of large-scale continental convergence between Saudi Arabia and Eurasia within the Zagros Mountains. The Zagros Mountains, a salt-laden fold-and-thrust belt involving ~10 km of sedimentary rocks overlying Precambrian basement rocks, have formed as a result of ongoing continental collision since 10-20 Ma that is currently occurring at a rate of ~3 cm/yr. We first demonstrate that there is a biased misfit in earthquake locations in global catalogs that likely results from neglect of 3-D velocity structure. Previous work involving two M ~ 6 earthquakes with well-recorded aftershocks has shown that the deformation observed with InSAR may represent triggered slip on faults much shallower than the primary earthquake, which likely occurred within the basement rocks (>10 km depth). We explore the hypothesis that most of the deformation observed with InSAR spanning earthquake sequences is also due to shallow, triggered slip above a deeper earthquake, effectively doubling the moment release for each event. We quantify the effects that this extra moment release would have on the discrepancy between seismically and geodetically constrained moment rates in the region, finding that even with the extra triggered fault slip, significant aseismic deformation during the interseismic period is necessary to fully explain the convergence between Eurasia and Saudi Arabia.

  16. Earthquake recordings from the 2002 Seattle Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS), Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Meagher, Karen L.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Yelin, Thomas; Norris, Robert; Hultgrien, Lynn; Barnett, Elizabeth; Weaver, Craig S.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes seismic data obtained during the fourth Seismic Hazard Investigation of Puget Sound (SHIPS) experiment, termed Seattle SHIPS . The experiment was designed to study the influence of the Seattle sedimentary basin on ground shaking during earthquakes. To accomplish this, we deployed seismometers over the basin to record local earthquakes, quarry blasts, and teleseisms during the period of January 26 to May 27, 2002. We plan to analyze the recordings to compute spectral amplitudes at each site, to determine the variability of ground motions over the basin. During the Seattle SHIPS experiment, seismometers were deployed at 87 sites in a 110-km-long east-west line, three north-south lines, and a grid throughout the Seattle urban area (Figure 1). At each of these sites, an L-22, 2-Hz velocity transducer was installed and connected to a REF TEK Digital Acquisition System (DAS), both provided by the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL) of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS). The instruments were installed on January 26 and 27, and were retrieved gradually between April 18 and May 27. All instruments continuously sampled all three components of motion (velocity) at a sample rate of 50 samples/sec. To ensure accurate computations of amplitude, we calibrated the geophones in situ to obtain the instrument responses. In this report, we discuss the acquisition of these data, we describe the processing and merging of these data into 1-hour long traces and into windowed events, we discuss the geophone calibration process and its results, and we display some of the earthquake recordings.

  17. Transpressional Structure in Chiayi Area, Taiwan: Insight from the 2017 ML5.1 Zhongpu Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, K. F.; Huang, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Chiayi area is located at the deformation front of active fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan, where the fault system is composed primarily of a series of north-south-trending east-dipping thrusts and also an east-west-trending strike-slip fault (Meishan Fault, MSF) with right-lateral faulting. On 24th May 2017, a ML 5.1 earthquake occurred at Zhongpu, Chiayi (namely Zhongpu earthquake), however, shows a left-lateral strike-slip faulting distinct from the known structure in the area. The distribution of the reported aftershocks is difficult to distinguish the actual fault plane. To determine the fault plane of this abnormal earthquake and investigate its structural relationships to the regional tectonics, we relocate the earthquake sequence and estimate the rupture directivity of the mainshock by using the 3-D double difference hypocenter relocation method (Lin, 2013) and the 3-D directivity moment tensor inversion method (DMT, Huang et al., 2017, submitted). The DMT results show that the rupture directivity of the Zhongpu earthquake is west- and down-ward along the east-west fault plane, which also agrees with east-west-distributed aftershocks after relocation. As a result, the Zhongpu earthquake reveals an undiscovered east-west-trending structure which is sub-parallel with the MSF but with opposite faulting direction, exhibiting a complex transpressional tectonic regime in the Chiayi area.

  18. Rapid Ice Mass Loss: Does It Have an Influence on Earthquake Occurrence in Southern Alaska?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    The glaciers of southern Alaska are extensive, and many of them have undergone gigatons of ice wastage on time scales on the order of the seismic cycle. Since the ice loss occurs directly above a shallow main thrust zone associated with subduction of the Pacific-Yakutat plate beneath continental Alaska, the region between the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers is an excellent test site for evaluating the importance of recent ice wastage on earthquake faulting potential. We demonstrate the influence of cumulative glacial mass loss following the 1899 Yakataga earthquake (M=8.1) by using a two dimensional finite element model with a simple representation of ice fluctuations to calculate the incremental stresses and change in the fault stability margin (FSM) along the main thrust zone (MTZ) and on the surface. Along the MTZ, our results indicate a decrease in FSM between 1899 and the 1979 St. Elias earthquake (M=7.4) of 0.2 - 1.2 MPa over an 80 km region between the coast and the 1979 aftershock zone; at the surface, the estimated FSM was larger but more localized to the lower reaches of glacial ablation zones. The ice-induced stresses were large enough, in theory, to promote the occurrence of shallow thrust earthquakes. To empirically test the influence of short-term ice fluctuations on fault stability, we compared the seismic rate from a reference background time period (1988-1992) against other time periods (1993-2006) with variable ice or tectonic change characteristics. We found that the frequency of small tectonic events in the Icy Bay region increased in 2002-2006 relative to the background seismic rate. We hypothesize that this was due to a significant increase in the rate of ice wastage in 2002-2006 instead of the M=7.9, 2002 Denali earthquake, located more than 100km away.

  19. Streaks of Aftershocks Following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.; Engdahl, E. R.; Diehl, T.

    2009-12-01

    Five years after the devastating 26 December, 2004 M 9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, regional and global seismic networks have recorded tens of thousands of aftershocks. We use bulletin data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), and waveforms from IRIS, to relocate more than 20,000 hypocenters between 1964 and 2008 using teleseimic cross-correlation and double-difference methods. Relative location uncertainties of a few km or less allow for detailed analysis of the seismogenic faults activated as a result of the massive stress changes associated with the mega-thrust event. We focus our interest on an area of intense aftershock activity off-shore Banda Aceh in northern Sumatra, where the relocated epicenters reveal a pattern of northeast oriented streaks. The two most prominent streaks are ~70 km long with widths of only a few km. Some sections of the streaks are formed by what appear to be small, NNE striking sub-streaks. Hypocenter depths indicate that the events locate both on the plate interface and in the overriding Sunda plate, within a ~20 km wide band overlying the plate interface. Events on the plate interface indicate that the slab dip changes from ~20° to ~30° at around 50 km depth. Locations of the larger events in the overriding plate indicate an extension of the steeper dipping mega thrust fault to the surface, imaging what appears to be a major splay fault that reaches the surface somewhere near the western edge of the Aceh basin. Additional secondary splay faults, which branch off the plate interface at shallower depths, may explain the diffuse distribution of smaller events in the overriding plate, although their relative locations are less well constrained. Focal mechanisms support the relocation results. They show a narrowing range of fault dips with increasing distance from the trench. Specifically, they show reverse faulting on ~30° dipping faults above the shallow (20

  20. Fault- and Area-Based PSHA in Nepal using OpenQuake: New Insights from the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha-Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Gorkha-Nepal M7.8 earthquake (hereafter known simply as the Gorkha earthquake) highlights the seismic risk in Nepal, allows better characterization of the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), and enables comparison of recorded ground-motions with predicted ground-motions. These new data, together with recent paleoseismic studies and geodetic-based coupling models, allow for good parameterization of the fault characteristics. Other faults in Nepal remain less well studied. Unlike previous PSHA studies in Nepal that are exclusively area-based, we use a mix of faults and areas to describe six seismic sources in Nepal. For each source, the Gutenberg-Richter a and b values are found, and the maximum magnitude earthquake estimated, using a combination of earthquake catalogs, moment conservation principals and similarities to other tectonic regions. The MHT and Karakoram fault are described as fault sources, whereas four other sources - normal faulting in N-S trending grabens of northern Nepal, strike-slip faulting in both eastern and western Nepal, and background seismicity - are described as area sources. We use OpenQuake (http://openquake.org/) to carry out the analysis, and peak ground acceleration (PGA) at 2 and 10% chance in 50 years is found for Nepal, along with hazard curves at various locations. We compare this PSHA model with previous area-based models of Nepal. The Main Himalayan Thrust is the principal seismic hazard in Nepal so we study the effects of changing several parameters associated with this fault. We compare ground shaking predicted from various fault geometries suggested from the Gorkha earthquake with each other, and with a simple model of a flat fault. We also show the results from incorporating a coupling model based on geodetic data and microseismicity, which limits the down-dip extent of rupture. There have been no ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed specifically for Nepal, so we compare the results of

  1. Excel, Earthquakes, and Moneyball: exploring Cascadia earthquake probabilities using spreadsheets and baseball analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    Much recent media attention focuses on Cascadia's earthquake hazard. A widely cited magazine article starts "An earthquake will destroy a sizable portion of the coastal Northwest. The question is when." Stories include statements like "a massive earthquake is overdue", "in the next 50 years, there is a 1-in-10 chance a "really big one" will erupt," or "the odds of the big Cascadia earthquake happening in the next fifty years are roughly one in three." These lead students to ask where the quoted probabilities come from and what they mean. These probability estimates involve two primary choices: what data are used to describe when past earthquakes happened and what models are used to forecast when future earthquakes will happen. The data come from a 10,000-year record of large paleoearthquakes compiled from subsidence data on land and turbidites, offshore deposits recording submarine slope failure. Earthquakes seem to have happened in clusters of four or five events, separated by gaps. Earthquakes within a cluster occur more frequently and regularly than in the full record. Hence the next earthquake is more likely if we assume that we are in the recent cluster that started about 1700 years ago, than if we assume the cluster is over. Students can explore how changing assumptions drastically changes probability estimates using easy-to-write and display spreadsheets, like those shown below. Insight can also come from baseball analogies. The cluster issue is like deciding whether to assume that a hitter's performance in the next game is better described by his lifetime record, or by the past few games, since he may be hitting unusually well or in a slump. The other big choice is whether to assume that the probability of an earthquake is constant with time, or is small immediately after one occurs and then grows with time. This is like whether to assume that a player's performance is the same from year to year, or changes over their career. Thus saying "the chance of

  2. Seismic hazard reappraisal from combined structural geology, geomorphology and cosmic ray exposure dating analyses: the Eastern Precordillera thrust system (NW Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, L. L.; Bellier, O.; Sébrier, M.; Bourlès, D. L.; Leturmy, P.; Perez, M.; Araujo, M.

    2002-07-01

    Because earthquakes on large active thrust or reverse faults are not always accompanied with surface rupture, paleoseismological estimation of their associated seismic hazard is a difficult task. To improve the seismic hazard assessments in the Andean foreland of western Argentina (San Juan Province), this paper proposes a novel approach that combines structural geology, geomorphology and exposure age dating. The Eastern Precordillera of San Juan is probably one of the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We concentrated on one major regional active reverse structure, the 145 km long Villicúm-Pedernal thrust, where this methodology allows one to: (1) constrain the Quaternary stress regime by inversion of geologically determined slip vectors on minor or major fault planes; (2) analyse the geometry and the geomorphic characteristics of the Villicúm-Pedernal thrust; and (3) estimate uplift and shortening rates through determination of in situ-produced 10Be cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of abandoned and uplifted alluvial terraces. From a structural point of view, the Villicúm-Pedernal thrust can be subdivided into three thrust portions constituting major structural segments separated by oblique N40°E-trending fault branches. Along the three segments, inversion of fault slip data shows that the development of the Eastern Precordillera between 31°S and 32°S latitude is dominated by a pure compressive reverse faulting stress regime characterized by a N110°+/- 10°E-trending compressional stress axis (σ1). A geomorphic study realized along the 18 km long Las Tapias fault segment combined with CRE ages shows that the minimum shortening rate calculated over the previous ~20 kyr is at least of the order of 1 mm yr-1. An earthquake moment tensor sum has also been used to calculate a regional shortening rate caused by seismic deformation. This analysis of the focal solutions available for the last 23 yr shows that the seismic contribution may be three

  3. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  4. The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

  5. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20–30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages. PMID:23401713

  6. WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felzer, Karen R.; Cao, Tianqing

    2008-01-01

    This appendix provides an earthquake catalog for California and the surrounding area. Our goal is to provide a listing for all known M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred from 1850-1932 and all known M > 4.0 earthquakes that occurred from 1932-2006 within the region of 31.0 to 43.0 degrees North and -126.0 to -114.0 degrees West. Some pre-1932 earthquakes 4 5, before the Northern California network was online. Some earthquakes from 1900-1932, and particularly from 1910-1932 are also based on instrumental readings, but the quality of the instrumental record and the resulting analysis are much less precise than for later listings. A partial exception is for some of the largest earthquakes, such as the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, for which global teleseismic records (Wald et al. 1993) and geodetic measurements (Thatcher et al. 1906) have been used to help determine magnitudes.

  7. Site Effects in the City of Port au Prince (Haiti) Inferred From 2010 Earthquake Aftershocks Recordings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Deschamps, A.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Boisson, D.; Prepetit, C.; Hough, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Haitian earthquake of 12 January 2010 (Mw=7) caused an unprecedented disaster in Port-au-Prince as well as in smaller cities close to the epicenter. The extent of damage appears to be initially attributed to the proximity of the earthquake in Port-au-Prince, the extreme vulnerability of many structures, and a high population density. However, the damage distribution for this earthquake suggests a general correlation of damage with small-scale topographical features and local geological structure. The main objective of this work is to investigate site effects in the city of Port-au-Prince. It is also to better define the response of different sites to earthquakes and establish transfer functions between each site and a particular site defined as a reference site. Specific soil columns is determined in the vicinity of each station in order to carry out 1D simulations of soil response at these sites. About 90 earthquakes (2recorded between March 2010 and February 2013 on a local network composed of nine accelerometers installed by USGS, three broad-band velocimeters installed by NRCAN and two velocimeters of the French "Sismo at school" network. We located 39 of these events using the permanent network and 43 were located by Douilly et al. (2013) using a temporary network. The ground motion recordings at these stations were then analyzed in order to study the topographic and lithologic amplification effects observed on these sites. To quantify site effects under each station, we have used classical spectral ratio methods. In a first step, the HVSR earthquake method (Horizontal over Vertical ratio) was used to choose a reference station in Port au Prince that should be ideally a station without any site effects. We selected HCEA station as reference station. In a second step, we estimated the transfer function at each station by the SSR (Standard Spectral Ratio). Finally, these transfer functions estimated by the spectral ratios technique were compared

  8. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  9. Kinematics of the active West Andean fold-and-thrust belt (central Chile): Structure and long-term shortening rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesner, M.; Lacassin, R.; Simoes, M.; Armijo, R.; Rauld, R.; Vargas, G.

