Science.gov

Sample records for recovery efficiency including

  1. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  2. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  6. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  7. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.

  8. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs—a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  9. Recovery efficiencies for Burkholderia thailandensis from various aerosol sampling media

    PubMed Central

    Dabisch, Paul; Bower, Kristin; Dorsey, Brandi; Wronka, Loni

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis is used in the laboratory as a surrogate of the more virulent B. pseudomallei. Since inhalation is believed to be a natural route of infection for B. pseudomallei, many animal studies with B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis utilize the inhalation route of exposure. The aim of the present study was to quantify the recovery efficiency of culturable B. thailandensis from several common aerosol sampling devices to ensure that collected microorganisms could be reliably recovered post-collection. The sampling devices tested included 25 mm gelatin filters, 22 mm stainless steel disks used in Mercer cascade impactors, and two types of glass impingers. The results demonstrate that while several processing methods tested resulted in significantly lower physical recovery efficiencies than other methods, it was possible to obtain culturable recovery efficiencies for B. thailandensis and physical recovery efficiencies for 1 μm fluorescent spheres of at least 0.95 from all of the sampling media tested given an appropriate sample processing procedure. The results of the present study also demonstrated that the bubbling action of liquid media in all-glass impingers (AGIs) can result in physical loss of material from the collection medium, although additional studies are needed to verify the exact mechanisms involved. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the collection mechanism as well as the post-collection processing method can significantly affect the recovery from and retention of culturable microorganisms in sampling media, potentially affecting the calculated airborne concentration and any subsequent estimations of risk or dose derived from such data. PMID:22919669

  10. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field

  11. Model and Parameter Discretization Impacts on Estimated ASR Recovery Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, A.; Peralta, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We contrast computed recovery efficiency of one Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) well using several modeling situations. Test situations differ in employed finite difference grid discretization, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity. We employ a 7-layer regional groundwater model calibrated for Salt Lake Valley. Since the regional model grid is too coarse for ASR analysis, we prepare two local models with significantly smaller discretization capable of analyzing ASR recovery efficiency. Some addressed situations employ parameters interpolated from the coarse valley model. Other situations employ parameters derived from nearby well logs or pumping tests. The intent of the evaluations and subsequent sensitivity analysis is to show how significantly the employed discretization and aquifer parameters affect estimated recovery efficiency. Most of previous studies to evaluate ASR recovery efficiency only consider hypothetical uniform specified boundary heads and gradient assuming homogeneous aquifer parameters. The well is part of the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District (JVWCD) ASR system, that lies within Salt Lake Valley.

  12. Recovery efficiency of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) with mass transfer limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunhui; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Yiming; Luo, Jian

    2011-08-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an effective strategy for water resources management and has been widely used in many contaminated and saline aquifers. However, its recovery efficiency (RE) may be significantly affected by mass transfer limitations. A numerical model is developed to simulate ASR performance by combining the convergent and divergent dispersion models with a first-order mass transfer model. By analyzing the concentration history at the pumping well, we obtain simple and effective relationships for investigating ASR efficiency under various mass transfer parameters, including capacity ratio and mass transfer timescale, and operational parameters, including injection durations and well-pumping rates. On the basis of such relationships, one can conveniently determine whether a site with mass transfer limitations is appropriate or not for ASR and how many ASR cycles are required for achieving a positive RE. Results indicate that the immobile domain may function as a contaminant source or sink or both during the recovery phase and RE usually improves with well-flow rate, the decrease of capacity ratio, and the ASR cycles. However, RE is a nonmonotonic function of the mass transfer timescale and the injection duration. A critical timescale is given for quantifying this nonmonotonic behavior. When the injection period is greater than such a critical value, increasing injection period results in a higher RE. Contrarily, when the injection period is less than the critical value, increasing the injection period may even yield a lower RE.

  13. Recovery efficiency of whole-tree harvesting

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson

    1988-01-01

    The recovery of total tree biomass and most components of a stand is a practical economic and management alternative to tree-length harvesting. First, the increased utilization of woody biomass provides additional revenues from the site. Second, the removal and utilization of the stems and crowns reduces site preparation costs and makes tree planting easier. Third,...

  14. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  15. Increase of unit efficiency by improved waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; Lankes, F.

    1998-07-01

    For coal-fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization by wet scrubbing and desulfurized exhaust gas discharge via cooling tower, a further improvement of new power plant efficiency is possible by exhaust gas heat recovery. The waste heat of exhaust gas is extracted in a flue gas cooler before the wet scrubber and recovered for combustion air and/or feedwater heating by either direct or indirect coupling of heat transfer. Different process configurations for heat recovery system are described and evaluated with regard to net unit improvement. For unite firing bituminous coal an increase of net unit efficiency of 0.25 to 0.7 percentage points and for lignite 0.7 to 1.6 percentage points can be realized depending on the process configurations of the heat recovery systems.

  16. Registration efficiency of some SSNTDs with source area included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Samman, H.; Mansy, M.; Hussein, A.; El-Hawary, M.; El Sersy, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this work, registration efficiency dependence on alpha particle energy and incident angle of some SSNTDs has been studied where the source area ( 241Am thin source) was included in the calculations. Ratio of the number of recorded track density rate ( ρ/ t) to the incident flux ( φ) has been determined using LR-115, CN-85 and CR-39 track detectors etched in the most recommended optimum etching conditions. It was found that the detector registration efficiency is independent on the source-to-detector distance ( d) if the flux is accurately calculated and the point source approximation is worked only for d greater than six times the source diameter when irradiation is performed in air. Results of the present work are discussed within the framework of alpha particle interaction with track detectors where the geometrical configuration of the source and detector arrangement is taken into consideration.

  17. An Efficient Image Recovery Algorithm for Diffraction Tomography Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1993-01-01

    A diffraction tomography system has potential application in ultrasonic medical imaging area. It is capable of achieving imagery with the ultimate resolution of one quarter the wavelength by collecting ultrasonic backscattering data from a circular array of sensors and reconstructing the object reflectivity using a digital image recovery algorithm performed by a computer. One advantage of such a system is that is allows a relatively lower frequency wave to penetrate more deeply into the object and still achieve imagery with a reasonable resolution. An efficient image recovery algorithm for the diffraction tomography system was originally developed for processing a wide beam spaceborne SAR data...

  18. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Determination of the recovery efficiency of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from seeded bivalve mollusks.

    PubMed

    Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are transmitted by water and food and cause human gastroenteritis. Filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, such as oysters and mussels, filter large volumes of water and thus concentrate such pathogens, which makes these bivalves potential vectors of disease. To assess the risk of infection from consumption of contaminated bivalves, parasite numbers and parasite recovery data are required. A modified immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure was used to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst numbers in individually homogenized oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis). About 12% of the commercial bivalves were positive, with low (oo)cyst numbers per specimen. The recovery efficiency of the IMS procedure was systematically evaluated. Experiments included seeding of homogenized bivalves and whole animals with 100 to 1,000 (oo)cysts. Both seeding procedures yielded highly variable recovery rates. Median Cryptosporidium recoveries were 7.9 to 21% in oysters and 62% in mussels. Median Giardia recoveries were 10 to 25% in oysters and 110% in mussels. Giardia recovery was significantly higher than Cryptosporidium recovery. (Oo)cysts were less efficiently recovered from seeded whole animals than from seeded homogenates, with median Cryptosporidium recoveries of 5.3% in oysters and 45% in mussels and median Giardia recoveries of 4.0% in oysters and 82% in mussels. Both bivalve homogenate seeding and whole animal seeding yielded higher (oo)cyst recovery in mussels than in oysters, likely because of the presence of less shellfish tissue in IMS when analyzing the smaller mussels compared with the larger oysters, resulting in more efficient (oo)cyst extraction. The data generated in this study may be used in the quantitative assessment of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium or Giardia associated with the consumption of raw bivalve mollusks. This information may be used for making risk management

  20. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  1. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  2. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for data frac'' stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  3. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2013-04-12

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques, such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption enhancement. Since the solar cells avoid using brittle electrodes, the performance of the flexible devices is not affected by the peeling process. We have investigated three different nanostructured grating designs and conclude that gratings with a 500 nm pitch distance have the highest light-trapping efficiency for the selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM), resulting in an enhancement of about 34% on the solar cell efficiency. The presented method can be applied to a large variety of flexible nanostructured devices in future applications.

  5. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melina de Oliveira Hansen, Roana; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2013-04-01

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques, such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption enhancement. Since the solar cells avoid using brittle electrodes, the performance of the flexible devices is not affected by the peeling process. We have investigated three different nanostructured grating designs and conclude that gratings with a 500 nm pitch distance have the highest light-trapping efficiency for the selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM), resulting in an enhancement of about 34% on the solar cell efficiency. The presented method can be applied to a large variety of flexible nanostructured devices in future applications.

  6. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  7. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  8. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is recovery of funds and when should I... Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 37.580 What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371...

  9. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  10. Predicting Recovery Potential for Individual Stroke Patients Increases Rehabilitation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ackerley, Suzanne J; Barber, P Alan; Smith, Marie-Claire

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical measures and biomarkers are associated with motor recovery after stroke, but none are used to guide rehabilitation for individual patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of upper limb predictions in stroke rehabilitation, by combining clinical measures and biomarkers using the Predict Recovery Potential (PREP) algorithm. Predictions were provided for patients in the implementation group (n=110) and withheld from the comparison group (n=82). Predictions guided rehabilitation therapy focus for patients in the implementation group. The effects of predictive information on clinical practice (length of stay, therapist confidence, therapy content, and dose) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes (upper limb function, impairment and use, independence, and quality of life) were measured 3 and 6 months poststroke. The primary clinical practice outcome was inpatient length of stay. The primary clinical outcome was Action Research Arm Test score 3 months poststroke. Length of stay was 1 week shorter for the implementation group (11 days; 95% confidence interval, 9-13 days) than the comparison group (17 days; 95% confidence interval, 14-21 days; P=0.001), controlling for upper limb impairment, age, sex, and comorbidities. Therapists were more confident (P=0.004) and modified therapy content according to predictions for the implementation group (P<0.05). The algorithm correctly predicted the primary clinical outcome for 80% of patients in both groups. There were no adverse effects of algorithm implementation on patient outcomes at 3 or 6 months poststroke. PREP algorithm predictions modify therapy content and increase rehabilitation efficiency after stroke without compromising clinical outcome. URL: http://anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ACTRN12611000755932. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  12. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  13. Highly efficient heat recovery system for phosphoric acid fuel cells used for cooling telecommunication equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Maki; Okada, Shigeru; Yamashita, Takashi

    To protect the global environment by using energy more efficiently, NTT is developing a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) energy system for telecommunication cogeneration systems. Fuel cells are used to provide electrical power to telecommunication equipment and the heat energy is used by absorption refrigerators to cool the telecommunication rooms throughout the year. We have recently developed a highly efficient system for recovering heat and water from the exhaust gases of a 200-kW (rated power) fuel cell. It is composed of a shell-and-tube type heat exchanger to recover high-temperature heat and a direct-contact cooler to recover the water efficiently and simply. The reformer and cathode exhaust gases from the fuel cell are first supplied to the heat exchanger and then to the cooler. The high-temperature (85-60°C) heat can be recovered, and the total efficiency including the heat recovered from the fuel-cell stack coolant can be improved by supplying the recovered heat to the dual-heat-input absorption refrigerator. The water needed for operating the fuel cell is also recovered from the exhaust gases. We are currently applying this heat and water recovery system to the PC25C-type fuel cell. Maximum total efficiency including electrical power efficiency is estimated to be 78% at the rated power of 200 kW: composed of 17% heat recovery for the fuel-cell stack coolant, 21% from the exhaust gas by improving the heat exchanger, and 40% from electrical conversion. Next, we plan to evaluate the usefulness of this heat recovery system for cooling telecommunication equipment.

  14. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Reem K.; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation. PMID:28420102

  15. Efficient Actor Recovery Paradigm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Reem K; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-04-14

    The actor nodes are the spine of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) that collaborate to perform a specific task in an unverified and uneven environment. Thus, there is a possibility of high failure rate in such unfriendly scenarios due to several factors such as power consumption of devices, electronic circuit failure, software errors in nodes or physical impairment of the actor nodes and inter-actor connectivity problem. Therefore, it is extremely important to discover the failure of a cut-vertex actor and network-disjoint in order to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS). In this paper, we propose an Efficient Actor Recovery (EAR) paradigm to guarantee the contention-free traffic-forwarding capacity. The EAR paradigm consists of a Node Monitoring and Critical Node Detection (NMCND) algorithm that monitors the activities of the nodes to determine the critical node. In addition, it replaces the critical node with backup node prior to complete node-failure which helps balancing the network performance. The packets are handled using Network Integration and Message Forwarding (NIMF) algorithm that determines the source of forwarding the packets; either from actor or sensor. This decision-making capability of the algorithm controls the packet forwarding rate to maintain the network for a longer time. Furthermore, for handling the proper routing strategy, Priority-Based Routing for Node Failure Avoidance (PRNFA) algorithm is deployed to decide the priority of the packets to be forwarded based on the significance of information available in the packet. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed EAR paradigm, the proposed algorithms were tested using OMNET++ simulation.

  16. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  17. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  18. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  19. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.

  20. Neurologic Deficits Including Auditory Loss and Recovery of Function in Horses with Temporohyoid Osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Spriet, M; Williams, D C; Nieto, J E

    2016-01-01

    Auditory loss is a common deficit in horses with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO), however, recovery of function is unknown. To investigate neurologic function with emphasis in audition in horses with THO after treatment. To describe anatomical alterations of the petrous temporal bone that might result in auditory loss. Twenty-four horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO. Prospective study. A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) study was done as part of the criteria for inclusion in horses with a clinical diagnosis of THO from the years of 2005 to 2014. Physical and neurologic status and BAER findings were recorded. Brainstem auditory evoked response variables were compared by using Wilcoxon sign test. Fisher's exact test was also used. Significance was set at P < 0.05. The most common signs included auditory loss (100% of horses), vestibular and facial nerve dysfunction (83%), and exposure ulcerative keratitis (71%). Concurrent left laryngeal hemiparesis was observed in 61% of horses through endoscopy. Auditory dysfunction was bilateral in 50% of the cases (complete and partial), and unilateral affecting more commonly the right ear (R = 8, L = 4). Short- and long-term follow-up revealed persistent auditory loss in all horses based on abnormal response to sound, and further confirmed through a BAER in 8 horses. Auditory dysfunction appears to be a permanent neurologic deficit in horses diagnosed with THO despite overall neurologic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371 to include a provision in certain types of agreements, including TIAs, that require a recipient to...

  2. Technique for highly efficient recovery of microbiological contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godwin, W. W.

    1969-01-01

    Collecting and recovery small assay samples of viable microbiological contaminants in a gas stream involves use of a commercially available water-soluble paper. This paper is nontoxic to a number of microbiological organisms and can be dry-heat-sterilized.

  3. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Rausch, Kelly M; Mullen, Gregory E D; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H; Saul, Allan

    2012-01-05

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8°C for 3 years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): A Simple Loop for Simultaneous OTDM Demultiplexing and Clock Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Lu, Dan; Gong, Tao-Rong; Lv, Bo; Wang, Mu-Guang; Li, Tang-Jun; Jian, Shui-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    A simple and stable loop consisting of a pair of concatenated electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) and 10 GHz clock recovery module is presented and demonstrated experimentally for simultaneous demultiplexing and clock recovery for OTDM networks. The 10Gb/s demultiplexed signal and 10 GHz recovered clock are successfully implemented from 80 Gbit/s and 160 Gbit/s OTDM signals utilizing the loop. The loop based on EAM-PLL can provide excellent tolerance range (> 5 dB) of the OSCR of the source laser, and the recovered clock signal exhibits low rms jitter over a dynamic input optical power range of 15 dB.

  5. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested verdict attributable to each of several plaintiffs, OWCP or SOL will accept that division. (b) In..., OWCP or SOL will determine the appropriate amount of the FECA beneficiary's gross recovery and advise the beneficiary of its determination. FECA beneficiaries may accept OWCP's or SOL's determination or...

  6. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contested verdict attributable to each of several plaintiffs, OWCP or SOL will accept that division. (b) In..., OWCP or SOL will determine the appropriate amount of the FECA beneficiary's gross recovery and advise the beneficiary of its determination. FECA beneficiaries may accept OWCP's or SOL's determination...

  7. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  8. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  9. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used to...

  10. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used to...

  11. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  12. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  13. The concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water--the role and importance of recovery efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-05-01

    The concentration of Cryptosporidium and of Giardia in surface water is a subject of importance to public health and public water supply. The term concentration is a fundamental property of any water quality parameter having a classical definition as used in chemistry and biology. Analytical methods for measuring the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water find only a fraction of the organisms actually present. This paper collects recently available data to examine the role and importance of recovery efficiency measurement to description of the concentrations of these organisms. Data from Australian sources graphically illustrate the variability of recovery efficiency at individual sites over relatively short time scales. Additional data on replicated recovery measurements establish their reproducibility. The recently released USEPA LT2 data along with those from Australia illustrate the independent variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence and recovery efficiency at individual sampling locations. Calculation of concentration from paired raw numbers and recovery efficiency measurements clearly shows the magnitude and importance of taking recovery into account in expressing the concentration of these organisms.

  14. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  15. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  16. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pre-Award...

  17. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes.

  18. Efficient Coordinated Recovery of Sparse Channels in Massive MIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Mudassir; Afify, Laila H.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating sparse channels in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. Most wireless channels are sparse in nature with large delay spread. In addition, these channels as observed by multiple antennas in a neighborhood have approximately common support. The sparsity and common support properties are attractive when it comes to the efficient estimation of large number of channels in massive MIMO systems. Moreover, to avoid pilot contamination and to achieve better spectral efficiency, it is important to use a small number of pilots. We present a novel channel estimation approach which utilizes the sparsity and common support properties to estimate sparse channels and require a small number of pilots. Two algorithms based on this approach have been developed which perform Bayesian estimates of sparse channels even when the prior is non-Gaussian or unknown. Neighboring antennas share among each other their beliefs about the locations of active channel taps to perform estimation. The coordinated approach improves channel estimates and also reduces the required number of pilots. Further improvement is achieved by the data-aided version of the algorithm. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  20. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  1. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  2. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  3. Improving ASR Recovery Efficiency by Partially-penetrating Wells in Brackish Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a proven cost-effective powerful technology for environmental protection and water resources optimization. The recovery efficiency (RE) is regarded as the key criteria for evaluating the ASR performance. In this study, a particular ASR scheme with the fully-penetrating well (FPW) for injection and the partially-penetrating well (PPW) for recovery is proposed to improve the RE for ASR schemes implemented in brackish aquifers. This design appreciates the tilting shape of the interface with underlying heavier salt water. For the FPW, recovery has to be terminated as soon as the interface toe reaches the well, while the toe can be pulled up to the PPW for recovery termination, resulting in later breakthrough of salt water into the pumping well, more recoverable water extracted from the shallow layers, and a higher RE. Key hydrogeological and operational parameters affecting the RE were investigated by numerical simulations. Results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the new ASR scheme and provided practical guidance for designing such a scheme in various hydrogeological conditions.

  4. Joint technique of fine object boundary recovery and foreground image deblur for video including moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Takano, Teruhisa; Ono, Shintaro; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    2017-03-01

    Capturing large-scale outdoor scene by video camera becomes common for various purposes, such as city modeling, surveillance, etc., and demand of recovering high quality image from video data is increasing. Because outdoor scene includes several barriers with multiple depths and motions, e.g.., cars or fences, simply applying motion deblur technique to each frame makes some noise. Furthermore, since color is mixed with foreground and background object near occluding boundary, color separation method during deblurring process is needed to restore the objects. In this paper, we propose a method to recover original boundary of foreground object from multiple blurred input images of video data. By using the refined object boundary, artifact around the border is reduced and accurate deblurring in the whole image is performed. Since both techniques are based on statistical method, quality of recovered image becomes better, if a number of input image increases. Experimental results are shown to prove that our method successfully recovers the deblurred image even if there are severe motion blur and color mixture near occluding boundary.

  5. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-02-26

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery.

  6. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  7. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA-funded energy

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study.

  10. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  11. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    DOEpatents

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  12. Wall-Plug Efficiencies of High-Power Free Electron Lasers Employing Energy Recovery Linacs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-23

    oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler ) are strongly dependent on the energy recovery process A theoretical model for electron beam dynamics in...For the tapered amplifier, the spent electron beam exiting the wiggler consists of trapped and untrapped electrons De-accelerating these two...size, complexity and cost of the overall system. The wall- plug efficiency for the FEL oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler ) are

  13. Culture methods impact recovery of antibiotic-resistant Enterococci including Enterococcus cecorum from pre- and postharvest chicken.

    PubMed

    Suyemoto, M M; Barnes, H J; Borst, L B

    2017-03-01

    Pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum (EC) expressing multidrug resistance have emerged. In National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) data, EC is rarely recovered from chickens. Two NARMS methodologies (FDA and USDA) were compared with standard culture (SC) techniques for recovery of EC. NARMS methods failed to detect EC in 58 caecal samples, 20 chicken breast or six whole broiler samples. EC was recovered from 1 of 38 (2·6%) and 2 of 38 (5·2%) preharvest spinal lesions (USDA and FDA method, respectively). In contrast, using the SC method, EC was recovered from 44 of 53 (83%) caecal samples, all 38 (100%) spinal lesions, 14 of 20 (70%) chicken breast samples, and all three spinal lesions identified in whole carcasses. Compared with other Enterococcus spp., EC isolates had a higher prevalence of resistance to macrolides. The NARMS methods significantly affected recovery of enterococcal species other than EC. When the postharvest FDA method was applied to preharvest caecal samples, isolates of Enterococcus faecium were preferentially recovered. All 11 E. faecium isolates were multidrug resistant, including resistance to penicillin, daptomycin and linezolid. These findings confirm that current methodologies may not accurately identify the amount and range of antimicrobial resistance of enterococci from chicken sources.

  14. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum protein<5.0 g/dl) or a fair nutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  15. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating).

  16. Recovery of Stored Aerobic Granular Sludge and Its Contaminants Removal Efficiency under Different Operation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Shi, Wenxin; Li, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The quick recovery process of contaminants removal of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is complex, and the influencing factors are still not clear. The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO, air intensive aeration rate), organic loading rate (OLR), and C/N on contaminants removal characteristics of AGS and subsequently long-term operation of AGS bioreactor were investigated in this study. DO had a major impact on the recovery of AGS. The granules reactivated at air intensive aeration rate of 100 L/h achieved better settling property and contaminants removal efficiency. Moreover, protein content in extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was almost unchanged, which demonstrated that an aeration rate of 100 L/h was more suitable for maintaining the biomass and the structure of AGS. Higher OLR caused polysaccharides content increase in EPS, and unstable C/N resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria, which presented worse NH4 +-N and PO4 3−-P removal. Correspondingly, quick recovery of contaminants removal was accomplished in 12 days at the optimized operation conditions of aeration rate 100 L/h, OLR 4 g/L·d, and C/N 100 : 10, with COD, NH4 +-N, and PO4 3−-P removal efficiencies of 87.2%, 86.9%, and 86.5%, respectively. The renovation of AGS could be successfully utilized as the seed sludge for the rapid start-up of AGS bioreactor. PMID:24106695

  17. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2017-03-07

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At a current density of 20 A m(-2), TAN removal rate from the influent was 151 gN m(-2) d(-1) at an energy demand of 26.1 kJ gN(-1). The maximum TAN transport rate of 335 gN m(-2) d(-1) was achieved at a current density of 50 A m(-2) and an energy demand of 56.3 kJ gN(-1). High TAN removal efficiency (73-82%) and recovery (60-73%) were reached in all experiments. Therefore, our HRES is a promising alternative for electrochemical and bioelectrochemical TAN recovery. Advantages are the lower energy input and lower risk of chloride oxidation compared to electrochemical technologies and high rates and independence of organic matter compared to bioelectrochemical systems.

  19. The Wheelabrator Falls story -- Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery: An update two years later

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., based in Hampton, New Hampshire, has developed America`s first privately initiated, totally integrated Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) with a commercial trash-to-energy facility in Falls Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. The MRF is successfully recovering and marketing a variety of recycled products, while demonstrating that waste-to-energy and recycling are compatible and can be successfully integrated at a single site. The energy recovery plant and the MRF have completed one year of operation, giving adequate time to evaluate the impact of project innovations. These innovations will have a significant impact on how future projects, including waste-to-energy, wastewater and biosolids processing, will be developed. The energy recovery facility is capable of processing 1,600 tons per day of municipal solid waste from the Bucks County area.

  20. Quantitation of Binding, Recovery and Desalting Efficiency in Solid Phase Extraction Micropipette Tips

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Micropipette-tip solid phase extraction systems are common in proteomic analyses for desalting and concentrating samples for mass spectrometry, removing interferences, and increasing sensitivity. These systems are inexpensive, disposable, and highly efficient. Here we show micropipette-tip solid phase extraction is a direct sample preparation method for {sup 14}C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), removing salts or reagent from labeled macromolecules. We compared loading, recovery and desalting efficiency in commercially available SPE micro-tips using {sup 14}C-labeled peptides and proteins, AMS, and alpha spectrometry ion energy loss quantitation. The polypropylene in the tips was nearly {sup 14}C-free and simultaneously provided low-background carrier for AMS. The silica material did not interfere with the analysis. Alpha spectrometry provided an absolute measurement of desalting efficiency.

  1. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  2. Hypochlorite digestion method for efficient recovery of PHB from Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, R Z; Gangurde, N S; Chincholkar, S B

    2009-09-01

    We reported the optimum amount of PHB accumulated by Alcaligenes faecalis during its 24 h growth under nitrogen deficient conditions. After 24 h incubation decrease in the amount of PHB was recorded. Hypochlorite digestion of biomass of organism followed by extraction with a solvent system consisting of 1:1 mixture of ethanol and acetone resulted in efficient recovery of PHB vis-à-vis earlier methods. This solvent system gave a high recovery yield, i.e. 5.6 gL(-1) vis-à-vis earlier reported yield, 1.34 gL(-1) (by same method), 0.63 gL(-1) (by chloroform extraction method) and 1.1 gL(-1) (by dispersion method).

  3. Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Borhan, Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  5. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    PubMed

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling.

  6. Optimization of the recovery efficiency in an axial HGMF cell with bounded flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, V.; Murariu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Rezlescu, N.

    1996-09-01

    This work presents a method to optimize the recovery efficiency of fine paramagnetic particles from a liquid suspension in an axial HGMF cell. The cell has the flow field bounded by a circular cylindrical wall. It has only one ferromagnetic wire mounted outside the flow field, parallel with its axis and in `paramagnetic capture mode'. The optimization criterion was deduced from the analysis of the particles' trajectories inside the magnetic active space. It is based on the relationship between the geometrical 0022-3727/29/9/042/img1 and operational 0022-3727/29/9/042/img2 parameters for which the filtration efficiency is 100%. The work also presents some experimental data which are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  7. Demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.

    2013-08-23

    Metal organic framework materials (MOFs) were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. Two metal organic framework structures were investigated in greater detail to demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased upon removal of Xe upfront.

  8. Recovery of soil unicellular eukaryotes: an efficiency and activity analysis on the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Lentendu, Guillaume; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Dunker, Susanne; Buscot, François; Wilhelm, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Eukaryotic unicellular organisms are an important part of the soil microbial community, but they are often neglected in soil functional microbial diversity analysis, principally due to the absence of specific investigation methods in the special soil environment. In this study we used a method based on high-density centrifugation to specifically isolate intact algal and yeast cells, with the aim to analyze them with flow cytometry and sort them for further molecular analysis such as deep sequencing. Recovery efficiency was tested at low abundance levels that fit those in natural environments (10(4) to 10(6) cells per g soil). Five algae and five yeast morphospecies isolated from soil were used for the testing. Recovery efficiency was between 1.5 to 43.16% and 2 to 30.2%, respectively, and was dependent on soil type for three of the algae. Control treatments without soil showed that the majority of cells were lost due to the method itself (58% and 55.8% respectively). However, the cell extraction technique did not much compromise cell vitality because a fluorescein di-acetate assay indicated high viability percentages (73.3% and 97.2% of cells, respectively). The low abundant algae and yeast morphospecies recovered from soil were cytometrically analyzed and sorted. Following, their DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers. The developed workflow enables isolation and enrichment of intact autotrophic and heterotrophic soil unicellular eukaryotes from natural environments for subsequent application of deep sequencing technologies.

  9. Recovery efficiency test project, Phase 2 activity report. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency of gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. This volume contains appendices for: (1) supporting material and procedures for ``data frac`` stimulation of zone 6 using nitrogen and nitrogen foam; (2) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 1 nitrogen gas frac on zone no. 1; (3) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 2 in zone no. 1 using liquid CO{sub 2}; (4) supporting material and procedures for frac no. 3 on zone no.1 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (5) supporting material and procedures for stimulation no. 4 in zones 2--3 and 4 using nitrogen foam and proppant; (6) supporting materials and procedures for stimulation no. 5 in zones 5 and 8; and (7) fracture diagnostics reports and supporting materials.