    2017-02-01

    West verging thrusts, synthetic with the Nazca-South America subduction interface, have been recently discovered at the western front of the Andes. At 33°30'S, the active San Ramón fault stands as the most frontal of these west verging structures and represents a major earthquake threat for Santiago, capital city of Chile. Here we elaborate a detailed 3-D structural map and a precise cross section of the West Andean fold-and-thrust belt based on field observations, satellite imagery, and previous structural data, together with digital topography. We then reconstruct the evolution of this frontal belt using a trishear kinematic approach. Our reconstruction implies westward propagation of deformation with a total shortening of 9-15 km accumulated over the last 25 Myr. An overall long-term shortening rate of 0.1-0.5 mm/yr is deduced. The maximum value of this shortening rate compares well with the rate that may be inferred from recent trench data across the San Ramón fault and the slip associated with the past two Mw > 7 earthquakes. This suggests that the San Ramón fault is most probably the only presently active fault of the West Andean fold-and-thrust-belt and that most—if not all—the deformation is to be released seismically.

  10. Unusual downhole and surface free-field records near the Carquinez Strait bridges during the 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of Part A of a study of the recorded strong-motion accelerations at the well-instrumented network of the two side-by-side parallel bridges over the Carquinez Strait during the 24 August 2014 (Mw6.0 ) South Napa, Calif. earthquake that occurred at 03:20:44 PDT with epicentral coordinates 38.22N, 122.31W. (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/poster/2014/20140824.php, last accessed on October 17, 2014). Both bridges and two boreholes were instrumented by the California Strong motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) of California Geological Survey (CGS) (Shakal et al., 2014). A comprehensive comparison of several ground motion prediction equations as they relate to recorded ground motions of the earthquake is provided by Baltay and Boatright (2015).

  11. Chronology of paleozoic metamorphism and deformation in the Blue Ridge thrust complex, North Carolina and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.A.; Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    The Blue Ridge province in northwestern North Carolina and northeastern Tennessee records a multiphase collisional and accretionary history from the Mesoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. To constrain the tectonothermal evolution in this region, radiometric ages have been determined for 23 regionally metamorphosed amphibolites, granitic gneisses, and pelitic schists and from mylonites along shear zones that bound thrust sheets and within an internal shear zone. The garnet ages from the Pumpkin Patch a thrust sheet (458, 455, and 451 Ma) are similar to those from the structurally overlying Spruce Pine thrust sheet (460, 456, 455, and 450 Ma). Both thrust sheets exhibitmore » similar upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Because of the high closure temperature for garnet, the garnet ages are interpreted to date growth at or near the peak of Taconic metamorphism. Devonian metamorphic ages are recognized in the Spruce Pine thrust sheet, where Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr garnet ages of 386 and 393 Ma and mineral isochron ages of 397 {+-} 14 and 375 {+-} 27 Ma are preserved. Hornblendes record similar {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr ages of 398 to 379 Ma. Devonian {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar hornblende ages are also recorded in the structurally lower Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet. The Devonian mineral ages are interpreted to date a discrete tectonothermal event, as opposed to uplift and slow cooling from an Ordovician metamorphic event. The Mississippian mylonitization is interpreted to represent thrusting and initial assembly of crystalline sheets associated with the Alleghanian orogeny. The composite thrust stack of the Blue Ridge complex was subsequently thrust northwestward along the Linville Falls fault during middle Alleghanian orogeny (about 300 Ma).« less

  12. Earthquake Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... recordings of large earthquakes, scientists built large spring-pendulum seismometers in an attempt to record the long- ... are moving away from one another. The first “pendulum seismoscope” to measure the shaking of the ground ...

  13. Shaping low-thrust trajectories with thrust-handling feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Ehsan; Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Atkins, Ella

    2018-02-01

    Shape-based methods are becoming popular in low-thrust trajectory optimization due to their fast computation speeds. In existing shape-based methods constraints are treated at the acceleration level but not at the thrust level. These two constraint types are not equivalent since spacecraft mass decreases over time as fuel is expended. This paper develops a shape-based method based on a Fourier series approximation that is capable of representing trajectories defined in spherical coordinates and that enforces thrust constraints. An objective function can be incorporated to minimize overall mission cost, i.e., achieve minimum ΔV . A representative mission from Earth to Mars is studied. The proposed Fourier series technique is demonstrated capable of generating feasible and near-optimal trajectories. These attributes can facilitate future low-thrust mission designs where different trajectory alternatives must be rapidly constructed and evaluated.

  14. Estimation of slip scenarios of mega-thrust earthquakes and strong motion simulations for Central Andes, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, N.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, Z.; Chlieh, M.; Calderon, D.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakai, S.; Yamazaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    all scenario slips for central Andes, and for an average soil condition, exhibit similar amplitudes and attenuation characteristics with distance as the PGA and PGV values observed during the 2010 Maule (Mw 8.8), and 2011 Tohoku-oki (Mw 9.0) earthquakes. Our results clearly indicate that the simulated ground motions for scenarios with deep rupture nucleations (~40 km) are consistently smaller than the ground motions obtained for shallower rupture nucleations. We also performed strong ground motion simulations in metropolitan Lima by using the aforementioned slip scenarios, and incorporating site amplifications obtained from several microtremors array surveys conducted at representative geotechnical zones in this city. Our simulated PGA and PGV in Lima reach values of 1000 cm/s^2 and 80 cm/s. Our results show that the largest values of PGA (at Puente Piedra district, Northern Lima) are related with short period site effects, whereas the largest values of PGV are related with large site amplifications for periods from 1s to 1.5s (at Callao, Villa el Salvador and La Molina districts). Our results also indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV in central Lima (Parque de la Reserva) are in average 2~3 times larger than the values recorded by a strong motion instrument installed at this location, during the 1974 (Mw8.0) and 1966 (Mw8.0) earthquakes off-shore Lima.

  15. Impact of great subduction earthquakes on the long-term forearc morphology, insight from mechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubas, Nadaya

    2017-04-01

    reactivate normal faults at the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone or at an increasing slip transition (e.g., Chile and Japan). Finally, we will show that the fault vergence is controlled by the frictional properties. Sudden and successive decreases of the megathrust effective friction during frontal propagation of earthquakes will lead to the formation of landward-vergent frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism. Therefore, a particular attention needs to be paid to accretionary prisms with normal faults implying large up-dip ruptures (e.g., Alaska and Japan) or with frontal landward-vergent thrust faults, markers of past seafloor coseismic ruptures leading to very large tsunamis (e.g., Cascadia and Sumatra). If the forearc long-term deformation seems in good accordance with our understanding of earthquake mechanics, recent studies have pointed to a major discrepancy between short- and long-term deformation at the coast (i.e., the Central Andes subduction zone). An analogue discrepancy has been pointed out for the Himalaya after the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake. Melnick (2016) proposed that the coastal long-term deformation could be related to deep and less frequent earthquakes instead of standard subduction events. It is now of fundamental importance to understand the link between the coastal long-term record and the short-term deformation for seismic risk assessment and relief building processes understanding. It will probably constitute the next challenge for mechanical modelling.

  16. Earthquake swarm of Himachal Pradesh in northwest Himalaya and its seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rakesh; Prasath, R. Arun; Paul, Ajay; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-02-01

    On the 27th of August 2016, a seismic swarm activity consisting of 58 earthquakes (1.5 ≤ ML ≤ 4.4), which occurred in Rampur area of the Kullu-Rampur Tectonic window of Himachal Pradesh in Northwest Himalaya. The epicenters of these events are located at the northern front of the Berinag Thrust in its hanging wall. To better understand the seismotectonics of this region, we analyzed the spectral source parameters and source mechanism of this swam activity. Spectral analysis shows the low stress drop values (from 0.05 to 28.9 bars), suggesting that the upper crust has low strength to withstand accumulated strain energy in this region. The Moment Tensor solutions of 12 earthquakes (≥2.7ML) obtained by waveform inversion yield the shallow centroid depths between 5 and 10 km. All these events are of dominantly thrust fault mechanism having an average dip angle of ∼30°. The P-axes and the maximum horizontal compressive stresses are NE-SW oriented; the relative motion of the Indian Plate. The present study reveals that the swarm activity in the Himachal region of NW Himalaya is related to the out-of-sequence thrusting or the Lesser Himalayan Duplex system.

  17. Deformation of the 2002 Denali Fault earthquakes, mapped by Radarsat-1 interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Wright, Tim; Wicks, Chuck

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude 7.9 earthquake that struck central Alaska on 3 November 2002 was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America for more than 150 years. The earthquake ruptured about 340 km of the Denali Fault system with observed right-lateral offsets of up to 9 m [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2003] (Figure l). The rupture initiated with slip on a previously unknown thrust fault, the 40-km-long Susitna Glacier Fault. The rupture propagated eastward for about 220 km along the right-lateral Denali Fault where right-lateral slip averaged ˜5 m, before stepping southeastward onto the Totschunda Fault for about 70 km, with offsets as large as 2 m. The 3 November earthquake was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 shock on 23 October—the Nenana Mountain Earthquake—which was located about 25 km to the west of the 3 November earthquake.

  18. Emplacement history of a thrust sheet based on analysis of pressure solution cleavage and deformed fossils

    SciTech Connect

    Protzman, G.M.; Mitra, G.

    The emplacement history of a thrust sheet is recorded by the strain accumulated in its hanging wall and footwall. Detailed studies of second order structures and analysis of strain due to pressure solution and plastic deformation allow the authors to determine the deformation history of the Meade thrust in the Idaho - Wyoming thrust belt. Emplacement of the Meade thrust was accompanied by the formation of a series of second order in echelon folds in the footwall. Temporal relations based on detailed structural studies show that these folds, which are confined to the Jurassic Twin Creek Formation, formed progressively inmore » front of the advancing Meade thrust and were successively truncated and overridden by footwall imbricates of the Meade thrust. The Twin Creek Formation in both the hanging wall and footwall of the Meade thrust is penetratively deformed, with a well developed pressure solution cleavage. In addition, plastic strain is recorded by deformed Pentacrinus within fossil hash layers in the Twin Creek. Much of this penetrative deformation took place early in the history of the thrust sheet as layer parallel shortening, and the cleavage and deformed fossils behaved passively during subsequent folding and faulting. The later stages of deformation may be sequentially removed through balancing techniques to track successive steps in the deformation. This strain history, which is typical of an internal thrust sheet, is partly controlled by the lithologies involved, timing between successive thrusts, and the amount of interaction between major faults.« less

  19. Revelations from a single strong-motion record retreived during the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the 27 June 1998 Adana (Turkey) earthquake, only one strong-motion record was retrieved in the region where the most damage occurred. This single record from the station in Ceyhan, approximately 15 km from the epicenter of that earthquake, exhibits characteristics that are related to the dominant frequencies of the ground and structures. The purpose of this paper is to explain the causes of the damage as inferred from both field observations and the characteristics of a single strong-motion record retrieved from the immediate epicentral area. In the town of Ceyhan there was considerable but selective damage to a significant number of mid-rise (7-12 stories high) buildings. The strong-motion record exhibits dominant frequencies that are typically similar for the mid-rise building structures. This is further supported by spectral ratios derived using Nakamura's method [QR of RTRI, 30 (1989) 25] that facilitates computation of a spectral ratio from a single tri-axial record as the ratio of amplitude spectrum of horizontal component to that of the vertical component [R = H(f)/V(f)]. The correlation between the damage and the characteristics exhibited from the single strong-motion record is remarkable. Although deficient construction practices played a significant role in the extent of damage to the mid-rise buildings, it is clear that site resonance also contributed to the detrimental fate of most of the mid-rise buildings. Therefore, even a single record can be useful to explain the effect of site resonance on building response and performance. Such information can be very useful for developing zonation criteria in similar alluvial valleys. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Earthquake triggering in southeast Africa following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Miguel; Custódio, Susana; Peng, Zhigang; Ayorinde, Adebayo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present evidence of earthquake dynamic triggering in southeast Africa. We analysed seismic waveforms recorded at 53 broad-band and short-period stations in order to identify possible increases in the rate of microearthquakes and tremor due to the passage of teleseismic waves generated by the Mw8.6 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. We found evidence of triggered local earthquakes and no evidence of triggered tremor in the region. We assessed the statistical significance of the increase in the number of local earthquakes using β-statistics. Statistically significant dynamic triggering of local earthquakes was observed at 7 out of the 53 analysed stations. Two of these stations are located in the northeast coast of Madagascar and the other five stations are located in the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. We found no evidence of dynamically triggered seismic activity in stations located near the structures of the East African Rift System. Hydrothermal activity exists close to the stations that recorded dynamic triggering, however, it also exists near the East African Rift System structures where no triggering was observed. Our results suggest that factors other than solely tectonic regime and geothermalism are needed to explain the mechanisms that underlie earthquake triggering.

  1. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  2. PPT Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  3. InSAR Evidence for an active shallow thrust fault beneath the city of Spokane Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, Charles W.; Weaver, Craig S.; Bodin, Paul; Sherrod, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, a nearly five month long sequence of shallow, mostly small magnitude earthquakes occurred beneath the city of Spokane, a city with a population of about 200,000, in the state of Washington. During most of the sequence, the earthquakes were not well located because seismic instrumentation was sparse. Despite poor-quality locations, the earthquake hypocenters were likely very shallow, because residents near the city center both heard and felt many of the earthquakes. The combination of poor earthquake locations and a lack of known surface faults with recent movement make assessing the seismic hazards related to the earthquake swarm difficult. However, the potential for destruction from a shallow moderate-sized earthquake is high, for example Christchurch New Zealand in 2011, so assessing the hazard potential of a seismic structure involved in the Spokane earthquake sequence is important. Using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agency ERS2 and ENVISAT satellites and the Canadian Space Agency RADARSAT-1, satellite we are able to show that slip on a shallow previously unknown thrust fault, which we name the Spokane Fault, is the source of the earthquake sequence. The part of the Spokane Fault that slipped during the 2001 earthquake sequence underlies the north part of the city, and slip on the fault was concentrated between ~0.3 and 2 km depth. Projecting the buried fault plane to the surface gives a possible surface trace for the Spokane Fault that strikes northeast from the city center into north Spokane.

  4. Wrightwood and the earthquake cycle: What a long recurrence record tells us about how faults work

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, R.; Scharer, K.; Fumal, T.; Biasi, G.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of the earthquake cycle is so well established that one often hears statements in the popular media like, "the Big One is overdue" and "the longer it waits, the bigger it will be." Surprisingly, data to critically test the variability in recurrence intervals, rupture displacements, and relationships between the two are almost nonexistent. To generate a long series of earthquake intervals and offsets, we have conducted paleoseismic investigations across the San Andreas fault near the town of Wrightwood, California, excavating 45 trenches over 18 years, and can now provide some answers to basic questions about recurrence behavior of large earthquakes. To date, we have characterized at least 30 prehistoric earthquakes in a 6000-yr-long record, complete for the past 1500 yr and for the interval 3000-1500 B.C. For the past 1500 yr, the mean recurrence interval is 105 yr (31-165 yr for individual intervals) and the mean slip is 3.2 m (0.7-7 m per event). The series is slightly more ordered than random and has a notable cluster of events, during which strain was released at 3 times the long-term average rate. Slip associated with an earthquake is not well predicted by the interval preceding it, and only the largest two earthquakes appear to affect the time interval to the next earthquake. Generally, short intervals tend to coincide with large displacements and long intervals with small displacements. The most significant correlation we find is that earthquakes are more frequent following periods of net strain accumulation spanning multiple seismic cycles. The extent of paleoearthquake ruptures may be inferred by correlating event ages between different sites along the San Andreas fault. Wrightwood and other nearby sites experience rupture that could be attributed to overlap of relatively independent segments that each behave in a more regular manner. However, the data are equally consistent with a model in which the irregular behavior seen at Wrightwood

  5. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The earthquake and aftershocks occurred in crystalline rocks within Paleozoic thrust sheets of the Chopawamsic terrane. The main shock and majority of aftershocks delineated the newly named Quail fault zone in the subsurface, and shallow aftershocks defined outlying faults. The earthquake induced minor liquefaction sand boils, but notably there was no evidence of a surface fault rupture. Recurrence intervals, and evidence for larger earthquakes in the Quaternary in this area, remain important unknowns. This event, along with similar events during historical time, is a reminder that earthquakes of similar or larger magnitude pose a real hazard in eastern North America.