  10. Optimization of the Enhanced Membrane Coagulation Reactor for Sewage Concentration Efficiency and Energy Recovery.

    PubMed

    Alepu, Odey Emmanuel; Wang, Kaijun; Li, Zifu; Gao, Ruiling; Uduak, Etokidem Esther; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-09-01

    The application of an enhanced membrane coagulation reactor (E-MCR) for sewage concentration and energy recovery through anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated. The results show that the addition of powder-activated carbon (PAC) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) enhanced the sewage concentration efficiency and minimized the membrane fouling. The reactor was operated for 100 d with 70 d without severe fouling. The flux of 6 L/(m(2)·h) with sludge retention time of 2 d recorded a long-term stable performance and recovered concentrates with about 6000mg/L to 9800mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. The concentrate was used as feed for AD using a continuous stirred tank reactor. The results show that at a thermophilic temperature of 35°C, a high biogas yield was achieved at 20 d and 30 d hydraulic retention time (HRT). Meanwhile, biogas yields of 10, 220, and 295mL/(gCOD) were achieved at 10, 20, and 30 d HRT, respectively. The addition of PAC/PACl and the low flux condition enhanced the concentration efficiency and minimized the membrane fouling during the long-term operation. Thus, with the optimization of the operation, E-MCR becomes a promising option for sewage concentration and energy recovery.

  11. Fast hybrid SPECT simulation including efficient septal penetration modelling (SP-PSF).

    PubMed

    Staelens, Steven; de Wit, Tim; Beekman, Freek

    2007-06-07

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are degraded by the detection of scattered photons and photons that penetrate the collimator septa. In this paper, a previously proposed Monte Carlo software that employs fast object scatter simulation using convolution-based forced detection (CFD) is extended towards a wide range of medium and high energy isotopes measured using various collimators. To this end, a fast method was developed for incorporating effects of septal penetrating (SP) photons. The SP contributions are obtained by calculating the object attenuation along the path from primary emission to detection followed by sampling a pre-simulated and scalable septal penetration point spread function (SP-PSF). We found that with only a very slight reduction in accuracy, we could accelerate the SP simulation by four orders of magnitude. To achieve this, we combined: (i) coarse sampling of the activity and attenuation distribution; (ii) simulation of the penetration only for a coarse grid of detector pixels followed by interpolation and (iii) neglection of SP-PSF elements below a certain threshold. By inclusion of this SP-PSF-based simulation it became possible to model both primary and septal penetrated photons while only 10% extra computation time was added to the CFD-based Monte Carlo simulator. As a result, a SPECT simulation of a patient-like distribution including SP now takes less than 5 s per projection angle on a dual processor PC. Therefore, the simulator is well-suited as an efficient projector for fully 3D model-based reconstruction or as a fast data-set generator for applications such as image processing optimization or observer studies.

  12. Cascade pulse-tube cryocooler using a displacer for efficient work recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Hu, Jianying; Hu, Jiangfeng; Luo, Ercang; Zhang, Limin; Gao, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Expansion work is generally wasted as heat in a pulse-tube cryocooler and thus represents an obstacle to obtaining higher Carnot efficiency. Recovery of this dissipated power is crucial to improvement of these cooling systems, particularly when the cooling temperature is not very low. In this paper, an efficient cascade cryocooler that is capable of recovering acoustic power is introduced. The cryocooler is composed of two coolers and a displacer unit. The displacer, which fulfills both phase modulation and power transmission roles, is sandwiched in the structure by the two coolers. This means that the expansion work from the first stage cooler can then be used by the second stage cooler. The expansion work of the second stage cooler is much lower than the total input work and it is thus not necessary to recover it. Analyses and experiments were conducted to verify the proposed configuration. At an input power of 1249 W, the cascade cryocooler achieved its highest overall relative Carnot efficiency of 37.2% and a cooling power of 371 W at 130 K. When compared with the performance of a traditional pulse-tube cryocooler, the cooling efficiency was improved by 32%.

  13. Patterns and trends in nitrogen use and nitrogen recovery efficiency in world agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, Richard T.; Berdanier, Aaron B.; Grace, Peter R.

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide increases in nitrogen (N) inputs to croplands have been and will continue to be an important contributor to growing more food. But a substantial portion of N inputs to croplands are not captured in harvested products and leave the field, contributing to air and water pollution. Whether the proportion of N inputs captured in harvest grows, shrinks, or remains unchanged will have important impacts on both food production and N pollution. We created a new global N input database (fertilizer, manure, fixation, deposition, and residues) that enables evaluation of trends in nitrogen use and recovery by country and by crop from the 1960s through 2007. These data show that despite growth in yields and increased N fertilization, differences in efficiency of N use between Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; http://www.oecd.org) and other countries have persisted over nearly 50 years and exhibit no sign of convergence. The high yield, high nitrogen input systems characteristic of rich countries have released large amounts of reactive N to the environment but have operated with greater efficiency—recovering a greater portion of added N in crops. Aggregate yields in OECD countries are 70% greater than in non-OECD countries on N input rates just 54% greater. Variation in recovery efficiency between countries suggests that there is scope for improvements through enhanced N delivery and capture in the world's low-yielding croplands and that increasing efficiency of N use is an important component of meeting food demand in the future.

  14. An efficient approach for phosphorus recovery from wastewater using series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Lu, Xiwu; Peng, Yonghong; Zou, Haiming; Shi, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Homogeneous nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystallization in high levels of supersaturation solution has a negative effect on phosphorus recovery efficiency because of the poor settleability of the generated HAP microcrystalline. In this study, a new high-performance approach for phosphorus recovery from anaerobic supernatant using three series-coupled air-agitated crystallization reactors was developed and characterized. During 30-day operation, the proposed process showed a high recovery efficiency (∼95.82%) and low microcrystalline ratio (∼3.11%). Particle size analysis showed that the microcrystalline size was successively increased (from 5.81 to 26.32 μm) with the sequence of series-coupled reactors, confirming the conjectural mechanism that a multistage-induced crystallization system provided an appropriate condition for the growth, aggregation, and precipitation of crystallized products. Furthermore, the new process showed a broad spectrum of handling ability for different concentrations of phosphorus-containing solution in the range of 5-350 mg L(-1), and the obtained results of phosphorus conversion ratio and recovery efficiency were more than 92% and 80%, respectively. Overall, these results showed that the new process exhibited an excellent ability of efficient phosphorus recovery as well as wide application scope, and might be used as an effective approach for phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater.

  15. False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  16. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  17. STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-09-30

    This sixth and final progress report for DOE Award Number DE-FC26-01BC15317 describes research during the period March 01, 2004 through August 31, 2004 performed at the University of Southern Mississippi on ''Stimuli Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery'' processes. Significantly, terpolymers that are responsive to changes in pH and ionic strength have been synthesized, characterized, and their solution properties have been extensively examined. Terpolymers composed of acrylamide, a carboxylated acrylamido monomer (AMBA), and a quaternary ammonium monomer (AMBATAC) with balanced compositions of the latter two, exhibit increases in aqueous solution viscosity as NaCl concentration is increased. This increase in polymer coil size can be expected upon injection of this type of polymer into oil reservoirs of moderate-to-high salinity, leading to better mobility control. The opposite effect (loss of viscosity) is observed for conventional polymer systems. Additionally polymer mobility characteristics have been conducted for a number of hydrophilic copolymers utilizing an extensional flow apparatus and size exclusion chromatography. This study reveled that oil recovery enhancement through use of polymers in a water flood is due to the polymer's resistance to deformation as it flows through the reservoir. Individual polymers when in aqueous solution form coils. The larger the polymer's coil size, the greater the polymer's resistance to extensional flow and the more effective the polymer is in enhancing oil recovery. Large coil sizes are obtained by increasing the polymer molecular weight and having macromolecular structures that favor greater swelling of the coil by the aqueous solvent conditions (temperature, pH and electrolyte concentration) existing in the reservoir.

  18. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  19. Real-time Recovery Efficiencies and Performance of the Palomar Transient Factory's Transient Discovery Pipeline

    DOE PAGES

    Frohmaier, C.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.; ...

    2017-05-09

    In this paper, we present the transient source detection efficiencies of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), parameterizing the number of transients that PTF found versus the number of similar transients that occurred over the same period in the survey search area but were missed. PTF was an optical sky survey carried out with the Palomar 48 inch telescope over 2009–2012, observing more than 8000 square degrees of sky with cadences of between one and five days, locating around 50,000 non-moving transient sources, and spectroscopically confirming around 1900 supernovae. We assess the effectiveness with which PTF detected transient sources, by insertingmore » $$\\simeq 7$$ million artificial point sources into real PTF data. We then study the efficiency with which the PTF real-time pipeline recovered these sources as a function of the source magnitude, host galaxy surface brightness, and various observing conditions (using proxies for seeing, sky brightness, and transparency). The product of this study is a multi-dimensional recovery efficiency grid appropriate for the range of observing conditions that PTF experienced and that can then be used for studies of the rates, environments, and luminosity functions of different transient types using detailed Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we illustrate the technique using the observationally well-understood class of type Ia supernovae.« less

  20. Efficient recovery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Feng, Leiyu; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus need to be recovered to reduce the environmental impact of waste activated sludge (WAS). In this study the improved short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from WAS by the addition of kitchen waste to adjust the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), and the efficient recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from the fermentation liquid were reported. Firstly, the optimum conditions for SCFA production were found to be pH 8, temperature 35 °C, C/N ratio 21 mg-C/1 mg-N, and fermentation time 6 d, using the response surface methodology. After alkaline fermentation, the struvite precipitation method was applied to efficiently and simultaneously recover the released ammonia and phosphorus from the fermentation liquid. Finally, the fermentation liquid was used as the additional carbon source for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. It was observed that, compared with acetic acid, the use of fermentation liquid as carbon source showed greater removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and total phosphorus.

  1. To enhancement illuminance efficiency of OLED by thin film included microparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chuang-Hung; Chien, Chao-Heng; Lee, Jen-Chi; Chien, Wei-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    An optical thin film was provided to address light illuminance efficiency of OLED up to 80%. A polymer material was used as a film base material which could avoid the influence of total reflection angle. One kinds of oxidized metal micro-particles was chosen to dope inside the optical thin film and to increase scattering and refractive effect.

  2. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  3. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-07-06

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  4. Efficient recovery of gamma-poly (glutamic acid) from highly viscous culture broth.

    PubMed

    Do, J H; Chang, H N; Lee, S Y

    2001-11-01

    An efficient strategy for the separation and recovery of gamma-polyglutamic acid (gamma-PGA) from highly viscous broth was developed. This strategy was divided into two processes: The first was to separate gamma-PGA from highly viscous culture broth; the second was to concentrate gamma-PGA solution by ultrafiltration for the reduction of the amount of alcohol required during recovery process with precipitation. By lowering the pH value of culture broth to 3, the viscosity of culture broth and the zeta potential of cell could be reduced to a sixth of the original value at 35 degrees C and a third, respectively. After the acidification of culture broth the energy demand for the separation of gamma-PGA from culture broth by centrifugation could be reduced to 17% of that without it when the centrifugal force was 22,000g. The amount of alcohol required for precipitation could be reduced to a fourth of that generally used without concentration by concentrating 20 g gamma-PGA/L solution to 60 g gamma-PGA/L at pH 5 by ultrafiltration with hollow-fiber membrane cartridge (MWCO 500,000). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  6. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  7. Development of an ELISA for Evaluation of Swab Recovery Efficiencies of Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sparding, Nadja; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Nicolaisen, Gert M.; Giese, Steen B.; Elmlund, Jón; Steenhard, Nina R.

    2014-01-01

    After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin) with a detection range of 1.32–80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments) for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0–60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed. PMID:25402464

  8. Recovery Efficiency of Enriched 100MoO3 Irradiated by Accelerator Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Masako; Motoishi, Shoji; Saeki, Hideya; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Yasuki

    2017-05-01

    A 99% recovery of an enriched 100MoO3 sample weighing over 100 g was achieved for the first time after repeated separation procedures (milkings) by using a newly developed thermochromatography apparatus. Details of the distribution of 100MoO3 deposited within the apparatus were investigated after the milkings, and then the 100MoO3 was recovered. The apparatus has also shown the ability to separate high-quality 99mTc from 99MoO3 with a high efficiency of over 90% under repeated milking processes. This result is a significant development towards the stable and economical production of 99Mo by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction. The method can be applied to other 99Mo production technologies such as the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo and 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo reactions, which use large quantities of MoO3.

  9. Evaluation of efficient extraction methods for recovery of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasi, A; Pandiaraj, D; Mubarakali, D; Ilyas, M H Mohammed; Thajuddin, N

    2012-09-15

    Microalgal species are known to have pigments in their cellular constitute at the maximum and are valuable bioactive products. In the present study focused was on the evaluation of efficient extraction methods for photosynthetic pigments from microalgal species. They are, Chlorella sp., Acrochaete sp., Phormidium chlorinum, Jaaginema pseudogeminatum and Chroococcus sp. There are four different extraction methods were adopted for active recovery and are economically feasible such as direct extraction, mechanical grinding, heating and preheated solvent method. It was found that mechanical grinding method has extract two fold increased amount than the other methods. Additionally, this methods is inexpensive, less laborious and active extraction. It is suggested that this method could be used for the extraction of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae for pharmaceutical to biotechnological purpose.

  10. Investigations of afterpulsing and detection efficiency recovery in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav; Xu, He; Qi, Bing; Hadfield, Robert H.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2013-06-01

    We report on the observation of a non-uniform dark count rate in Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs), specifically focusing on an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated at a high bias current regime. The afterpulsing exists for real detection events (triggered by input photons) as well as for dark counts (no laser input). In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behavior and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the amplifiers used to boost the electrical output signal from the SNSPD. We show that the afterpulsing indeed disappears when we use a different amplifier with a better low frequency response. We also examine the short-lived enhancement of detection efficiency during the recovery of the SNSPD due to temporary perturbation of the bias and grounding conditions.

  11. Redundancy management for efficient fault recovery in NASA's distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Pandya, Mihir; Yau, Kitty

    1991-01-01

    The management of redundancy in computer systems was studied and guidelines were provided for the development of NASA's fault-tolerant distributed systems. Fault recovery and reconfiguration mechanisms were examined. A theoretical foundation was laid for redundancy management by efficient reconfiguration methods and algorithmic diversity. Algorithms were developed to optimize the resources for embedding of computational graphs of tasks in the system architecture and reconfiguration of these tasks after a failure has occurred. The computational structure represented by a path and the complete binary tree was considered and the mesh and hypercube architectures were targeted for their embeddings. The innovative concept of Hybrid Algorithm Technique was introduced. This new technique provides a mechanism for obtaining fault tolerance while exhibiting improved performance.

  12. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  14. Efficient and robust relaxation procedures for multi-component mixtures including phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ee; Hantke, Maren; Müller, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    We consider a thermodynamic consistent multi-component model in multi-dimensions that is a generalization of the classical two-phase flow model of Baer and Nunziato. The exchange of mass, momentum and energy between the phases is described by additional source terms. Typically these terms are handled by relaxation procedures. Available relaxation procedures suffer from efficiency and robustness resulting in very costly computations that in general only allow for one-dimensional computations. Therefore we focus on the development of new efficient and robust numerical methods for relaxation processes. We derive exact procedures to determine mechanical and thermal equilibrium states. Further we introduce a novel iterative method to treat the mass transfer for a three component mixture. All new procedures can be extended to an arbitrary number of inert ideal gases. We prove existence, uniqueness and physical admissibility of the resulting states and convergence of our new procedures. Efficiency and robustness of the procedures are verified by means of numerical computations in one and two space dimensions.

  15. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Dick, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls-(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2-were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nurturing the geology-reservoir engineering team: Vital for efficient oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, K.P.; Lehman, D.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Of an estimated 482 billion bbl (76.6 Gm{sup 3}) of in-place oil discovered in the US, 158 billion (25.1 Gm{sup 3}) can be recovered with existing technology and economic conditions. The cost-effective recovery through infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery methods to recover any portion of the remaining 323 billion bbl (51.4 Gm3) will require a thorough understanding of reservoirs and the close cooperation of production geologists and reservoir engineers. This paper presents the concept of increased interaction between geologists and reservoir engineers through multifunctional teams and cross-training between the disciplines. A discussion of several factors supporting this concept is covered, including educational background, technical manpower trends, employee development, and job satisfaction. There are several ways from an organizational standpoint to achieve this cross-training, with or without a formal change in job assignment. This paper outlines three approaches, including case histories where each of the approaches has been implemented and the resulting benefits.

  17. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  18. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  19. [EFFICIENCY OF HAEMOGLOBIN REGENERATION IN THE NUTRITIONAL FERROPENIC ANAEMIA RECOVERY WITH GOAT MILK-BASED DIETS].

    PubMed

    Serrano Reina, José Antonio; Nestares Pleguezuelo, Teresa; Muñoz Alférez, Ma José; Díaz Castro, Javier; López Aliaga, Ma Inmaculada

    2015-10-01

    in spite of the high incidence/prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and the beneficial effects derived from the consumption of goat milk, scarce is known about the recovery of the anemia following a balanced diet accompanied by the intake of goat milk of goat. The aim of the current study is to assess, in rats with experimentally induced nutritional iron deficiency anemia, the effects of goat or cow milk-based diets, supplied during 30 days, on the recovery of the anemia and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. 40 male Wistar albino rats newly weaned were divided at random in two experimental groups and they were fed ad libitum for 40 days with AIN-93G diet, either with normal iron content (control group, 45 mg/kg diet), or low iron content (anaemic group, 5 mg/kg diet). Samples of blood form the caudal vein were collected for the hematologic control of the anemia. Later, both experimental groups (control and iron deficient) were fed for 30 days with goat or cow milk- based diets. After finishing the experimental period and previous anesthesia the animals were withdrawn by canulation of the abdominal aorta, and the obtained blood was gathered in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant for the later determination of hematologic parameters and the efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin. after the consumption of a diet with low iron content during 40 days, the rats were anaemic, with a concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum ferritin and low transferrin (p < 0.001), whereas the levels of platelets and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were raised (p < 0.001), findings consistent with the anemia induced experimentally in the animals. The efficiency of regeneration of the hemoglobin was higher in control and anaemic rats fed goat milk-based diet in comparison with those fed cow milk-based diet (p < 0.001) due to, partly, to the major levels of serum iron and hemoglobin, and to the best nutritive

  20. Improved Recovery of Bacillus Spores from Nonporous Surfaces with Cotton Swabs over Foam, Nylon, or Polyester, and the Role of Hydrophilicity of Cotton in Governing the Recovery Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Mohammed M.; Upreti, Reshmi; Sekhar, Aparna C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating different swabbing materials for spore recovery efficiency (RE) from steel surfaces, we recorded the maximum RE (71%) of 107 Bacillus subtilis spores with Tulips cotton buds, followed by Johnson's cotton buds and standard Hi-Media cotton, polyester, nylon, and foam (23%) swabs. Among cotton swabs, instant water-absorbing capacity or the hydrophilicity index appeared to be the major indicator of RE, as determined by testing three more brands. Tulips swabs worked efficiently across diverse nonporous surfaces and on different Bacillus spp., registering 65 to 77% RE. PMID:23087040

  1. [Efficiency of includes of bioactive substances in diet of patient with hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kaziulin, A N; Petukhov, A B; Kucheriavyĭ, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    We includes 66 patients with liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh B class with hepatic encephalopathy of 0 to 2nd stages in randomized interventional study. 36 patients received standard treatment and 30 patients received standard treatment + bioactive substances in formula CognoBlend in capsules (2 capsules twice a day) in course of 5 weeks. Formula includes extracts of plants: Bacopa monneria, Gingko biloba, Cat's Claw, Gotu Kola, Rosemary. In group combined treatment was significant improvement of clinical signs, psychometric tests, electroencephalography and serum biochemistry than in group with standard therapy, on term of 2 to 5 weeks.

  2. Methods of improving the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. [including X ray analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.; Roessler, B.; Crisman, E. E.; Chen, L. Y.; Kaul, R.

    1974-01-01

    Work on aluminum-alloyed silicon grating cells is continued. Optimization of the geometry (grating line width and spacing) confirms the analysis of such cells. A 1 sq cm grating cell was fabricated and its i-V characteristic was measured under an AMO solar simulator. It is found that the efficiency of this cell would be about 7.9%, if it were covered by the usual antireflection coating. The surface of the cell is not covered by a diffused junction. The response is blue shifted; the current is somewhat higher than that produced by a commercial Si cell. However, the open circuit voltage is low, and attempts to optimize the open circuit voltage of the aluminum-alloy junctions are described. A preliminary X-ray topographic examination of GaAs specimens of the type commonly used to make solar cells is studied. The X-ray study shows that the wafers are filled with regions having strain gradients, possibly caused by precipitates. It is possible that a correlation exists between the presence of low mechanical perfection and minority carrier diffusion lengths of GaAs crystals.

  3. Improvement of III-nitride visible and ultraviolet light-emitting diode performance, including extraction efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal management and efficiency maintenance at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, Kenneth

    In this work, highly efficient broad-area LEDs on bulk GaN substrates were developed and the fabrication process and device layout were optimized. This optimization relied in part on electrical, optical, thermal and recombination models. The peak external quantum efficiency of the 450 nm LEDs was over 68% when biased at 20 mA. The efficiency characteristic showed a typical droop curve, decreasing at high current densities. The cause of this droop is unknown. An exploratory experiment was conducted to characterize electron overflow and its role in efficiency droop. Novel device structures were developed, allowing direct measurement of overflow electrons in LED-like structures under electrical injection. In these test structures, electrons were observed in the p-type region of the LED only at current densities where efficiency droop was active. The onset of efficiency droop was preceded by the onset of electron overflow. However, the magnitude of the overflow current could not be measured and it is undetermined whether the dominant cause of efficiency droop is electron overflow or some other process such as Auger recombination. Calibration structures allowing measurement of the magnitude of the overflow are proposed. Work on deep-ultraviolet, 275 nm, LEDs is also presented. Demonstration of direct-wafer bonded LEDs to beta-Ga2O3 is presented. A SiC substrate removal process is discussed. LEDs fabricated by this flip-chip process exhibited up to 1.8 times greater power compared to LEDs fabricated by a standard process but suffered from increased forward voltage and premature failure. Further process development leading to electrically efficient operation is proposed.

  4. Efficient recovery-based error estimation for the smoothed finite element method for smooth and singular linear elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Estrada, Octavio A.; Natarajan, Sundararajan; Ródenas, Juan José; Nguyen-Xuan, Hung; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.

    2013-07-01

    An error control technique aimed to assess the quality of smoothed finite element approximations is presented in this paper. Finite element techniques based on strain smoothing appeared in 2007 were shown to provide significant advantages compared to conventional finite element approximations. In particular, a widely cited strength of such methods is improved accuracy for the same computational cost. Yet, few attempts have been made to directly assess the quality of the results obtained during the simulation by evaluating an estimate of the discretization error. Here we propose a recovery type error estimator based on an enhanced recovery technique. The salient features of the recovery are: enforcement of local equilibrium and, for singular problems a "smooth + singular" decomposition of the recovered stress. We evaluate the proposed estimator on a number of test cases from linear elastic structural mechanics and obtain efficient error estimations whose effectivities, both at local and global levels, are improved compared to recovery procedures not implementing these features.

  5. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  7. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    PubMed

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2017-07-17

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  8. An efficient phase-selective gelator for aromatic solvents recovery based on a cyanostilbene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Ma, Yao; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-07-07

    Two novel low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) 1 and 2 composed of a cholesteryl group, an amide group and various terminal cyanostilbene moieties were synthesized. They could form stable gels in p-xylene. In particular, 2 with more extended π-conjugation length showed remarkable gelation ability in many aromatic solvents, chloroform and chloroform-containing mixed solvents at a relatively low concentration. FT-IR and XRD spectra indicated that the difference between 1 and 2 in the gelation properties may result from the deviation of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking as driving forces for the formation of the gels. Significantly, 2 can function as an efficient room-temperature phase-selective gelator (PSG) for potential application in the separation and recovery of various aromatic solvents from its mixture with water. Meanwhile, the gelator can be easily recovered and reused several times. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelation properties of 2 can provide a simple and feasible approach for the removal of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye from water.

  9. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Grissom, Paula M.; Arzhanik, Vladimir K.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F’s C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3–5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  10. Evaluation of Sample Recovery Efficiency for Bacteriophage P22 on Fomites

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Amanda B.; Pandey, Alok K.; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Gerba, Charles P.; Rose, Joan B.

    2012-01-01

    Fomites are known to play a role in the transmission of pathogens. Quantitative analysis of the parameters that affect sample recovery efficiency (SRE) at the limit of detection of viruses on fomites will aid in improving quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and infection control. The variability in SRE as a function of fomite type, fomite surface area, sampling time, application media, relative humidity (rH), and wetting agent was evaluated. To quantify the SRE, bacteriophage P22 was applied onto fomites at average surface densities of 0.4 ± 0.2 and 4 ± 2 PFU/cm2. Surface areas of 100 and 1,000 cm2 of nonporous fomites found in indoor environments (acrylic, galvanized steel, and laminate) were evaluated with premoistened antistatic wipes. The parameters with the most effects on the SRE were sampling time, fomite surface area, wetting agent, and rH. At time zero (the initial application of bacteriophage P22), the SRE for the 1,000-cm2 fomite surface area was, on average, 40% lower than that for the 100-cm2 fomite surface area. For both fomite surface areas, the application medium Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and/or the laminate fomite predominantly resulted in a higher SRE. After the applied samples dried on the fomites (20 min), the average SRE was less than 3%. A TSB wetting agent applied on the fomite improved the SRE for all samples at 20 min. In addition, an rH greater than 28% generally resulted in a higher SRE than an rH less than 28%. The parameters impacting SRE at the limit of detection have the potential to enhance sampling strategies and data collection for QMRA models. PMID:22941090

  11. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A; Beard, Jeremy K; Hein, Misty J; Larsen, Lloyd D; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H D Alan; Deye, Gregory J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans.

  12. Practice efficiency and economics: the case for rapid recovery sedation agents for colonoscopy in a screening population.

    PubMed

    Vargo, John J; Bramley, Thomas; Meyer, Kellie; Nightengale, Brian

    2007-07-01

    To determine rapidly acting agents' impact on practice efficiency and cost for outpatient colonoscopy in a screening population. Propofol-mediated endoscopic sedation is popular due to rapid sedation onset and superior recovery profile compared with sedation with an opioid and benzodiazepine. There are few data on the impact of this type of sedation on the economics and efficiency of an endoscopy unit. A provider-perspective economic model assessed the ability of propofol and fospropofol disodium (Aquavan, GPI 15715, MGI Pharma) to increase practice efficiency and determined break-even costs based on current colonoscopy reimbursement levels. Reimbursement inputs by practice setting, costs, and recovery profiles-taken from published literature examining time to discharge-were used to populate the model. To measure robustness of model results to changes in base case inputs, sensitivity analyses were performed. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, inputs were varied simultaneously and randomly for 1000 iterations to determine 95% confidence intervals (CI) for break-even costs. In the time to complete 1 colonoscopy with midazolam/meperidine, 1.76 colonoscopies can be completed with propofol and 1.91 colonoscopies can be completed with fospropofol disodium. This efficiency benefit produced a break-even cost for rapid recovery agents of $71.53 (95% CI: $38.39, $105.67) in a hospital outpatient clinic and $61.48 (95% CI: $41.33, $108.99) in an ambulatory surgical center. One-way sensitivity analyses indicated the break-even cost of these agents was most sensitive to operating costs and time to discharge ratio. Rapid recovery agents for colonoscopy can improve practice efficiency and offer economic advantages over traditional sedation.

  13. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • We recovered Pb from cathode ray tube funnel glass using reduction melting process. • We modified the melting process to achieve Pb recovery with low energy consumption. • Pb in the funnel glass is efficiently recovered at 1000 °C by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Pb remaining in the glass after reduction melting is extracted with 1 M HCl. • 98% of Pb in the funnel glass was recovered by reduction melting and HCl leaching. - Abstract: Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900–1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1 g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1 M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.

  14. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-01

    Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.

  15. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  16. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  17. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  18. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  19. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Omonode, Rex A.; Halvorson, Ardell D.; Gagnon, Bernard; Vyn, Tony J.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N) uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE) will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU), grain N uptake (GNU), N recovery efficiency (NRE), net N balance (NNB) in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU)] and TNU [NNB(TNU)], and surplus N (SN). The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52) or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65). For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77) existed between N2O and NNB(TNU), NNB(GNU), and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU), NNB(TNU), and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N2O

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of safflower and the efficient recovery of transgenic plants via grafting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a difficult crop to genetically transform being susceptible to hyperhydration and poor in vitro root formation. In addition to traditional uses safflower has recently emerged as a broadacre platform for the production of transgenic products including modified oils and pharmaceutically active proteins. Despite commercial activities based on the genetic modification of safflower, there is no method available in the public domain describing the transformation of safflower that generates transformed T1 progeny. Results An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed with a transformation efficiency of 4.8% and 3.1% for S-317 (high oleic acid content) and WT (high linoleic acid content) genotypes respectively. An improved safflower transformation T-DNA vector was developed, including a secreted GFP to allow non-destructive assessment of transgenic shoots. Hyperhydration and necrosis of Agrobacterium-infected cotyledons was effectively controlled by using iota-carrageenan, L-cysteine and ascorbic acid. To overcome poor in vitro root formation for the first time a grafting method was developed for safflower in which ~50% of transgenic shoots develop into mature plants bearing viable transgenic T1 seed. The integration and expression of secreted GFP and hygromycin genes were confirmed by PCR, Southern and Western blot analysis. Southern blot analysis in nine independent lines indicated that 1-7 transgenes were inserted per line and T1 progeny displayed Mendelian inheritance. Conclusions This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both the efficiency and ease of use over existing safflower transformation protocols. This is the first complete method of genetic transformation of safflower that generates stably-transformed plants and progeny, allowing this crop to benefit from modern molecular applications. PMID:21595986

  1. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  2. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration During Plant-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than$1 million during the first year.

  3. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems.

  4. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  5. Fertilization recovery system is dependent on the number of pollen grains for efficient reproduction in plants.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Ryushiro D; Maruyama, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2013-04-01

    For over a century, plant fertilization has been thought to depend on the fertility of a single pollen tube. However, we reported recently a "fertilization recovery system" in flowering plants that actively rescues failed fertilization of a defective mutant pollen tube by attracting a second, functional pollen tube. In typical flowering plants, two synergid cells beside the egg cell attract pollen tubes, one of which degenerates upon pollen tube discharge. We observed that fertilization was rescued when the second synergid cell accepted a wild-type pollen tube. Our results suggest that flowering plants precisely control the number of pollen tubes that arrive at each ovule and use a fertilization recovery mechanism to maximize the likelihood of successful seed set. Restricted pollination experiments showed that if sufficient pollen grains are provided, ovules attract a second pollen tube for recovery. These results support our previous finding that a long period of time is required for ovules to complete the system.

  6. Multicenter Comparison of ESP Culture System II with BACTEC 460TB and with Lowenstein-Jensen Medium for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Different Clinical Specimens, Including Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Cichero, Paola; Chirillo, M. Gabriella; Gismondo, M. Rita; Bono, Letizia; Gesu, Giampietro; Simonetti, M. Tullia; Volpe, Gisella; Nardi, Giampietro; Marone, Piero

    1998-01-01

    The recently developed ESP Culture System II (AccuMed, Chicago, Ill.) was compared with radiometric BACTEC 460TB (Becton Dickinson, Towson, Md.) and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium for recovery of mycobacteria from over 2,500 clinical specimens both of respiratory and nonrespiratory origin, including blood. The majority of the 219 mycobacterial isolates (129) belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, followed by 37 isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 53 isolates of eight other mycobacterial species. Rates of recovery obtained with BACTEC, ESP, and Lowenstein-Jensen medium were 89, 79, and 64%, respectively, with such differences being statistically significant. Different media and systems appeared to behave differently when the more frequently detected organisms were considered: M. tuberculosis complex isolates grew better with BACTEC, and MAC isolates grew better with ESP. An analysis of the combinations of Lowenstein-Jensen medium with BACTEC and with ESP did not reveal significant differences in recovery rates. With regard to the times needed for the detection of positive cultures, they were significantly longer on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (average, 28 days) than with the remaining two systems, between which there was no difference (average, 18 days). We conclude, therefore, that the ESP system, when used in combination with a solid medium, performs as well as the thoroughly validated radiometric BACTEC system and offers the advantages of full automation and absence of radioisotopes. PMID:9574709

  7. Multicenter comparison of ESP Culture System II with BACTEC 460TB and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium for recovery of mycobacteria from different clinical specimens, including blood.

    PubMed

    Tortoli, E; Cichero, P; Chirillo, M G; Gismondo, M R; Bono, L; Gesu, G; Simonetti, M T; Volpe, G; Nardi, G; Marone, P

    1998-05-01

    The recently developed ESP Culture System II (AccuMed, Chicago, Ill.) was compared with radiometric BACTEC 460TB (Becton Dickinson, Towson, Md.) and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium for recovery of mycobacteria from over 2,500 clinical specimens both of respiratory and nonrespiratory origin, including blood. The majority of the 219 mycobacterial isolates (129) belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, followed by 37 isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 53 isolates of eight other mycobacterial species. Rates of recovery obtained with BACTEC, ESP, and Lowenstein-Jensen medium were 89, 79, and 64%, respectively, with such differences being statistically significant. Different media and systems appeared to behave differently when the more frequently detected organisms were considered: M. tuberculosis complex isolates grew better with BACTEC, and MAC isolates grew better with ESP. An analysis of the combinations of Lowenstein-Jensen medium with BACTEC and with ESP did not reveal significant differences in recovery rates. With regard to the times needed for the detection of positive cultures, they were significantly longer on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (average, 28 days) than with the remaining two systems, between which there was no difference (average, 18 days). We conclude, therefore, that the ESP system, when used in combination with a solid medium, performs as well as the thoroughly validated radiometric BACTEC system and offers the advantages of full automation and absence of radioisotopes.

  8. Including quality attributes in efficiency measures consistent with net benefit: creating incentives for evidence based medicine in practice.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence based medicine supports net benefit maximising therapies and strategies in processes of health technology assessment (HTA) for reimbursement and subsidy decisions internationally. However, translation of evidence based medicine to practice is impeded by efficiency measures such as cost per case-mix adjusted separation in hospitals, which ignore health effects of care. In this paper we identify a correspondence method that allows quality variables under control of providers to be incorporated in efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit. Including effects framed from a disutility bearing (utility reducing) perspective (e.g. mortality, morbidity or reduction in life years) as inputs and minimising quality inclusive costs on the cost-disutility plane is shown to enable efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit under a one to one correspondence. The method combines advantages of radial properties with an appropriate objective of maximising net benefit to overcome problems of inappropriate objectives implicit with alternative methods, whether specifying quality variables with utility bearing output (e.g. survival, reduction in morbidity or life years), hyperbolic or exogenous variables. This correspondence approach is illustrated in undertaking efficiency comparison at a clinical activity level for 45 Australian hospitals allowing for their costs and mortality rates per admission. Explicit coverage and comparability conditions of the underlying correspondence method are also shown to provide a robust framework for preventing cost-shifting and cream-skimming incentives, with appropriate qualification of analysis and support for data linkage and risk adjustment where these conditions are not satisfied. Comparison on the cost-disutility plane has previously been shown to have distinct advantages in comparing multiple strategies in HTA, which this paper naturally extends to a robust method and framework for comparing efficiency of

  9. Efficient recovery of fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from frozen samples.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples.

  10. Efficient Recovery of Fluoroquinolone-Susceptible and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains From Frozen Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Smith, Catherine A.; Maslow, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  11. Integration of a phenolic-acid recovery step in the CaCCO process for efficient fermentable-sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Yun, Min-Soo; Shiroma, Riki; Ike, Masakazu; Guan, Di; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2013-11-01

    An advanced sugar-platform bioprocess for lignocellulosic feedstocks by adding a phenolic-acid (PA: p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) recovery step to the CaCCO process was designed. For efficient PA extraction, pretreatment was 95°C for 2h, producing a yield of 7.30 g/kg-dry rice straw (65.2% of total ester-linked PAs) with insignificant effects on saccharification. PAs were readily recovered in solution during the repeated washings of solids, and the glucose yield, after 72-h saccharification of the washed solids, was significantly improved from 65.9% to 70.3-72.7%, suggesting the removal of potential enzyme inhibitors. The promotion of xylose yield was insignificant, probably due to 13.1-17.8% loss of xylose residues after washing(s). This new bioprocess, termed the SRB (simultaneous recovery of by-products)-CaCCO process, would effectively produce fermentable sugars and other valuables from feedstocks, strengthening the platform in both economic and environmental terms.

  12. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  13. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  14. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  15. Recovery kinetics of photochemical efficiency in winter stressed conifers: the effects of growth light environment, extent of the season and species.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Amy S

    2013-02-01

    Evergreens undergo reductions in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during winter due to increases in sustained thermal energy dissipation. Upon removing winter stressed leaves to room temperature and low light, F(v)/F(m) recovers and can include both a rapid and a slow phase. The goal of this study was to determine whether the rapid component to recovery exists in winter stressed conifers at any point during the season in a seasonally extreme environment. Additional goals were to compare the effects of species, growth light environment and the extent of the winter season on recovery kinetics in conifers. Four species (sun and shade needle) were monitored during the winter of 2007/2008: eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Taxus cuspidata and white spruce (Picea glauca). F(v)/F(m) was measured in the field, and then monitored indoors at room temperature and low light for 6 days. The results showed that all species showed a rapid component to recovery in early winter that disappeared later in the season in sun needles but was present in shade needles on most days monitored during winter. There were differences among species in the recovery kinetics across the season, with pine recovering the most slowly and spruce the most quickly. The results suggest an important role for the rapidly reversible form of energy dissipation in early winter, as well as important differences between species in their rate of recovery in late winter/early spring which may have implications for spring onset of photosynthesis.

  16. Energy efficient of ethanol recovery in pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression eliminating the cold traps.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Li, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    An energy efficient pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression was developed for ethanol recovery during the process of fermentation coupled with pervaporation. Part of the permeate vapor at the membrane downstream under the vacuum condition was condensed by running water at the first condenser and the non-condensed vapor enriched with ethanol was compressed to the atmospheric pressure and pumped into the second condenser, where the vapor was easily condensed into a liquid by air. Three runs of fermentation-pervaporation experiment have been carried out lasting for 192h, 264h and 360h respectively. Complete vapor recovery validated the novel pervaporation membrane bioreactor. The total flux of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was in the range of 350gm(-2)h(-1) and 600gm(-2)h(-1). Compared with the traditional cold traps condensation, mechanical vapor compression behaved a dominant energy saving feature.

  17. Nitrogen Fertilizer Deep Placement for Increased Grain Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in Rice Grown in Subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Li, Guilong; Li, Weitao; Liu, Jia; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2017-01-01

    Field plot experiments were conducted over 3 years (from April 2014 to November 2016) in a double-rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in subtropical China to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer placement on grain yield and N recovery efficiency (NRE). Different N application methods included: no N application (CK); N broadcast application (NBP); N and NPK deep placement (NDP and NPKDP, respectively). Results showed that grain yield and apparent NRE significantly increased for NDP and NPKDP as compared to NBP. The main reason was that N deep placement (NDP) increased the number of productive panicle per m(-2). To further evaluate the increase, a pot experiment was conducted to understand the N supply in different soil layers in NDP during the whole rice growing stage and a (15)N tracing technique was used in a field experiment to investigate the fate of urea-(15)N in the rice-soil system during rice growth and at maturity. The pot experiment indicated that NDP could maintain a higher N supply in deep soil layers than N broadcast for 52 days during rice growth. The (15)N tracing study showed that NDP could maintain much higher fertilizer N in the 5-20 cm soil layer during rice growth and could induce plant to absorb more N from fertilizer and soil than NBP, which led to higher NRE. One important finding was that NDP and NPKDP significantly increased fertilizer NRE but did not lead to N declined in soil compared to NBP. Compared to NPK, NPKDP induced rice plants to absorb more fertilizer N rather than soil N.

  18. Nitrogen Fertilizer Deep Placement for Increased Grain Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in Rice Grown in Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Li, Guilong; Li, Weitao; Liu, Jia; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2017-01-01

    Field plot experiments were conducted over 3 years (from April 2014 to November 2016) in a double-rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in subtropical China to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer placement on grain yield and N recovery efficiency (NRE). Different N application methods included: no N application (CK); N broadcast application (NBP); N and NPK deep placement (NDP and NPKDP, respectively). Results showed that grain yield and apparent NRE significantly increased for NDP and NPKDP as compared to NBP. The main reason was that N deep placement (NDP) increased the number of productive panicle per m-2. To further evaluate the increase, a pot experiment was conducted to understand the N supply in different soil layers in NDP during the whole rice growing stage and a 15N tracing technique was used in a field experiment to investigate the fate of urea-15N in the rice–soil system during rice growth and at maturity. The pot experiment indicated that NDP could maintain a higher N supply in deep soil layers than N broadcast for 52 days during rice growth. The 15N tracing study showed that NDP could maintain much higher fertilizer N in the 5–20 cm soil layer during rice growth and could induce plant to absorb more N from fertilizer and soil than NBP, which led to higher NRE. One important finding was that NDP and NPKDP significantly increased fertilizer NRE but did not lead to N declined in soil compared to NBP. Compared to NPK, NPKDP induced rice plants to absorb more fertilizer N rather than soil N. PMID:28744302

  19. Wall-Plug Efficiencies of FEL Amplifiers and Oscillators Employing Energy Recovery Linacs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-06

    Recovery Linacs PHILLIP SPRANGLE JOSEPH PERANO Beam Physics Branch Plasma Physics Division BAHMAN HAFIZI Icarus Research, Inc. Bethesda, Maryland ILAN...VA 22203-1995 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES * Icarus ...25%. 1. Icarus Research, Inc., Bethesda, MD 2. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY Manuscript approved May 24, 2007 NRL/MR/6790--07-9052

  20. Depletion efficiency and recovery of trace markers from a multiparameter immunodepletion column.

    PubMed

    Brand, Joachim; Haslberger, Tobias; Zolg, Werner; Pestlin, Gabriele; Palme, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    The selective removal of high-abundance proteins is considered to be an important prerequisite for a sensitive proteome analysis in plasma. In this study, we examined the "multiaffinity removal system", an immunoaffinity depletion column targeted against six plasma proteins. As determined by sandwich ELISA, the depletion rate for each target protein is >99% over 200 cycles of regeneration. Our data give evidence that two column antibodies are slowly inactivated during the repeated use of the column; however, the individual depletion rate meets the specification of the manufacturer. To estimate a potential loss of analytes after the immunodepletion, we performed spiking/recovery experiments with a selection of tumor markers at concentrations in the lower to medium ng/mL range. The average recovery of 9 out of 11 markers is 78%. A significant proportion of two other markers binds to the column. Based on the average marker recovery and a depletion of ;85% of the total protein we estimate a five-fold enrichment of a potential biomarker by the use of this depletion column. We conclude that the selective depletion of plasma proteins by immunoaffinity chromatography is a valid strategy for the enrichment of potential biomarkers sought by proteomics methodologies.

  1. Profiling of recovery efficiencies for three standard protocols (FDA-BAM, ISO-11290, and modified USDA) on temperature-injured Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hai Yen; Chai, Lay Ching; Pui, Chai Fung; Wong, Woan Chwen; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Mat Issa, Zuraini; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2011-09-01

    There have been a number of studies conducted in order to compare the efficiencies of recovery rates, utilizing different protocols, for the isolation of L. monocytogenes. However, the severity of multiple cell injury has not been included in these studies. In the current study, L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was injured by exposure to extreme temperatures (60°C and -20°C) for a one-step injury, and for a two-step injury the cells were transferred directly from a heat treatment to frozen state to induce a severe cell injury (up to 100% injury). The injured cells were then subjected to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the ISO-11290, and the modified United States Department of Agriculture (mUSDA) protocols, and plated on TSAyeast (0.6% yeast), PALCAM agar, and CHROMAgar Listeria for 24 h or 48 h. The evaluation of the total recovery of injured cells was also calculated based on the costs involved in the preparation of media for each protocol. Results indicate that the mUSDA method is best able to aid the recovery of heat-injured, freeze-injured, and heat-freeze-injured cells and was shown to be the most cost effective for heat-freeze-injured cells.

  2. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  3. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  4. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  5. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  6. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  7. Short pulsed gain-switched fiber laser with improved efficiency utilizing unabsorbed pump recovery.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Jaka; Agrež, Vid; Podobnik, Boštjan; Petkovšek, Rok

    2014-08-25

    A simple solution for increasing the slope efficiency of a gain-switched fiber laser based on Yb-doped active fiber is presented. By adding a fiber amplifier stage, which recovers the unabsorbed pump light from the gain-switched oscillator, a significant increase in slope efficiency is achieved. The pulses at 1030-nm wavelength have an FWHM of 28 ns and a peak power of 2.3 kW.

  8. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO2, with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJheat per tCO2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  9. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2014-09-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40-68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments.

  11. A meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding following colectomy: should gum chewing be included in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols?

    PubMed

    Ho, Yiu M; Smith, Stephen R; Pockney, Peter; Lim, Patrick; Attia, John

    2014-01-01

    Sham feeding has been shown to hasten the return of GI function following colorectal surgery, before the advent of enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. Few data exist regarding the efficacy of sham feeding in the modern era, with rapid postoperative feeding. We sought to perform a meta-analysis on the effect of sham feeding in colorectal surgery, with a separate analysis on trials that used rapid postoperative feeding. Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched by using the terms gum OR sham feeding OR chew AND (colorect OR resect). All studies were randomized controlled trials (in any language) performed on adults, comparing standard care with gum chewing following colorectal resection. From 439 citations, 10 articles were included. The intervention was sham feeding by means of gum chewing. The outcome measures were time to return of flatus, time to first bowel movement, complication rates, length of hospital stay, readmission rates, and reoperation rates. Ten randomized controlled trials (n = 612) were included. Sham feeding resulted in a reduction in time to flatus of 31 minutes (p = 0.003) and time to first bowel movement of 30 minutes (p = 0.05). Sham feeding also resulted in a reduction in length of stay by 0.5 days (p = 0.007), and a reduction in complication rates (relative risk = 0.687, p = 0.017), although this appeared to be associated with publication bias. Analysis of trials that used rapid postoperative feeding (n = 282) revealed no difference in postoperative GI function. This review was limited by the heterogeneity of postoperative feeding regimes, in addition to limited reporting by trials of postoperative morbidity. Sham feeding following colorectal surgery is safe, results in small improvements in GI recovery, and is associated with a reduction in the length of hospital stay. It confers no advantage if patients are placed on a rapid postoperative feeding regime.

  12. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  13. Improved photoluminescence efficiency in UV nanopillar light emitting diode structures by recovery of dry etching damage.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Dae-Woo; Jang, Lee-Woon; Jeon, Ju-Won; Park, Jae-Woo; Song, Young Ho; Jeon, Seong-Ran; Ju, Jin-Woo; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Lee, In-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we have fabricated 375-nm-wavelength InGaN/AlInGaN nanopillar light emitting diodes (LED) structures on c-plane sapphire. A uniform and highly vertical nanopillar structure was fabricated using self-organized Ni/SiO2 nano-size mask by dry etching method. To minimize the dry etching damage, the samples were subjected to high temperature annealing with subsequent chemical passivation in KOH solution. Prior to annealing and passivation the UV nanopillar LEDs showed the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency about 2.5 times higher than conventional UV LED structures which is attributed to better light extraction efficiency and possibly some improvement of internal quantum efficiency due to partially relieved strain. Annealing alone further increased the PL efficiency by about 4.5 times compared to the conventional UV LEDs, while KOH passivation led to the overall PL efficiency improvement by more than 7 times. Combined results of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggest that annealing decreases the number of lattice defects and relieves the strain in the surface region of the nanopillars whereas KOH treatment removes the surface oxide from nanopillar surface.

  14. Recovery Act - CAREER: Sustainable Silicon -- Energy-Efficient VLSI Interconnect for Extreme-Scale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Patrick

    2014-01-31

    The research goal of this CAREER proposal is to develop energy-efficient, VLSI interconnect circuits and systems that will facilitate future massively-parallel, high-performance computing. Extreme-scale computing will exhibit massive parallelism on multiple vertical levels, from thou­ sands of computational units on a single processor to thousands of processors in a single data center. Unfortunately, the energy required to communicate between these units at every level (on­ chip, off-chip, off-rack) will be the critical limitation to energy efficiency. Therefore, the PI's career goal is to become a leading researcher in the design of energy-efficient VLSI interconnect for future computing systems.

  15. Energy-efficient recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Hughes, S; Maddox, I S; Cotta, M A

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses the separation of butanol from aqueous solutions and/or fermentation broth by adsorption. Butanol fermentation is also known as acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) or solvent fermentation. Adsorbents such as silicalite, resins (XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7, XAD-8, XAD-16), bone charcoal, activated charcoal, bonopore, and polyvinylpyridine have been studied. Use of silicalite appears to be the more attractive as it can be used to concentrate butanol from dilute solutions (5 to 790-810 g L(-1)) and results in complete desorption of butanol (or ABE). In addition, silicalite can be regenerated by heat treatment. The energy requirement for butanol recovery by adsorption-desorption processes has been calculated to be 1,948 kcal kg(-1) butanol as compared to 5,789 kcal kg(-1) butanol by steam stripping distillation. Other techniques such as gas stripping and pervaporation require 5,220 and 3,295 kcal kg(-1) butanol, respectively.

  16. Method for efficient recovery of high-purity polycarbonates from electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Weeden, George S; Soepriatna, Nicholas H; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-02-17

    More than one million tons of polycarbonates from waste electrical and electronic equipment are consigned to landfills at an increasing rate of 3-5% per year. Recycling the polymer waste should have a major environmental impact. Pure solvents cannot be used to selectively extract polycarbonates from mixtures of polymers with similar properties. In this study, selective mixed solvents are found using guidelines from Hansen solubility parameters, gradient polymer elution chromatography, and solubility tests. A room-temperature sequential extraction process using two mixed solvents is developed to recover polycarbonates with high yield (>95%) and a similar purity and molecular weight distribution as virgin polycarbonates. The estimated cost of recovery is less than 30% of the cost of producing virgin polycarbonates from petroleum. This method would potentially reduce raw materials from petroleum, use 84% less energy, reduce emission by 1-6 tons of CO2 per ton of polycarbonates, and reduce polymer accumulation in landfills and associated environmental hazards.

  17. Structure Segmentation and Transfer Faults in the Marcellus Shale, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania: Implications for Gas Recovery Efficiency and Risk Assessment Using 3D Seismic Attribute Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Emily D.

    The Marcellus Shale has become an important unconventional gas reservoir in the oil and gas industry. Fractures within this organic-rich black shale serve as an important component of porosity and permeability useful in enhancing production. Horizontal drilling is the primary approach for extracting hydrocarbons in the Marcellus Shale. Typically, wells are drilled perpendicular to natural fractures in an attempt to intersect fractures for effective hydraulic stimulation. If the fractures are contained within the shale, then hydraulic fracturing can enhance permeability by further breaking the already weakened rock. However, natural fractures can affect hydraulic stimulations by absorbing and/or redirecting the energy away from the wellbore, causing a decreased efficiency in gas recovery, as has been the case for the Clearfield County, Pennsylvania study area. Estimating appropriate distances away from faults and fractures, which may limit hydrocarbon recovery, is essential to reducing the risk of injection fluid migration along these faults. In an attempt to mitigate the negative influences of natural fractures on hydrocarbon extraction within the Marcellus Shale, fractures were analyzed through the aid of both traditional and advanced seismic attributes including variance, curvature, ant tracking, and waveform model regression. Through the integration of well log interpretations and seismic data, a detailed assessment of structural discontinuities that may decrease the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons was conducted. High-quality 3D seismic data in Central Pennsylvania show regional folds and thrusts above the major detachment interval of the Salina Salt. In addition to the regional detachment folds and thrusts, cross-regional, northwest-trending lineaments were mapped. These lineaments may pose a threat to hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency due to faults and fractures acting as paths of least resistance for induced hydraulic stimulation fluids

  18. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges.

  19. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630

  20. Toxico-kinetics, recovery efficiency and microsomal changes following administration of deltamethrin to black Bengal goats.

    PubMed

    Juliet, S; Chakraborty, A K; Koley, K M; Mandal, T K; Bhattacharyya, A

    2001-03-01

    A study of the toxico-kinetics, recovery percentage from different substrates, cytotoxicity and role of cytochrome P450 and b5 of liver microsome in the metabolism of deltamethrin were carried out in female black Bengal goat. The ALD50 value of deltamethrin in goat by intravenous route lies between 0.2 and 0.6 mg kg-1. Intravenous disposition kinetics using a dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 showed that the maximum blood concentration of deltamethrin was recorded at 0.5 min, followed by rapid decline, and a minimum concentration was detected at 6 min after administration. The following values were obtained: Vdarea 0.148 (+/- 0.02) litre kg-1; t1/2 (alpha) 0.22 (+/- 0.02) min; t1/2 (beta) 2.17 (+/- 0.37) min; Kel 1.05 (+/- 0.24) min-1; AUC 4.30 (+/- 0.45) micrograms min ml-1; ClB 0.05 (+/- 0.006) litre kg-1 min-1; T-B 1.93 (+/- 0.58); fc 0.40 (+/- 0.05). After 10 min, liver retained the maximum residue, and heart, adrenal gland, kidney, spleen, fat and brain also held the insecticide; liver, fat, heart and spleen retained residue after 30 min, and bone, liver and fat retained residue after 60 min of intravenous administration. Oral absorption of deltamethrin was poor and inconsistent, and approximately 65% of administered dose was recovered from faeces and gastrointestinal contents. The excretion of deltamethrin through urine was meagre, and only 0.01 and 0.013% of the administered dose was recovered after 3 and 5 days of oral administration respectively. All the tissues retained the residue after 3 days; while fat, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, large and small intestine and bone retained the residue after 5 days of oral administration; and the percentage recoveries were 1.73 and 0.027 respectively. Deltamethrin reduced the level of cytochrome P450 content of liver microsomal pellet of goat after 5 days of oral administration. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney, heart, spleen brain and lung sections of treated goats did not reveal any pathological changes.

  1. Achieving lower nitrogen balance and higher nitrogen recovery efficiency reduces nitrous oxide emissions in North America’s maize cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N) uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE) will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency p...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-09-01

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABLILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-08-31

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  4. Efficiency of including first-generation information in second-generation ranking and selection: results of computer simulation.

    Treesearch

    T.Z. Ye; K.J.S. Jayawickrama; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Using computer simulation, we evaluated the impact of using first-generation information to increase selection efficiency in a second-generation breeding program. Selection efficiency was compared in terms of increase in rank correlation between estimated and true breeding values (i.e., ranking accuracy), reduction in coefficient of variation of correlation...

  5. The evolution of cost-efficiency in neural networks during recovery from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Bernier, Rachel A; Wang, Jianli; Benson, Monica; French, Jerry J; Good, David C; Hillary, Frank G

    2017-01-01

    A somewhat perplexing finding in the systems neuroscience has been the observation that physical injury to neural systems may result in enhanced functional connectivity (i.e., hyperconnectivity) relative to the typical network response. The consequences of local or global enhancement of functional connectivity remain uncertain and this is particularly true for the overall metabolic cost of the network. We examine the hyperconnectivity hypothesis in a sample of 14 individuals with TBI with data collected at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months following moderate and severe TBI. As anticipated, individuals with TBI showed increased network strength and cost early after injury, but by one-year post injury hyperconnectivity was more circumscribed to frontal DMN and temporal-parietal attentional control regions. Cost in these subregions was a significant predictor of cognitive performance. Cost-efficiency analysis in the Power 264 data parcellation suggested that at 6 months post injury the network requires higher cost connections to achieve high efficiency as compared to the network 12 months post injury. These results demonstrate that networks self-organize to re-establish connectivity while balancing cost-efficiency trade-offs.

  6. Efficiency of several micro-fiber glass filters for recovery of poliovirus from tape water.

    PubMed Central

    Payment, P; Trudel, M

    1979-01-01

    Micro-fiber glass filters from Gelman, Filterite, Johns-Manville, and Whatman were compared with Millipore membrane filters on the basis of their virus adsorbancy, flow rate, clogging resistance, and virus concentration efficiency by using tap water at 2 nephelometric turbidity units. As virus adsorbants the Johns-Manville D39, Filterite 0.25-micron, Filterite 0.45-micron, and Millipore 0.45-micron filters were the most efficient, retaining more than 99% of the added virus in water at pH 3.5 and 0.0005 M aluminum chloride. The Johns-Manville D79 and D49 filters retained 92 and 96% of the virus, respectively, whereas the Whatman GF-D, Whatman GF-F, Gelman A-E, and Millipore AP-20 filters retained only 28, 78, 56, and 34% of the virus, respectively. The best flow rate and clogging resistance were obtained with the Johns-Manville D79 filter or with this filter acting as a prefilter to the Johns-Manville D49, Johns-Manville D39, or Filterite 0.45-micron filter. Finally, poliovirus experimentally seeded in 20 liters of tape water was recovered from Johns-Manville D79-Johns-Manville D39 or Johns-Manville D79-Filterite 0.45 micron 142-mm filter combinations was a efficiencies of 86 and 85%, respectively. PMID:231414

  7. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4.