  6. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  7. Assessing the Applicability of Earthquake Early Warning in Nicaragua.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massin, F.; Clinton, J. F.; Behr, Y.; Strauch, W.; Cauzzi, C.; Boese, M.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Ramirez, J.

    2016-12-01

    Nicaragua, like much of Central America, suffers from frequent damaging earthquakes (6 M7+ earthquakes occurred in the last 100 years). Thrust events occur at the Middle America Trench where the Cocos plate subducts by 72-81 mm/yr eastward beneath the Caribbean plate. Shallow crustal events occur on-shore, with potential extensive damage as demonstrated in 1972 by a M6.2 earthquake, 5 km beneath Managua. This seismotectonic setting is challenging for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) because the target events derive from both the offshore seismicity, with potentially large lead times but uncertain locations, and shallow seismicity in close proximity to densely urbanized areas, where an early warning would be short if available at all. Nevertheless, EEW could reduce Nicaragua's earthquake exposure. The Swiss Development and Cooperation Fund and the Nicaraguan Government have funded a collaboration between the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich and the Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER) in Managua to investigate and build a prototype EEW system for Nicaragua and the wider region. In this contribution, we present the potential of EEW to effectively alert Nicaragua and the neighbouring regions. We model alert time delays using all available seismic stations (existing and planned) in the region, as well as communication and processing delays (observed and optimal) to estimate current and potential performances of EEW alerts. Theoretical results are verified with the output from the Virtual Seismologist in SeisComP3 (VS(SC3)). VS(SC3) is implemented in the INETER SeisComP3 system for real-time operation and as an offline instance, that simulates real-time operation, to record processing delays of playback events. We compare our results with similar studies for Europe, California and New Zealand. We further highlight current capabilities and challenges for providing EEW alerts in Nicaragua. We also discuss how combining different algorithms, like e.g. VS

  8. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard Assessment Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico by Historical Records and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Huerta, Laura G.; Ortiz, Modesto; García-Gastélum, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    Historical records of the Chile (22 May 1960), Alaska (27 March 1964), and Tohoku (11 March 2011) tsunamis recorded along the Pacific Coast of Mexico are used to investigate the goodness of far-field tsunami modeling using a focal mechanism consisting in a uniform slip distribution on large thrust faults around the Pacific Ocean. The Tohoku 2011 tsunami records recorded by Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations, and at coastal tide stations, were used to validate transoceanic tsunami models applicable to the harbors of Ensenada, Manzanillo, and Acapulco on the coast of Mexico. The amplitude resulting from synthetic tsunamis originated by M w 9.3 earthquakes around the Pacific varies from 1 to 2.5 m, depending on the tsunami origin region and on the directivity due to fault orientation and waveform modification by prominent features of sea bottom relief.

  9. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard Assessment Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico by Historical Records and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Huerta, Laura G.; Ortiz, Modesto; García-Gastélum, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    Historical records of the Chile (22 May 1960), Alaska (27 March 1964), and Tohoku (11 March 2011) tsunamis recorded along the Pacific Coast of Mexico are used to investigate the goodness of far-field tsunami modeling using a focal mechanism consisting in a uniform slip distribution on large thrust faults around the Pacific Ocean. The Tohoku 2011 tsunami records recorded by Deep ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations, and at coastal tide stations, were used to validate transoceanic tsunami models applicable to the harbors of Ensenada, Manzanillo, and Acapulco on the coast of Mexico. The amplitude resulting from synthetic tsunamis originated by M w 9.3 earthquakes around the Pacific varies from 1 to 2.5 m, depending on the tsunami origin region and on the directivity due to fault orientation and waveform modification by prominent features of sea bottom relief.

  10. Disparate Tectonic Settings of Devastating Earthquakes in Mexico, September 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Chen, W. P.; Ning, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large earthquakes associated with thrust faulting along the plate interface typically pose the highest seismic risk along subduction zones. However, both damaging earthquakes in Mexico of September 2017 are notable exceptions. The Tehuantepec event on the 8th (Mw 8.1) occurred just landward of the trench but is associated with normal faulting, akin to the large (Ms 8) historical event of 1931 that occurred about 200 km to the northwest along this subduction zone. The Puebla earthquake (on the 19th, Mw 7.1) occurred almost 300 km away from the trench where seismic imaging had indicated that the flat-lying slab steepens abruptly and plunges aseismically into the deep mantle. Here we show that both types of tectonic settings are in fact common along a large portion of the Mexican subduction zone, thus identifying source zones of potentially damaging earthquakes away from the plate interface. Additionally, modeling of broadband waveforms made clear that another significant event (Mw 6.1) on the 23rd, is associated with shallow normal faulting in the upper crust, not directly related to the two damaging earthquakes.

  11. Bringing science from the top of the world to the rest of the world: using video to describe earthquake research in Nepal following the devastating 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, M. S.; Barajas, A.; Garibay, L.

    2016-12-01

    In response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake on the Main Himalayan Thrust in Nepal, NSF Geosciences funded a rapid seismological response project entitled NAMASTE (Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake). This project included the deployment, maintenance, and demobilization of a network of 45 temporary seismic stations from June 2015 to May 2016. During the demobilization of the seismic network, video footage was recorded to tell the story of the NAMASTE team's seismic research in Nepal using short movies. In this presentation, we will describe these movies and discuss our strategies for effectively communicating this research to both the academic and general public with the goals of promoting earthquake hazards and international awareness and inspiring enthusiasm about learning and participating in science research. For example, an initial screening of these videos took place for an Introduction to Geology class at the University of Texas at El Paso to obtain feedback from approximately 100 first-year students with only a basic geology background. The feedback was then used to inform final cuts of the video suitable for a range of audiences, as well as to help guide future videography of field work. The footage is also being cut into a short, three-minute video to be featured on the website of The University of Texas at El Paso, home to several of the NAMASTE team researchers.

  12. Thrust stand evaluation of engine performance improvement algorithms in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation is underway to determine the benefits of a new propulsion system optimization algorithm in an F-15 airplane. The performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of an F100 derivative turbofan engine for several modes of operation. The PSC algorithm uses an onboard software engine model that calculates thrust, stall margin, and other unmeasured variables for use in the optimization. As part of the PSC test program, the F-15 aircraft was operated on a horizontal thrust stand. Thrust was measured with highly accurate load cells. The measured thrust was compared to onboard model estimates and to results from posttest performance programs. Thrust changes using the various PSC modes were recorded. Those results were compared to benefits using the less complex highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) algorithm. The PSC maximum thrust mode increased intermediate power thrust by 10 percent. The PSC engine model did very well at estimating measured thrust and closely followed the transients during optimization. Quantitative results from the evaluation of the algorithms and performance calculation models are included with emphasis on measured thrust results. The report presents a description of the PSC system and a discussion of factors affecting the accuracy of the thrust stand load measurements.

  13. Characterizing the recent behavior and earthquake potential of the blind western San Cayetano and Ventura fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, L. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    , western San Cayetano thrust ramp. At Briggs Road ~14 km east of Ventura, a high-resolution profile across the locus of recent folding reveals a well-defined north-dipping active synclinal axial surface in growth strata that extends to the surface at a prominent south-facing fold scarp lying at the topographic range front. During August 2011, we drilled 11 hollow-stem boreholes and cone-penetrometer tests along the same alignment as the reflection profile, providing overlap between the data sets. Preliminary analysis of the borehole data reveals a fine-grained section dominated by thinly bedded silts and sands. The absence of any well-developed soils within the upper 20 m, coupled with at least 15 m of structural growth within this section, suggests a rapid slip rate that we will quantify with radiocarbon dating of detrital charcoal and several buried organic-rich A horizons. Collectively, we anticipate that these borehole and high-resolution seismic reflection data will yield a detailed record of the fold growth during recent large earthquakes at this site, which will in turn allow us to reconstruct the paleoseismic history of the underlying blind thrust ramp.

  14. Earthquake Drill using the Earthquake Early Warning System at an Elementary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Satoko; Yazaki, Yoshiaki; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2010-05-01

    Japan frequently suffers from many kinds of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. On average, we lose about 120 people a year due to natural hazards in this decade. Above all, earthquakes are noteworthy, since it may kill thousands of people in a moment like in Kobe in 1995. People know that we may have "a big one" some day as long as we live on this land and that what to do; retrofit houses, appliance heavy furniture to walls, add latches to kitchen cabinets, and prepare emergency packs. Yet most of them do not take the action, and result in the loss of many lives. It is only the victims that learn something from the earthquake, and it has never become the lore of the nations. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage is to educate the general public to be able to make the sound decision on what to do at the moment when an earthquake hits. This will require the knowledge of the backgrounds of the on-going phenomenon. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools. This presentation is the report of a year and half courses that we had at the model elementary school in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) making 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global

  15. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  16. Active fold-thrust belts in the foreland of eastern Tibet, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Tung; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Liu, Yuiping; Li, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from the Longmenshan fault system, which is the frontal thrust system in eastern Tibet. Further east toward the foreland area in the Sichuan basin, it sits two anticlinal structures, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines, which trends sub-parallel to the Longmenshan range with a distance of about 70-100 km to the mountain front. It is widely considered that these two anticlinal features are attributed to propagation of the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau, similar to the stress system the Wenchuan earthquake. In this study, we carried out field investigations on these two active anticlinal structures in order to characterize the bulk deformation of the anticlines. We also conducted fracture analysis and fault-slip data analysis, in an attempt to characterize the fracture developments of the rock and the paleostress states related to the faulting events associated growth of the anticlines. We thus constructed a series of geological cross sections along these two anticlines. Our results show that the Longquan anticline is characterized by pop up structure with a dominant west-vergent thrust (i.e., backthrust) on the western limb. On the other hand to the eastern limb, an east-vergent thrust only well developed in the middle part of the anticline and die out toward the north and the south. For the Xiongpu anticline, it is characterized by a pre-dominant west-vergent backthrust system without developing an east-vergent thrust. A strike-slip fault and a series of N-S-trending pop-up thrusts cut across the Xiongpu anticline indicate a rather complex stress system with two dominant compression directions, NW-SE and E-W, subsequently or alternatively affected the area. Finally, the fracture analysis revealed that 2-3 pre-dominant bedding-perpendicular fracture sets are commonly developed in the massive sandstone layers. Most of them seemingly are of the characteristics of the mode I open joint, without clear

  17. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  18. Earthquake triggering by seismic waves following the landers and hector mine earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Reasenberg, P.A.; Bodin, P.; Harris, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The proximity and similarity of the 1992, magnitude 7.3 Landers and 1999, magnitude 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California permit testing of earthquake triggering hypotheses not previously possible. The Hector Mine earthquake confirmed inferences that transient, oscillatory 'dynamic' deformations radiated as seismic waves can trigger seismicity rate increases, as proposed for the Landers earthquake1-6. Here we quantify the spatial and temporal patterns of the seismicity rate changes7. The seismicity rate increase was to the north for the Landers earthquake and primarily to the south for the Hector Mine earthquake. We suggest that rupture directivity results in elevated dynamic deformations north and south of the Landers and Hector Mine faults, respectively, as evident in the asymmetry of the recorded seismic velocity fields. Both dynamic and static stress changes seem important for triggering in the near field with dynamic stress changes dominating at greater distances. Peak seismic velocities recorded for each earthquake suggest the existence of, and place bounds on, dynamic triggering thresholds. These thresholds vary from a few tenths to a few MPa in most places, depend on local conditions, and exceed inferred static thresholds by more than an order of magnitude. At some sites, the onset of triggering was delayed until after the dynamic deformations subsided. Physical mechanisms consistent with all these observations may be similar to those that give rise to liquefaction or cyclic fatigue.

  19. Localized fluid discharge in subduction zones: Insights from tension veins around an ancient megasplay fault (Nobeoka Thrust, SW Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, M.; Hardebeck, J.; Miyakawa, A.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kimura, G.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid-rock interactions along seismogenic faults are of great importance to understand fault mechanics. The fluid loss by the formation of mode I cracks (tension cracks) increases the fault strength and creates drainage asperities along the plate interface (Sibson, 2013, Tectonophysics). The Nobeoka Thrust, in southwestern Japan, is an on-land example of an ancient megasplay fault and provides an excellent record of deformation and fluid flow at seismogenic depths of a subduction zone (Kondo et al., 2005, Tectonics). We focus on (1) Pore fluid pressure loss, (2) Amount of fault strength recovery, and (3) Fluid circulation by the formation of mode I cracks in the post-seismic period around the fault zone of the Nobeoka Thrust. Many quartz veins that filled mode I crack at the coastal outcrops suggest a normal faulting stress regime after faulting of the Nobeoka Thrust (Otsubo et al., 2016, Island Arc). We estimated the decrease of the pore fluid pressure by the formation of the mode I cracks around the Nobeoka Thrust in the post-seismic period. When the pore fluid pressure exceeds σ3, veins filling mode I cracks are constructed (Jolly and Sanderson, 1997, Jour. Struct. Geol.). We call the pore fluid pressure that exceeds σ3 "pore fluid over pressure". The differential stress in the post-seismic period and the driving pore fluid pressure ratio P* (P* = (Pf - σ3) / (σ1 - σ3), Pf: pore fluid pressure) are parameters to estimate the pore fluid over pressure. In the case of the Nobeoka Thrust (P* = 0.4, Otsubo et al., 2016, Island Arc), the pore fluid over pressure is up to 20 MPa (assuming tensile strength = 10 MPa). 20 MPa is equivalent to <10% of the total pore fluid pressure around the Nobeoka Thrust (depth = 10 km, density = 2.7 kg/m3). When the pore fluid pressure decreases by 4%, the normalized pore pressure ratio λ* (λ* = (Pf - Ph) / (Pl - Ph), Pl: lithostatic pressure; Ph: hydrostatic pressure) changes from 0.95 to 0.86. In the case of the Nobeoka Thrust

  20. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (ML<3.3) occurred in the VA and surrounding regions between 2001-2014. We integrated waveforms recorded at 46 seismic stations belonging to 3 different networks: a dense temporary network installed by INGV in 2005-2006, the permanent national network of INGV, and the trigger-mode monitoring network managed by the local operator ENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE

  1. Båth's law and its relation to the tectonic environment: A case study for earthquakes in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Zúñiga, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    We studied 66 mainshocks and their largest aftershocks in the Mexican subduction zone and in the Gulf of California with magnitudes in the range of 5.2 < Mw < 8.0 from 1932 to 2015. Three different types of earthquakes were analyzed: shallow thrust interplate, intermediate-depth inslab and transform strike-slip earthquakes (26, 19 and 21 events, respectively). We focus on observational aspects of the Båth's law. By studying the magnitude difference, energy ratios and energy partitioning of the mainshock-largest aftershock sequences, we analyze the physics of the mainshock-largest aftershock relationship (Båth's law). The partitioning of energy during a mainshock-aftershock sequence shows that about 96-97% of the energy dissipated in a sequence is associated with the mainshock and the rest is due to aftershocks. Our results for radiated seismic energy and energy-to-moment ratio are partially in agreement with worldwide studies supporting the observation of mechanism dependence of radiated seismic energy. The statistical tests indicate that the only significant difference is for shallow thrust and strike-slip events for these parameters. The statistical comparison of stress drop of shallow thrust versus that of inslab events shows a strongly significant difference with a confidence better than 99%. The comparison of stress drop of shallow thrust events with that of strike-slip events, also indicates a strongly significant difference. We see no dependence of stress drop with magnitude, which is strong evidence of earthquake self-similarity. We do not observe a systematic depth dependence of stress drop. The results also reveal differences in the earthquake rupture among the events. The magnitude difference between the mainshock and the largest aftershock for inslab events is larger than interplate and strike-slip events suggesting focal mechanism dependence of Båth's law. For the case of this parameter, only that for inslab and strike-slip events present a

  2. MyShake - A smartphone app to detect earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    We designed an android app that harnesses the accelerometers in personal smartphones to record earthquake-shaking data for research, hazard information and warnings. The app has the function to distinguish earthquake shakings from daily human activities based on the different patterns behind the movements. It also can be triggered by the traditional earthquake early warning (EEW) system to record for a certain amount of time to collect earthquake data. When the app is triggered by the earthquake-like movements, it sends the trigger information back to our server which contains time and location of the trigger, at the same time, it stores the waveform data on local phone first, and upload to our server later. Trigger information from multiple phones will be processed in real time on the server to find the coherent signal to confirm the earthquakes. Therefore, the app provides the basis to form a smartphone seismic network that can detect earthquake and even provide warnings. A planned public roll-out of MyShake could collect millions of seismic recordings for large earthquakes in many regions around the world.

  3. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  4. Imaging of the Main Himalayan Thrust and Moho beneath Satluj Valley, Northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhawan, M.; Hazarika, D.; Paul, A.; Kumar, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ongoing continental collision between India and Eurasia gave rise to the formation of the great Himalayan fold-thrust belt. Satluj valley is found to be well exposed from foreland to Higher Himalayan Crystalline series along the Satluj River. Receiver function method has been utilized to image crustal features using Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking beneath Satluj valley recorded by a seismological array of 18 broadband seismometers. The seismological stations cover the geotectonic units starting from the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south to the Tethyan Himalaya (TH) to the north. The study inferred gentle northward dipping nature of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) between Sub Himalaya (SH) and Higher Himalaya (HH) in the study area rather than flat-ramp-flat geometry as reported in Nepal Himalaya and Garhwal Himalaya. The depth of the MHT obtained from CCP image and inversion of receiver functions shows that it varies from 16 km in the SH to 27 km near the STD which further increases up to 38 km beneath the TH. The absence of both large and moderate magnitude earthquakes in the Himalayan Seismic Belt (HSB) straddling northern Lesser Himalaya and southern Higher Himalaya in Satluj valley is correlated with absence of ramp structure in this part of HSB. The CCP image has mapped the Moho discontinuity at 44 km depth near the HFT which has increased to 62 km beneath the TH. An extremely low shear wave velocity ranging between 0.8 and 1.8 km s-1 is estimated at stations near the HFT, in the upper most 3-4 km of the crust which indicates the effect of sedimentary column of Indo-Gangetic plains. An intra crustal low velocity layer (IC-LVL) is observed beneath the study profile and inferred as partial melt and/or aqueous fluid at mid-crustal depth beneath the TH. The H-K stacking is applied and average Poisson's ratio is observed to be higher in the TH as compared to the stations to the south of STD.

  5. Regional patterns of earthquake-triggered landslides and their relation to ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Patrick; Hovius, Niels; Haines, A. John

    2007-10-01

    We have documented patterns of landsliding associated with large earthquakes on three thrust faults: the Northridge earthquake in California, Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, and two earthquakes on the Ramu-Markham fault bounding the Finisterre Mountains of Papua New Guinea. In each case, landslide densities are shown to be greatest in the area of strongest ground acceleration and to decay with distance from the epicenter. In California and Taiwan, the density of co-seismic landslides is linearly and highly correlated with both the vertical and horizontal components of measured peak ground acceleration. Based on this observation, we derive an expression for the spatial variation of landslide density analogous with regional seismic attenuation laws. In its general form, this expression applies to our three examples, and we determine best fit values for individual cases. Our findings open a window on the construction of shake maps from geomorphic observations for earthquakes in non-instrumented regions.

  6. Depth varying rupture properties during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Han; Simons, Mark; Duputel, Zacharie; Jiang, Junle; Fielding, Eric; Liang, Cunren; Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Riel, Bryan; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.

    2017-09-01

    On April 25th 2015, the Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake ruptured a portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust underlying Kathmandu and surrounding regions. We develop kinematic slip models of the Gorkha earthquake using both a regularized multi-time-window (MTW) approach and an unsmoothed Bayesian formulation, constrained by static and high rate GPS observations, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset images, interferometric SAR (InSAR), and teleseismic body wave records. These models indicate that Kathmandu is located near the updip limit of fault slip and approximately 20 km south of the centroid of fault slip. Fault slip propagated unilaterally along-strike in an ESE direction for approximately 140 km with a 60 km cross-strike extent. The deeper portions of the fault are characterized by a larger ratio of high frequency (0.03-0.2 Hz) to low frequency slip than the shallower portions. From both the MTW and Bayesian results, we can resolve depth variations in slip characteristics, with higher slip roughness, higher rupture velocity, longer rise time and higher complexity of subfault source time functions in the deeper extents of the rupture. The depth varying nature of rupture characteristics suggests that the up-dip portions are characterized by relatively continuous rupture, while the down-dip portions may be better characterized by a cascaded rupture. The rupture behavior and the tectonic setting indicate that the earthquake may have ruptured both fully seismically locked and a deeper transitional portions of the collision interface, analogous to what has been seen in major subduction zone earthquakes.

  7. Coseismic deformation of the 2001 El Salvador and 2002 Denali fault earthquakes from GPS geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, Sigrun

    2005-07-01

    GPS geodetic measurements are used to study two major earthquakes, the 2001 MW 7.7 El Salvador and 2002 MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquakes. The 2001 MW 7.7 earthquake was a normal fault event in the subducting Cocos plate offshore El Salvador. Coseismic displacements of up to 15 mm were measured at permanent GPS stations in Central America. The GPS data were used to constrain the location of and slip on the normal fault. One month later a MW 6.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the overriding Caribbean plate. Coulomb stress changes estimated from the M W 7.7 earthquake suggest that it triggered the MW 6.6 earthquake. Coseismic displacement from the MW 6.6 earthquake, about 40 mm at a GPS station in El Salvador, indicates that the earthquake triggered additional slip on a fault close to the GPS station. The MW 6.6 earthquake further changed the stress field in the overriding Caribbean plate, with triggered seismic activity occurring west and possibly also to the east of the rupture in the days to months following the earthquake. The MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake ruptured three faults in the interior of Alaska. It initiated with a thrust motion on the Susitna Glacier fault but then ruptured the Denali and Totschunda faults with predominantly right-lateral strike-slip motion unilaterally from west to east. GPS data measured in the two weeks following the earthquake suggest a complex coseismic rupture along the faults with two main regions of moment release along the Denali fault. A large amount of additional data were collected in the year following the earthquake which greatly improved the resolution on the fault, revealing more details of the slip distribution. We estimate a total moment release of 6.81 x 1020 Nm in the earthquake with a M W 7.2 thrust subevent on Susitna Glacier fault. The slip on the Denali fault is highly variable, with 4 main pulses of moment release. The largest moment pulse corresponds to a MW 7.5 subevent, about 40 km west of the Denali

  8. Structural model of the eastern Achara-Trialeti fold and thrust belt using seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Victor; Chabukiani, Alexander; Enukidze, Onise; Razmadze, Alexander; Sosson, Marc; Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar

    2017-04-01

    Our study focused on the structural geometry at the eastern Achara-Trialeti fold and thrust belt (ATFTB) located at the retro-wedge of the Lesser Caucasus orogen (Alania et al., 2016a). Our interpretation has integrated seismic reflection profiles, several oil-wells, and the surface geology data to reveal structural characteristics of the eastern ATFTB. Fault-related folding theories were used to seismic interpretation (Shaw et al., 2004). Seismic reflection data reveal the presence of basement structural wedge, south-vergent backthrust, north-vergent forethrust and some structural wedges (or duplex). The rocks are involved in the deformation range from Paleozoic basement rocks to Tertiary strata. Building of thick-skinned structures of eastern Achara-Trialeti was formed by basement wedges propagated from south to north along detachment horizons within the cover generating thin-skinned structures. The kinematic evolution of the south-vergent backthrust zone with respect to the northward propagating structural wedge (or duplexes). The main style of deformation within the backthrust belt is a series of fault-propagation folds. Frontal part of eastern ATFTB are represent by triangle zone (Alania et al., 2016b; Sosson et al., 2016). A detailed study was done for Tbilisi area: seismic refection profiles, serial balanced cross-sections, and earthquakes reveal the presence of an active blind thrust fault beneath Tbilisi. 2 & 3-D structural models show that 2002 Mw 4.5 Tbilisi earthquake related to a north-vergent blind thrust. Empirical relations between blind fault rupture area and magnitude suggest that these fault segments could generate earthquakes of Mw 6.5. The growth fault-propagation fold has been observed near Tbilisi in the frontal part of eastern ATFTB. Seismic reflection profile through Ormoiani syncline shows that south-vergent growth fault-propagation fold related to out-of-the-syncline thrust. The outcrop of fault-propagation fold shown the geometry of the

  9. Luzon earthquake strongest in 90 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The magnitude 7.7 Philippine earthquake that took place 2 weeks ago was the strongest recorded on the island of Luzon in nearly 90 years and the strongest in all of the Philippines in nearly 14 years, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.The earthquake occurred 60 miles north of Manila and was the third strongest recorded on Luzon, exceeded only by an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.8, on December 14, 1901, near Lucena, about 80 miles southeast of Manila, and an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 on August 15, 1897, off the northwest coast of Luzon.

  10. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  11. Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorum, Tolga; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, Freek D.

    2013-02-01

    The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered > 4490 landslides, mainly shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~ 2150 km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind ruptures of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.

  12. Changes in the Seismicity and Focal Mechanism of Small Earthquakes Prior to an MS 6.7 Earthquake in the Central Aleutian Island Arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billington, Serena; Engdahl, E.R.; Price, Stephanie

    1981-01-01

    On November 4 1977, a magnitude Ms 6.7 (mb 5.7) shallow-focus thrust earthquake occurred in the vicinity of the Adak seismographic network in the central Aleutian island arc. The earthquake and its aftershock sequence occurred in an area that had not experienced a similar sequence since at least 1964. About 13 1/2 months before the main shock, the rate of occurrence of very small magnitude earthquakes increased abruptly in the immediate vicinity of the impending main shock. To search for possible variations in the focal mechanism of small events preceding the main shock, a method was developed that objectively combines first-motion data to generate composite focal-mechanism information about events occurring within a small source region. The method could not be successfully applied to the whole study area, but the results show that starting about 10 1/2 months before the November 1977 earthquake, there was a change in the mechanism of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes in the immediate vicinity of the hypocenter and possibly in other parts of the eventual aftershock zone, but not in the surrounding regions.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Moment Tensor Solutions of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Aftershocks and Their Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Dreger, D.; Ge, H.; Xu, P.; Wu, M.; Chiang, A.; Zhao, G.; Yuan, H.

    2018-03-01

    Following the mainshock of the 2008 M8 Wenchuan Earthquake, there were more than 300 ML ≥ 4.0 aftershocks that occurred between 12 May 2008 and 8 September 2010. We analyzed the broadband waveforms for these events and found 160 events with sufficient signal-to-noise levels to invert for seismic moment tensors. Considering the length of the activated fault and the distances to the recording stations, four velocity models were employed to account for variability in crustal structure. The moment tensor solutions show considerable variations with a mixture of mainly reverse and strike-slip mechanisms and a small number of normal events and ambiguous events. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of the aftershocks and their mechanism types to characterize the structure and the deformation occurring in the Longmen Shan fold and thrust belt. Our results suggest that the stress is very complex at the Longmen Shan fault zone. The moment tensors have both a spatial segmentation with two major categories of the moment tensor of thrust and strike slip; and a temporal pattern that the majority of the aftershocks gradually migrated to thrust-type events. The variability of aftershock mechanisms is a strong indication of significant tectonic release and stress reorganization that activated numerous small faults in the system.

  14. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  15. Earthquakes and depleted gas reservoirs: which comes first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Donda, F.; Valensise, G.

    2014-12-01

    While scientists are paying increasing attention to the seismicity potentially induced by hydrocarbon exploitation, little is known about the reverse problem, i.e. the impact of active faulting and earthquakes on hydrocarbon reservoirs. The recent 2012 earthquakes in Emilia, Italy, raised concerns among the public for being possibly human-induced, but also shed light on the possible use of gas wells as a marker of the seismogenic potential of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Based on the analysis of over 400 borehole datasets from wells drilled along the Ferrara-Romagna Arc, a large oil and gas reserve in the southeastern Po Plain, we found that the 2012 earthquakes occurred within a cluster of sterile wells surrounded by productive ones. Since the geology of the productive and sterile areas is quite similar, we suggest that past earthquakes caused the loss of all natural gas from the potential reservoirs lying above their causative faults. Our findings have two important practical implications: (1) they may allow major seismogenic zones to be identified in areas of sparse seismicity, and (2) suggest that gas should be stored in exploited reservoirs rather than in sterile hydrocarbon traps or aquifers as this is likely to reduce the hazard of triggering significant earthquakes.

  16. SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John

    This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of thismore » vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.« less

  17. Effects induced by an earthquake on its fault plane:a boundary element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonafede, Maurizio; Neri, Andrea

    2000-04-01

    Mechanical effects left by a model earthquake on its fault plane, in the post-seismic phase, are investigated employing the `displacement discontinuity method'. Simple crack models, characterized by the release of a constant, unidirectional shear traction are investigated first. Both slip components-parallel and normal to the traction direction-are found to be non-vanishing and to depend on fault depth, dip, aspect ratio and fault plane geometry. The rake of the slip vector is similarly found to depend on depth and dip. The fault plane is found to suffer some small rotation and bending, which may be responsible for the indentation of a transform tectonic margin, particularly if cumulative effects are considered. Very significant normal stress components are left over the shallow portion of the fault surface after an earthquake: these are tensile for thrust faults, compressive for normal faults and are typically comparable in size to the stress drop. These normal stresses can easily be computed for more realistic seismic source models, in which a variable slip is assigned; normal stresses are induced in these cases too, and positive shear stresses may even be induced on the fault plane in regions of high slip gradient. Several observations can be explained from the present model: low-dip thrust faults and high-dip normal faults are found to be facilitated, according to the Coulomb failure criterion, in repetitive earthquake cycles; the shape of dip-slip faults near the surface is predicted to be upward-concave; and the shallower aftershock activity generally found in the hanging block of a thrust event can be explained by `unclamping' mechanisms.