  8. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Reading Recovery and the Cost-Efficiency of Reading Recovery Relative to the Learning Disabled Classification Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a great deal of research supporting Reading Recovery as a successful reading intervention program that assists below level first graders readers in closing the gap in reading at the same level of their average peers. There is a lack of research that analyses the cost-effectiveness of the Reading Recovery program compared to the cost in…

  9. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Reading Recovery and the Cost-Efficiency of Reading Recovery Relative to the Learning Disabled Classification Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a great deal of research supporting Reading Recovery as a successful reading intervention program that assists below level first graders readers in closing the gap in reading at the same level of their average peers. There is a lack of research that analyses the cost-effectiveness of the Reading Recovery program compared to the cost in…

  10. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  11. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  12. Real-time Recovery Efficiencies and Performance of the Palomar Transient Factory’s Transient Discovery Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohmaier, C.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Goldstein, D. A.; DeRose, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present the transient source detection efficiencies of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), parameterizing the number of transients that PTF found versus the number of similar transients that occurred over the same period in the survey search area but were missed. PTF was an optical sky survey carried out with the Palomar 48 inch telescope over 2009-2012, observing more than 8000 square degrees of sky with cadences of between one and five days, locating around 50,000 non-moving transient sources, and spectroscopically confirming around 1900 supernovae. We assess the effectiveness with which PTF detected transient sources, by inserting ≃ 7 million artificial point sources into real PTF data. We then study the efficiency with which the PTF real-time pipeline recovered these sources as a function of the source magnitude, host galaxy surface brightness, and various observing conditions (using proxies for seeing, sky brightness, and transparency). The product of this study is a multi-dimensional recovery efficiency grid appropriate for the range of observing conditions that PTF experienced and that can then be used for studies of the rates, environments, and luminosity functions of different transient types using detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We illustrate the technique using the observationally well-understood class of type Ia supernovae.

  13. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2002-01-28

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

  14. Energy efficiency and recovery of heat lost in the Industrial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounkid, S.; Loukili, A.

    2017-03-01

    the economic importance of energy is manifested at all levels of farms, the demand for energy is today one of the major challenges of societies, it constitutes an indispensable element to any activity of production, it is for this, the industry has an interest to anticipate and invest in energy efficiency in order to gain competitiveness, this last represents a tremendous lever for performance and economy. The Energy diagnosis allows unveils the potential energy sinks and the discovery of the various sources of energy losses in a manufacturing process or in all system user of energy. Use with the effectiveness of the energy help the industry to meet the challenges of competitiveness.

  15. Heat treatment of unclarified Escherichia coli homogenate improved the recovery efficiency of recombinant hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed

    Ng, Michelle Y T; Tan, Wen Siang; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ling, Tau Chuan; Tey, Beng Ti

    2006-10-01

    Heat precipitation procedure has been regularly incorporated as a selective purification step in various thermostable proteins expressed in different hosts. This method is efficient in precipitation of most of the host proteins and also deactivates various host proteases that can be harmful to the desired gene products. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in the purification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) produced in Escherichia coli has been investigated. Thermal treatment of the cell homogenate at 60 degrees C for 30 min prior to subsequent clarification steps has resulted in 1.4 times and 18% higher in purity and recovery yield, respectively, compared to the non-heat-treated cell homogenate. In direct capture of HBcAg by using anion-exchangers from unclarified feedstock, pre-conditioning the feedstock by heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 45 min has increased the recovery yield of HBcAg by 2.9-fold and 42% in purity compared to that treated for 10 min. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the antigenicity of the core particles was not affected by the heat treatment process.

  16. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  17. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance: Efficient dipolar recovery in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, N. C.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Levitt, M. H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe an efficient method for the recovery of homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions in magic-angle spinning NMR. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance (2Q-HORROR) is established by fulfilling the condition ωr=2ω1, where ωr is the sample rotation frequency and ω1 is the nutation frequency around an applied resonant radio frequency (rf) field. This resonance can be used for double-quantum filtering and measurement of homonuclear dipolar interactions in the presence of magic-angle spinning. The spin dynamics depend only weakly on crystallite orientation allowing good performance for powder samples. Chemical shift effects are suppressed to zeroth order. The method is demonstrated for singly and doubly 13C labeled L-alanine.

  18. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-08-25

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  19. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts.

  20. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teather, Eric

    2013-02-15

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

  2. Cycling capacity recovery effect: A coulombic efficiency and post-mortem study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Jörn; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Keil, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Kriele, Armin; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The analysis of lithium-ion battery aging relies on correct differentiation between irreversible and reversible capacity changes. Anode overhang regions have been observed to influence Coulombic Efficiency (CE) measurements through lithium diffusion into and out of these areas, complicating precise capacity determination. This work presents an analysis of the extent of graphite anode overhang lithiation after calendar storage by means of local X-ray diffraction (XRD), CE measurements, and color change analysis. We found LiC12 lithiation of the anode overhang area after 20 month storage at 40 °C at high state of charge (SoC) and partial lithiation (LiC18) at medium SoC storage at 40 °C and 25 °C. Graphite color changes in the overhang areas are observed and consistent with the state of lithiation measured by XRD. Coulombic efficiencies greater than unity and increasing capacity during 1200 h of cycling are detected for high SoC storage cells. The capacity difference between high and low storage SoC batteries decreases by up to 40 mAh (3.6% of nominal capacity) after cycling compared to tests directly after storage. Consequently, the size of the anode overhang areas as well as the battery storage temperature and duration need to be considered in CE analysis and state of health assessment.

  3. Rapid and efficient removal/recovery of molybdenum onto ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yao-Jen; Chan, Ting-Shan; Tu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Shan-Li; You, Chen-Feng; Chang, Chien-Kuei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient method for removing and recovering molybdenum (Mo) from water was developed by using ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The Mo adsorption displayed a nonlinear isotherm that fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm, showing limited adsorption sites on the surface of ZnFe2O4. The adsorption of Mo(VI) was dependent on solution pH. With increasing pH, the build-up of negative charges of both adsorbent and adsorbate led to enhanced electric repulsion between them. The K-edge XANES spectra for the adsorbents collected after Mo adsorption revealed that Mo(VI) was the predominant oxidation state sorbed on ZnFe2O4, indicating that the reduction of Mo(VI) did not occur on ZnFe2O4. The different peak positions of k-space and R-space shown in K-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that the adsorbed Mo could be bound on the surface or be slipped in the vacancy position of the ZnFe2O4 crystal. Importantly, Mo could be efficiently adsorbed from photoelectric industrial wastewater and these adsorbed Mo anions were rapidly replaced by OH(-) ions, implying the potential for Mo removing and recovering in industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  5. FOR STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2002-04-29

    To date, our synthetic research efforts have been focused on the development of stimuli-responsive water-soluble polymers designed for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. These model systems are structurally tailored for potential application as viscosifiers and/or mobility control agents for secondary and tertiary EOR methods. The following report discloses the progress of our ongoing research of polyzwitterions, polymers derived from monomers bearing both positive and negative charges, that show the ability to sustain or increase their hydrodynamic volume (and thus, solution viscosity) in the presence of electrolytes. Such polymers appear to be well-suited for use under conditions similar to those encountered in EOR operations. Additionally, we disclose the synthesis and characterization of a well-defined set of polyacrylamide (PAM) homopolymers that vary by MW. The MW of the PAM samples is controlled by addition of sodium formate to the polymerization medium as a conventional chain transfer agent. Data derived from polymer characterization is used to determine the kinetic parameter C{sub CT}, the chain transfer constant to sodium formate under the given polymerization conditions. The PAM homopolymer series will be employed in future set of experiments designed to test a simplified intrinsic viscosity equation. The flow resistance of a polymer solution through a porous medium is controlled by the polymer's hydrodynamic volume, which is strongly related to it's intrinsic viscosity. However, the hydrodynamic volume of a polymer molecule in an aqueous solution varies with fluid temperature, solvent composition, and polymer structure. This report on the theory of polymer solubility accentuates the importance of developing polymer solutions that increase in intrinsic viscosity when fluid temperatures are elevated above room conditions. The intrinsic viscosity response to temperature and molecular weight variations of three polymer solutions verified the

  6. Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems: Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-15

    BEETIT Project: A2 is developing a building moisture and heat exchange technology that leverages a new material and design to create healthy buildings with lower energy use. Commercial building owners/operators are demanding buildings with greater energy efficiency and healthier indoor environments. A2 is developing a membrane-based heat and moisture exchanger that controls humidity by transferring the water vapor in the incoming fresh air to the drier air leaving the building. Unlike conventional systems, A2 locates the heat and moisture exchanger within the depths of the building’s wall to slow down the air flow and increase the surface area that captures humidity, but with less fan power. The system’s integration into the wall reduces the size and demand on the air conditioning equipment and increases liable floor area flexibility.

  7. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  8. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  9. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  10. Characterization of microsieves recovery efficiency in isolation of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuchowska, Paulina Natalia; Sarzyński, Antoni; Strzelec, Marek; Bogdanowicz, Zdzisław; Marczak, Jan; Łapiński, Mariusz Piotr; Trafny, ElŻbieta Anna

    2016-12-01

    Isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood is important in the diagnosis of malignant tumors and for monitoring therapeutic responses. The two main problems to be solved are extremely low CTCs numbers in the blood (average 1-10 CTC per 10 ml of whole blood) and the absence of one particular phenotype or genotype, which would allow for precise identification. Isolation of CTCs can be based on physical characteristics, e.g. the size of the cells (ISET, Isolation by Size of Epithelial Tumor cells) or the biological properties of these cells (the expression of specific proteins on their surface). In the IOE WAT the copper alloy microsieves with a pore diameter of 10.85 +/- 0.89 μm designed for cell isolation by ISET method were produced. The microsieves with 100 000 pores with a 50 μm interval was made using precise, percussion laser drilling. The performance microsieves filtration was determined using fluorescent beads with three dimensions: 4 μm, 10 μm and 15 μm. Furthermore, the suspensions of cells lines from different types of tumor were used in the process of filtration. The efficiency of the cells filtration process was affected by lack of biocompatibility of the material used for the microsieves production as well as the roughness and porosity of the microsieves surface. Moreover, the diameter of the pores and the course of the filtration process were also significant.

  11. Simple and efficient ion imprinted polymer for recovery of uranium from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Pakade, V E; Cukrowska, E M; Darkwa, J; Darko, G; Torto, N; Chimuka, L

    2012-01-01

    Ion imprinted polymer material (IIP) was prepared by forming ternary complexes of uranyl imprint ion with 1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperazine and methacrylic acid followed by thermal copolymerization with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer in the presence of 1,1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) initiator and 2-methoxy ethanol porogenic solvent. HCl solution (5 mol/L) was used to leach out the uranyl template ion from the IIP particles. Similarly, the control polymer (CP) material was also prepared exactly under the same conditions as the IIP but without the uranyl ion template. Various parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration, aqueous phase volume, sorbent dosage, contact time and leaching solution volumes were investigated. SEM, IR and BET-surface area and pore size analysis were used for the characterization of IIP and CP materials. The extraction efficiency of the IIP and CP was compared using a batch and SPE mode of extraction. The optimal pH for quantitative removal is 4.0-8.0, sorbent amount is 20 mg, contact time is 20 min and the retention capacity is 120 mg of uranyl ion per g of IIP. The IIP prepared demonstrated superior selectivity towards coexisting cations and therefore it can be used for selective removal of uranium from complex matrices.

  12. Monitoring mis-acylated tRNA suppression efficiency in mammalian cells via EGFP fluorescence recovery.

    PubMed

    Ilegems, Erwin; Pick, Horst M; Vogel, Horst

    2002-12-01

    A reporter assay was developed to detect and quantify nonsense codon suppression by chemically aminoacylated tRNAs in mammalian cells. It is based on the cellular expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter for the site-specific amino acid incorporation in its sequence using an orthogonal suppressor tRNA derived from Escherichia coli. Suppression of an engineered amber codon at position 64 in the EGFP run-off transcript could be achieved by the incorporation of a leucine via an in vitro aminoacylated suppressor tRNA. Microinjection of defined amounts of mutagenized EGFP mRNA and suppressor tRNA into individual cells allowed us to accurately determine suppression efficiencies by measuring the EGFP fluorescence intensity in individual cells using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Control experiments showed the absence of natural suppression or aminoacylation of the synthetic tRNA by endogenous aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. This reporter assay opens the way for the optimization of essential experimental parameters for expanding the scope of the suppressor tRNA technology to different cell types.

  13. A Robust and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Graphene Foam for Efficient Oil and Organic Solvent Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiguang; Chen, Dongyun; An, Wei; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-10-21

    Water pollution caused by chemical reagent leaking, industrial wastewater discharging, and crude oil spills has raised global concerns on environmental sustainability, calling for high-performance absorbent materials for effective treatments. However, low-cost materials capable of effectively separating oils and organic solvents from water with a high adsorption capacity and good recyclability are rare on the market. Here, a cost-effective method is reported to fabricate high-performance graphene modified absorbents through the facile thermal reduction of graphene oxide on the skeletons of melamine foam. By integrating the high porosity, superior elasticity, and mechanical stability of raw sponge with the chemical stability and hydrophobicity of graphene sheets, the as-fabricated graphene foam not only possesses a rough and superhydrophobic surface, but also exhibits an excellent adsorption performance and extraordinary recyclability for various oils and organic solvents. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic surface also endows the graphene foam with an excellent efficiency for oil/water separation. More importantly, the cost-effective fabrication method without involving expensive raw materials and sophisticated equipment permits a scale-up of the graphene foam for pollution disposal. All these features make the graphene foam an ideal candidate for removal and collection of oils and organic solvents from water.

  14. Efficient Time-Domain Imaging Processing for One-Stationary Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Including Motion Errors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtu; Shi, Shaoying; Xiao, Hui; Xie, Chao; Wang, Feng; Fang, Qunle

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of the one-stationary bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (OS-BFSAR) technology, the huge amount of the remote sensing data presents challenges for real-time imaging processing. In this paper, an efficient time-domain algorithm (ETDA) considering the motion errors for the OS-BFSAR imaging processing, is presented. This method can not only precisely handle the large spatial variances, serious range-azimuth coupling and motion errors, but can also greatly improve the imaging efficiency compared with the direct time-domain algorithm (DTDA). Besides, it represents the subimages on polar grids in the ground plane instead of the slant-range plane, and derives the sampling requirements considering motion errors for the polar grids to offer a near-optimum tradeoff between the imaging precision and efficiency. First, OS-BFSAR imaging geometry is built, and the DTDA for the OS-BFSAR imaging is provided. Second, the polar grids of subimages are defined, and the subaperture imaging in the ETDA is derived. The sampling requirements for polar grids are derived from the point of view of the bandwidth. Finally, the implementation and computational load of the proposed ETDA are analyzed. Experimental results based on simulated and measured data validate that the proposed ETDA outperforms the DTDA in terms of the efficiency improvement. PMID:27845757

  15. Efficient Time-Domain Imaging Processing for One-Stationary Bistatic Forward-Looking SAR Including Motion Errors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongtu; Shi, Shaoying; Xiao, Hui; Xie, Chao; Wang, Feng; Fang, Qunle

    2016-11-12

    With the rapid development of the one-stationary bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (OS-BFSAR) technology, the huge amount of the remote sensing data presents challenges for real-time imaging processing. In this paper, an efficient time-domain algorithm (ETDA) considering the motion errors for the OS-BFSAR imaging processing, is presented. This method can not only precisely handle the large spatial variances, serious range-azimuth coupling and motion errors, but can also greatly improve the imaging efficiency compared with the direct time-domain algorithm (DTDA). Besides, it represents the subimages on polar grids in the ground plane instead of the slant-range plane, and derives the sampling requirements considering motion errors for the polar grids to offer a near-optimum tradeoff between the imaging precision and efficiency. First, OS-BFSAR imaging geometry is built, and the DTDA for the OS-BFSAR imaging is provided. Second, the polar grids of subimages are defined, and the subaperture imaging in the ETDA is derived. The sampling requirements for polar grids are derived from the point of view of the bandwidth. Finally, the implementation and computational load of the proposed ETDA are analyzed. Experimental results based on simulated and measured data validate that the proposed ETDA outperforms the DTDA in terms of the efficiency improvement.

  16. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Department of the Navy Near Term Energy-Efficient Technologies Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-23

    classi tied comments electronically, you must send them over the SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET). We appreciate the courtesies...agency’s research interest in an individual program requirement or in broadly defined areas of interest covering the full range of an agency’s...Initiatives These projects include developing or reviewing off-the-shelf enterprise energy auditing programs and software that can couple energy

  17. Fast Recovery of the High Work Function of Tungsten and Molybdenum Oxides via Microwave Exposure for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Maria; Soultati, Anastasia; Argitis, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Davazoglou, Dimitris

    2014-06-05

    In this work, we use microwave exposure of tungsten and molybdenum oxides to improve hole extraction in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). This is a result of fast recovery of the high work function of metal oxides occurring within a few seconds of microwave processing. Using the space-charge-limited current model, we verified the formation of an anode contact that facilitates hole extraction, while Mott-Schottky analysis revealed the enhancement of the device built-in field in the devices with the microwave-exposed metal oxides. Both were attributed to the formation of large interfacial dipoles at the ITO/microwave-exposed metal oxide interface. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OPVs using microwave-exposed metal oxides and based on blends of poly[(9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl)-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT) with ([6,6]-phenyl-C71 butyric acid methyl ester, PC71BM) reached values of 7.2%, which represents an increase of about 30% compared with the efficiency of 5.7% of devices using metal oxides not subjected to microwave exposure.

  18. Efficient Removal and Recovery of Uranium by a Layered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thiostannate.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei-Ling; Sarma, Debajit; Qi, Xing-Hui; Du, Ke-Zhao; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-09-28

    Uranium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle both as an energy source and as radioactive waste. It is of vital importance to recover uranium from nuclear waste solutions for further treatment and disposal. Herein we present the first chalcogenide example, (Me2NH2)1.33(Me3NH)0.67Sn3S7·1.25H2O (FJSM-SnS), in which organic amine cations can be used for selective UO2(2+) ion-exchange. The UO2(2+)-exchange kinetics perfectly conforms to pseudo-second-order reaction, which is observed for the first time in a chalcogenide ion-exchanger. This reveals the chemical adsorption process and its ion-exchange mechanism. FJSM-SnS has excellent pH stability in both strongly acidic and basic environments (pH = 2.1-11), with a maximum uranium-exchange capacity of 338.43 mg/g. It can efficiently capture UO2(2+) ions in the presence of high concentrations of Na(+), Ca(2+), or HCO3(-) (the highest distribution coefficient Kd value reached 4.28 × 10(4) mL/g). The material is also very effective in removing of trace levels of U in the presence of excess Na(+) (the relative amounts of U removed are close to 100%). The UO2(2+)···S(2-) interactions are the basis for the high selectivity. Importantly, the uranyl ion in the exchanged products could be easily eluted with an environmentally friendly method, by treating the UO2(2+)-laden materials with a concentrated KCl solution. These advantages coupled with the very high loading capacity, low cost, environmentally friendly nature, and facile synthesis make FJSM-SnS a new promising remediation material for removal of radioactive U from nuclear waste solutions.

  19. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  20. Pattern Water Use Efficiency perspective on degradation and recovery of shrublands across Mediterranean to Arid transition zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshany, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    Shrublands cover a total of 12.7 million km2 , a considerable part of them along semi-arid to arid transition zones. Varying patterns of shrubs, grasses and barren land along such climatic gradients express the spatial dimension of climate change and human disturbance which attracted limited attention in the eco-geomorphic literature. Questions concerning relationships between rainfall, shrublands biomass and their patterns are fundamental for the understanding of these ecosystems response to the expected changes in water availability due to global warming and the increase in human disturbance to natural ecosystems following World population growth. While processes leading to the formation of patterns had attracted considerable attention, the spatial dimension of Water Use Efficiency (WUE) which is a parameter measuring ecosystems productivity in relation to water availability is severely missing. Relative shrub cover is a primary estimator of the fraction of water utilized for shrubs growth. Edge effects must be considered as well in fragmented ecosystems in general and in hot regions in particular since soil temperature in hot regions which frequently exceed 50oC during summer months decreases photosynthesis and productivity in plants bordering bare soil. This edge effect is decreasing with the increase in shrubs' height. Pattern Water Use Efficiency describes the combined effect of shrub cover, shrub height and shrub patches edge zone proportion on water use efficiency. In my presentation I will first present mapping od PWUEs across Mediterranean to arid transition zones in the Eastern Mediterranean. Then I will present several mathematical models describing PWUE for simulated patterns, searching for the spatial parameterization providing the highest sensitivity to patterns responses to changes in habitat conditions. Such simulations would allow us to discuss several PWUE strategies for shrublands recovery under the current scenarios of climate change and human

  1. Standardized Procedure for the Simultaneous Determination of the Matrix Effect, Recovery, Process Efficiency, and Internal Standard Association.

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, Jean-François; Provencher, Gilles; Bélanger, Patrick; Bérubé, René; Dumas, Pierre; Gagné, Sébastien; Gaudreau, Éric; Fleury, Normand

    2017-07-18

    The matrix effects (MEs) on the quantification of an analyte can be significant and should not be neglected during development and validation of an analytical method. According to this premise, we developed a standardized procedure based on a set of six tests performed on six different sample matrices to detect and characterize the effects of the matrix for single and multiple analytes methods. The link between the matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy, precision, and calibration curve was underscored by calculations performed with peak areas, ratios of standard/internal standard peak area, and concentrations. The terms instrumental ME and global ME were introduced, and the term recovery was subdivided for clarity. The test accounts for the presence of ubiquitous and endogenous analytes through background subtraction. The results showed the necessity for using samples with an original concentration in the same range and that the concentration selected for the addition had a definite impact on the results. The use of six-sample matrices provided a standard deviation on the results, and this information could be inserted in a method performance result to show precision. The tool also allows for testing of different analytes/internal standard combinations, which helps with the selection of the association with minimum MEs. A UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of several phthalate metabolites in urine was developed and validated with this test. This methodology responds to a scientific need for homogeneity, clarity, and understanding of the results and facilitates the decision-making process while lowering the required costs and time.

  2. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and "naked" unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance.

  3. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and “naked” unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance. PMID:26218575

  4. For Stimul-Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2003-02-28

    Acrylamide-based hydrophobically modified (HM) polybetaines containing N-butylphenylacrylamide (BPAM) and varying amounts of either sulfobetaine (3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate, AMPDAPS) or carboxybetaine (4-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyldimethylammonio) butanoate, AMPDAB) comonomers were synthesized via micellar copolymerization. The terpolymers were characterized via {sup 13}C NMR and UV spectroscopies, classical and dynamic light scattering, and potentiometric titration. The response of aqueous polymer solutions to various external stimuli, including changes in solution pH, electrolyte concentration, and the addition of small molecule surfactants, was investigated using surface tension and rheological measurements. Low charge density terpolymers were found to show greater viscosity enhancement upon the addition of surfactant compared to the high charge density terpolymers. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produced the largest maximum in solution viscosity, while N-dodecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB3-12), and Triton X-100 tended to show reduced viscosity enhancement. In most cases, the high charge density carboxybetaine terpolymer exhibited diminished solution viscosities upon surfactant addition. In our last report, we discussed solution thermodynamic theory that described changes in polymer coil conformation as a function of solution temperature and polymer molecular weight. These polymers contained no ionic charges. In this report, we expand polymer solution theory to account for the electrostatic interactions present in solutions of charged polymers. Polymers with ionic charges are referred to as polyions or polyelectrolytes.

  5. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  6. FOR STIMUL-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-03-26

    This report contains a series of terpolymers containing acrylic acid, methacrylamide and a twin-tailed hydrophobic monomer that were synthesized using micellar polymerization methods. These polymer systems were characterized using light scattering, viscometry, and fluorescence methods. Viscosity studies indicate that increasing the nonpolar character of the hydrophobic monomer (longer chain length or twin tailed vs. single tailed) results in enhanced viscosity in aqueous solutions. The interactions of these polymers with surfactants were investigated. These surfactants include sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), Triton X-100. Viscosity measurements of DiC{sub 6}AM and DiC{sub 8}AM mixtures indicate little interaction with SDS, gelation with CTAB, and hemimicelle formation followed by polymer hydrophobe solubilization with Triton X-100. The DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer shows similar interaction behavior with CTAB and Triton X-100. However, the enhanced hydrophobic nature of the DiC{sub 10} polymer allows complex formation with SDS as confirmed by surface tensiometry. Fluorescence measurements performed on a dansyl labeled DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer in the presence of increasing amounts of each of the surfactant indicate relative interaction strengths to be CTAB>Triton X-100>SDS. A modified model based on Yamakawa-Fujii and Odjik-Skolnick-Fixman theories was found to describe the contribution of electrostatic forces to the excluded volume of a polyelectrolyte in solution. The model was found to be valid for flexible polymer coils in aqueous salt solutions where intermolecular interactions are minimal. The model suggested that a dimensionless group of parameters termed the dimensionless viscosity should be proportional to the dimensionless ratio of solution screening length to polyion charge spacing. Several sets of experimental data from the literature and from our laboratory have been analyzed according to the model and the results

  7. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  8. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  9. Use of 222Rn as natural tracer for LNAPL quantification and recovery efficiency in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Chablais, Amélie; Dumont, Julien; Cardetti, Marc; Radakovitch, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    the mean activities were generally significantly lower than upgradient. This is due to partitioning into the oil phase. Decreases were correlated with NAPL recovery efficiency. The laboratory-determined crude oil-water partitioning coefficient of 38,5 ± 2,9 was used for estimating LNAPL saturation in each recovery well. However, extrapolations of LNAPL saturations to whole-site oil volume estimations are difficult since at low water tables, the volume in the capillary fringe is not assessed. Nevertheless, we find that 222Rn is a useful and cheap groundwater tracer for finding zones of good LNAPL recovery in a heavily pumped aquifer. Hunkeler, D., E. Hoehn, P. Höhener and J. Zeyer, 1997. 222Rn as a partitioning tracer to detect mineral oil contaminations: laboratory experiments and field study. Environmental Science and Technology 31, 3180-3187. Semprini, L., O.S. Hopkins and B.R. Tasker, 2000. Laboratory, field and modeling studies of radon-222 as a natural tracer for monitoring NAPL contamination. Transport in Porous Media 38, 223-240. Schubert, M., A. Paschke, S. Lau, W. Geyer and K. Knöller, 2007. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. Environmental Pollution 145, 920-927.

  10. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  11. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance.

  12. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  13. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  14. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  15. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  16. Experimental study of the relative efficiency of nonlinear and restricted selection indices for ratios including quadratic and cubic terms.

    PubMed

    Campo, J L; Jorquera, M J

    1994-01-12

    A nonlinear selection index (NL) method was compared with restricted linear index (RI) using two experiments of upward selection for the weight/(lenght)(n) ratio in Tribolium castaneum. The first experiment was designed to increase pupal weight/(pupal length)(2) , while the second experiment was intended to improve larval weight/(larval length)(3) . Larval and pupal traits were measured at 14 and 21 days after adult emergence, respectively. There were four generations of selection in each of three replicates, the proportion selected being 20 %. The selection criterion in the NL lines was (m(1) + Ĝ(1) )/(m(2) + Ĝ(2) )(n) , where m(1) and m(2) are the population means for the numerator and denominator traits, Ĝ(1) and Ĝ(2) are the estimated additive genetic values, and n is 2 (experiment 1) or 3 (experiment 2). The restricted linear index used as the selection criterion in the RI lines was calculated to increase the numerator trait and hold the denominator constant. Responses observed for the ratios differed significantly between lines (P < .05) in both experiments, the NL lines having the greatest responses. In experiment 1, the observed response for increasing the numerator was significant in the NL line, while the observed responses were positive and significant for both traits in the RI line; lines differed significantly pupal length (P < .01). The response obtained for the ratio in experiment 2 was due to decreases in both component traits. Results of these experiments showed that the nonlinear selection indices increased ratios that included quadratic and cubic terms in the denominator. Restricted linear indices holding the denominator constant were a less efficient alternative. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Experimentelle Studie über die relative Wirksamkeit nicht-linearer und beschränkter Selektionsindexe für Quotienten mit quadratischen und kubischen Größen Ein nicht-linearer Selektionsindex (NL) wurde mit einem linearen Index mit Restriktion (RI) bei Tribolium

  17. Substructuring including interface reduction for the efficient vibro-acoustic simulation of fluid-filled piping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Jan; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar

    2010-01-01

    The operation of pumps and valves leads to strong acoustic excitation in fluid-filled piping systems. Efficient substructuring and model order reduction strategies are required for the sound prediction in piping systems, and in order to reduce the sound transmission to attached components, such as the floor panel in vehicles, for example. This research presents a finite element based automatic substructuring and component mode synthesis technique, which is a combination of an extended Craig-Bampton method for fluid-structure coupled piping systems and a novel, consecutive interface reduction. Hereby, the remaining interface degrees of freedom between different substructures are further reduced using appropriate Ritz vectors. The proposed model order reduction strategy accelerates the computation of transfer functions in fluid-filled extended piping systems. In order to validate the simulation results, experimental results are obtained by a hydraulic test bench for dynamic measurements, where fluid pulsation is induced by piezo-driven transducers. The observed fluid-structure interaction phenomena correspond to the predictions by the proposed computation approach.

  18. Ultracentrifugation as a direct method to concentrate viruses in environmental waters: virus-like particle enumeration as a new approach to determine the efficiency of recovery.

    PubMed

    Prata, Catarina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    Some health important enteric viruses are considered to be emerging waterborne pathogens and so the improvement of detection of these viruses in the aquatic environment is one of the most important steps in dealing with these pathogens. Since these viruses may be present in low numbers in water, it is necessary to concentrate water samples before viral detection. Although there are several methods to concentrate viruses in environmental waters, all present some drawbacks and consequently the method should be chosen that, despite its limitations, is adequate to achieve the aim of each study. As the effectiveness of the concentration methods is evaluated by determining the efficiency of viral recovery after concentration, it is important to use a simple and effective approach to evaluate their recovery efficiency. In this work ultracentrifugation, usually used as a secondary step for virus concentration, was evaluated as the main method to concentrate directly viruses in environmental water samples, using the microscopic enumeration of virus-like particles (VLP) as a new approach to estimate the efficiency of recovery. As the flocculation method is currently employed to concentrate viruses in environmental waters, it was also used in this study to assess the efficiency of the ultracentrifugation as the main viral concentration method in environmental waters. The results of this study indicate that ultracentrifugation is an adequate approach to concentrate viruses directly from environmental waters (recovery percentages between 66 and 72% in wastewaters and between 66 and 76% in recreational waters) and that the determination of VLP by epifluorescence microscopy is a simple, fast and cheap alternative approach to determine the recovery efficiency of the viral concentration methods.