  18. Continuous Record of Permeability inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lian; Li, Haibing; Brodsky, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Faults are complex hydrogeological structures which include a highly permeable damage zone with fracture-dominated permeability. Since fractures are generated by earthquakes, we would expect that in the aftermath of a large earthquake, the permeability would be transiently high in a fault zone. Over time, the permeability may recover due to a combination of chemical and mechanical processes. However, the in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never been directly constrained on a fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we use water level response to solid Earth tides to constrain the hydraulic properties inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone. The transmissivity and storage determine the phase and amplitude response of the water level to the tidal loading. By measuring phase and amplitude response, we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (~200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the phase and amplitude responses and the corresponding errors for the largest semidiurnal Earth tide M2 in the time domain. The average phase lag is ~ 30o, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. Assuming an isotropic, homogenous and laterally extensive aquifer, the average storage coefficient S is 2×10-4 and the average transmissivity T is 6×10-7 m2 using the measured phase and the amplitude response. Calculation for the hydraulic diffusivity D with D=T/S, yields the reported value of D is 3×10-3 m2/s, which is two orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. If the value is representative of the fault zone, then this means the hydrology processes should have an effect on the earthquake rupture process. This measurement is done through continuous monitoring and we could track the evolution for hydraulic properties

  19. Thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

  20. Characterization of the 2015 M4.0 Venus, Texas, Earthquake Sequence Using Locally Recorded Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, M. M.; DeShon, H. R.; Hayward, C.; Magnani, M. B.; Walter, J. I.; Pratt, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present high-resolution relative earthquake relocations derived using differential time data from waveform cross-correlation and first motion fault plane solutions to characterize the 2015 M4.0 Venus, TX, earthquake sequence. On 7 May 2015, a M4.0 earthquake occurred in Johnson County, TX, south of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the largest event recorded to date in the Fort Worth (Barnett Shale) Basin, which is an active shale gas production area that has been associated with induced earthquakes. The USGS moment tensor indicated normal faulting along NE-SW trending faults and two additional felt aftershocks were reported in the National Earthquake Information Center catalog. Beginning on 11 May 2015, a temporary seismic network was deployed. Over the first week, SMU deployed 13 vertical-component RT125s and 3 USGS NetQuakes instruments. The RT125s were replaced with 7 short-period 3-component instruments provided by IRIS and 4 broadband stations deployed throughout Johnson County by the University of Texas. To date, we have located over 100 events that define a 5 km long normal fault striking 35°NE and dipping ~70°. Events occur in the Precambrian granitic basement at depths of 4-6km. These locations are near the bottom of the Ellenburger Group (~3.5km in depth), which is an Ordovician carbonate platform overlying the basement and is often used for wastewater disposal. Five large volume injection wells operate within 10km of the earthquake sequence and inject very near, if not through, the Ellenburger-basement contact. These wells were temporarily shut down by the Texas Railroad Commission for testing but were reported at the time to have no causal effect on the earthquake activity. We explore temporal and spatial correlations between seismicity, wastewater injection data and subsurface fault data to better understand the cause of the Venus sequence.

  1. Source of the 1730 Chilean earthquake from historical records: Implications for the future tsunami hazard on the coast of Metropolitan Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, M.; Cisternas, M.; Catalán, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    Historical records of an earthquake that occurred in 1730 affecting Metropolitan Chile provide essential clues on the source characteristics for the future earthquakes in the region. The earthquake and tsunami of 1730 have been recognized as the largest to occur in Metropolitan Chile since the beginning of written history. The earthquake destroyed buildings along >1000 km of the coast and produced a large tsunami that caused damage as far as Japan. Here its source characteristics are inferred by comparing local tsunami inundations computed from hypothetical earthquakes with varying magnitude and depth, with those inferred from historical observations. It is found that a 600-800 km long rupture involving average slip amounts of 10-14 m (Mw 9.1-9.3) best explains the observed tsunami heights and inundations. This large earthquake magnitude is supported by the 1730 tsunami heights inferred in Japan. The inundation results combined with local uplift reports suggest a southward increase of the slip depth along the rupture zone of the 1730 earthquake. While shallow slip on the area to the north of the 2010 earthquake rupture zone is required to explain the reported inundation, only deeper slip at this area can explain the coastal uplift reports. Since the later earthquakes of the region involved little or no slip at shallow depths, the near-future earthquakes on Metropolitan Chile could release the shallow slip accumulated since 1730 and thus lead to strong tsunami excitation. Moderate shaking from a shallow earthquake could delay tsunami evacuation for the most populated coastal region of Chile.

  2. Statistical analysis of seismicity rate change in the Tokyo Metropolitan area due to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibe, T.; Sakai, S.; Shimazaki, K.; Satake, K.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    We examined a relationship between the Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF) due to the Tohoku earthquake (March 11, 2011; MJMA 9.0) and the seismicity rate change in Tokyo Metropolitan area following March 2011. Because of large variation in focal mechanism in the Kanto region, the receiver faults for the ΔCFF were assumed to be two nodal planes of small (M ≥ 2.0) earthquakes which occurred before and after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity rate changes, particularly the rate increase, are well explained by ΔCFF due to the gigantic thrusting, while some other possible factors (e.g., dynamic stress changes, excess of fluid dehydration) may also contribute the rate changes. Among 30,746 previous events provided by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (M ≥ 2.0, July 1979 - July 2003), we used as receiver faults, almost 16,000 events indicate significant increase in ΔCFF, while about 8,000 events show significant decrease. Positive ΔCFF predicts seismicity rate increase in southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures where intermediate-depth earthquakes occur, and in shallow crust of the Izu-Oshima and Hakone regions. In these regions, seismicity rates significantly increased after the Tohoku earthquake. The seismicity has increased since March 2011 with respect to the Epidemic Type of Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988), indicating that the rate change was due to the stress increase by the Tohoku earthquake. The activated seismicity in the Izu and Hakone regions rapidly decayed following the Omori-Utsu formula, while the increased rate of seismicity in the southwestern Ibaraki and northern Chiba prefectures is still continuing. We also calculated ΔCFF due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake for the focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes between April 2008 and October 2011 recorded on the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The ΔCFF values for the earthquakes after March 2011 show more

  3. Rupture dynamics along dipping thrust faults: free surface interaction and the case of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, Gaetano; Scala, Antonio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    To address the influence of the free surface interaction on rupture propagating along subduction zones, we numerically investigate dynamic interactions, involving coupling between normal and shear tractions, between in-plane rupture propagating along dipping thrust faults and a free surface for different structural and geometrical conditions. When the rupture occurs along reverse fault with a dip angle different from 90° the symmetry is broken as an effect of slip-induced normal stress perturbations and a larger ground motion is evidenced on the hanging wall. The ground motion is amplified by multiple reflections of waves trapped between the fault and the free surface. This effect is shown to occur when the rupture tip lies on the vertical below the intersection between the S-wave front and the surface that is when waves along the surface start to interact with the rupture front. This interaction is associated with a finite region where the rupture advances in a massive regime preventing the shrinking of the process zone and the emission of high-frequency radiation. The smaller the dip angle the larger co-seismic slip in the shallow part as an effect of the significant break of symmetry. Radiation from shallow part is still depleted in high frequencies due to the massive propagating regime and the interaction length dominating the rupture dynamics. Instantaneous shear response to normal traction perturbations may lead to unstable solutions as in the case of bimaterial rupture. A parametric study has been performed to analyse the effects of a regularised shear traction response to normal traction variations. Finally the case of Tohoku earthquake is considered and we present 2D along-dip numerical results. At first order the larger slip close to the trench can be ascribed to the break of symmetry and the interaction with free surface. When shear/normal coupling is properly regularised the signal from the trench is depleted in high frequencies whereas during deep

  4. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  5. Source parameters of the 1999 Osa peninsula (Costa Rica) earthquake sequence from spectral ratios analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, A.; Harrington, R. M.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Many observations suggest that duration and size scale in a self-similar way for most earthquakes. Deviations from the expected scaling would suggest that some physical feature on the fault surface influences the speed of rupture differently at different length scales. Determining whether differences in scaling exist between small and large earthquakes is complicated by the fact that duration estimates of small earthquakes are often distorted by travel-path and site effects. However, when carefully estimated, scaling relationships between earthquakes may provide important clues about fault geometry and the spatial scales over which it affects fault rupture speed. The Mw 6.9, 20 August 1999, Quepos earthquake occurred on the plate boundary thrust fault along southern Costa Rica margin where the subducting seafloor is cut by numerous normal faults. The mainshock and aftershock sequence were recorded by land and (partially by) ocean bottom (OBS) seismic arrays deployed as part of the CRSEIZE experiment. Here we investigate the size-duration scaling of the mainshock and relocated aftershocks on the plate boundary to determine if a change in scaling exists that is consistent with a change in fault surface geometry at a specific length scale. We use waveforms from 5 short-period land stations and 12 broadband OBS stations to estimate corner frequencies (the inverse of duration) and seismic moment for several aftershocks on the plate interface. We first use spectral amplitudes of single events to estimate corner frequencies and seismic moments. We then adopt a spectral ratio method to correct for non-source-related effects and refine the corner frequency estimation. For the spectral ratio approach, we use pairs of earthquakes with similar waveforms (correlation coefficient > 0.7), with waveform similarity implying event co-location. Preliminary results from single spectra show similar corner frequency values among events of 0.5 ≤ M ≤ 3.6, suggesting a decrease in

  6. Neotectonics and seismicity of a slowly deforming segment of the Adria-Europe convergence zone - the northern Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Herak, Marijan; Tomljenović, Bruno; Herak, Davorka; Matej, Srebrenka

    2014-05-01

    With GPS-derived shortening rates of c. 3-5 mm/a, the Adria-Europe convergence zone across the fold-and-thrust belt of the Dinarides (Balkan Peninsula) is a slowly deforming plate boundary by global standards. We have analysed the active tectonics and instrumental seismicity of the northernmost segment of this fold-and-thrust belt at its border to the Pannonian Basin. This area hosts a Maastrichtian collisional suture formed by closure of Mesozoic fragments of the Neotethys, overprinted by Miocene back-arc extension, which led to the exhumation of greenschist- to amphibolite-grade rocks in several core complexes. Geological, geomorphological and reflection seismic data provide evidence for a compressive or transpressive reactivation of extensional faults after about 5 Ma. The study area represents the seismically most active region of the Dinarides apart from the Adriatic Sea coast and the area around Zagreb. The strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake (27 October 1969) affected the city of Banja Luka (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina). Fault plane solutions for the main shock (ML 6.4) and its largest foreshock (ML 6.0) indicate reverse faulting along ESE-WNW-striking nodal planes and generally N-S trending pressure axes. The spatial distribution of epicentres and focal depths, analyses of the macroseismic field and fault-plane solutions for several smaller events suggest on-going shortening in the internal Dinarides. Our results therefore imply that current Adria-Europe convergence is widely distributed across c. 300 km, rendering the entire Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt a slowly deforming plate boundary.

  7. Earthquake-origin expansion of the Earth inferred from a spherical-Earth elastic dislocation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changyi; Sun, Wenke

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to compute the coseismic Earth's volume change based on a spherical-Earth elastic dislocation theory. We present a general expression of the Earth's volume change for three typical dislocations: the shear, tensile and explosion sources. We conduct a case study for the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (Mw9.3), the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw8.8), the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0) and the 2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake (Mw8.3). The results show that mega-thrust earthquakes make the Earth expand and earthquakes along a normal fault make the Earth contract. We compare the volume changes computed for finite fault models and a point source of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw9.0). The big difference of the results indicates that the coseismic changes in the Earth's volume (or the mean radius) are strongly dependent on the earthquakes' focal mechanism, especially the depth and the dip angle. Then we estimate the cumulative volume changes by historical earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7.0) since 1960, and obtain an Earth mean radius expanding rate about 0.011 mm yr-1.

  8. Asymmetric Thrust Reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor); Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An aircraft includes a propulsion supported within an aft portion of a fuselage A thrust reverser is mounted in the aft portion of the fuselage proximate the propulsion system for directing thrust in a direction to slow the aircraft. The thrust reverser includes an upper blocker door movable about a first pivot axis to a deployed position and a lower blocker door movable about a second pivot axis not parallel to the first pivot axis.

  9. Comparison of the November 2002 Denali and November 2001 Kunlun Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, C. G.

    2002-12-01

    Major earthquakes occurred in Tibet on the central Kunlun fault (M 7.8) on November 14, 2001 (Lin and others, 2002) and in Alaska on the central Denali fault (M 7.9) on November 3, 2002. Both earthquakes generated large surface waves (Kunlun Ms 8.0 (USGS) and Denali Ms 8.5). Each event occurred on east-west-trending strike-slip faults and exhibited nearly unilateral rupture propagating several hundred kilometers from west to east. Surface rupture length estimates were about 400 km for Kunlun, 300 km for Denali. Maximum surface faulting and moment release were observed far to the east of the points of rupture initiation. Harvard moment centroids were located east of USGS epicenters by 182 km (Kunlun) and by 126 km (Denali). Maximum surface faulting was observed near 240 km (Kunlun, 16 m left lateral) and near 175 km (Denali, 9 m right lateral) east of the USGS epicenters. Significant thrust components were observed in the initiation of the Denali event (ERI analysis and mapped thrust) and in the termination of the Kunlun rupture, as evidenced by thrust mechanisms of the largest aftershocks which occurred near the eastern part of the Kunlun rupture. In each sequence the largest aftershock was about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the mainshock. Moment release along the ruptured segments was examined for the 25-year periods preceding the main shocks. The Denali zone shows precursory accelerating moment release with the dominant events occurring on October 22, 1996 (M 5.8) and October 23, 2002 (M 6.7). The Kunlun zone shows nearly constant moment release over time with the last significant event before the main shock occurring on November 26, 2000 (M 5.4). Moment release data are consistent with previous observations of annual periodicity preceding major earthquakes, possibly due to the evolution of a critical state with seasonal and tidal triggering (Varnes and Bufe, 2001). Annual periodicity is also evident for the larger events in the greater San Francisco Bay

  10. More major earthquakes at the Nepal Himalaya? - Study on Coulomb stress perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, S. K.; Sarkar, Subhrasuchi; Dasgupta, Soumitra

    2018-07-01

    On April 2015 a major earthquake of 7.9 Mw occurred in the Nepal Himalaya, followed by 553 earthquakes of local magnitude greater than 4.0 within the first 43 days including another major event of 7.3 Mw. We resolve the static coulomb failure stress (CFS) change onto the finite fault models of 7.9 Mw after Elliott et al. (2016) and Galezka et al. (2015) and its effect on associated receiver faults. Correlation of aftershocks with the enhanced CFS condition shows that the Elliott et al. (2016) model explains 60.4% and the Galezka et al. (2015) model explains about 47.7% of the aftershocks in high stress regions. Aftershocks were poorly spatially correlated with the enhanced CFS condition after the 7.9 Mw main shock and can be explained by correlation with release of seismic energy from the associated secondarily stressed prominent thrust planes and transverse faults. Stress resolved on the associated receiver faults show increased stress on both transverse and thrust fault systems with the potential of triggering significant aftershocks or subsequent main shocks.

  11. Repeating Earthquakes Following an Mw 4.4 Earthquake Near Luther, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, T.; Keranen, K. M.; Savage, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An Mw 4.4 earthquake on April 16, 2013 near Luther, OK was one of the earliest M4+ earthquakes in central Oklahoma, following the Prague sequence in 2011. A network of four local broadband seismometers deployed within a day of the Mw 4.4 event, along with six Oklahoma netquake stations, recorded more than 500 aftershocks in the two weeks following the Luther earthquake. Here we use HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000) and waveform cross-correlation to obtain precise aftershock locations. The location uncertainty, calculated using the SVD method in HypoDD, is ~15 m horizontally and ~ 35 m vertically. The earthquakes define a near vertical, NE-SW striking fault plane. Events occur at depths from 2 km to 3.5 km within the granitic basement, with a small fraction of events shallower, near the sediment-basement interface. Earthquakes occur within a zone of ~200 meters thickness on either side of the best-fitting fault surface. We use an equivalency class algorithm to identity clusters of repeating events, defined as event pairs with median three-component correlation > 0.97 across common stations (Aster & Scott, 1993). Repeating events occur as doublets of only two events in over 50% of cases; overall, 41% of earthquakes recorded occur as repeating events. The recurrence intervals for the repeating events range from minutes to days, with common recurrence intervals of less than two minutes. While clusters occur in tight dimensions, commonly of 80 m x 200 m, aftershocks occur in 3 distinct ~2km x 2km-sized patches along the fault. Our analysis suggests that with rapidly deployed local arrays, the plethora of ~Mw 4 earthquakes occurring in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas can be used to investigate the earthquake rupture process and the role of damage zones.

  12. Active folding and thrusting in North Africa: A framework for a seismotectonic model of the Atlas Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Maouche, Said; Timoulali, Youssef; Bouhadad, Youcef; Bouaziz, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Large earthquakes in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa are often generated on thrust or reverse faults. For inland faults, surface ruptures and long-term active tectonics appear as a thrust escarpment and fold-related faulting visible in the field and using remote sensing images, or measured using space-borne geodesy (GPS or INSAR). For coastal faults, major uplifts of late Quaternary marine terraces and folding with steplike morphology are exposed indicating the incremental development of coastal active deformation. We have investigated the similarities and differences between different active fault-related folding along the Africa - Eurasia convergent plate boundary. These active structures are seismogenic and the striking case studies are the 1960 Agadir (Mw 5.9), the 1954 Orleansville (Mw 6.7), the 1980 El Asnam (Mw 7.3), the 1992 Gafsa (Mw 5.3), the 1999 Ain Temouchent (Mw 6.0), and the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8) earthquakes. From paleoseismic investigations the El Asnam active fold shows 0.6 to 1.0 mm/yr uplift rate. West of Algiers on the Sahel anticline, the levelling of uplifted successive coastal benches and notches document the incremental folding uplift with ~ 0.84 - 1.2 mm/yr uplift rate in the last 120-140 ka. The relatively fast folding growth during late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Atlas Mountains attests for the significance of earthquake activity and the importance of convergent movements between Africa and Eurasia in the Western Mediterranean. This work is prepared in the framework of the UNESCO (SIDA) - IGCP Project 601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa".

  13. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kusnandar, Ridwan; Puspito, Nanang T.; Sakti, Artadi Pria; Yudistira, Tedi

    2015-04-01

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method. For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.

  14. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method.more » For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.« less

  15. Application of τc*Pd for identifying damaging earthquakes for earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P. L.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) is an effective approach to mitigate earthquake damage. In this study, we used the seismic record by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net), because it has dense station coverage and co-located borehole strong-motion seismometers along with the free-surface strong-motion seismometers. We used inland earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) from 5.0 to 7.3 between 1998 and 2012. We choose 135 events and 10950 strong ground accelerograms recorded by the 696 strong ground accelerographs. Both the free-surface and the borehole data are used to calculate τc and Pd, respectively. The results show that τc*Pd has a good correlation with PGV and is a robust parameter for assessing the potential of damaging earthquake. We propose the value of τc*Pd determined from seconds after the arrival of P wave could be a threshold for the on-site type of EEW.

  16. Methodology to determine the parameters of historical earthquakes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Guoliang; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest cultural tradition. Meanwhile, China has been suffering very heavy earthquake disasters; so, there are abundant earthquake recordings. In this paper, we try to sketch out historical earthquake sources and research achievements in China. We will introduce some basic information about the collections of historical earthquake sources, establishing intensity scale and the editions of historical earthquake catalogues. Spatial-temporal and magnitude distributions of historical earthquake are analyzed briefly. Besides traditional methods, we also illustrate a new approach to amend the parameters of historical earthquakes or even identify candidate zones for large historical or palaeo-earthquakes. In the new method, a relationship between instrumentally recorded small earthquakes and strong historical earthquakes is built up. Abundant historical earthquake sources and the achievements of historical earthquake research in China are of valuable cultural heritage in the world.

  17. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  18. Continuous Record of Permeability inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Li, H.; Brodsky, E. E.; Wang, H.; Pei, J.

    2012-12-01

    Faults are complex hydrogeological structures which include a highly permeable damage zone with fracture-dominated permeability. Since fractures are generated by earthquakes, we would expect that in the aftermath of a large earthquake, the permeability would be transiently high in a fault zone. Over time, the permeability may recover due to a combination of chemical and mechanical processes. However, the in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never been directly constrained on a fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we use water level response to solid Earth tides to constrain the hydraulic properties inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone. The transmissivity and storage determine the phase and amplitude response of the water level to the tidal loading. By measuring phase and amplitude response, we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (˜200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the phase and amplitude responses and the corresponding errors for the largest semidiurnal Earth tide M2 in the time domain. The average phase lag is ˜30°, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. Assuming an isotropic, homogenous and laterally extensive aquifer, the average storage coefficient S is 2×10-4 and the average transmissivity T is 6×10-7 m2 using the measured phase and the amplitude response. Calculation for the hydraulic diffusivity D with D=T/S, yields the reported value of D is 3×10-3 m2/s, which is two orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. If the value is representative of the fault zone, then this means the hydrology processes should have an effect on the earthquake rupture process. This measurement is done through continuous monitoring and we could track the evolution for hydraulic properties

  19. Interseismic coupling, seismic potential, and earthquake recurrence on the southern front of the Eastern Alps (NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheloni, D.; D'Agostino, N.; Selvaggi, G.

    2014-05-01

    Here we use continuous GPS observations to document the geodetic strain accumulation across the South-Eastern Alps (NE Italy). We estimate the interseismic coupling on the intracontinental collision thrust fault and discuss the seismic potential and earthquake recurrence. We invert the GPS velocities using the back slip approach to simultaneously estimate the relative angular velocity and the degree of interseismic coupling on the thrust fault that separates the Eastern Alps and the Venetian-Friulian plain. Comparison between the rigid rotation predicted motion and the shortening observed across the area indicates that the South-Eastern Alpine thrust front absorbs about 70% of the total convergence between the Adria and Eurasia plates. The coupling is computed on a north dipping fault following the continuous external seismogenic thrust front of the South-Eastern Alps. The modeled thrust fault is currently locked from the surface to a depth of ≈10 km. The transition zone between locked and creeping portions of the fault roughly corresponds with the belt of microseismicity parallel and to the north of the mountain front. The estimated moment deficit rate is 1.3 ± 0.4 × 1017 Nm/yr. The comparison between the estimated moment deficit and that released historically by the earthquakes suggests that to account for the moment deficit the following two factors or their combination should be considered: (1) a significant part of the observed interseismic coupling is released aseismically and (2) infrequent "large" events with long return period (> 1000 years) and with magnitudes larger than the value assigned to the largest historical events (Mw≈ 6.7).

  20. Precise seismic velocity structure beneath the Hokkaido corner, northern Japan: Arc-arc collision and the 1970 M 6.7 Hidaka region earthquake and the 1982 M 7.1 Urakawa-oki earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, S.; Hasegawa, A.; Nakajima, J.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.; Katsumata, K.

    2011-12-01

    Using arrival-time data both from the nationwide Kiban seismic network and from a dense temporary seismic network covering the area of the Hokkaido corner [Katsumata et al., 2002a; 2003, JGR], we precisely determined three-dimensional seismic velocity structure beneath this area to understand the collision process between the Kuril and northeasetern Japan forearcs. Tomographic inversions were performed with smaller grid spacing [5 x 10 x 5 km] than our previous study [Kita et al., 2010b, EPSL] by using the double-difference tomography method [Zhang and Thurber, 2003; 2006]. Inhomogeneous seismic velocity structure was more precisely imaged in the Hokkaido corner at depths of 0-120 km. A broad low-velocity zone of P- and S- waves having velocities of crust materials with a total volume of 80 km x 100 km x 50 km is distributed to the west of the Hidaka metamorphic belt (the Hidaka main thrust) at depths of 30-90km. On the other hand, several small-scale high-velocity zones having velocities of mantle materials were detected at depths of 0-35 km), inclined east-northeastward at a high angle of 40-60 degrees. All of these anomaly high velocity zones are respectively located in the deeper extension of the Neogene thrust faults, striking almost N-S direction and dipping 40-50 degrees at depths of 0-10km [e.g. Ito 2000]. The largest high-velocity zone is located in the deeper extension of the Hidaka main thrust, being in contact with the eastern edge of the low-V zone. This high-V zone reaches near the surface at the Hidaka metamorphic belt and its southern edge is located just beneath the Horoman-peridotite, which is one of the most famous peridotite outcrops. Moreover, the boundary of the high-V zone with the broad low-V zone corresponds to the fault plane of the 1970 Mj 6.7 Hidaka region earthquake [Moriya 1972]. Another high-V zone is located within the broad low-V zone at depths of 20-30km and in the deeper extension of thrust, which belongs to the Ishikari Low land

  1. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  3. WHITTIER NARROWS, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 1, 1987-PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF STRONG GROUND MOTION RECORDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A.G.; Etheredge, E.C.; Porcella, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    More than 250 strong-motion accelerograph stations were triggered by the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987. Considering the number of multichannel structural stations in the area of strong shaking, this set of records is one of the more significant in history. Three networks, operated by the U. S. Geological Survey, the California Division of Mines and Geology, and the University of Southern California produced the majority of the records. The excellent performance of the instruments in these and the smaller arrays is attributable to the quality of the maintenance programs. Readiness for a magnitude 8 event is directly related to these maintenance programs. Prior to computer analysis of the analog film records, a number of important structural resonant modes can be identified, and frequencies and simple mode shapes have been scaled.

  4. Regional pore-fluid pressures in the active western Taiwan thrust belt: A test of the classic Hubbert-Rubey fault-weakening hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Li-Fan; Suppe, John

    2014-12-01

    We document regional pore-fluid pressures in the active Taiwan thrust belt using 55 deep boreholes to test the classic Hubbert-Rubey hypothesis that high static fluid pressures (depth normalized as λ = Pf/ρrgz) account for the extreme weakness of thrust faults, since effective friction μf∗ =μf(1 - λ) . Taiwan fluid pressures are dominated by disequilibrium compaction, showing fully compacted sediments with hydrostatic fluid pressures at shallow depths until the fluid-retention depth zFRD ≈ 3 km, below which sediments are increasingly undercompacted and overpressured. The Hubbert-Rubey fault weakening coefficient is a simple function of depth (1 - λ) ≈ 0.6zFRD/z. We map present-day and pre-erosion fluid pressures and weakening (1 - λ) regionally and show that active thrusts are too shallow relative to zFRD for the classic Hubbert-Rubey mechanism to be important, which requires z ≥ ˜4zFRD ≈ 12 km to have the required order-of-magnitude Hubbert-Rubey fault weakening of (1 - λ) ≤ ˜0.15. The best-characterized thrust is the Chelungpu fault that slipped in the 1999 (Mw = 7.6) Chi-Chi earthquake, which has a low effective friction μf∗ ≈ 0.08- 0.12 , yet lies near the base of the hydrostatic zone at depths of 1-5 km with a modest Hubbert-Rubey weakening of (1 - λ) ≈ 0.4-0.6. Overpressured Miocene and Oligocene detachments at 5-7 km depth have (1 - λ) ≈ 0.3. Therefore, other mechanisms of fault weakening are required, such as the dynamical mechanisms documented for the Chi-Chi earthquake.

  5. Local seismicity preceding the March 14, 1979, Petatlan, Mexico Earthquake (Ms = 7.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Vindell; Gettrust, Joseph F.; Helsley, Charles E.; Berg, Eduard

    1983-05-01

    Local seismicity surrounding the epicenter of the March 14, 1979, Petatlan, Mexico earthquake was monitored by a network of portable seismographs of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics from 6 weeks before to 4 weeks after the main shock. Prior to the main shock, the recorded local seismic activity was shallow and restricted within the continental plate above the Benioff zone. The relocated main shock hypocenter also lay above the Benioff zone, suggesting an initial failure within the continental lithosphere. Four zones can be recognized that showed relatively higher seismic activity than the background. Activity within these zones has followed a number of moderate earthquakes that occurred before or after the initial deployment of the network. Three of these moderate earthquakes were near the Mexican coastline and occurred sequentially from southeast to northwest during the three months before the Petatlan earthquake. The Petatlan event occurred along the northwestern extension of this trend. We infer a possible connection between this observed earthquake migration pattern and the subduction of a fracture zone because the 200-km segment that includes the aftershock zones of the Petatlan earthquake and the three preceding moderate earthquakes matches the intersection of the southeastern limb of the Orozco Fracture Zone and the Middle America Trench. The Petatlan earthquake source region includes the region of the last of the three near-coast seismic activities (zone A). Earthquakes of zone A migrated toward the Petatlan main shock epicenter and were separated from it by an aseismic zone about 10 km wide. We designate this group of earthquakes as the foreshocks of the Petatlan earthquake. These foreshocks occurred within the continental lithosphere and their observed characteristics are interpreted as due to the high-stress environment before the main shock. Pre-main shock seismicity of the Petatlan earthquake source region shows a good correlation with the

  6. Earthquake magnitude estimation using the τ c and P d method for earthquake early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Hongcai; Li, Jun; Wei, Yongxiang; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. In this paper, based on 142 earthquake events and 253 seismic records that were recorded by the KiK-net in Japan, and aftershocks of the large Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, we obtained earthquake magnitude estimation relationships using the τ c and P d methods. The standard variances of magnitude calculation of these two formulas are ±0.65 and ±0.56, respectively. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results. In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test.

  7. Seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes detected from data recorded at DONET stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Kamiya, S.; Takahashi, N.