  19. Bacteriophages of Staphylococcus aureus efficiently package various bacterial genes and mobile genetic elements including SCCmec with different frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mašlaňová, Ivana; Doškař, Jiří; Varga, Marian; Kuntová, Lucie; Mužík, Jan; Malúšková, Denisa; Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human and veterinary pathogen in which new strains with increasing virulence and antimicrobial resistance occur due to acquiring new genes by horizontal transfer. It is generally accepted that temperate bacteriophages play a major role in gene transfer. In this study, we proved the presence of various bacterial genes of the S. aureus COL strain directly within the phage particles via qPCR and quantified their packaging frequency. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed that transducing bacteriophages φ11, φ80 and φ80α of serogroup B, in contrast to serogroup A bacteriophage φ81, efficiently package selected chromosomal genes localized in 4 various loci of the chromosome and 8 genes carried on variable elements, such as staphylococcal cassette chromosome SCCmec, staphylococcal pathogenicity island SaPI1, genomic islands vSaα and vSaβ, and plasmids with various frequency. Bacterial gene copy number per ng of DNA isolated from phage particles ranged between 1.05 × 10(2) for the tetK plasmid gene and 3.86 × 10(5) for the SaPI1 integrase gene. The new and crucial finding that serogroup B bacteriophages can package concurrently ccrA1 (1.16 × 10(4)) and mecA (1.26 × 10(4)) located at SCCmec type I into their capsids indicates that generalized transduction plays an important role in the evolution and emergence of new methicillin-resistant clones.

  20. Motor recovery and the breathing arm after brachial plexus surgical repairs, including re-implantation of avulsed spinal roots into the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Htut, M; Misra, V P; Anand, P; Birch, R; Carlstedt, T

    2007-04-01

    Forty-four patients with severe traction brachial plexus avulsion injuries were studied following surgical repairs. In eight patients, re-implanting avulsed spinal roots directly to the spinal cord was performed with other repairs and motor recovery in the proximal limb was similar to that achieved by conventional nerve grafts and transfers when assessed using the MRC clinical grades, Narakas scores, EMG and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Thirty-four of the 37 patients had co-contractions of agonist and antagonist muscle groups. Spontaneous contractions of limb muscles in synchrony with respiration, the "breathing arm", were noted in 26 of 37 patients: in three patients, the source of the breathing arm was from spinal cord re-connection, providing evidence of regeneration from the CNS to the periphery. Our study shows that re-connection of avulsed spinal roots can produce good motor recovery and provides a clinical model for developing new treatments which may enhance nerve regeneration.

  1. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    PubMed

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept.

  2. Development and assessment of an efficient numerical solution of the richard's equation including root extraction by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varado, N.; Braud, I.; Ross, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    5; but was generally less than 10%. The study also showed that the Lai and Katul (2000) model formulation was not adapted for sandy soils. Twice less water than the Li model could be extracted on sandy soils. The comparison of the two root modules with the initial version of SiSPAT shows that the Lai model was unable to extract as water as the initial SiSPAT or the Li model, even when changing the sensitive parameters. As a conclusion the new numerical method coupled with the Li et al. (2001) model provides an efficient and accurate solution for inclusion of a physically-based infiltration-evapotranspiration module into larger scale watershed models.

  3. Simultaneous optimization of monolayer formation factors, including temperature, to significantly improve nucleic acid hybridization efficiency on gold substrates.

    PubMed

    Pris, Andrew D; Ostrowski, Sara G; Garaas, Sarah D

    2010-04-20

    Past literature investigations have optimized various single factors used in the formation of thiolated, single stranded DNA (ss-DNA) monolayers on gold. In this study a more comprehensive approach is taken, where a design of experiment (DOE) is employed to simultaneously optimize all of the factors involved in construction of the capture monolayer used in a fluorescence-based hybridization assay. Statistical analysis of the fluorescent intensities resulting from the DOE provides empirical evidence for the importance and the optimal levels of traditional and novel factors included in this investigation. We report on the statistical importance of a novel factor, temperature of the system during monolayer formation of the capture molecule and lateral spacer molecule, and how proper usage of this temperature factor increased the hybridization signal 50%. An initial theory of how the physical factor of heat is mechanistically supplementing the function of the lateral spacer molecule is provided.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar; Decourchelle, Anne E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and γ-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 μG) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  5. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  6. Recovery efficiencies of anthrax spores and ricin from nonporous or nonabsorbent and porous or absorbent surfaces by a variety of sampling methods*.

    PubMed

    Frawley, Dody A; Samaan, Marian N; Bull, Robert L; Robertson, James M; Mateczun, Alfred J; Turnbull, Peter C B

    2008-09-01

    The 2001 anthrax letter cases brought into focus the need to establish the most effective environmental sampling procedures. Results are presented from two studies aimed at establishing the best procedures for everyday surfaces likely to be contaminated after the release of environmentally stable bioaggressive agents, as exemplified by anthrax spores and ricin. With anthrax spores, contact plates, with mean retrieval rates of 28-54%, performed better than other methods by a wide margin for flat nonporous, nonabsorbent surfaces. They also proved best on flat porous, absorbent materials, although recoveries were low (<7%). For both agents, dry devices (swabs, wipes, Trace Evidence Collection Filters) had universally poor retrieval efficiencies with no significant differences between them. Among moistened devices (wipes, swabs, and Sample Collection and Recovery Devices), wipes were generally best, albeit with considerable cross-over among individual readings (highest mean recoveries for anthrax spores and ricin 5.5% and 2.5%, respectively, off plastic).

  7. Efficient boron abstraction using honeycomb-like porous magnetic hybrids: Assessment of techno-economic recovery of boric acid.

    PubMed

    Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Porous magnetic hybrids were synthesized and functionalized with glycidol to produce boron-selective adsorbent. The magnetic hybrid (MH) comparatively out-performed the existing expensive adsorbents. MH had a saturation magnetisation of 63.48 emu/g and average pore diameter ranging from meso to macropores. The magnetic hybrids showed excellent selectivity towards boron and resulted in 79-93% boron removal even in the presence of competing metal ions (Na(+) and Cr(2+)). Experiments were performed in a column system, and breakthrough time was observed to increase with bed depths and decreased with flow rates. The batch experiments revealed that 60 min was enough to achieve equilibrium, and the level of boron sorption was 108.5 mg/g from a synthetic solution. Several adsorption-desorption cycles were performed using a simple acid-water treatment and evaluated using various kinetic models. The spent adsorbents could be separated easily from the mixture by an external magnetic field. The cost-benefit analysis was performed for the treatment of 72 m(3)/year boron effluent, including five years straight line depreciation charges of equipment. The net profit and standard percentage confirmed that the recovery process is economically feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated Framework for Assessing Impacts of CO₂ Leakage on Groundwater Quality and Monitoring-Network Efficiency: Case Study at a CO₂ Enhanced Oil Recovery Site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus

    2015-07-21

    This study presents a combined use of site characterization, laboratory experiments, single-well push-pull tests (PPTs), and reactive transport modeling to assess potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and leakage-detection ability of a groundwater monitoring network (GMN) in a potable aquifer at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) site. Site characterization indicates that failures of plugged and abandoned wells are possible CO2 leakage pathways. Groundwater chemistry in the shallow aquifer is dominated mainly by silicate mineral weathering, and no CO2 leakage signals have been detected in the shallow aquifer. Results of the laboratory experiments and the field test show no obvious damage to groundwater chemistry should CO2 leakage occur and further were confirmed with a regional-scale reactive transport model (RSRTM) that was built upon the batch experiments and validated with the single-well PPT. Results of the RSRTM indicate that dissolved CO2 as an indicator for CO2 leakage detection works better than dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity at the CO2 EOR site. The detection ability of a GMN was assessed with monitoring efficiency, depending on various factors, including the natural hydraulic gradient, the leakage rate, the number of monitoring wells, the aquifer heterogeneity, and the time for a CO2 plume traveling to the monitoring well.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  11. High-efficiency acetone-butanol-ethanol production and recovery in non-strict anaerobic gas-stripping fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Yan, Xiang; Zhou, Yujie; Cheng, Keke; Zhang, Jian'an

    2017-09-19

    Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation coupled with gas stripping is conducted under strict anaerobic conditions. In this work, a fed-batch ABE fermentation integrated with gas stripping (FAFIGS) system using a non-strict anaerobic butanol-producing symbiotic system, TSH06, was investigated for the efficient production of butanol. To save energy and keep a high gas-stripping efficiency, the integrated fermentation was conducted by adjusting the butanol recovery rate. The gas-stripping efficiency increased when the butanol concentration increased from 6 to 12 g/L. However, in consideration of the butanol toxicity to TSH06, 8 g/L butanol was the optimal concentration for this FAFIGS process. A model for describing the relationship between the butanol recovery rate and the gas flow rate was developed, and the model was subsequently applied to adjust the butanol recovery rate during the FAFIGS process. In the integrated system under non-strict anaerobic condition, relatively stable butanol concentrations of 7 to 9 g/L were achieved by controlling the gas flow rate which varied between 1.6 and 3.5 vvm based on the changing butanol productivity. 185.65 g/L of butanol (267.15 g/L of ABE) was produced in 288 h with a butanol recovery ratio of 97.36%. The overall yield and productivity of butanol were 0.23 g/g and 0.64 g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using FAFIGS under non-strict anaerobic conditions with TSH06. This work is helpful in characterizing the butanol anabolism performance of TSH06 and provides a simple and efficient scheme for butanol production.

  12. The study of the mobile compressor unit heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusha, V. L.; Chernov, G. I.; Kalashnikov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper examines the mobile compressor unit (MCU) heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger prototype external thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency. The study is conducted by means of the numerical method through the modellingof the heat exchange processes carried out in the waste heat exchanger in ANSUS. Thermaflex, mineral wool, penofol, water and air were applied as the heat exchanger external insulation. The study results showed the waste heat exchanger external thermal insulationexistence or absence to have a significant impact on the heat exchanger operational efficiency.

  13. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  14. Development of a high-efficiency phosphorus recovery method using a fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, K; Tanaka, T; Miura, Y; Ishikawa, H

    2003-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in the research and development concerning the recovery of MAP (Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate) using a fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system. In the reactor of the fluidized-bed crystallized phosphorus removal system, seed crystals (of MAP) are fluidized previously and new MAP crystals are produced on the seed crystal surfaces. Conventionally, the reactor consisted of one reaction tank only, but this practice had the problem that as the crystallization progresses, the seed crystal is grown excessively and as a result, the effective reaction surface areas are decreased and the fluidization effect is degraded, causing the recovery ratio to be decreased. Recently, the authors have devised a two-tank type reactor by adding a sub reaction tank to the reactor (now the main reaction tank) so that the MAP particle size in the main reaction tank may be kept constant making the recovery ratio stable. They conducted a demonstration test with a pilot experimental system of the 2-tank type reactor. For raw water T-P 111 to 507 mg/L, the main reaction tank treated water T-P 14.0 to 79.5 mg/L and phosphorus recovery ratios 84 to 92% were obtained. Because the mean MAP particle size in the main reaction tank could be kept constant, the phosphorus recovery ratio could always be above 80%, realizing stable treatment.

  15. Network Efficiency and Posterior Alpha Patterns Are Markers of Recovery from General Anesthesia: A High-Density Electroencephalography Study in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Tarnal, Vijay; Vanini, Giancarlo; Bel-Behar, Tarik; Janke, Ellen; Picton, Paul; Golmirzaie, Goodarz; Palanca, Ben J. A.; Avidan, Michael S.; Kelz, Max B.; Mashour, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated local oscillations, long-range connectivity, and global network patterns to identify neural changes associated with anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. These studies typically employ anesthetic protocols that either just cross the threshold of unconsciousness, or induce deep unconsciousness for a brief period of time—neither of which models general anesthesia for major surgery. To study neural patterns of unconsciousness and recovery in a clinically-relevant context, we used a realistic anesthetic regimen to induce and maintain unconsciousness in eight healthy participants for 3 h. High-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired throughout and for another 3 h after emergence. Seven epochs of 5-min eyes-closed resting states were extracted from the data at baseline as well as 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180-min post-emergence. Additionally, 5-min epochs were extracted during induction, unconsciousness, and immediately prior to recovery of consciousness, for a total of 10 analysis epochs. The EEG data in each epoch were analyzed using source-localized spectral analysis, phase-lag index, and graph theoretical techniques. Posterior alpha power was significantly depressed during unconsciousness, and gradually approached baseline levels over the 3 h recovery period. Phase-lag index did not distinguish between states of consciousness or stages of recovery. Network efficiency was significantly depressed and network clustering coefficient was significantly increased during unconsciousness; these graph theoretical measures returned to baseline during the 3 h recovery period. Posterior alpha power may be a potential biomarker for normal recovery of functional brain networks after general anesthesia. PMID:28701933

  16. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction.

  17. Efficacy and safety of Wilate in paediatric VWD patients under 6 years of age - results of a prospective multicentre clinical study including recovery information.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Göttl, U; Krümpel, A; Russo, A; Jansen, M

    2013-11-01

    Treatment with exogenous von Willebrand factor (VWF) is indicated in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) in whom treatment with 1-deamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin/desmopressin is contraindicated. Wilate is a new generation plasma-derived concentrate of native VWF and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) (in a physiological 1:1 ratio) developed for the treatment of VWD. This is the first study to report safety, efficacy and in vivo recovery (IVR) data from 15 paediatric patients less than 6 years of age who received Wilate for either prophylaxis, on-demand treatment or for treatment in surgical procedures during a prospective open-label trial (VWD type 1: 5, type 2A: 1, type 2B: 2, type 3: 6, unknown type: 1 patients). Analysis of IVR for VWF and FVIII suggested an appropriate and consistent rise in coagulation activity after Wilate administration. Overall efficacy was rated as excellent or good for 99.7% [prophylactic infusions] and 100% [bleeding episodes/surgical procedures]. More than 82% of bleeding episodes resolved after 1 day of treatment, and a Wilate dosage of 20-50 IU kg(-1) was sufficient to achieve haemostasis in 97% of bleeding episodes. All surgical procedures were successfully managed with Wilate. No thromboembolic events were observed during the study, and no patient developed anti-VWF antibodies or FVIII inhibitors. In conclusion, this study confirms both the expected IVR profile in paediatric patients and the excellent efficacy, tolerability and safety profile of Wilate observed previously in adults. Wilate showed excellent efficacy in the treatment of bleeding when used prophylactically or on-demand, and in the treatment of surgical procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  19. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE PAGES

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; ...

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  20. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Vadie, A. Alex; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  1. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  2. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer implementation of the international standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury for consistent and efficient derivation of its subscores including handling of data from not testable segments.

    PubMed

    Schuld, Christian; Wiese, Julia; Hug, Andreas; Putz, Cornelia; Hedel, Hubertus J A van; Spiess, Martina R; Weidner, Norbert; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2012-02-10

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI), defined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), and particularly the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) are widely used for research and clinical purposes. Although detailed procedures for scaling, scoring, and classification have been defined, misclassifications remain a major problem, especially for cases with missing (i.e., not testable [NT]) data. This work aimed to implement computer-based classification algorithms that included rules for handling NT data. A consistent and structured algorithmic scoring, scaling, and classification scheme, and a computerized application have been developed by redefining logical/mathematical imprecisions. Existing scoring rules are extended for handling NT segments. Design criterion is a pure logical approach so that substitution of non-testability for all valid examination scores leads to concordant results. Nine percent of 5542 datasets from 1594 patients in the database of the European Multicenter Study of Human Spinal Cord Injury (EM-SCI) contained NT segments. After adjusting computational algorithms, the classification accuracy was equivalent between clinical experts and the computational approach and resulted in 84% valid AIS classifications within datasets containing NT. Additionally, the computational method is much more efficient, processing approximately 200,000 classifications/sec. Computational algorithms offer the ability to classify ISNCSCI subscores efficiently and without the risk of human-induced errors. This is of particular clinical relevance, since these scores are used for early predictions of neurological recovery and functional outcome for patients with spinal cord injuries.

  4. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  5. Implications of the mesophyll conductance to CO2 for photosynthesis and water-use efficiency during long-term water stress and recovery in two contrasting Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cano, F Javier; López, Rosana; Warren, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Water stress (WS) slows growth and photosynthesis (A(n)), but most knowledge comes from short-time studies that do not account for longer term acclimation processes that are especially relevant in tree species. Using two Eucalyptus species that contrast in drought tolerance, we induced moderate and severe water deficits by withholding water until stomatal conductance (g(sw)) decreased to two pre-defined values for 24 d, WS was maintained at the target g(sw) for 29 d and then plants were re-watered. Additionally, we developed new equations to simulate the effect on mesophyll conductance (g(m)) of accounting for the resistance to refixation of CO(2). The diffusive limitations to CO(2), dominated by the stomata, were the most important constraints to A(n). Full recovery of A(n) was reached after re-watering, characterized by quick recovery of gm and even higher biochemical capacity, in contrast to the slower recovery of g(sw). The acclimation to long-term WS led to decreased mesophyll and biochemical limitations, in contrast to studies in which stress was imposed more rapidly. Finally, we provide evidence that higher gm under WS contributes to higher intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) and reduces the leaf oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of gm as a target for breeding/genetic engineering. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Efficient Bell state analyzer for time-bin qubits with fast-recovery WSi superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Valivarthi, R; Lucio-Martinez, I; Rubenok, A; Chan, P; Marsili, F; Verma, V B; Shaw, M D; Stern, J A; Slater, J A; Oblak, D; Nam, S W; Tittel, W

    2014-10-06

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits that employs two superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with short dead-times, allowing projections onto two Bell states, |ψ⁻〉 and |ψ⁺〉. Compared to previous implementations for time-bin qubits, this yields an increase in the efficiency of Bell state analysis by a factor of thirty.

  7. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  8. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  10. Efficient marker-free recovery of custom genetic modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Artiles, Karen L; Hartman, Phil S; Fire, Andrew Z

    2014-11-01

    Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14-84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in

  11. Efficient Marker-Free Recovery of Custom Genetic Modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Arribere, Joshua A.; Bell, Ryan T.; Fu, Becky X. H.; Artiles, Karen L.; Hartman, Phil S.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2014-01-01

    Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14–84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in

  12. Efficient and selective recovery of Ni, Cu, and Co from low-nickel matte via a hydrometallurgical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-ju; Gao, Jian-ming; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2017-03-01

    Low-nickel matte was intensively characterized, and Ni, Cu, and Co were determined to exist mainly as (Fe,Ni)9S8 and FeNi3, Cu5FeS4, and (Fe,Ni)9S8 and Fe3O4 (in isomorphic form), respectively. The efficient and selective extraction of Ni, Cu, and Co from the low-nickel matte in an (NH4)2S2O8/NH3·H2O solution system was studied. The effects of (NH4)2S2O8 and NH3·H2O concentrations, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the metal extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. During the oxidative ammonia leaching process, the metal extraction efficiencies of Ni 81.07%, Cu 93.81%, and Co 71.74% were obtained under the optimal conditions. The relatively low leaching efficiency of Ni was mainly ascribed to NiFe alloy deactivation in ammonia solution. By introducing an acid pre-leaching process into the oxidative ammonia leaching process, we achieved the high extraction efficiencies of 98.03%, 99.13%, and 85.60% for the valuable metals Ni, Cu, and Co, respectively, from the low-nickel matte.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  14. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  15. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-08-25

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  16. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  17. Inversion group (IG) fitting: A new T1 mapping method for modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) that allows arbitrary inversion groupings and rest periods (including no rest period).

    PubMed

    Sussman, Marshall S; Yang, Issac Y; Fok, Kai-Ho; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2016-06-01

    The Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) technique is used for T1 mapping in the heart. However, a drawback of this technique is that it requires lengthy rest periods in between inversion groupings to allow for complete magnetization recovery. In this work, a new MOLLI fitting algorithm (inversion group [IG] fitting) is presented that allows for arbitrary combinations of inversion groupings and rest periods (including no rest period). Conventional MOLLI algorithms use a three parameter fitting model. In IG fitting, the number of parameters is two plus the number of inversion groupings. This increased number of parameters permits any inversion grouping/rest period combination. Validation was performed through simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments. IG fitting provided T1 values with less than 1% discrepancy across a range of inversion grouping/rest period combinations. By comparison, conventional three parameter fits exhibited up to 30% discrepancy for some combinations. The one drawback with IG fitting was a loss of precision-approximately 30% worse than the three parameter fits. IG fitting permits arbitrary inversion grouping/rest period combinations (including no rest period). The cost of the algorithm is a loss of precision relative to conventional three parameter fits. Magn Reson Med 75:2332-2340, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Population data and forensic efficiency of 21 autosomal STR loci included in AGCU EX22 amplification system in the Wanzhou Han population.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xing; Li, Yongguo; Wei, Zehong; Wang, Ting; Hu, Yue; Zhu, Ying; Li, Jianbo; Tang, Renkuan

    2017-09-02

    Autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), widely distributed in the whole human genome, play an important role in personal identification and parentage testing. In this study, the allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters of 21 autosomal STR loci included in the AGCU EX22 kit were obtained from 433 Chinese Han individuals residing in the Wanzhou District in the north of Chongqing Municipality, Southwest China. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in all of the 21 STR loci. A total of 241 alleles were observed with allele frequencies ranging from 0.0011 to 0.5418. The cumulative power of discrimination and the cumulative probability of exclusion were 0.9999999999999999999999999 and 0.999999996, respectively. The results of genetic distance, neighbor-joining tree, principal component plots, and multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the Wanzhou Han had more genetic differences when compared with Kazakh and Uyghur populations from Xinjiang than other included reference populations. In summary, the results in forensic characteristic analyses indicated that the 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and can be served as a useful tool in forensic routine practices. The population comparison indicated that close geographic or ethnic origin groups had a strong genetic affinity with each other.

  19. Efficient Recovery of Neodymium in Acidic System by Free-Standing Dual-Template Docking Oriented Ionic Imprinted Mesoporous Films.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xudong; Zhang, Fusheng; Liu, Enli; Xu, Xuechao; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-01-11

    Neodymium (Nd) is critical component of sintered neodymium magnets. Separation of Nd from consumer magnets has attracted a widespread attention. In this paper, we presented free-standing ionic imprinted mesoporous film materials for facile and highly efficient targeted separation of Nd from permanent magnets by dual-template docking oriented ionic imprinting (DTD-OII) method. DTD-OII is based on dual-template docking oriented molecular imprinting. Compared with conventional imprinting, this novel strategy does not need extra steps, but significantly advance imprinted efficiency. With optimization of functional monomer, our free-standing dual-template docking oriented ionic imprinted mesoporous films exhibit excellent adsorption of Nd by solid-liquid extraction. The Nd adsorption capacity for optimized films was 34.98 mg g(-1) under pH = 3.0. The distribution coefficient of Nd was 636 mL g(-1), which indicates films possess significantly selectivity of Nd. In addition, efficient dual-template docking oriented ionic imprinting makes films demonstrating an outstanding of reusability by cycle test, which appreciating their potential for industrial application.

  20. Effect of chitosan type on protein and water recovery efficiency from surimi wash water treated with chitosan-alginate complexes.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Singgih; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Savant, Vivek; Torres, J Antonio

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has shown that soluble protein recovery by chitosan (Chi) complexes with polyanions such as alginate (Alg) is more effective than using chitosan alone. In this study, Chi-Alg complexes were used to recover soluble proteins from surimi wash water (SWW) slightly acidified to pH 6. Six Chi samples differing in molecular weight (MW) and degree of deacetylation (DD) were used at 20, 40 and 100mg/L SWW Chi-Alg complexes prepared with a Chi:Alg mixing ratio previously optimized (MR=0.2). FTIR analysis of the solids recovered revealed the three characteristic amide bands observed in the same region for untreated SWW confirming protein adsorption by Chi-Alg. The superior effectiveness of Chi complexes was confirmed but differences among chitosan types could not be correlated to MW and DD. Experimental Chi samples with 94%, 93%, 75% and 93% DD and 22, 47, 225 and 3404 x 10(3)Da, respectively, showed 73-76% protein adsorption while a commercial chitosan sample with 84% DD and 3832 x 10(3)Da had 74-83% protein adsorption. An experimental chitosan, SY-1000 with 94% DD and 1.5 x 10(6)Da, showed the highest protein adsorption (79-86%) and turbidity reduction (85-92%) when used at 20mg/L SWW.

  1. Anionic Extraction for Efficient Recovery of Biobased 2,3-Butanediol-A Platform for Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Drabo, Peter; Tiso, Till; Heyman, Benedikt; Sarikaya, Eda; Gaspar, Paula; Förster, Jochen; Büchs, Jochen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-08-24

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) presents a promising platform molecule for the synthesis of basic and fine chemicals. Biotechnological production of BDO from renewable resources with living microbes enables high concentrations in the fermentation broth. The recovery of high-boiling BDO from an aqueous fermentation broth presents a subsequent challenge. A method is proposed for BDO isolation based on reversible complexation with phenylboronate in an anionic complex. BDO can be recovered by back-extraction into an acidic solution. The composition of the extracted species was determined by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and GC-MS methods. The conditions of extraction and back-extraction were optimized by using commercial BDO and finally applied to different fermentation broths. Up to 72-93 % BDO can be extracted and up to 80-90 % can be back-extracted under the optimized conditions. Purified bio-BDO was used in the presence of sulfuric acid for the synthesis of methyl ethyl ketone, an established organic solvent and discussed tailor-made biofuel. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Applications of New Surrogate Global Optimization Algorithms including Efficient Synchronous and Asynchronous Parallelism for Calibration of Expensive Nonlinear Geophysical Simulation Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, C. A.; Pang, M.; Akhtar, T.; Bindel, D.

    2016-12-01

    New parallel surrogate global optimization algorithms are developed and applied to objective functions that are expensive simulations (possibly with multiple local minima). The algorithms can be applied to most geophysical simulations, including those with nonlinear partial differential equations. The optimization does not require simulations be parallelized. Asynchronous (and synchronous) parallel execution is available in the optimization toolbox "pySOT". The parallel algorithms are modified from serial to eliminate fine grained parallelism. The optimization is computed with open source software pySOT, a Surrogate Global Optimization Toolbox that allows user to pick the type of surrogate (or ensembles), the search procedure on surrogate, and the type of parallelism (synchronous or asynchronous). pySOT also allows the user to develop new algorithms by modifying parts of the code. In the applications here, the objective function takes up to 30 minutes for one simulation, and serial optimization can take over 200 hours. Results from Yellowstone (NSF) and NCSS (Singapore) supercomputers are given for groundwater contaminant hydrology simulations with applications to model parameter estimation and decontamination management. All results are compared with alternatives. The first results are for optimization of pumping at many wells to reduce cost for decontamination of groundwater at a superfund site. The optimization runs with up to 128 processors. Superlinear speed up is obtained for up to 16 processors, and efficiency with 64 processors is over 80%. Each evaluation of the objective function requires the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations to describe the impact of spatially distributed pumping and model parameters on model predictions for the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater contaminants. The second application uses an asynchronous parallel global optimization for groundwater quality model calibration. The time for a single objective

  3. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  4. Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Misra, S K; Boccaccini, A R; Keshavarz, T; Bucke, C; Roy, I

    2007-11-01

    A newly characterised Bacillus strain, Bacillus cereus SPV was found to produce PHB at a concentration of 38% of its dry cell weight in shaken flask cultures, using glucose as the main carbon source. Polymer production was then scaled up to 20 L batch fermentations where 29% dry cell weight of PHB was obtained within 48 h. Following this, a simple glucose feeding strategy was developed and the cells accumulated 38% dry cell weight of PHB, an increase in the overall volumetric yield by 31% compared to the batch fermentation. Sporulation is the cause of low PHB productivity from the genus Bacillus [Wu, Q., Huang, H., Hu, G.H., Chen, J., Ho, K.P., Chen, G.Q., 2001. Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by Bacillus sp. JMa5 cultivated in molasses media. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80, 111-118]. However, in this study, acidic pH conditions (4.5-5.8) completely suppress sporulation, in accordance with Kominek and Halvorson [Kominek, L.A., Halvorson, H.O., 1965. Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoin in Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 90, 1251-1259], and result in an increase in the yield of PHB production. This observation emphasises the potential of the use of Bacillus in the commercial production of PHB and other PHAs. The recovery of the PHB produced was optimised and the isolated polymer characterised to identify its material properties. The polymer extracted, was found to have similar molecular weight, polydispersity index and lower crystallinity index than others reported in literature. Also, the extracted polymer was found to have desirable material properties for potential tissue engineering applications.