    2016-12-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) installed DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) off the Kii Peninsula, southwest of Japan, to monitor earthquakes and tsunamis. Stations of DONET1, which are distributed in Kumano-nada, and DONET2, which are distributed off Muroto, were installed by August 2011 and April 2016, respectively. After the installation of all of the 51 stations, DONET was transferred to National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED). NIED and JAMSTEC have now corroborated in the operation of DONET since April 2016. To investigate the seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, we detected earthquakes from the records of the broadband seismometers installed to DONET. Because DONET stations are apart from land stations, we can detect smaller earthquakes than by using only land stations. It is important for understanding the stress state and seismogenic mechanism to monitoring the spatial-temporal seismicity change. In this study we purpose to evaluate to the seismicity around the source areas of the Nankai and the Tonankai earthquakes by using our earthquake catalogue. The frequency-magnitude relationships of earthquakes in the areas of DONET1&2 had an almost constant slope of about -1 for earthquakes of ML larger than 1.5 and 2.5, satisfying the Gutenberg-Richter law, and the slope of smaller earthquakes approached 0, reflecting the detection limits. While the most of the earthquakes occurred in the aftershock area of the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes, very limited activity was detected in the source region of the Nankai and Tonankai earthquake except for the large earthquake (MJMA = 6.5) on 1st April 2016 and its aftershocks. We will evaluate the detection limit of the earthquake in more detail and investigate the spatial-temporal seismicity change with waiting the data store.

  8. A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 μN with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively.

  9. Application of an iterative least-squares waveform inversion of strong-motion and teleseismic records to the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Mendoza, C.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative least-squares technique is used to simultaneously invert the strong-motion records and teleseismic P waveforms for the 1978 Tabas, Iran, earthquake to deduce the rupture history. The effects of using different data sets and different parametrizations of the problem (linear versus nonlinear) are considered. A consensus of all the inversion runs indicates a complex, multiple source for the Tabas earthquake, with four main source regions over a fault length of 90 km and an average rupture velocity of 2.5 km/sec. -from Authors

  10. The August 1st, 2014 ( M w 5.3) Moderate Earthquake: Evidence for an Active Thrust Fault in the Bay of Algiers (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfedda, A.; Abbes, K.; Bouziane, D.; Bouhadad, Y.; Slimani, A.; Larbes, S.; Haddouche, D.; Bezzeghoud, M.

    2017-03-01

    On August 1st, 2014, a moderate-sized earthquake struck the capital city of Algiers at 05:11:17.6 (GMT+1). The earthquake caused the death of six peoples and injured 420, mainly following a panic movement among the population. Following the main shock, we surveyed the aftershock activity using a portable seismological network (short period), installed from August 2nd, 2014 to August 21st, 2015. In this work, first, we determined the main shock epicenter using the accelerograms recorded by the Algerian accelerograph network (under the coordination of the National Center of Applied Research in Earthquake Engineering-CGS). We calculated the focal mechanism of the main shock, using the inversion of the accelerograph waveforms in displacement that provides a reverse fault with a slight right-lateral component of slip and a compression axis striking NNW-SSE. The obtained scalar seismic moment ( M o = 1.25 × 1017 Nm) corresponds to a moment magnitude of M w = 5.3. Second, the analysis of the obtained aftershock swarm, of the survey, suggests an offshore ENE-WSW, trending and NNW dipping, causative active fault in the bay of Algiers, which may likely correspond to an offshore unknown segment of the Sahel active fault.

  11. Evaluation of Site Amplification Functions For Generalized Soil Types Using Earthquake Records and Spectral Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, V.; Loh, C. H.; Wen, K. L.

    When evaluating the local site influence on seismic ground motion, in certain cases (e.g. building codes provisions) it is sufficient to describe the variety of soil condi- tions by a few number of generalized site classes. The site classification system that is widely used at present is based on on the properties of top 30 m of soil column, dis- regarding the characteristics of the deeper geology. Six site categories are defined on the basis of averaged shear waves velocity, namely: A - hard rock; B - rock; C - very dense or stiff soil; D - stiff soil; E - soft soil; F - soils requiring special studies. The generalized site amplification curves were developed for several site classes in west- ern US (Boore and Joyner, 1997) and Greece (Klimis et al., 1999) using available geotechnical data from near-surface boreholes. We propose to evaluate the amplifica- tion functions as the ratios between the spectra of real earthquakes recordings and the spectra modeled for "very hard rock" (VHR) conditions. The VHR spectra (regional source scaling and attenuation models) are constructed on the basis of ground motion records. The approach allows, on the one hand, to analyze all obtained records. On the other hand, it is possible to test applicability of the used spectral model. Moreover, the uncertainty of site response may be evaluated and described in terms of random variable characteristics to be considered in seismic hazard analysis. The results of the approach application are demonstrated for the case of Taiwan region. The char- acteristics of site amplification functions (mean values and standard deviation) were determined and analyzed in frequency range of 0.2-13 Hz for site classes B and C us- ing recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake (M=7.6), strong aftershocks (M=6.8), and several earthquakes (M < 6.5) occurred in the region in 1995-1998. When comparing the empirical amplification function resulting from the Taiwan data with that proposed for western US

  12. Crustal structure of the St. Elias Mountains region, southern Alaska, from regional earthquakes and ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Hansen, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    STEEP (SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project) is a multi-disciplinary research project that took place in southern Alaska between 2005 and 2010. An important component of this undertaking was installation and operation of a dense array of 22 broadband seismometers to augment and improve the existing regional seismic network in the St. Elias Mountains. This allowed for a lower detection threshold and better accuracy for local seismicity and also provided a rich dataset of teleseismic recordings. While the seismic stations were designed to transmit the data in real time, due to harsh weather and difficult terrain conditions some data were recorded only on site and had to be post-processed months and years later. Despite these difficulties, the recorded dataset detected and located regional earthquakes as small as magnitude 0.5 in the network core area. The recorded seismicity shows some clear patterns. A majority of the earthquakes are concentrated along the coast in a distributed area up to 100 km wide. The coastal seismicity can be further subdivided into 3 distinct clusters: Icy Bay, Bering Glacier, and the Copper River delta. This coastal seismicity is abutted by a somewhat aseismic zone that roughly follows the Bagley Ice Field. Farther inland another active region of seismicity is associated with the Denali Fault system. All this seismicity is concentrated in the upper 25 km of the crust. The only region where earthquakes as deep as 100 km occur is beneath the Wrangell volcanoes in the northwestern corner of the study area. The earthquake focal mechanisms are predominately reverse, with some areas of strike-slip faulting also present. The seismicity patterns and faulting mechanisms indicate a high concentration of thrust faulting in the coastal region. The ambient noise cross correlations from the stations in the STEEP region reveal Rayleigh wave packets with good signal-to-noise ratios yielding well-defined interstation phase velocity dispersion curves

  13. Late Holocene megathrust earthquakes in south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Shennan, Ian; Gulliver, Pauline; Woodroffe, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    A lack of comprehensive understanding of the seismic hazards associated with a subduction zone can lead to inadequate anticipation of earthquake and tsunami magnitudes. Four hundred and fifty years of Chilean historical documents record the effects of numerous great earthquakes; however, with recurrence intervals between the largest megathrust earthquakes approaching 300 years, seismic hazard assessment requires longer chronologies. This research seeks to verify and extend historical records in south central Chile using a relative-sea level approach to palaeoseismology. Our quantitative, diatom-based approaches to relative sea-level reconstruction are successful in reconstructing the magnitude of coseismic deformation during recent, well documented Chilean earthquakes. The few disparities between my estimates and independent data highlight the possibility of shaking-induced sediment consolidation in tidal marshes. Following this encouraging confirmation of the approach, we quantify land-level changes in longer sedimentary records from the centre of the rupture zone of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here, laterally extensive marsh soils abruptly overlain by low intertidal sediments attest to the occurrence of four megathrust earthquakes. Sites preserve evidence of the 1960 and 1575 earthquakes and we constrain the timing of two predecessors to 1270 to 1410 and 1050 to 1200. The sediments and biostratigraphy lack evidence for the historically documented 1737 and 1837 earthquakes.

  14. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  15. Spacing of Imbricated Thrust Faults and the Strength of Thrust-Belts and Accretionary Wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Regensburger, P. V.; Moore, G. F.

    2017-12-01

    The pattern of imbricated thrust blocks is a prominent characteristic of the large-scale structure of thrust-belts and accretionary wedges around the world. Mechanical models of these systems have a rich history from laboratory analogs, and more recently from computational simulations, most of which, qualitatively reproduce the regular patterns of imbricated thrusts seen in nature. Despite the prevalence of these patterns in nature and in models, our knowledge of what controls the spacing of the thrusts remains immature at best. We tackle this problem using a finite difference, particle-in-cell method that simulates visco-elastic-plastic deformation with a Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure criterion. The model simulates a horizontal base that moves toward a rigid vertical backstop, carrying with it an overlying layer of crust. The crustal layer has a greater frictional strength than the base, is cohesive, and is initially uniform in thickness. As the layer contracts, a series of thrust blocks immerge sequentially and form a wedge having a mean taper consistent with that predicted by a noncohesive, critical Coulomb wedge. The widths of the thrust blocks (or spacing between adjacent thrusts) are greatest at the front of the wedge, tend to decrease with continued contraction, and then tend toward a pseudo-steady, minimum width. Numerous experiments show that the characteristic spacing of thrusts increases with the brittle strength of the wedge material (cohesion + friction) and decreases with increasing basal friction for low (<8°) taper angles. These relations are consistent with predictions of the elastic stresses forward of the frontal thrust and at what distance the differential stress exceeds the brittle threshold to form a new frontal thrust. Hence the characteristic spacing of the thrusts across the whole wedge is largely inherited at the very front of the wedge. Our aim is to develop scaling laws that will illuminate the basic physical processes controlling

  16. The Great Tumaco, Colombia earthquake of 12 December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herd, D.G.; Youd, T.L.; Meyer, H.; Arango, C.J.L.; Person, W.J.; Mendoza, C.

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Colombia and northern Ecuador were shaken by a shallow-focus earthquake on 12 December 1979. The magnitude 8 shock, located near Tumaco, Colombia, was the largest in northwestern South America since 1942 and had been forecast to fill a seismic gap. Thrust faulting occurred on a 280- by 130-kilometer rectangular patch of a subduction zone that dips east beneath the Pacific coast of Colombia. A 200-kilometer stretch of the coast tectonically subsided as much as 1.6 meters; uplift occurred offshore on the continental slope. A tsunami swept inland immediately after the earthquake. Ground shaking (intensity VI to IX) caused many buildings to collapse and generated liquefaction in sand fills and in Holocene beach, lagoonal, and fluvial deposits.

  17. Early Warning for Large Magnitude Earthquakes: Is it feasible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Colombelli, S.; Kanamori, H.

    2011-12-01

    The mega-thrust, Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake has re-opened the discussion among the scientific community about the effectiveness of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems, when applied to such large events. Many EEW systems are now under-testing or -development worldwide and most of them are based on the real-time measurement of ground motion parameters in a few second window after the P-wave arrival. Currently, we are using the initial Peak Displacement (Pd), and the Predominant Period (τc), among other parameters, to rapidly estimate the earthquake magnitude and damage potential. A well known problem about the real-time estimation of the magnitude is the parameter saturation. Several authors have shown that the scaling laws between early warning parameters and magnitude are robust and effective up to magnitude 6.5-7; the correlation, however, has not yet been verified for larger events. The Tohoku earthquake occurred near the East coast of Honshu, Japan, on the subduction boundary between the Pacific and the Okhotsk plates. The high quality Kik- and K- networks provided a large quantity of strong motion records of the mainshock, with a wide azimuthal coverage both along the Japan coast and inland. More than 300 3-component accelerograms have been available, with an epicentral distance ranging from about 100 km up to more than 500 km. This earthquake thus presents an optimal case study for testing the physical bases of early warning and to investigate the feasibility of a real-time estimation of earthquake size and damage potential even for M > 7 earthquakes. In the present work we used the acceleration waveform data of the main shock for stations along the coast, up to 200 km epicentral distance. We measured the early warning parameters, Pd and τc, within different time windows, starting from 3 seconds, and expanding the testing time window up to 30 seconds. The aim is to verify the correlation of these parameters with Peak Ground Velocity and Magnitude

  18. Microaftershock survey of the 1978 Bermuda rise earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Nishenko, S.P.; Purdy, G.M.; Ewing, J.I.

    1982-12-10

    On March 24, 1978, a magnitude 6.0 intraplate earthquake occurred 380 km southwest of Bermuda near magnetic anomaly M4 (roughly-equal118 m.y.B.P.). A catalog of seismicity for the Bermuda rise indicates that this is an area of significant intraplate seismicity in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The fault plane solution for the 1978 event is of thrust type and strikes 340/sup 0/, in an intermediate direction to the trends of major fracture zones (300/sup 0/) and abyssal hill topography (035/sup 0/) in the area. The P axis of this mechanism is nearly horizontal and trends 259/sup 0/, subparallel to the absolutemore » plate motion vector for North America. Aftershock activity was detected teleseismically for approximately 8 months after March 24, and the entire sequence is best described as a prolonged mainshock-aftershock series. During June 18--28, 1978, we conducted a microaftershock survey of the area using ocean bottom hydrophones and recorded 250 events (0« less

  19. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  20. Using Smartphones to Detect Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We are using the accelerometers in smartphones to record earthquakes. In the future, these smartphones may work as a supplement network to the current traditional network for scientific research and real-time applications. Given the potential number of smartphones, and small separation of sensors, this new type of seismic dataset has significant potential provides that the signal can be separated from the noise. We developed an application for android phones to record the acceleration in real time. These records can be saved on the local phone or transmitted back to a server in real time. The accelerometers in the phones were evaluated by comparing performance with a high quality accelerometer while located on controlled shake tables for a variety of tests. The results show that the accelerometer in the smartphone can reproduce the characteristic of the shaking very well, even the phone left freely on the shake table. The nature of these datasets is also quite different from traditional networks due to the fact that smartphones are moving around with their owners. Therefore, we must distinguish earthquake signals from other daily use. In addition to the shake table tests that accumulated earthquake records, we also recorded different human activities such as running, walking, driving etc. An artificial neural network based approach was developed to distinguish these different records. It shows a 99.7% successful rate of distinguishing earthquakes from the other typical human activities in our database. We are now at the stage ready to develop the basic infrastructure for a smartphone seismic network.

  1. The 2007 Boso Slow Slip Event and the associated earthquake swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, S.; Hirose, H.; Kimura, H.; Obara, K.

    2007-12-01

    In the Boso Peninsula, which is located in southeast of the Japan mainland, slow slip events (SSE) have been observed by the GEONET GPS array operated by the Geographical Survey Institute Japan and the NIED tiltmeter network every 6-7 years (Ozawa et al.,2003; NIED 2003). The unique characteristics of the Boso SSE are that earthquake swarm activities have also occurred in association with the SSE. The latest activity of the SSE and the earthquake swarm took place in August 2007. On 13th August, an earthquake swarm began to occur at east off Boso Peninsula and the slow tilt deformations also started. The earthquake sources migrated to the NNE direction, which is the same direction of the relative plate motion of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate with respect to the overriding plate. The largest earthquake in this episode (Mw 5.3) occurred on 16th and the second largest one (Mw 5.2) on 18th. Most of the larger earthquakes show low- angle thrust type focal mechanisms that are consistent with the plate motion and the geometry of the subduction plate interface. The tilt changes seem to stop on 17th and the activity of the swarm rapidly decreases after 19th. The maximum tilt change of 0.8 micro radian with northwest down tilting was observed at KT2H, the nearest station from the source region. Based on the tilt records around Boso Peninsula, we estimate a fault model for the SSE using genetic algorithm inversion to non-linear parameter and the weighted least squares method to linear parameters. As a result, the estimated moment magnitude and the amount of slip are 6.4 and 10 cm, respectively. The size and the location of the SSE are similar to the previous episodes. The estimated fault plane is very consistent with the configuration of the plate interface (Kimura et al., 2006). Most of the earthquakes are located on the deeper edge of the estimated SSE fault area. The coincidence of the swarm and the SSE suggests a causal relation between them and may help us to

  2. Comparing the stress change characteristics and aftershock decay rate of the 2011 Mineral, VA, earthquake with similar earthquakes from a variety of tectonic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, L. S.; Montesi, L. G.; Sauber, J. M.; Watters, T. R.; Kim, W.; Martin, A. J.; Anderson, R.