  5. [Comparison of the efficiency of 2 culture media in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria damaged with chlorine].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J J

    1987-01-01

    In this study, culture mediums R2A and m-HPC were compared with respect to their efficiency in the recuperation of injured heterotrophic bacteria present in water, which previously was treated with chlorine. The results of total counts obtained by membrane filtration, show that medium R2A was better than m-HPC. These two culture mediums are indicated by the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-water. The results obtained may be due to the low concentration of organic matter, or to the presence of yeast extract in the R2A medium.

  6. Alternative lattice options for energy recovery in high-average-power high-efficiency free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    High-average-power free-electron lasers often rely on energy-recovering linacs. In a high-efficiency free electron laser, the main limitation to high average power stems from the fractional energy spread induced by the free-electron laser process. Managing beams with large fractional energy spread while simultaneously avoiding beam losses is extremely challenging and relies on intricate longitudinal phase space manipulations. In this paper we discuss a possible alternative technique that makes use of an emittance exchange between one of the transverse and the longitudinal phase spaces.

  7. Solvent-based extraction optimisation for efficient ultrasonication-assisted ginsenoside recovery from Panax quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis cell suspension lines.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tanya; Ajayakumar, P V; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at developing an extraction protocol for efficient ginsenoside recovery from cell suspensions of Panax quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis. Methanol (100%, 70% and 30%), water (40°C, 90°C), water-saturated butanol and butanol-saturated water were compared for their ultrasonication-assisted ginsenoside retrieval efficacy. HPLC and HP-TLC analysis revealed 100% methanol as the best solvent for maximum retrieval of Rb (diol) and Rg (triol) ginsenosides (P. quinquefolius: Rb: 0.189, Rg: 3.163 mg/g DW; P. sikkimensis: Rb: 0.245, Rg: 4.073 mg/g DW), followed by water (90°C). Methanolic solutions, especially 70%, proved to be significant retrievers of Rg1 (1.812 and 1.327 mg/g DW in P. quinquefolius and P. sikkimensis), with poor Re recovery (0.328 and 0.342 mg/g DW). Water-saturated butanol also led to significant ginsenoside extraction (72.4% of content extracted by methanol), selectively in P. quinquefolius, with a less than 50% of total content extracted by methanol, in P. sikkimensis.

  8. The Recovery of Net Ecosystem Productivity and Water Use Efficiency of a Harvested Aspen Forest in the Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Giroux, K.; Brown, S. M.; Devito, K. J.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) is located in north-central Alberta, Canada, in a region where aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx.) dominate the upland vegetation of the Western Boreal Plain (WBP). Due to the heterogeneity of the surficial geology as well as the sub-humid climate where the water balance is dominated by evapotranspiration, the carbon balance across this landscape is highly variable. Moreover, the upland aspen regions represent significant stores of carbon. More recently, aspen stands have become valuable commercial resources for pulp and paper processing. These stands are harvested through clear cutting and are generally left to regenerate on their own, a process which occurs rapidly in clonal species like aspen. At URSA, three eddy covariance towers were setup during the length of the growing seasons of 2005-2009 to investigate the CO2 exchange under natural conditions and the rate of recovery after harvest. In 2007, the south facing slope of URSA was harvested and the north facing slope in 2008. This study examines the inter-annual variability and recovery (after harvest) of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and water use efficiency (WUE) as controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, growing season length and LAI.

  9. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  10. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  11. Rapid, efficient functional characterization and recovery of HIV-specific human CD8+ T cells using microengraving

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Navin; Kwon, Douglas S.; Law, Kenneth M.; Ogunniyi, Adebola O.; Anahtar, Melis N.; Richter, James M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Love, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The nature of certain clinical samples (tissue biopsies, fluids) or the subjects themselves (pediatric subjects, neonates) often constrain the number of cells available to evaluate the breadth of functional T-cell responses to infections or therapeutic interventions. The methods most commonly used to assess this functional diversity ex vivo and to recover specific cells to expand in vitro usually require more than 106 cells. Here we present a process to identify antigen-specific responses efficiently ex vivo from 104–105 single cells from blood or mucosal tissues using dense arrays of subnanoliter wells. The approach combines on-chip imaging cytometry with a technique for capturing secreted proteins—called “microengraving”—to enumerate antigen-specific responses by single T cells in a manner comparable to conventional assays such as ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining. Unlike those assays, however, the individual cells identified can be recovered readily by micromanipulation for further characterization in vitro. Applying this method to assess HIV-specific T-cell responses demonstrates that it is possible to establish clonal CD8+ T-cell lines that represent the most abundant specificities present in circulation using 100- to 1,000-fold fewer cells than traditional approaches require and without extensive genotypic analysis a priori. This rapid (<24 h), efficient, and inexpensive process should improve the comparative study of human T-cell immunology across ages and anatomic compartments. PMID:22355106

  12. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-15

    An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201×7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost.

  13. Dual substrate strategy to enhance butanol production using high cell inoculum and its efficient recovery by pervaporation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sweta; Rawat, Garima; Tripathi, Priyanka; Saxena, R K

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the development of an efficient ABE fermentation process using mixed substrate strategy for butanol production wherein no acetone was produced. For this, glucose was supplemented in the medium containing glycerol as main substrate which leads to a higher butanol production of 17.75 g/L in 72 h by Clostridium acetobutylicum KF158795. Moreover, the high cell inoculum also resulted in an increased ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h. Further, industrial scalability of the process was also successfully validated in a 300 L fermenter. Furthermore, potential of the Polymeric (PolyRMem) and Zeolite (ZeoMem) membranes for separation of butanol from fermentation broth was also studied by testing the pervaporation performance through which the butanol was successfully recovered.

  14. Efficient recovery of nitrate and phosphate from wastewater by an amine-grafted adsorbent for cyanobacterial biomass production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Hwang, Min-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Noh, Won; Kwon, Jung Min; Choi, Jin Soo; Kang, Chang-Min

    2016-04-01

    Various types of wastewater have been widely utilized in microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation for environmental and economic reasons. However, the problems of low cell growth and biomass contamination due to direct use of wastewater remain unresolved. In the present study, nitrate and phosphate were separated from wastewater by adsorption and subsequently used for cyanobacterial biomass production. To this end, an amine-grafted magnetic absorbent was synthesized. The synthesized absorbent recovered ca. 78% nitrate and 93% phosphate from wastewater. Regenerated medium was prepared using recovered nutrients as nitrogen and phosphate sources, which were efficiently assimilated by cyanobacterial culture. Compared to synthetic medium, there was no difference in growth and nutrient removal using regenerated medium. The proposed indirect method of wastewater utilization would prevent contamination of the produced biomass by unfavorable substances, which will broaden its potential applications.

  15. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. PMID:25405215

  16. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): High-Efficiency High-Power Nd: YAG Laser under 885 nm Laser Diode Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Fu; Zong, Nan; Yang, Jing; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2009-11-01

    A high-efficiency high-power Nd:YAG laser under 885nm laser diode (LD) pumping is demonstrated. The laser crystal is carefully designed, and the overlapping between the pump modes and the laser modes is optimized. The maximum output power at 1064 nm is 87W under the absorbed pump power 127.7W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 72.4% and an optical-optical efficiency of 68.1%. The optical-optical efficiency is 58.4% for the pump power emitted directly from the LD. To our best knowledge, this is the maximal optical-optical conversion efficiency obtained for the LD end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers so far.

  19. Efficient approach to include molecular polarizations using charge and atom dipole response kernels to calculate free energy gradients in the QM/MM scheme.

    PubMed

    Asada, Toshio; Ando, Kanta; Sakurai, Koji; Koseki, Shiro; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2015-10-28

    An efficient approach to evaluate free energy gradients (FEGs) within the quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) framework has been proposed to clarify reaction processes on the free energy surface (FES) in molecular assemblies. The method is based on response kernel approximations denoted as the charge and the atom dipole response kernel (CDRK) model that include explicitly induced atom dipoles. The CDRK model was able to reproduce polarization effects for both electrostatic interactions between QM and MM regions and internal energies in the QM region obtained by conventional QM/MM methods. In contrast to charge response kernel (CRK) models, CDRK models could be applied to various kinds of molecules, even linear or planer molecules, without using imaginary interaction sites. Use of the CDRK model enabled us to obtain FEGs on QM atoms in significantly reduced computational time. It was also clearly demonstrated that the time development of QM forces of the solvated propylene carbonate radical cation (PC˙(+)) provided reliable results for 1 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, which were quantitatively in good agreement with expensive QM/MM results. Using FEG and nudged elastic band (NEB) methods, we found two optimized reaction paths on the FES for decomposition reactions to generate CO2 molecules from PC˙(+), whose reaction is known as one of the degradation mechanisms in the lithium-ion battery. Two of these reactions proceed through an identical intermediate structure whose molecular dipole moment is larger than that of the reactant to be stabilized in the solvent, which has a high relative dielectric constant. Thus, in order to prevent decomposition reactions, PC˙(+) should be modified to have a smaller dipole moment along two reaction paths.

  20. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an "energy-labeled reabsorption" process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20-40 keV.

  1. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20

  2. A linear gradient line source facilitates the use of diffusion models with high order approximation for efficient, accurate turbid sample optical properties recovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Wei; Hung, Cheng-Hung; Liao, Jung-Li; Cheng, Nan-Yu; Hou, Ming-Feng; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a scanning MEMS mirror can be employed to create a linear gradient line source that is equivalent to a planar source. This light source setup facilitates the use of diffusion models of increased orders of approximation having closed form solution, and thus enhance the efficiency and accuracy in sample optical properties recovery. In addition, compared with a regular planar light source, the linear gradient line source occupies much less source area and has an elevated measurement efficiency. We employed a δ-P1 diffusion equation with a closed form solution and carried out a phantom study to understand the performance of this new method in determining the absorption and scattering properties of turbid samples. Moreover, our Monte Carlo simulation results indicated that this geometry had probing depths comparable to those of the conventional diffuse reflectance measurement geometry with a source-detector separation of 3 mm. We expect that this new source setup would facilitate the investigating of superficial volumes of turbid samples in the wavelength regions where tissue absorption coefficients are comparable to scattering coefficients.

  3. Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Hébert, Alain; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre; Gabriel, Uta

    2004-11-01

    Soil washing with micellar solutions is a promising alternative for the remediation of DNAPL source zones. As with any flushing technology, the success of soil washing with micellar solutions depends in a very large part on the ability of the solution to contact the contaminant (sweep efficiency) and then on the efficiency of contaminant removal once this contact is made (displacement efficiency). We report here on a field test where a micellar solution was used to recover a DNAPL in an open five-spot pattern in which polymer solutions were also injected before and after the washing solution to improve sweep efficiency. The washing solution formulation was optimised in the laboratory prior to the test to obtain good dissolution capacity. For a high-concentration and low-volume soil flushing remediation test such as the one performed (0.8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution. In a five-spot pattern, the displacement efficiency of the washing solution was observed to vary in the porous medium as a function of the radial distance from the injection well because: (1) the volume of the washing solution flowing through a section of the test cell changes (maximum close to the injection well and minimal at the pumping wells); (2) the in situ velocity changes (maximum at the wells and minimum between the wells) and; (3) the contact time of the washing solution with the NAPL changes as a function of the distance from the injection well. The relative importance of the recovery mechanisms, mobilisation and dissolution, was also observed to vary in the test cell. The reduced velocity increased the contact time of the washing solution with the DNAPL enhancing its dissolution, but the decrease of the capillary number caused less mobilisation. The washing process is much more extensive around the injection well. The use of an injection-pumping pattern allowing a complete sweep

  4. Target recovery in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiman; Zeng, An

    2017-01-01

    The invulnerability of complex networks is an important issue which has been widely analyzed in different fields. A lot of works have been done to measure and improve the stability of complex networks when being attacked. Recently, how to recover networks after attack was intensively studied. The existing methods are mainly designed to recover the overall functionality of networks, yet in many real cases the recovery of important nodes should be given priority, to which we refer target recovery. For example, when the cold wave paralyses the railway networks, target recovery means to repair those stations or railways such that the transport capacity of densely-populated cities can be recovered as fast as possible. In this paper, we first compare the impact of attacks on the whole network and target nodes respectively, and then study the efficiency of traditional recovery methods that are proposed based on global centrality metrics. Furthermore, based on target centrality metrics, we introduce a local betweenness recovery method and we find it has better performance than the traditional methods. We finally propose a hybrid recovery method which includes local betweenness metric and local closeness metric. The performance of the hybrid method is shown to be similar to that of the greedy algorithm.

  5. The importance of new collection efficiency values including the effect of rear capture for the below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quérel, Arnaud; Monier, Marie; Flossmann, Andrea I.; Lemaitre, Pascal; Porcheron, Emmanuel

    2014-06-01

    A numerical study is presented to evaluate the possible impact of recently measured collection scavenging efficiencies of aerosol particles by raindrops on the calculation of wet removal of pollution plumes by rain. These new collection efficiencies cover the previously undocumented range between 0.3 μm and 3.5 μm diameter for the aerosol particles and 2 to 2.6 mm diameter for the drops. They show for particles between 0.3 μm and 0.7 μm a region of an important increase of the efficiencies with decreasing particle size probably due to the capture of particles in the rear vortex developing behind the falling drop. This hypothesis was motivated by measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Also for the particles larger than 1.5 μm the efficiencies exceed old approximations by up to a factor of two. Typical continental and maritime aerosol particle distributions were used for background and plume distributions and each time the deposited particle mass was calculated with the old and the new efficiencies for the different resulting precipitation rates. In the simulations the new efficiencies increased the calculated wet removal rate of pollution plume particles between 5% and 17%, with respect to the simulations with the old efficiencies, whereby one third of this increase could be attributed to rear capture. This phenomenon has not been observed in these size ranges before. The study also highlights the weakness of certain methods to determine the scavenging coefficient of a pollution plume by rain. Instead of linking the scavenging coefficient to the decrease of the particle spectrum in the air, an operational approach, e.g. in case of accidental releases, needs to be developed that links it to the rainfall intensity, as well as other variables like meteorological parameters, cloud size and plume characteristics. Considering the still persisting gaps of measurements in the collection efficiencies more laboratory measurements of collection scavenging

  6. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  7. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  8. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  9. Influence of the drying step within disk-based solid-phase extraction both on the recovery and the limit of quantification of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters including suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-10

    In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis.

  10. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  11. WNT-C59, a Small-Molecule WNT Inhibitor, Efficiently Induces Anterior Cortex That Includes Cortical Motor Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Motono, Makoto; Ioroi, Yoshihiko; Ogura, Takenori; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The recapitulation of human neural development in a controlled, defined manner from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has considerable potential for studies of human neural development, circuit formation and function, and the construction of in vitro models of neurological diseases. The inhibition of Wnt signaling, often by the recombinant protein DKK1, is important for the induction of cortical neurons. Here, we report a novel differentiation method using a small-molecule WNT inhibitor, WNT-C59 (C59), to efficiently induce human anterior cortex. We compared two types of small molecules, C59 and XAV939 (XAV), as substitutes for DKK1 to induce cortical neurons from PSCs in serum-free embryoid body-like aggregate culture. DKK1 and XAV inhibited only the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling, whereas C59 inhibited both the canonical and noncanonical pathways. C59 efficiently induced CTIP2+/COUP-TF1- cells, which are characteristic of the cells found in the anterior cortex. In addition, when grafted into the cortex of adult mice, the C59-induced cells showed abundant axonal fiber extension toward the spinal cord. These results raise the possibility of C59 contributing to cell replacement therapy for motor neuron diseases or insults. For a cell therapy against damaged corticospinal tract caused by neurodegenerative diseases or insults, cortical motor neurons are needed. Currently, their induction from pluripotent stem cells is considered very promising; however, an efficient protocol to induce motor neurons is not available. For efficient induction of anterior cortex, where motor neurons are located, various WNT inhibitors were investigated. It was found that one of them could induce anterior cortical cells efficiently. In addition, when grafted into the cortex of adult mice, the induced cells showed more abundant axonal fiber extension toward spinal cord. These results raise the possibility that this inhibitor contributes to a cell-replacement therapy for motor neuron

  12. Effect of sustained low efficient dialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy on renal recovery after acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Bernadett; Sullivan, Katrina J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Patel, Rakesh V

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) experience considerable morbidity and mortality. Controversy remains regarding the optimal renal replacement intervention for these patients. Our systematic review aimed to determine the effect(s) of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) compared with continuous renal replacement (CRRT) therapy on relevant patient outcomes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Identified citations were screened independently in duplicate for relevance, and the methodological quality of included studies was evaluated. Data were extracted on study, patient and intervention characteristics and relevant clinical outcomes. Results were pooled using inverse variance fixed and random effects meta-analysis. A total of 1564 patients from 18 studies were included. Meta-analysis results indicated no statistically significant difference in our primary outcome, overall proportion of renal recovery (risk ratio (RR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.20, I2 = 66%). No significant difference was observed for the secondary outcome of time to renal recovery (mean difference 1.33, 95% CI 0.23-2.88, I2 = 0%). Statistically, SLED was marginally favoured over CRRT for the secondary outcome of mortality (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, I2 = 47%); however, this diminished when sensitivity analysis of only randomized controlled trials was conducted (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, I2 = 0%). There appears to be no clear for advantage continuous renal replacement in the hemodynamically unstable patient. Currently, both modalities are safe and effective means of treating AKI in the critically ill adult. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Energy recovery injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V.; Petrov, V. M.; Atkinson, T.; Matveenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    This article presents a novel design for a superconducting rf electron injector that incorporates energy recovery. This concept relaxes the demands of high power input couplers, improves essential beam parameters and energy efficiency and reduces the overall cost of a compact energy recovery linac machine.

  14. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    PubMed

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  15. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    PubMed Central

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  16. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, points to data on a chart. He and other board members are visiting as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, points to data on a chart. He and other board members are visiting as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  18. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  19. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated.

  20. Efficient recovery of proteins from multiple source samples after TRIzol(®) or TRIzol(®)LS RNA extraction and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Simões, André E S; Pereira, Diane M; Amaral, Joana D; Nunes, Ana F; Gomes, Sofia E; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Lo, Adrian C; D'Hooge, Rudi; Steer, Clifford J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2013-03-15

    Simultaneous isolation of nucleic acids and proteins from a single biological sample facilitates meaningful data interpretation and reduces time, cost and sampling errors. This is particularly relevant for rare human and animal specimens, often scarce, and/or irreplaceable. TRIzol(®) and TRIzol(®)LS are suitable for simultaneous isolation of RNA, DNA and proteins from the same biological sample. These reagents are widely used for RNA and/or DNA isolation, while reports on their use for protein extraction are limited, attributable to technical difficulties in protein solubilisation. TRIzol(®)LS was used for RNA isolation from 284 human colon cancer samples, including normal colon mucosa, tubulovillous adenomas, and colon carcinomas with proficient and deficient mismatch repair system. TRIzol(®) was used for RNA isolation from human colon cancer cells, from brains of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice model, and from cultured mouse cortical neurons. Following RNA extraction, the TRIzol(®)-chloroform fractions from human colon cancer samples and from mouse hippocampus and frontal cortex were stored for 2 years and 3 months, respectively, at -80°C until used for protein isolation.Simple modifications to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer's protocol, including Urea:SDS solubilization and sonication, allowed improved protein recovery yield compared to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer's protocol. Following SDS-PAGE and Ponceau and Coomassie staining, recovered proteins displayed wide molecular weight range and staining pattern comparable to those obtainable with commonly used protein extraction protocols. We also show that nuclear and cytosolic proteins can be easily extracted and detected by immunoblotting, and that posttranslational modifications, such as protein phosphorylation, are detectable in proteins recovered from TRIzol(®)-chloroform fractions stored for up to 2 years at -80°C. We provide a novel approach to improve protein recovery from samples processed for

  1. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  2. Adjustments of water use efficiency by stomatal regulation during drought and recovery in the drought-adapted Vitis hybrid Richter-110 (V. berlandieri x V. rupestris).

    PubMed

    Pou, Alícia; Flexas, Jaume; Alsina, Maria del Mar; Bota, Josefina; Carambula, Cecilia; de Herralde, Felicidad; Galmés, Jeroni; Lovisolo, Claudio; Jiménez, Miguel; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rusjan, Denis; Secchi, Francesca; Tomàs, Magdalena; Zsófi, Zsolt; Medrano, Hipólito

    2008-10-01

    The hybrid Richter-110 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) (R-110) has the reputation of being a genotype strongly adapted to drought. A study was performed with plants of R-110 subjected to water withholding followed by re-watering. The goal was to analyze how stomatal conductance (g(s)) is regulated with respect to different physiological variables under water stress and recovery, as well as how water stress affects adjustments of water use efficiency (WUE) at the leaf level. Water stress induced a substantial stomatal closure and an increase in WUE, which persisted many days after re-watering. The g(s) during water stress was mainly related to the content of ABA in the xylem and partly related to plant hydraulic conductivity but not to leaf water potential. By contrast, low g(s) during re-watering did not correlate with ABA contents and was only related to a sustained decreased hydraulic conductivity. In addition to a complex physiological regulation of stomatal closure, g(s) and rate of transpiration (E) were strongly affected by leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in a way dependent of the treatment. Interestingly, E increased with increasing VPD in control plants, but decreased with increasing VPD in severely stressed plants. All together, the fine stomatal regulation in R-110 resulted in very high WUE at the leaf level. This genotype is revealed to be very interesting for further studies on the physiological mechanisms leading to regulation of stomatal responsiveness and WUE in response to drought.

  3. Theoretical and experimental fundamentals of designing promising technological equipment to improve efficiency and environmental safety of highly viscous oil recovery from deep oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyev, V. A.; Nazarov, V. P.; Zhuravlev, V. Y.; Zhuykov, D. A.; Kubrikov, M. V.; Klokotov, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new technological equipment for the implementation of highly effective methods of recovering highly viscous oil from deep reservoirs is an important scientific and technical challenge. Thermal recovery methods are promising approaches to solving the problem. It is necessary to carry out theoretical and experimental research aimed at developing oil-well tubing (OWT) with composite heatinsulating coatings on the basis of basalt and glass fibers. We used the method of finite element analysis in Nastran software, which implements complex scientific and engineering calculations, including the calculation of the stress-strain state of mechanical systems, the solution of problems of heat transfer, the study of nonlinear static, the dynamic transient analysis of frequency characteristics, etc. As a result, we obtained a mathematical model of thermal conductivity which describes the steady-state temperature and changes in the fibrous highly porous material with the heat loss by Stefan-Boltzmann's radiation. It has been performed for the first time using the method of computer modeling in Nastran software environments. The results give grounds for further implementation of the real design of the OWT when implementing thermal methods for increasing the rates of oil production and mitigating environmental impacts.

  4. Environmental pressure reduction with a new method of noble metal recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, EV

    2017-02-01

    Discoveries in the area of hydrometallurgy of noble metals can be of use in metal recovery from low-grade solutions and slurries, including liquid tailings. Efficiency of noble metal recovery and reduction in mining waste is gained owing to utilization of two forms of ion-exchange sorbent, including OH- for recovery of cyanic compounds of gold and cyanides, which allows abating burden on natural systems.

  5. Mobile NAPL recovery: Conceptual, field, and mathematical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Applegate, D.

    1997-05-01

    Recovery of mobile Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs), referred to as oil recovery, is one of the most common remedial technologies currently being implemented at sites where NAPLs have been released. The rationale for oil recovery typically includes resource recovery, mitigation of further NAPL migration, and compliance with regulatory mandates for source reduction. Efficient oil recovery can be achieved by optimizing conditions within the oil flow path. This concept is referred to as flow path management. Building on this concept, a waterflood oil recovery technique utilizing dual recovery and parallel delivery drainlines has been developed for recovery of creosote-based wood-treating oil, a Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL). Full-scale application of this technique at a contaminated site has yielded 1.5 million gallons of DNAPL. Furthermore, an operational endpoint of 95% recovery of the mobile oil is being achieved. Building on the concept of flow path management and the observed performance of the waterflood oil recovery system, a first-order analytical solution for DNAPL flow to a drainline has been derived and validated using field data. This solution leads to a set of useful design equations and further insight into the factors that control oil recovery.

  6. Resource Recovery Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Abert, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Resource Recovery Guides is a collection of articles orignally published between 1975 and 1981. Many of these articles were not easily available to interested readers. Subjects discussed include newspaper recycling, aluminum recovery, codisposal of solid waste and dry sewage sludge, and the recovery of glass from urban refuse. Includes a combined author and subject index. Contents: National concerns for recycling and resource recovery of municipal waste: policy perspectives. Planning, procurement, marketing, economics, and finance. Waste as a source of raw materials. Waste as an energy source.

  7. An efficient method to predict and include Bragg curve degradation due to lung-equivalent materials in Monte Carlo codes by applying a density modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Kilian-Simon; Witt, Matthias; Weber, Uli; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Sub-millimetre-sized heterogeneities such as lung parenchyma cause Bragg peak degradation which can lead to an underdose of the tumor and an overdose of healthy tissue when not accounted for in treatment planning. Since commonly used treatment-planning CTs do not resolve the fine structure of lungs, this degradation can hardly be considered. We present a mathematical model capable of predicting and describing Bragg peak degradation due to a lung-equivalent geometry consisting of sub-millimetre voxels filled with either lung tissue or air. The material characteristic ‘modulation power’ is introduced to quantify the Bragg peak degradation. A strategy was developed to transfer the modulating effects of such fine structures to rougher structures such as 2 mm thick CT voxels, which is the resolution of typically used CTs. This is done by using the modulation power to derive a density distribution applicable to these voxels. By replacing the previously used sub-millimetre voxels by 2 mm thick voxels filled with lung tissue and modulating the lung tissue’s density in each voxel individually, we were able to reproduce the Bragg peak degradation. Hence a solution is found to include Bragg curve degradation due to lung-equivalent materials in Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning systems.

  8. 78 FR 48868 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... and Recovery Act of 2009 (Recovery Act Buy American provisions) in EERE- funded projects for LED...

  9. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  10. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  11. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  12. Bioelectrochemical metal recovery from wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-12-01

    Metal contaminated wastewater posts great health and environmental concerns, but it also provides opportunities for precious metal recovery, which may potentially make treatment processes more cost-effective and sustainable. Conventional metal recovery technologies include physical, chemical and biological methods, but they are generally energy and chemical intensive. The recent development of bioelectrochemical technology provides a new approach for efficient metal recovery, because it offers a flexible platform for both oxidation and reduction reaction oriented processes. While dozens of recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of the bioelectrochemical metal recovery concept, the mechanisms have been different and confusing. This study provides a review that summarizes and discusses the different fundamental mechanisms of metal conversion, with the aim of facilitating the scientific understanding and technology development. While the general approach of bioelectrochemical metal recovery is using metals as the electron acceptor in the cathode chamber and organic waste as the electron donor in the anode chamber, there are so far four mechanisms that have been reported: (1) direct metal recovery using abiotic cathodes; (2) metal recovery using abiotic cathodes supplemented by external power sources; (3) metal conversion using bio-cathodes; and (4) metal conversion using bio-cathodes supplemented by external power sources.

  13. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  14. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  15. CEBAF Energy Recovery Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Beard, Kevin; Bengtsson, Johan; Butler, Corey; Chao, Yu-Chiu; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Dong, Hai; Douglas, David; Freyberger, Arne; Guerra, Al; Hicks, William; Hofler, Alicia; Hovater, J.; Hutton, Andrew; Lauze, Ronald; Merminga, Nikolitsa; Plawski, Tomasz; Roblin, Yves; Spata, Michael; Tennant, Christopher; Tiefenback, Michael; Bernard, A.; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-05-01

    A successful GeV scale energy recovery demonstration with high ratio of accelerated-to-recovered energies (50:1) was recently carried out on the CEBAF recirculating linear accelerator. Future high energy (multi-GeV), high current (hundreds of milli-Amperes) beams would require gigaWatt-class RF systems in conventional linacs - a prohibitively expensive proposition. However, invoking energy recovery [1] alleviates extreme RF power demands; required RF power becomes nearly independent of beam current, which improves linac efficiency and increases cost effectiveness. Furthermore, energy recovering linacs promise efficiencies of storage rings, while maintaining beam quality of linacs: superior emittance and energy spread and short bunches (sub-pico sec.). Finally, energy recovery alleviates shielding, if the beam is dumped below the neutron production threshold. Jefferson Lab has demonstrated its expertise in the field of Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) with the successful operation of the

  16. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  17. Recovery in soccer: part I - post-match fatigue and time course of recovery.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2012-12-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches interspersed by 3 days and complete physical performance recovery may not be achieved. Incomplete recovery might result in underperformance and injury. During congested schedules, recovery strategies are therefore required to alleviate post-match fatigue, regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. This article is Part I of a subsequent companion review and deals with post-match fatigue mechanisms and recovery kinetics of physical performance (sprints, jumps, maximal strength and technical skills), cognitive, subjective and biochemical markers. The companion review will analyse recovery strategies used in contemporary professional soccer. Soccer involves many physically demanding activities including sprinting, changes in running speed, changes of direction, jumps and tackles, as well as technical actions such as dribbling, shooting and passing. These activities lead to a post-match fatigue that is linked to a combination of dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. The magnitude of soccer match-induced fatigue, extrinsic factors (i.e. match result, quality of the opponent, match location, playing surface) and/or intrinsic factors (i.e. training status, age, gender, muscle fibre typology), potentially influence the time course of recovery. Recovery in soccer is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative importance of fatigue mechanisms and identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualized recovery strategies may consequently be proposed.