    2011-12-01

    On August 23, 2011, the magnitude 5.8 Mineral, VA, earthquake rocked the U.S. national capital region (Washington, DC) drawing worldwide attention to the occurrence of intraplate earthquakes. Using regional Coulomb stress change, we evaluate to what extent slip on faults during the Mineral, VA, earthquake and its aftershocks may have increased stress on notable Cenozoic fault systems in the DC metropolitan area: the central Virginia seismic zone, the DC fault zone, and the Stafford fault system. Our Coulomb stress maps indicate that the transfer of stress from the Mineral, VA, mainshock was at least 500 times greater than that produced from the magnitude 3.4 Germantown, MD, earthquake that occurred northwest of DC on July 16, 2010. Overall, the Mineral, VA, earthquake appears to have loaded faults of optimum orientation in the DC metropolitan region, bringing them closer to failure. The distribution of aftershocks of the Mineral, VA, earthquake will be compared with Coulomb stress change maps. We further characterize the Mineral, VA, earthquake by comparing its aftershock decay rate with that of blind thrust earthquakes with similar magnitude, focal mechanism, and depth from a variety of tectonic settings. In particular, we compare aftershock decay relations of the Mineral, VA, earthquake with two well studied California reverse faulting events, the August 4, 1985 Kettleman Hills (Mw = 6.1) and October 1, 1987 Whittier Narrow (Mw = 5.9) earthquakes. Through these relations we test the hypothesis that aftershock duration is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate, suggesting that aftershocks in active tectonic margins may last only a few years while aftershocks in intraplate regions could endure for decades to a century.

  3. Combined wave propagation analysis of earthquake recordings from borehole and building sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, B.; Parolai, S.; Dikmen, U.; Safak, E.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.

    2015-12-01

    In regions highly exposed to natural hazards, Early Warning Systems can play a central role in risk management and mitigation procedures. To improve at a relatively low cost the spatial resolution of regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, decentralized onsite EEW and building monitoring, a wireless sensing unit, the Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) was developed and further improved to include the multi-parameter acquisition. SOSEWINs working in continuous real time mode are currently tested on various sites. In Bishkek and Istanbul, an instrumented building is located close to a borehole equipped with downhole sensors. The joint data analysis of building and borehole earthquake recordings allows the study of the behavior of the building, characteristics of the soil, and soil-structure interactions. The interferometric approach applied to recordings of the building response is particularly suitable to characterize the wave propagation inside a building, including the propagation velocity of shear waves and attenuation. Applied to borehole sensors, it gives insights into velocity changes in different layers, reflections and mode conversion, and allows the estimation of the quality factor Qs. We used combined building and borehole data from the two test sites: 1) to estimate the characteristics of wave propagation through the building to the soil and back, and 2) to obtain an empirical insight into soil-structure interactions. The two test sites represent two different building and soil types, and soil structure impedance contrasts. The wave propagation through the soil to the building and back is investigated by the joint interferometric approach. The propagation of up and down-going waves through the building and soil is clearly imaged and the reflection of P and S waves from the earth surface and the top of the building identified. An estimate of the reflected and transmitted energy amounts is given, too.

  4. Fast Identification of Near-Trench Earthquakes Along the Mexican Subduction Zone Based on Characteristics of Ground Motion in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Rodríguez, Q.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    The disastrous 1985 Michoacan earthquake gave rise to a seismic alert system for Mexico City which became operational in 1991. Initially limited to earthquakes along the Guerrero coast, the system now has a much wider coverage. Also, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake exposed the need for a tsunami early warning along the Mexican subduction zone. A fast identification of near-trench earthquakes along this zone may be useful in issuing a reliable early tsunami alert. The confusion caused by low PGA for the magnitude of an earthquake, leading to "missed" seismic alert, would be averted if its near-trench origin can be quickly established. It may also help reveal the spatial extent and degree of seismic coupling on the near-trench portion of the plate interface. This would lead to a better understanding of tsunami potential and seismic hazard along the Mexican subduction zone. We explore three methods for quick detection of near-trench earthquakes, testing them on recordings of 65 earthquakes at station CU in Mexico City (4.8 ≤Mw≤8.0; 270≤R≤615 km). The first method is based on the ratio of total to high-frequency energy, ER (Shapiro et al., 1998). The second method is based on parameter Sa*(6) which is the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum with 5% damping, Sa, at 6 s normalized by the PGA. The third parameter is the PGA residual, RESN, at CU, with respect to a newly-derived ground motion prediction equation at CU for coastal shallow-dipping thrust earthquakes following a bayesian approach. Since the near-trench earthquakes are relatively deficient in high-frequency radiation, we expect ER and Sa*(6) to be relatively large and RESN to be negative for such events. Tests on CU recordings show that if ER ≥ 100 and/or Sa*(6) ≥ 0.70, then the earthquake is near trench; for these events RESN ≤ 0. Such an event has greater tsunami potential. Few misidentifications and missed events are most probably a consequence of poor location, although unusual depth and source

  5. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake inferred from Sentinel-1A InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2016-12-01

    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  6. The source parameters, surface deformation and tectonic setting of three recent earthquakes: thessalonki (Greece), tabas-e-golshan (iran) and carlisle (u.k.).

    PubMed

    King, G; Soufleris, C; Berberian, M

    1981-03-01

    Abstract- Three earthquakes have been studied. These are the Thessaloniki earthquake of 20th June 1978 (Ms = 6.4, Normal faulting), the Tabase-Golshan earthquake of 16th September 1978 (Ms = 7.7 Thrust faulting) and the Carlisle earth-quake of 26th December 1979 (Mb = 5.0, Thrust faulting). The techniques employed to determine source parameters included field studies of SUP face deformation, fault breaks, locations of locally recorded aftershocks and teleseismic studies including joint hypocentral location, first motion methods and waveform modelling. It is clear that these techniques applied together provide more information than the same methods used separately. The moment of the Thessaloniki earthquake determined teleseismically (Force moment 5.2 times 10(25) dyne cm. Geometric moment 1.72 times 10(8) m(3) ) is an order of magnitude greater than that determined using field data (surface ruptures and aftershock depths) (Force moment 4.5 times 10(24) dyne cm. Geometric moment 0.16 times 10(8) m(3) ). It is concluded that for this earthquake the surface rupture only partly reflects the processes on the main rupture plane. This view i s supported by a distribution of aftershocks and damage which extends well outside the region of ground rupture. However, the surface breaks consistently have the same slip vector direction as the fault plane solutions suggesting that they are in this respect related to to the main faulting and are not superficial slumping. Both field studies and waveform studies suggest a low stress drop which may explain the relatively little damage and loss of life as a result of the Thessaloniki earthquake. In contrast, the teleseismic moment of the Tabas-e-Golshan earthquake (Force moment 4.4 times 10(26) dyne cm. Geometric moment 1.5 times 10(9) m(3) ) is similar t o that determined from field studies (Force moment 10.2 times 10(26) dyne cm. Geometric moment 3.4 times 10(9) m(3) ) and the damage and after-shock distributions clearly relate to the

  7. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  8. Shallow Geological Structures Triggered During the Mw6.4 Meinong Earthquake and Their Significance in Accommodating Long-term Shortening Across the Foothills of Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Beon, M.; Suppe, J.; Huang, M. H.; Huang, S. T.; Ulum, H. H. M.; Ching, K. E.; Hsieh, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Mw6.4 Meinong earthquake generated up to 10 cm surface displacement located 10-35 km W of the epicenter and monitored by InSAR and GPS. In addition to coseismic deformation related to the deep earthquake source, InSAR revealed three sharp surface displacement gradients that suggest slip triggering on shallow structures. To characterize these shallow structures, we build two EW regional balanced cross-sections, based on surface geology, subsurface data, and coseismic and interseismic geodetic data. From the Coastal Plain to the eastern edge of the coseismic deformation area, we propose a series of three active W-dipping back-thrusts: the Houchiali fault, the Napalin-Pitou back-thrust, and the Lungchuan back-thrust. They all root on the 3.5-4.0 km deep Tainan detachment located near the base of the 3-km-thick Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng mudstone. Further east, the detachment would ramp down to a 7-km-deep detachment, allowing the E-dipping Lungchuan thrust and Pingxi thrust to bring Miocene formations to the surface. Another ramp from 7 to 11-km depth, is expected further east to bring the slate belt to the surface. Coseismic surface deformation measurements suggest that, in addition to the deeper (15-20 km) main rupture plane, mostly the 4-7-km deep ramp, the Lungchuan back-thrust, and the Tainan detachment slipped aseismically during or right after the earthquake. Preliminary restorations show that the E-dipping Lungchuan thrust and Pingxi thrust consumed >10 km shortening each, while evidence for present-day tectonic activity remains to be found. By contrast, structures located west of the 4-7-km deep ramp accommodated all together <10 km shortening since 450 ka ago or less based on published nannostratigraphy, and they show numerous evidence of Late Quaternary and present-day activity. The restorations also allow connecting the 11-km-depth detachment to a main detachment level evidenced from a velocity inversion in the local tomography. By contrast, the

  9. Scaling of seismic memory with earthquake size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel; Podobnik, Boris; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-07-01

    It has been observed that discrete earthquake events possess memory, i.e., that events occurring in a particular location are dependent on the history of that location. We conduct an analysis to see whether continuous real-time data also display a similar memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity. We analyze the seismic wave form database recorded by 64 stations in Japan, including the 2011 “Great East Japan Earthquake,” one of the five most powerful earthquakes ever recorded, which resulted in a tsunami and devastating nuclear accidents. We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find that the wave form sign series show power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show power-law correlations. We find size dependence in earthquake autocorrelations: as the earthquake size increases, both of these correlation behaviors strengthen. We also find that the DFA scaling exponent α has no dependence on the earthquake hypocenter depth or epicentral distance.

  10. Source inversion of the 1570 Ferrara earthquake and definitive diversion of the Po River (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2015-08-01

    An 11-parameter, kinematic-function (KF) model was used to retrieve the approximate geometrical and kinematic characteristics of the fault source of the 1570 Mw 5.8 Ferrara earthquake in the Po Plain, including the double-couple orientation (strike angle 127 ± 16°, dip 28 ± 7°, and rake 77 ± 16°). These results are compatible with either the outermost thrust fronts of the northern Apennines, which are buried beneath the Po Plain's alluvial deposits, or the blind crustal-scale thrust. The 1570 event developed to the ENE of the two main shocks on 20 May 2012 (M 6.1) and 29 May 2012 (M 5.9). The three earthquakes had similar kinematics and are found 20-30 km from each other en echelon in the buried chain. Geomorphological and historical evidence exist which suggest the following: (i) the long-lasting uplift of the buried Apenninic front shifted the central part of the course of the Po River approximately 20 km northward in historical times and (ii) the 1570 earthquake marked the definitive diversion of the final part of the Po River away from Ferrara and the closure of the Po delta 40 km south of its present position.

  11. Associations of Varus Thrust and Alignment with Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; Harvey, William F.; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare associations of varus thrust and varus static alignment with pain in those with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Method This was a cross-sectional study of participants from a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D for knee OA. Participants were video recorded walking and scored for presence of varus thrust. Standard PA knee X-rays were measured for static alignment. Pain questions from the Western Ontario McMasters Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire assessed symptoms. We calculated means for total WOMAC pain by varus thrust and varus alignment (i.e. corrected anatomic alignment < 178°). We performed ordinal logistic regressions; outcomes: individual WOMAC pain questions; predictors: varus thrust and varus alignment. Results There were 82 participants, mean age 65.1 (±8.5), mean body mass index 30.2 (±5.4), and 60% female. Total WOMAC pain was 6.3 versus 3.9, p = 0.007 in those with versus without definite varus thrust. For varus alignment, total WOMAC pain was 5.2 versus 4.2, p = 0.30. Odds ratios for pain with walking and standing were 5.5 (95%CI 2.0 – 15.1) and 6.0 (95%CI 2.2 – 16.2) in those with versus without definite varus thrust. There were no significant associations between varus alignment and individual WOMAC pain questions. Sensitivity analyses suggested a more stringent definition of varus might have been associated with walking and standing pain. Conclusion In those with knee OA, varus thrust and possibly varus static alignment, were associated with pain, specifically during weight-bearing activities. Treatment of varus thrust (e.g. via bracing or gait modification) may lead to improvement of symptoms. PMID:22307813

  12. Continuous permeability measurements record healing inside the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Li, Hai-Bing; Brodsky, Emily E; Xu, Zhi-Qing; Kano, Yasuyuki; Wang, Huan; Mori, James J; Si, Jia-Liang; Pei, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Sun, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Yao

    2013-06-28

    Permeability controls fluid flow in fault zones and is a proxy for rock damage after an earthquake. We used the tidal response of water level in a deep borehole to track permeability for 18 months in the damage zone of the causative fault of the 2008 moment magnitude 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The unusually high measured hydraulic diffusivity of 2.4 × 10(-2) square meters per second implies a major role for water circulation in the fault zone. For most of the observation period, the permeability decreased rapidly as the fault healed. The trend was interrupted by abrupt permeability increases attributable to shaking from remote earthquakes. These direct measurements of the fault zone reveal a process of punctuated recovery as healing and damage interact in the aftermath of a major earthquake.

  13. Upper-plate splay fault earthquakes along the Arakan subduction belt recorded by uplifted coral microatolls on northern Ramree Island, western Myanmar (Burma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Wang, Chung-Che; Wang, Yu; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Min, Soe; Aung, Lin Thu; Than, Oo; Tun, Soe Thura

    2018-02-01

    Upper-plate structures that splay out from the megathrusts are common features along major convergent plate boundaries. However, their earthquake and tsunami hazard potentials have not yet received significant attention. In this study, we identified at least one earthquake event that may have been produced by an upper-plate splay fault offshore western Myanmar, based on U-Th ages of uplifted coral microatolls. This event is likely an earthquake that was documented historically in C.E. 1848, with an estimated magnitude between 6.8 and 7.2 based on regional structural characteristics. Such magnitude is consistent with the observed co-seismic uplift amount of ∼0.5 m. Although these events are smaller in magnitude than events produced by megathrusts, they may produce higher earthquake and tsunami hazards for local coastal communities due to their proximity. Our results also indicate that earthquake events with co-seismic uplift along the coast may not necessarily produce a flight of marine terraces. Therefore, using only records of uplifted marine terraces as megathrust earthquake proxies may overlook the importance of upper-plate splay fault ruptures, and underestimate the overall earthquake frequency for future seismic and tsunami hazards along major subduction zones of the world.

  14. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: Relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The 5 September 2012 Mw 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr–Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential. PMID:25404327

  15. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Timothy H; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

    2014-12-02

    The 5 September 2012 M(w) 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a