  18. Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 July 1984-30 September 1984 including summary of work for FY84

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Benson, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The research discussed in this report deals with resource recovery from coal conversion solid wastes. Progress is reported on two methods (the HiChlor and Lime-Sinter processes) for extracting metal values from power plant fly ash. Preliminary work is also reported on a method of making cement from the residue of the lime-sinter process. In the HiChlor Process, metal oxides in the fly ash are converted to volatile chlorides by reaction with chlorine in the presence of a reductant. Several versions of this approach are being investigated. The Lime-Sinter Process utilizes a solid state reaction to selectively convert the alumina in fly ash to a soluble form. Fly ash is mixed with limestone and a suitable mineralizer (to reduce the temperature required for sintering and to enhance alumina recovery) and then sintered in a high temperature kiln. Alumina is recovered by leaching the resulting clinker. A complex relationship between the calcium, alumina, silica, and sulfur constituents in the feed mixture controls the formation and extraction of aluminate compounds. Alumina recovery levels are enhanced by promoting the formation of less-soluble calcium compounds and/or more-soluble aluminum compounds. A study is underway to determine the degree to which flue gas scrubber sludge can be used both as a limestone substitute and as a sulfur bearing mineralizer. Results show that 20 to 25% of the limestone can be provided by the scrubber sludges. 25 refs.,25 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 as recovery agents of Cu(II)-sulfate solutions: Adsorption efficiency, functional stability and reusability aspects.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, M V; Videla, M; Calvo, A; Requejo, F G; Soler-Illia, G J A A

    2012-07-15

    Hybrid mesoporous materials are potentially useful for metal ion scavenging and retrieval because of their high surface areas, controlled accessibility and tailored functionalization. Some aspects that are linked to the performance of HMM include pore accessibility, stability of the organic functions and reusability. Knowledge of these aspects is critical in the design of adsorption-desorption protocols. In this work we produce and characterize propylamino-substituted large pore silica (SBA-15-N), which is submitted to Cu(II) adsorption from copper sulfate solutions, followed by desorption in acid media and material regeneration. We find that the hybrid material is an efficient adsorbent (1.15-1.75mmol Cu(II)g(-1)), although a fraction of the organic groups is lost during the adsorption process. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study demonstrates that the contents of amino groups are higher in the material surface, leading to different behaviors in Cu(II) complexation along the material. These materials can be regenerated by exposure to acidic media. Thermal processing of the hybrid materials leads to better durability in aqueous solutions during reprocessing, due to enhanced polycondensation of the inorganic framework. Thermally treated samples, once regenerated, are efficient adsorbents in a second step of Cu(II) adsorption. We discuss the materials processing factors involved in the improved adsorption of Cu(II), its quantitative release and reusability of the material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EPA Recovery Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) award that EPA has funded for six programs. By integrating data reported by the recipients of Recovery Act funding and data created by EPA, this application delivers a level of transparency and public accessibility to users interested in EPA's use of Recovery Act monies. The application is relatively easy to use and builds on the same mapping model as Google, Bing, MapQuest and other commonly used mapping interfaces. EPA Recovery Mapper tracks each award made by each program and gives basic Quick Facts information for each award including award name, location, award date, dollar amounts and more. Data Summaries for each EPA program or for each state are provided displaying dollars for Total Awarded, Total Received (Paid), and Total Jobs This Quarter by Recovery for the latest quarter of data released by Recovery.gov. The data are reported to the government and EPA four times a year by the award recipients. The latest quarterly report will always be displayed in the EPA Recovery Mapper. In addition, the application provides many details about each award. Users will learn more about how to access and interpret these data later in this document. Data shown in the EPA Recovery Mapper are derived from information reported back to FederalReporting.gov from the recipients of Recovery Act funding. EPA

  1. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  2. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  3. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  4. Development of a Field Demonstration for Cost-Effective Low-Grade Heat Recovery and Use Technology Designed to Improve Efficiency and Reduce Water Usage Rates for a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Russell; Dombrowski, K.; Bernau, M.; Morett, D.; Maxson, A.; Hume, S.

    2016-06-30

    Coal-based power generation systems provide reliable, low-cost power to the domestic energy sector. These systems consume large amounts of fuel and water to produce electricity and are the target of pending regulations that may require reductions in water use and improvements in thermal efficiency. While efficiency of coal-based generation has improved over time, coal power plants often do not utilize the low-grade heat contained in the flue gas and require large volumes of water for the steam cycle make-up, environmental controls, and for process cooling and heating. Low-grade heat recovery is particularly challenging for coal-fired applications, due in large part to the condensation of acid as the flue gas cools and the resulting potential corrosion of the heat recovery materials. Such systems have also not been of significant interest as recent investments on coal power plants have primarily been for environmental controls due to more stringent regulations. Also, in many regions, fuel cost is still a pass-through to the consumer, reducing the motivation for efficiency improvements. Therefore, a commercial system combining low-grade heat-recovery technologies and associated end uses to cost effectively improve efficiency and/or reduce water consumption has not yet been widely applied. However, pressures from potential new regulations and from water shortages may drive new interest, particularly in the U.S. In an effort to address this issue, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sought to identify and promote technologies to achieve this goal.

  5. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted the employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted the employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - There is action on the baseball diamond during a game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - There is action on the baseball diamond during a game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  9. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  10. Recovery Act: High-Efficiency, Wideband Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management for Telecomm Central Office and Large Data Center Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Johnson

    2012-06-29

    Lineage Power and Verizon teamed up to address a DOE funding opportunity focused on improving the power conversion chain in telecommunications facilities and data centers. The project had three significant elements: the design and development of high efficiency and high power three-phase rectifiers by Lineage Power, design and development of software to optimize overall plant energy efficiency by Lineage Power, and a field trial in active Verizon telecommunications facilities where energy consumption was measured before and after efficiency upgrades.

  11. Nutrients removal and recovery in bioelectrochemical systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient removal and recovery has received less attention during the development of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for energy efficient wastewater treatment, but it is a critical issue for sustainable wastewater treatment. Both nitrogen and phosphorus can be removed and/or recovered in a BES through involving biological processes such as nitrification and bioelectrochemical denitrification, the NH4(+)/NH3 couple affected by the electrolyte pH, or precipitating phosphorus compounds in the high-pH zone adjacent a cathode electrode. This paper has reviewed the nutrients removal and recovery in various BES including microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, discussed the influence factors and potential problems, and identified the key challenges for nitrogen and phosphorus removal/recovery in a BES. It expects to give an informative overview of the current development, and to encourage more thinking and investigation towards further development of efficient processes for nutrient removal and recovery in a BES.

  12. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  13. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  15. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  16. Efficient butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation cultures grown on sweet sorghum juice by pervaporation using silicalite-1 membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Miho; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji; Ikegami, Toru; Chohnan, Shigeru; Nitta, Youji; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated butanol recovery by pervaporation separation, using a silicalite-1 membrane, from batch cultures of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii SBP2 grown on sweet sorghum juice as a fermentation medium. The pervaporation system yielded 73% (w/v) butanol from intact feed cultures containing 1% (w/v) butanol, and had a butanol permeation flux of 11 g m(-2) h(-1). Upon neutralization and activated charcoal treatment of the feed cultures, butanol yield and total flux increased to 82% (w/v) and 40 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. This system is applicable to refining processes for practical biobutanol production from a promising energy crop, sweet sorghum.

  17. Classic maximum entropy recovery of the average joint distribution of apparent FRET efficiency and fluorescence photons for single-molecule burst measurements.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K

    2012-04-05

    We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions.

  18. Classic Maximum Entropy Recovery of the Average Joint Distribution of Apparent FRET Efficiency and Fluorescence Photons for Single-molecule Burst Measurements

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Matthew S.; Gull, Stephen F.; Johnson, Carey K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions. PMID:22338694

  19. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  20. Army Projects in the DOD Near Term Energy-Efficient Technologies Program Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-27

    Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET). We appreciate the courtesies extended to the staff. Please direct questions to me at (703) 604-9201 (DSN 664...program requirement or in broadly defined areas of interest covering the full range of an agency’s requirements. Review of Internal Controls DOD...energy auditing programs and software that can couple energy security with energy efficiency, reducing power consumption in tactical heating and air

  1. UH-FLUX: Compact, Energy Efficient Superconducting Asymmetric Energy Recovery LINAC for Ultra-high Fluxes of X-ray and THz Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Konoplev, Ivan; Ainsworth, Robert; Burt, Graeme; Seryi, Andrei

    2016-06-01

    The conventional ERLs have limited peak beam current because increasing the beam charge and repetition rate leads to appearance of the beam break-up instabilities. At this stage the highest current, from the SRF ERL, is around 300 mA. A single-turn (the beam will be transported through the accelerating section, interaction point and deceleration section of the AERL only once) Asymmetric Energy Recovery LINAC (AERL) is proposed. The RF cells in different sections of the cavity are tuned in such a way that only operating mode is uniform inside all of the cells. The AERL will drive the electron beams with typical energies of 10 - 30 MeV and peak currents above 1 A, enabling the generation of high flux UV/X-rays and high power coherent THz radiation. We aim to build a copper prototype of the RF cavity for a compact AERL to study its EM properties. The final goal is to build AERL based on the superconducting RF cavity. Preliminary design for AERL's cavity has been developed and will be presented. The results of numerical and analytical models and the next steps toward the AERL operation will also be discussed.

  2. Split Flow Online Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry System for One-Shot Data Acquisition of Quantification and Recovery Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Makoto; Takagai, Yoshitaka

    2016-10-04

    Online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is a useful tool in automatic sequential analysis. However, it cannot simultaneously quantify the analytical targets and their recovery percentages (R%) in one-shot samples. We propose a system that simultaneously acquires both data in a single sample injection. The main flowline of the online solid-phase extraction is divided into main and split flows. The split flow line (i.e., bypass line), which circumvents the SPE column, was placed on the main flow line. Under program-controlled switching of the automatic valve, the ICPMS sequentially measures the targets in a sample before and after column preconcentration and determines the target concentrations and the R% on the SPE column. This paper describes the system development and two demonstrations to exhibit the analytical significance, i.e., the ultratrace amounts of radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) using commercial Sr-trap resin and multielement adsorbability on the SPE column. This system is applicable to other flow analyses and detectors in online solid phase extraction.

  3. Use of Echocardiography Reveals Reestablishment of Ventricular Pumping Efficiency and Partial Ventricular Wall Motion Recovery upon Ventricular Cryoinjury in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Inês João; Sánchez-Iranzo, Héctor; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Mercader, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Aims While zebrafish embryos are amenable to in vivo imaging, allowing the study of morphogenetic processes during development, intravital imaging of adults is hampered by their small size and loss of transparency. The use of adult zebrafish as a vertebrate model of cardiac disease and regeneration is increasing at high speed. It is therefore of great importance to establish appropriate and robust methods to measure cardiac function parameters. Methods and Results Here we describe the use of 2D-echocardiography to study the fractional volume shortening and segmental wall motion of the ventricle. Our data show that 2D-echocardiography can be used to evaluate cardiac injury and also to study recovery of cardiac function. Interestingly, our results show that while global systolic function recovered following cardiac cryoinjury, ventricular wall motion was only partially restored. Conclusion Cryoinjury leads to long-lasting impairment of cardiac contraction, partially mimicking the consequences of myocardial infarction in humans. Functional assessment of heart regeneration by echocardiography allows a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and has the advantage of being easily transferable to other cardiovascular zebrafish disease models. PMID:25532015

  4. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries...

  5. Recovery processes for precious metals. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recovery and recycling of gold, silver, and other precious metals from industrial wastes. Procedures adapted to electroplating baths, anode sludges, mine tailings, electronic scrap, and photographic processing effluent are considered. Techniques are described, including precipitation, microbial leaching, ultrafiltration, and electrochemical processes. The citations examine the efficiency, operational difficulties, cost effectiveness, and optimization of specific precious metal recovery methods. (Contains a minimum of 62 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Energy Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  7. Energy Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  8. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  9. Recovery of Interdependent Networks.

    PubMed

    Di Muro, M A; La Rocca, C E; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A

    2016-03-09

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 - p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ - p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  10. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  11. Regulation of 6S RNA by pRNA synthesis is required for efficient recovery from stationary phase in E. coli and B. subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Amy T.; Sperger, Jamie M.; Wassarman, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    6S RNAs function through interaction with housekeeping forms of RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ70 in Escherichia coli, EσA in Bacillus subtilis). Escherichia coli 6S RNA accumulates to high levels during stationary phase, and has been shown to be released from Eσ70 during exit from stationary phase by a process in which 6S RNA serves as a template for Eσ70 to generate product RNAs (pRNAs). Here, we demonstrate that not only does pRNA synthesis occur, but it is an important mechanism for regulation of 6S RNA function that is required for cells to exit stationary phase efficiently in both E. coli and B. subtilis. Bacillus subtilis has two 6S RNAs, 6S-1 and 6S-2. Intriguingly, 6S-2 RNA does not direct pRNA synthesis under physiological conditions and its non-release from EσA prevents efficient outgrowth in cells lacking 6S-1 RNA. The behavioral differences in the two B. subtilis RNAs clearly demonstrate that they act independently, revealing a higher than anticipated diversity in 6S RNA function globally. Overexpression of a pRNA-synthesis-defective 6S RNA in E. coli leads to decreased cell viability, suggesting pRNA synthesis-mediated regulation of 6S RNA function is important at other times of growth as well. PMID:22102588

  12. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Larkin; Jordan, Iain; McCarron, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry. Medical students' knowledge of recovery from mental illness was assessed before and after either a 6-week traditional or recovery-focused clinical placement in psychiatry, using the Recovery Knowledge Inventory. A validated questionnaire was used to assess attitudes toward mental illness before and after the placements. Focus groups were conducted before and after the recovery teaching. One hundred nineteen medical students participated; 23 experienced the recovery teaching program while 96 had a traditional placement (23 in the same center as the recovery teaching program and 73 in other centers). There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. After recovery teaching, medical students significantly increased their recovery knowledge and had more positive attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatry when compared with those who had a traditional placement. The focus groups revealed greater optimism and more holistic concepts of recovery from mental illness. The recovery teaching program was associated with increased knowledge of recovery principles and more positive attitudes toward mental illness. Psychiatric clinical placements for medical students should include an explicit recovery focus. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  14. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge

  15. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 - PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination

  16. Understanding the Fundamental Principles Underlying the Survival and Efficient Recovery of Multi-Scale Techno-Social Networks Following a WMD Event (A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    constraints include software limitations, communication protocols and regulations. To advance empirical applications, network models will need to address...dynamic and evolution of technological and social networks: • Phenomenology of competing dynamical processes in networks • Modeling human...Disease (EVD) model that considers explicitly that Ebola transmissions occur in the general community , in hospital settings, and during funeral rites

  17. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell technologies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Jang, Je-Hun; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important contributor to surface water pollution due to the release of acid and metals. Fe(II) in AMD reacts with dissolved oxygen to produce iron oxide precipitates, resulting in further acidification, discoloration of stream beds, and sludge deposits in receiving waters. It has recently been shown that new fuel cell technologies, based on microbial fuel cells, can be used to treat AMD and generate electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano-particles of iron oxide that, upon drying, are transformed to goethite (α-FeOOH). This approach therefore provides a relatively straightforward way to generate a product that has commercial value. Particle diameters ranged from 120 to 700 nm, with sizes that could be controlled by varying the conditions in the fuel cell, especially current density (0.04-0.12 mA/cm(2)), pH (4-7.5), and initial Fe(II) concentration (50-1000 mg/L). The most efficient production of goethite and power occurred with pH = 6.3 and Fe(II) concentrations above 200 mg/L. These results show that fuel cell technologies can not only be used for simultaneous AMD treatment and power generation, but that they can generate useful products such as iron oxide particles having sizes appropriate for used as pigments and other applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient recovery of the functional IP10-scFv fusion protein from inclusion bodies with an on-column refolding system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Qing; Li, Qing-Mei; Zhou, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Gai-Ping; Yang, Yan-Yan; Xing, Guang-Xu; Zhao, Dong; You, Shang-You; Zhang, Chu-Yu

    2006-01-01

    A functional IP10-scFv fusion protein retaining the antibody specificity for acidic isoferritin and chemokine function was produced at high level in Esherichia coli (E. coli). IP10-scFv gene from the recombinant plasmid pc3IP104c9 was subcloned into pET28a fused to N-terminal His-tag sequence in frame and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). With an on-column refolding procedure based on Ni-chelating chromatography, the active fusion protein was recovered efficiently from inclusion bodies with a refolding yield of approximate 45% confirmed by spectrophotometer. The activity of refolded IP10-scFv was determined through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed the fusion protein retains the specific binding activity to AIF with an affinity constant of 4.48x10(-8) M as well as the chemokine function of IP-10. The overall yield of IP10-scFv with bioactivity in E. coli flask culture was more than 40 mg/L.

  19. Efficient recovery of whole blood RNA--a comparison of commercial RNA extraction protocols for high-throughput applications in wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Schwochow, Doreen; Serieys, Laurel E K; Wayne, Robert K; Thalmann, Olaf

    2012-06-27

    Since the emergence of next generation sequencing platforms, unprecedented opportunities have arisen in the study of natural vertebrate populations. In particular, insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of adaptation can be revealed through study of the expression profiles of genes. However, as a pre-requisite to expression profiling, care must be taken in RNA preparation as factors like DNA contamination, RNA integrity or transcript abundance can affect downstream applications. Here, we evaluated five commonly used RNA extraction methods using whole blood sampled under varying conditions from 20 wild carnivores. Despite the use of minute starting volumes, all methods produced quantifiable RNA extracts (1.4 - 18.4 μg) with varying integrity (RIN 4.6 - 7.7), the latter being significantly affected by the storage and extraction method used. We observed a significant overall effect of the extraction method on DNA contamination. One particular extraction method, the LeukoLOCK™ filter system, yielded high RNA integrity along with low DNA contamination and efficient depletion of hemoglobin transcripts highly abundant in whole blood. In a proof of concept sequencing experiment, we found globin RNA transcripts to occupy up to ¼ of all sequencing reads if libraries were not depleted of hemoglobin prior to sequencing. By carefully choosing the appropriate RNA extraction method, whole blood can become a valuable source for high-throughput applications like expression arrays or transcriptome sequencing from natural populations. Additionally, candidate genes showing signs of selection could subsequently be genotyped in large population samples using whole blood as a source for RNA without harming individuals from rare or endangered species.

  20. Efficient recovery of whole blood RNA - a comparison of commercial RNA extraction protocols for high-throughput applications in wildlife species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the emergence of next generation sequencing platforms, unprecedented opportunities have arisen in the study of natural vertebrate populations. In particular, insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of adaptation can be revealed through study of the expression profiles of genes. However, as a pre-requisite to expression profiling, care must be taken in RNA preparation as factors like DNA contamination, RNA integrity or transcript abundance can affect downstream applications. Here, we evaluated five commonly used RNA extraction methods using whole blood sampled under varying conditions from 20 wild carnivores. Results Despite the use of minute starting volumes, all methods produced quantifiable RNA extracts (1.4 – 18.4 μg) with varying integrity (RIN 4.6 - 7.7), the latter being significantly affected by the storage and extraction method used. We observed a significant overall effect of the extraction method on DNA contamination. One particular extraction method, the LeukoLOCK™ filter system, yielded high RNA integrity along with low DNA contamination and efficient depletion of hemoglobin transcripts highly abundant in whole blood. In a proof of concept sequencing experiment, we found globin RNA transcripts to occupy up to ¼ of all sequencing reads if libraries were not depleted of hemoglobin prior to sequencing. Conclusion By carefully choosing the appropriate RNA extraction method, whole blood can become a valuable source for high-throughput applications like expression arrays or transcriptome sequencing from natural populations. Additionally, candidate genes showing signs of selection could subsequently be genotyped in large population samples using whole blood as a source for RNA without harming individuals from rare or endangered species. PMID:22738215

  1. Application of a probabilistic modelling approach for evaluation of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon removal efficiency during four successive cycles of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in an anoxic carbonate aquifer.

    PubMed

    Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Page, Declan W; Barry, Karen E; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Aquifer storage is increasingly being recognised in its role as a treatment process barrier within a multiple barrier approach to water reuse. Aquifers are postulated to have the ability to provide sustainable treatment for removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon, the dominant nutrient hazards in water recycling, but, to date this treatment performance has remained difficult to validate in field studies. This study applied a statistical method, proposed for validation of the performance of advanced water treatment processes, to evaluate nutrient removal during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) with recycled water. Analysis of observed water quality changes during four successive ASR cycles with highly variable source water quality was used to describe the removal efficiencies for selected nutrients by an anoxic carbonate aquifer. The use of this method was found to be suitable to calculate removal efficiencies for total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) over four ASR cycles with temporally variable concentrations of nutrients in the tertiary treated wastewater injectant. TOC and TN removal was dominated by redox processes, aerobic respiration and denitrification. Median removal of TOC ranged from 25 to 40% and TN from 46 to 87% over the four cycles. There was no observable reduction in this removal with time, suggesting that removal of TOC and TN by redox processes can be sustained in an ASR system. Contrastingly, total phosphorous (TP) was subject to reversible removal via adsorption and desorption processes and as a result, removal efficiency could not be calculated with this method. Thus in general, results indicated that this statistical method could be used to characterise the capacity of the anoxic carbonate aquifer treatment barrier for removal of carbon and nitrogen, but not for removal of phosphorus.

  2. Expectations of recovery: A prognostic factor in patients with neck pain undergoing manual therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Palmlöf, L; Holm, L W; Alfredsson, L; Skillgate, E

    2016-10-01

    Expectations have been investigated in populations seeking care for neck pain, however not considering potential confounding factors. The aim of this study was to investigate if pretreatment expectations of recovery is a prognostic factor for recovery from neck pain at 7 weeks follow-up in patients seeking manual therapy treatment. The study was based on the Stockholm Manual Intervention Trial, a randomized controlled trial investigating efficiency of three combinations of manual therapy. The patients with neck pain were included in this study (n = 716). Expectations of recovery was measured at baseline; 'How likely is it, according to your judgment, that you are completely recovered from your neck/back problems in 7 weeks'. Patients answered on a 11-point scale, further categorized into low, moderate and high expectations. The outcome was measured at 7 weeks follow-up by a modified version of the Global Perceived Recovery Question. Potential effect measure modifiers and confounders were measured at baseline. Multivariable log binomial regression models were used to analyse the association between expectations and recovery, presented as relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI). High expectations of recovery yielded a 47% increased probability of being recovered at 7 weeks follow-up. High expectations of recovery yielded improved recovery in both men and women separately, but moderate expectations yielded improved recovery only among men. Our results suggest that expectations of recovery is a prognostic factor for recovery in patients with neck pain seeking manual therapy treatment. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: We found that high expectations of recovery yielded a higher probability of recovery compared to having low expectations, also when considering potential confounding factors. Expectations seemed to have a more distinct influence on recovery among men. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. The vital role of citrate buffer in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using corn stover and high-efficient product recovery by vapor stripping-vapor permeation (VSVP) process.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Wang, Zixuan; Wang, Shudong; Zhang, Xiaotong; Chen, Lijie; Mu, Ying; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-01-01

    pervaporation and gas stripping. As it has significant impact on butanol fermentation, the strength of citrate buffer is of great importance in lignocellulosic butanol fermentation. Compared with pervaporation and gas stripping, the VSVP process has great potential for efficient butanol recovery in biobutanol production.

  4. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling.

  5. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  7. 77 FR 20806 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  8. Efficient recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases of coal-fired power plants by cyclic fixed-bed operations over K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiromu; Taniuchi, Jun; Furuyashiki, Nobuyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirano, Shinichi; Shigemoto, Naoya; Nonaka, Takazumi

    1998-01-01

    An efficient chemical absorption method capable of cyclic fixed-bed operations under moist conditions for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases has been proposed employing K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon. Carbon dioxide was chemically absorbed by the reaction K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_equilibrium} 2KHCO{sub 3} to form potassium hydrogen carbonate. Moisture, usually contained as high as 8--17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with moisture; water is rather necessary in principle as shown in the equation above. Deliquescent potassium carbonate should be supported on an appropriate porous material to adapt for fixed-bed operations. After breakthrough of carbon dioxide, the entrapped carbon dioxide was released by the decomposition of hydrogen carbonate to shift the reaction in reverse on flushing with steam, which could be condensed by cooling to afford carbon dioxide in high purity. Among various preparations of alkaline-earth carbonates (X{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, X = Li, Na, K) on porous materials, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-activated carbon revealed excellent properties for the present purpose. Preparation and characterization of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon and illustrative fixed-bed operations under flue gas conditions in laboratory columns and a bench-scale plant are described.

  9. Photoelectrochemical batteries for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Guo, Shaojun; Xu, Miao; Dong, Shaojun

    2014-11-11

    Herein we propose novel photoelectrochemical fuel cells (PEFCs) by the introduction of a solid-state Ag2O/Ag cathode (here also term as photoelectrochemical battery). Due to the superior electrochemical properties of Ag2O/Ag, the maximum power density of our PEFCs can reach 0.94 mW cm(-2) upon UV illumination. Furthermore, our PEFCs have stable cycle operation and can be undertaken in a single chamber without an ion-exchange membrane. Most importantly, we demonstrate that our PEFCs can be adopted to degrade the methyl orange (MO) dye with a decomposition percentage of 72.5% within 30 min during the PEFC process.

  10. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  11. An assessment of aquifer storage recovery using ground water flow models.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Christopher S; Anderson, Mary P

    2006-01-01

    Owing to increased demands on ground water accompanied by increased drawdowns, technologies that use recharge options, such as aquifer storage recovery (ASR), are being used to optimize available water resources and reduce adverse effects of pumping. In this paper, three representative ground water flow models were created to assess the impact of hydrogeologic and operational parameters/factors on recovery efficiency of ASR systems. Flow/particle tracking and solute transport models were used to track the movement of water during injection, storage, and recovery. Results from particle tracking models consistently produced higher recovery efficiency than the solute transport models for the parameters/properties examined because the particle tracking models neglected mixing of the injected and ambient water. Mixing between injected and ambient water affected recovery efficiency. Results from this study demonstrate the interactions between hydrogeologic and operational parameters on predictions of recovery efficiency. These interactions are best simulated using coupled numerical ground water flow and transport models that include the effects of mixing of injected water and ambient ground water.

  12. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  13. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.; Akkutlu, Yucel; Amilik, Pouya; Kechagia, Persefoni; Lu, Chuan; Shariati, Maryam; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis; Zhan, Lang

    2000-01-19

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil, with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose, the interaction of flow, transport and reaction at various scales (from the pore-network to the field scales) were studied. Particular mechanisms investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam process, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  14. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  15. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  16. Design of a new type vapor recovery system nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. H.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    To settle the problem of low-efficiency recovery for Vapor recovery system nozzle, this paper advances a purely mechanical structure of the self-sealing refueling VRS nozzle. The structure, operating principle and controlled process of the nozzle is given. And an application of the nozzle is discussed. All indicated that the nozzle has a reasonable structure, can fuel and vapor recovery simultaneous start and stop. And thus improve the recovery efficiency and reduce oil leakage.

  17. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  18. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  19. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) RECOVERY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the seminar was to bring researchers, technology developers, and industry representatives together to discuss recovery technologies and techniques for VOCs. The seminar focused on the specific VOC recovery needs of industry and on case studies that summarize effective VOC product recovery techniques applicable to air, water, and solid waste. The case studies highlighted examples in which existing and new recovery technologies resulted in significant cost savings to industry. The seminar focused on the following key issues:. Status and future direction of EPA< DOE, and other major research programs.. What are the latest technology innovations in VOC treatment and recovery?. Performance and cost effectiveness of VOC recovery techniques.. How are recovery techniques applied to air, water, and solid waste?Presenters were from industry, academia, EPA, and various consulting firms. The presentations were followed by several facilitated breakout sessions; these sessions allowed participants an opportunity to discuss their needs and opinions on VOC recovery trends, research, and other issues.This document contains summaries of the presentations and discussions during the seminar. It does not constitute an actual proceedings, since the presentations were informal and no written versions were required. The list of participants and contact information are included in Appendix A. Information

  20. Global patterns of drought recovery

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; ...

    2017-08-09

    Drought has major impacts on natural and human systems, and is especially important for land carbon sink variability due to its influence on terrestrial biosphere climate regulation. While 20th Century trends in drought regimes have been varied, “more extreme extremes”, including more frequent and severe droughts, are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the factors influencing drought recovery and its spatiotemporal patterns are largely unknown. Here we use three independent global data products of gross primary productivitymore » to show that, across diverse terrestrial ecosystems, drought recovery times are strongly associated with climate and carbon cycle dynamics, with biodiversity and CO2 fertilization as secondary factors. Our analysis also provides two key insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of drought recovery time: (1) Across the globe, recovery is longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes—critical tipping elements in Earth’s climate system. (2) Drought impacts, the area of ecosystems under active recovery and recovery times, have increased over the 20th century. If future droughts become more frequent, time between droughts may become shorter than drought recovery time, leading to chronically impacted ecosystems.« less

  1. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  2. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  3. Elements that define recovery: the experiential perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here--e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use.

  4. Volatile organic compound matrix spike recoveries for ground- and surface-water samples, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program used field matrix spikes (FMSs), field matrix spike replicates (FMSRs), laboratory matrix spikes (LMSs), and laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs), in part, to assess the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data from water samples collected and analyzed in more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers (Study Units). The data-quality objectives of the NAWQA Program include estimating the extent to which variability, degradation, and matrix effects, if any, may affect the interpretation of chemical analyses of ground- and surface-water samples. In order to help meet these objectives, a known mass of VOCs was added (spiked) to water samples collected in 25 Study Units. Data within this report include recoveries from 276 ground- and surface-water samples spiked with a 25-microliter syringe with a spike solution containing 85 VOCs to achieve a concentration of 0.5 microgram per liter. Combined recoveries for 85 VOCs from spiked ground- and surface-water samples and reagent water were used to broadly characterize the overall recovery of VOCs. Median recoveries for 149 FMSs, 107 FMSRs, 20 LMSs, and 152 LRSs were 79.9, 83.3, 113.1, and 103.5 percent, respectively. Spike recoveries for 85 VOCs also were calculated individually. With the exception of a few VOCs, the median percent recoveries determined from each spike type for individual VOCs followed the same pattern as for all VOC recoveries combined, that is, listed from least to greatest recovery-FMSs, FMSRs, LRSs, and LMSs. The median recoveries for individual VOCs ranged from 63.7 percent to 101.5 percent in FMSs; 63.1 percent to 101.4 percent in FMSRs; 101.7 percent to 135.0 percent in LMSs; and 91.0 percent to 118.7 percent in LRSs. Additionally, individual VOC recoveries were compared among paired spike types, and these recoveries were used to evaluate potential bias in the method. Variability associated with field

  5. False-negative rate, limit of detection and recovery efficiency performance of a validated macrofoam-swab sampling method for low surface concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and Bacillus atrophaeus spores

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G. F.; Deatherage Kaiser, B. L.; Amidan, B. G.; Sydor, M. A.; Barrett, C. A.; Hutchison, J. R.

    2016-05-06

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS and 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS and 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG; values increased as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent article.

  6. Optimal and suboptimal control technique for aircraft spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.

  7. General introduction and recovery factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  8. Recovery position - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...

  9. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  10. Conceptualizing Social Recovery: Recovery Routes of Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam; Gibson, David; Boshears, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our qualitative study was to gain a phenomenological understanding of routes to recovery from problematic drug use. In-depth interviews and drug histories were collected from 50 former methamphetamine users recruited from a U.S. metropolitan suburb who identified as having had problematic use of this drug in the past. Transcripts of the audio-recorded interviews were coded for common themes regarding types of recovery strategies or tools employed on the route to recovery. The common strategies used for recovery from problematic methamphetamine use in all routes were social in nature and did not necessarily include cessation of all substances. Based on our findings, we suggest a conceptualization of social recovery that focuses on reducing the social harms caused by problematic drug use rather than focusing primarily on cessation of all drug use. Social recovery may be employed as both a treatment strategy and analytical tool. More research is needed to advance the concept of social recovery for intervention, drug policy, and criminal justice implications. PMID:25574504

  11. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-08-27

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an alpha-olefin sulfonate having 10 to 26 carbon atoms and containing 0.1% to 15% by weight by weight of a disulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micellar slugs of the present invention are capable of forming micro-emulsions having a sufficiently low interfacial tension and, therefore, can improve oil recovery efficiency.

  12. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kowada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-04-23

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains, as an essential component, a divalent metal salt of an alpha-olefin sulfonic acid. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion formed from the present micellar slug is maintained stable in a subterranean reservoir formed by alkaline earth metal carbonates and, therefore, the oil recovery efficiency can be improved.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, far left, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks at pieces of Columbia debris collected in the KSC RLV Hangar. Other members of the board accompanied him as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, far left, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks at pieces of Columbia debris collected in the KSC RLV Hangar. Other members of the board accompanied him as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, gestures toward a large piece of Columbia debris. He and other board members are visiting the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. At right is U.S. Representative Dave Weldon; behind him is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, gestures toward a large piece of Columbia debris. He and other board members are visiting the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. At right is U.S. Representative Dave Weldon; behind him is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, talks to U.S. Representative Dave Weldon (right) during the CAIB’s visit to the KSC RLV Hangar. Left of Gehman is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Gehman and the board visited the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, talks to U.S. Representative Dave Weldon (right) during the CAIB’s visit to the KSC RLV Hangar. Left of Gehman is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Gehman and the board visited the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center left, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, and U.S. Representative Tom Feeney, center right, are shown pieces of Columbia debris collected in the KSC RLV Hangar. Other members of the board accompanied Gehman as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center left, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, and U.S. Representative Tom Feeney, center right, are shown pieces of Columbia debris collected in the KSC RLV Hangar. Other members of the board accompanied Gehman as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks on while U.S. Representative Dave Weldon (second from right) points at a piece of Columbia debris. Behind Gehman is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Gehman and other board members are visiting KSC as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the RLV Hangar, Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks on while U.S. Representative Dave Weldon (second from right) points at a piece of Columbia debris. Behind Gehman is U.S. Representative Tom Feeney. Gehman and other board members are visiting KSC as part of the ongoing investigation. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks at a large piece of Columbia debris in the RLV Hangar. He and other board members are visiting the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. To the right of Gehman are U.S. Representatives Tom Feeney and Dave Weldon. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Adm. Harold Gehman, center, chairman of the Columbia Investigation Accident Board, looks at a large piece of Columbia debris in the RLV Hangar. He and other board members are visiting the Hangar as part of the ongoing investigation. To the right of Gehman are U.S. Representatives Tom Feeney and Dave Weldon. Recovery efforts as of May 5 included 82,500 pieces of debris weighing 84,800 pounds, almost 40 percent of the total dry weight of the shuttle. About 25,000 personnel took part, utilizing almost 1.5 million total man-hours in the recovery effort and involving more than 130 federal, state and local agencies. The operation was also supported by more than 270 organizations that included businesses and volunteer groups.

  19. Recovery system for an underwater projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    A recovery system has been designed to recover and bring to the surface of the ocean a vehicle weighting 640 lbs under water and approximately 800 lbs in air. The vehicle has a terminal sink rate of 52-55 ft/sec. The recovery system includes a 4.2-ft-dia ribbon parachute, a 13-ft/sup 3/ flotation bag, and a gas generator for inflating the bag. Deployment of the recovery system normally occurs at depths between 400 and 600 ft. Components of the recovery system were tested before the system was used. Results of the tests along with a description of the recovery system are presented.

  20. Integrated butanol recovery for an advanced biofuel: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu; Yang, Shang-Tian; Sun, Jian-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Butanol has recently gained increasing interest due to escalating prices in petroleum fuels and concerns on the energy crisis. However, the butanol production cost with conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium spp. was higher than that of petrochemical processes due to the low butanol titer, yield, and productivity in bioprocesses. In particular, a low butanol titer usually leads to an extremely high recovery cost. Conventional biobutanol recovery by distillation is an energy-intensive process, which has largely restricted the economic production of biobutanol. This article thus reviews the latest studies on butanol recovery techniques including gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, and membrane-based techniques, which can be used for in situ recovery of inhibitory products to enhance butanol production. The productivity of the fermentation system is improved efficiently using the in situ recovery technology; however, the recovered butanol titer remains low due to the limitations from each one of these recovery technologies, especially when the feed butanol concentration is lower than 1 % (w/v). Therefore, several innovative multi-stage hybrid processes have been proposed and are discussed in this review. These hybrid processes including two-stage gas stripping and multi-stage pervaporation have high butanol selectivity, considerably higher energy and production efficiency, and should outperform the conventional processes using single separation step or method. The development of these new integrated processes will give a momentum for the sustainable production of industrial biobutanol.

  1. Energy recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.

    1982-08-31

    The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.

  2. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  3. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

  4. Credit Recovery Hits the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In communities including New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, educators are creating alternative schools for struggling students that employ online credit-recovery programs as a core portion, or all, of their curriculum. The growth in online learning generally, including blended learning, has fueled the proliferation of computer-based credit…

  5. Credit Recovery Hits the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In communities including New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, educators are creating alternative schools for struggling students that employ online credit-recovery programs as a core portion, or all, of their curriculum. The growth in online learning generally, including blended learning, has fueled the proliferation of computer-based credit…

  6. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  7. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  8. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  9. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft floats in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown from its first flight test in Earth orbit. The USS Anchorage is nearby. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  10. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    U.S. Navy personnel aboard a rigid hull inflatable boat help recover NASA's Orion spacecraft following its splashdown in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test in Earth orbit. The USS Anchorage is in the background. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  11. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. U.S. Navy divers in Zodiac boats prepare to recover Orion and tow her in to the well deck of the USS Anchorage. NASA's Orion spacecraft completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  12. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    U.S. Navy personnel aboard a rigid hull inflatable boat help recover NASA's Orion spacecraft following its splashdown in the Pacific Ocean after its first flight test in Earth orbit. Orion is towed into the flooded well deck of the USS Anchorage. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin coordinated efforts to recover Orion, the forward bay cover and main parachutes. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  13. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-5 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  14. Solid Rocket Booster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The towing ship, Liberty, towed a recovered solid rocket booster (SRB) for the STS-3 mission to Port Canaveral, Florida. The recovered SRB would be inspected and refurbished for reuse. The Shuttle's SRB's and solid rocket motors (SRM's) are the largest ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds. The requirement for reusability dictated durable materials and construction to preclude corrosion of the hardware exposed to the harsh seawater environment. The SRB contains a complete recovery subsystem that includes parachutes, beacons, lights, and tow fixture.

  15. Orion Splashdown Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-05

    NASA's Orion spacecraft is on rubber bumpers in the flooded well deck of the USS Anchorage in the Pacific Ocean about 600 miles off the coast of San Diego, California. Orion splashed down after its first flight test in Earth orbit. NASA, the U.S. Navy and Lockheed Martin are coordinating efforts to recover Orion and secure the spacecraft in the well deck of the USS Anchorage. Orion completed a two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, to test systems critical to crew safety, including the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is leading the recovery efforts.

  16. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Heike K; Coll, Marta; Magera, Anna M; Ward-Paige, Christine; Airoldi, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10-50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies.

  17. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  18. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  19. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  20. Parachute Line Hook Includes Integral Loop Expander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    Parachute packing simplified with modified line hook. One person packs parachutes for test recovery vehicles faster than previously two-person team. New line hook includes expander that opens up two locking loops so parachute lines are pulled through them. Parachutes are packed at high pressure to be compressed into limited space available in test vehicles.

  1. USDOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project: Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark}. Final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Final Report provides available design, operational, and maintenance information, and marketing plans, on the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} demonstration Project at the Dragon Products company`s cement plant at Thomaston, Maine. In addition, data on pollutant removal efficiencies and system economics are reviewed. The Recovery Scrubber was developed to simultaneously address the emission of acid gas pollutants and the disposal of alkaline solid waste at a cement plant. The process, however, has general application to other combustion processes including waste or fossil fuel fired boilers. Selected chemistry of the exhaust gas, (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), selected chemistry of the cement plant kiln baghouse dust catch (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), and Dragon cement plant economics are presented. current marketing efforts and potential markets for the Recovery Scrubber in several industries are discussed.

  2. Investigation of Electrochemical Recovery of Zirconium from Spent Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael; Hwang, II-Soon

    2014-06-01

    This project uses both modeling and experimental studies to design optimal electrochemical technology methods for recovery of zirconium from used nuclear fuel rods for more effective waste management. The objectives are to provide a means of efficiently separating zirconium into metallic high-level waste forms and to support development of a process for decontamination of zircaloy hulls to enable their disposal as low- and intermediate-level waste. Modeling work includes extension of a 3D model previously developed by Seoul National University for uranium electrorefining by adding the ability to predict zirconium behavior. Experimental validation activities include tests for recovery of zirconium from molten salt solutions and aqueous tests using surrogate materials. *This is a summary of the FY 2013 progress for I-NERI project # 2010-001-K provided to the I-NERI office.

  3. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance.

  4. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  8. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  10. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  11. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  12. Textile dryer heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. S.

    1985-08-06

    A textile dryer heat recovery system includes a textile dryer and a heat exchanger. A duct is provided for directing dryer exhaust gas to the heat exchanger for preheating dryer input air. A cleaning system within the heat exchanger removes dryer exhaust gas contaminants deposited in the heat exchanger.

  13. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  14. Recovery in Scotland: Beyond service development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland – including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network – and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland. PMID:22385428

  15. Recovery in Scotland: beyond service development.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Simon; McBrierty, Rona

    2012-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland - including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network - and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland.

  16. An Efficient Method for Subsurface Treatments, Including Squeeze Treatments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-03

    water 18. When a new well is drilled in such a reservoir, oil typically flows spontaneously out of the reservoir as a "gusher", due to the high... slurry of hollow microtubules, where the lumen of these 20 microtubules is loaded with an agent for the treatment of petroleum well environments, and...typically pumped into the well in a squeeze treatment. Preferably, the tubules are wettable by liquid. In the case of multiphase liquids such as emulsions

  17. Energy recovery ventilator

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S. L.; Dravnieks, K.

    1985-04-30

    An energy recovery ventilator adapted to be mounted on a roof and adapted to be connected to the outlet of an exhaust air duct of a building ventilation system and the inlet of an air supply duct of a building ventilation system. The energy recovery ventilator includes a housing having an exhaust air chamber and a supply air chamber separated by a divider wall. A circular heat transfer wheel is position in the housing, a portion of the wheel being housed in the exhaust air chamber and a second portion of the wheel being housed in the supply air chamber, and the heat transfer wheel is caused to rotate about a central axis. An exhaust fan is housed in the exhaust air chamber and causes exhaust air to be pulled through the exhaust air duct and the heat transfer wheel and to be exhausted from the housing. A supply air fan is housed in the supply air housing above the heat transfer wheel, and causes outside air to be drawn into the supply air chamber and to be forced through the heat transfer wheel into the air supply duct.

  18. LGBTQ women and mental health "recovery".

    PubMed

    Das, A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated what women identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer (LGBTQ) think about mental health "recovery." We used a grounded theory analysis of 13 participant interviews. Three novel critiques emerged, including rejection of mental health "recovery" based on participants' identities as "mad," sexual assault survivors, and/or LGBTQ. While a medicalized interpretation of "recovery" may not work for some women, alternative understandings, such as using "recovery" to heal from discrimination and demand systemic changes, have liberatory potential. It is essential that supporters discern and utilize each woman's chosen language.

  19. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  20. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  1. Accelerated dynamic EPR imaging using fast acquisition and compressive recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2016-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allows quantitative imaging of tissue redox status, which provides important information about ischemic syndromes, cancer and other pathologies. For continuous wave EPR imaging, however, poor signal-to-noise ratio and low acquisition efficiency limit its ability to image dynamic processes in vivo including tissue redox, where conditions can change rapidly. Here, we present a data acquisition and processing framework that couples fast acquisition with compressive sensing-inspired image recovery to enable EPR-based redox imaging with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The fast acquisition (FA) allows collecting more, albeit noisier, projections in a given scan time. The composite regularization based processing method, called spatio-temporal adaptive recovery (STAR), not only exploits sparsity in multiple representations of the spatio-temporal image but also adaptively adjusts the regularization strength for each representation based on its inherent level of the sparsity. As a result, STAR adjusts to the disparity in the level of sparsity across multiple representations, without introducing any tuning parameter. Our simulation and phantom imaging studies indicate that a combination of fast acquisition and STAR (FASTAR) enables high-fidelity recovery of volumetric image series, with each volumetric image employing less than 10 s of scan. In addition to image fidelity, the time constants derived from FASTAR also match closely to the ground truth even when a small number of projections are used for recovery. This development will enhance the capability of EPR to study fast dynamic processes that cannot be investigated using existing EPR imaging techniques.

  2. Accelerated dynamic EPR imaging using fast acquisition and compressive recovery.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L

    2016-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) allows quantitative imaging of tissue redox status, which provides important information about ischemic syndromes, cancer and other pathologies. For continuous wave EPR imaging, however, poor signal-to-noise ratio and low acquisition efficiency limit its ability to image dynamic processes in vivo including tissue redox, where conditions can change rapidly. Here, we present a data acquisition and processing framework that couples fast acquisition with compressive sensing-inspired image recovery to enable EPR-based redox imaging with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The fast acquisition (FA) allows collecting more, albeit noisier, projections in a given scan time. The composite regularization based processing method, called spatio-temporal adaptive recovery (STAR), not only exploits sparsity in multiple representations of the spatio-temporal image but also adaptively adjusts the regularization strength for each representation based on its inherent level of the sparsity. As a result, STAR adjusts to the disparity in the level of sparsity across multiple representations, without introducing any tuning parameter. Our simulation and phantom imaging studies indicate that a combination of fast acquisition and STAR (FASTAR) enables high-fidelity recovery of volumetric image series, with each volumetric image employing less than 10 s of scan. In addition to image fidelity, the time constants derived from FASTAR also match closely to the ground truth even when a small number of projections are used for recovery. This development will enhance the capability of EPR to study fast dynamic processes that cannot be investigated using existing EPR imaging techniques.

  3. Competing priorities: staff perspectives on supporting recovery.

    PubMed

    Le Boutillier, Clair; Slade, Mike; Lawrence, Vanessa; Bird, Victoria J; Chandler, Ruth; Farkas, Marianne; Harding, Courtenay; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G; Roberts, Glenn; Shepherd, Geoff; Thornicroft, Graham; Williams, Julie; Leamy, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Recovery has come to mean living a life beyond mental illness, and recovery orientation is policy in many countries. The aims of this study were to investigate what staff say they do to support recovery and to identify what they perceive as barriers and facilitators associated with providing recovery-oriented support. Data collection included ten focus groups with multidisciplinary clinicians (n = 34) and team leaders (n = 31), and individual interviews with clinicians (n = 18), team leaders (n = 6) and senior managers (n = 8). The identified core category was Competing Priorities, with staff identifying conflicting system priorities that influence how recovery-oriented practice is implemented. Three sub-categories were: Health Process Priorities, Business Priorities, and Staff Role Perception. Efforts to transform services towards a recovery orientation require a whole-systems approach.

  4. Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge via ultrasound and freeze/thaw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W; Hu, Xuan; Song, Xinyuan

    2012-02-15

    The effective disposal of oily sludge generated from the petroleum industry has received increasing concerns, and oil recovery from such waste was considered as one feasible option. In this study, three different approaches for oil recovery were investigated, including ultrasonic treatment alone, freeze/thaw alone and combined ultrasonic and freeze/thaw treatment. The results revealed that the combined process could achieve satisfactory performance by considering the oil recovery rate and the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations in the recovered oil and wastewater. The individual impacts of five different factors on the combined process were further examined, including ultrasonic power, ultrasonic treatment duration, sludge/water ratio in the slurry, as well as bio-surfactant (rhamnolipids) and salt (NaCl) concentrations. An oil recovery rate of up to 80.0% was observed with an ultrasonic power of 66 W and an ultrasonic treatment duration of 10 min when the sludge/water ratio was 1:2 without the addition of bio-surfactant and salt. The examination of individual factors revealed that the addition of low concentration of rhamnolipids (<100mg/L) and salt (<1%) to the sludge could help improve the oil recovery from the combined treatment process. The experimental results also indicated that ultrasound and freeze/thaw could promote the efficiency of each other, and the main mechanism of oil recovery enhancement using ultrasound was through enhanced desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from solid particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Implications of rate-limited mass transfer for aquifer storage and recovery.

    PubMed

    Culkin, Sean L; Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D

    2008-01-01

    Pressure to decrease reliance on surface water storage has led to increased interest in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems. Recovery efficiency, which is the ratio of the volume of recovered water that meets a predefined standard to total volume of injected fluid, is a common criterion of ASR viability. Recovery efficiency can be degraded by a number of physical and geochemical processes, including rate-limited mass transfer (RLMT), which describes the exchange of solutes between mobile and immobile pore fluids. RLMT may control transport behavior that cannot be explained by advection and dispersion. We present data from a pilot-scale ASR study in Charleston, South Carolina, and develop a three-dimensional finite-difference model to evaluate the impact of RLMT processes on ASR efficiency. The modeling shows that RLMT can explain a rebound in salinity during fresh water storage in a brackish aquifer. Multicycle model results show low efficiencies over one to three ASR cycles due to RLMT degrading water quality during storage; efficiencies can evolve and improve markedly, however, over multiple cycles, even exceeding efficiencies generated by advection-dispersion only models. For an idealized ASR model where RLMT is active, our simulations show a discrete range of diffusive length scales over which the viability of ASR schemes in brackish aquifers would be hindered.

  6. DNA recovery from soils of diverse composition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Bruns, M A; Tiedje, J M

    1996-02-01

    A simple, rapid method for bacterial lysis and direct extraction of DNA from soils with minimal shearing was developed to address the risk of chimera formation from small template DNA during subsequent PCR. The method was based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1.5 M NaCl) and extended heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and proteinase K. The extraction method required 6 h and was tested on eight soils differing in organic carbon, clay content, and pH, including ones from which DNA extraction is difficult. The DNA fragment size in crude extracts from all soils was > 23 kb. Preliminary trials indicated that DNA recovery from two soils seeded with gram-negative bacteria was 92 to 99%. When the method was tested on all eight unseeded soils, microscopic examination of indigenous bacteria in soil pellets before and after extraction showed variable cell lysis efficiency (26 to 92%). Crude DNA yields from the eight soils ranged from 2.5 to 26.9 micrograms of DNA g-1, and these were positively correlated with the organic carbon content in the soil (r = 0.73). DNA yields from gram-positive bacteria from pure cultures were two to six times higher when the high-salt-SDS-heat method was combined with mortar-and-pestle grinding and freeze-thawing, and most DNA recovered was of high molecular weight. Four methods for purifying crude DNA were also evaluated for percent recovery, fragment size, speed, enzyme restriction, PCR amplification, and DNA-DNA hybridization. In general, all methods produced DNA pure enough for PCR amplification. Since soil type and microbial community characteristics will influence DNA recovery, this study provides guidance for choosing appropriate extraction and purification methods on the basis of experimental goals.

  7. DNA recovery from soils of diverse composition.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J; Bruns, M A; Tiedje, J M

    1996-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for bacterial lysis and direct extraction of DNA from soils with minimal shearing was developed to address the risk of chimera formation from small template DNA during subsequent PCR. The method was based on lysis with a high-salt extraction buffer (1.5 M NaCl) and extended heating (2 to 3 h) of the soil suspension in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and proteinase K. The extraction method required 6 h and was tested on eight soils differing in organic carbon, clay content, and pH, including ones from which DNA extraction is difficult. The DNA fragment size in crude extracts from all soils was > 23 kb. Preliminary trials indicated that DNA recovery from two soils seeded with gram-negative bacteria was 92 to 99%. When the method was tested on all eight unseeded soils, microscopic examination of indigenous bacteria in soil pellets before and after extraction showed variable cell lysis efficiency (26 to 92%). Crude DNA yields from the eight soils ranged from 2.5 to 26.9 micrograms of DNA g-1, and these were positively correlated with the organic carbon content in the soil (r = 0.73). DNA yields from gram-positive bacteria from pure cultures were two to six times higher when the high-salt-SDS-heat method was combined with mortar-and-pestle grinding and freeze-thawing, and most DNA recovered was of high molecular weight. Four methods for purifying crude DNA were also evaluated for percent recovery, fragment size, speed, enzyme restriction, PCR amplification, and DNA-DNA hybridization. In general, all methods produced DNA pure enough for PCR amplification. Since soil type and microbial community characteristics will influence DNA recovery, this study provides guidance for choosing appropriate extraction and purification methods on the basis of experimental goals. PMID:8593035

  8. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  9. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  10. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  11. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... requirements of section 1605 of the Recovery Act under the authority of section 1605(b)(1) (amended public... INFORMATION: Under the authority of the Recovery Act, section 1605(b)(1), the head of a Federal department...

  12. Organ Donor Recovery Performed at an Organ Procurement Organization-Based Facility Is an Effective Way to Minimize Organ Recovery Costs and Increase Organ Yield.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Majella; Subramanian, Vijay; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly; Wellen, Jason R; Stahlschmidt, Emily; Brockmeier, Diane; Coleman, Jason; Kappel, Dean; Chapman, William C

    2016-04-01

    A new era in organ donation with national redistricting is being proposed. With these proposals, costs of organ acquisition are estimated to more than double. Traditionally, organ recoveries occur in the donor hospital setting, incurring premium hospital expenses. The aim of the study was to determine organ recovery costs and organ yield for donor recoveries performed at an organ procurement organization (OPO) facility. In 2001, we established an OPO facility and in 2008 began transferring the donor expeditiously when brain death was declared. The OPO donor and hospital costs on a per donor basis were calculated. Donation after cardiac death donors cannot be transferred and were included in the hospital cost analysis. From January 2009 to December 2014, nine hundred and sixty-three donors originating in our OPO had organs recovered and transplanted. Seven hundred and sixty-six (79.5%) donors were transferred to the OPO facility 8.6 hours (range 0.6 to 23.6 hours) after declaration of brain death. Donor recovery cost was 51% less when donors were transferred to the OPO facility ($16,153 OPO recovery vs $33,161 hospital recovery; p < 0.0001). Organ yield was 27.5% better (3.43 organs) from OPO-recovered donors vs an organ yield of 2.69 from hospital-recovered donors (p < 0.0001). Standard criteria donor organ yield from our OPO was 6% higher than the national average (3.92 vs 3.7 nationally; p = 0.012) and expanded criteria donor organ yield was 18% higher (2.2 vs 1.87 nationally; p = 0.03). An OPO facility for donor organ recovery increases efficiency and organ yield, reduces costs, and minimizes organ acquisition charge. As we face new considerations with broader sharing, increased efficiencies, cost. and organ use should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What does recovery mean to you? Lessons from the recovery experience for research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2007-01-01

    Recovery is a ubiquitous concept but remains poorly understood and ill-defined, hindering the development of assessment tools necessary to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This study examines recovery definitions and experiences among persons who self-identify as ‘in recovery.’ Two questions are addressed: (1) Does recovery require total abstinence from all drugs and alcohol? and (2) Is recovery defined solely in terms of substance use or does it extend to other areas of functioning as well? Inner-city residents with resolved dependence to crack or heroin were interviewed yearly three times (N = 289). Most defined recovery as total abstinence. However, recovery goes well beyond abstinence; it is experienced as a bountiful ‘new life’, an ongoing process of growth, self-change and of reclaiming the self. Implications for clinical and assessment practice are discussed, including the need to effect paradigmatic shifts from pathology to wellness and from acute to continuing models. PMID:17889296

  14. Petroleum recovery: Reservoir engineering and recovery methods. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field projects and supporting research on petroleum recovery and reservoir technology. Recovery agents and methods are discussed including responsive copolymers, microemulsions, surfactants, steam injection, gas injection, miscible displacement, and thermal processes. Reservoir modeling, simulation, and performance are examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.

  16. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.

  17. Waste heat recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Taiji Inui, H.; Makoto Sasaki, M.

    1984-08-21

    A waste heat recovery boiler for generating steam by utilizing a flue gas discharged from a gas turbine as a heat source comprises an economizer for preheating feedwater by the flue gas, an evaporator for evaporating the preheated feedwater, and a superheater for generating a steam for driving a steam prime mover by heating the evaporated feedwater. The economizer, the evaporator and the superheater are successively arranged in the direction from a downstream side to an upstream side of flue gas passage. The evaporator itself is divided into two sections and an apparatus for removing NO /SUB x/ is provided in a space between the divided two sections of the evaporator in the flue gas passage to remove NO /SUB x/ from the flue gas. An NO /SUB x/ concentration of a flue gas discharged from a combined cycle power plant including the gas turbine can be stably abated at any of full and partial loads.

  18. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  19. On scheduling tasks with a quick recovery from failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna, C. M.; Shin, K. G.

    1986-01-01

    Multiprocessors used in life-critical real-time systems must recover quickly from failure. Part of this recovery consists of switching to a new task schedule which ensures that hard deadlines for critical tasks continue to be met. A dynamic programming algorithm is presented that ensures that backup, or contingency, schedules can be efficiently embedded within the original, 'primary' schedule to ensure that hard deadlines continue to be met in the face of up to a given maximum number of processor failures. Several illustrative examples are included.

  20. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, M B; Dube, P J; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2017-04-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia (NH3) from liquid manures. In this study, phosphorus (P) recovery via MgCl2 precipitation was enhanced by combining it with NH3 recovery through gas-permeable membranes. Anaerobically digested swine wastewater containing approximately 2300 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) and 450 mg P L(-1) was treated using submerged membranes plus low-rate aeration to recover the NH3 from within the liquid and MgCl2 to precipitate the P. The experiments included a first configuration where N and P were recovered sequentially and a second configuration with simultaneous recovery. The low-rate aeration reduced the natural carbonate, increased pH and accelerated NH3 uptake by the gas-permeable membrane system, which in turn benefited P recovery. Phosphorus removal efficiency was >90% and P recovery efficiency was about 100%. With higher NH3 capture, the recovered P contained higher P2O5 content (37-46%, >98% available), similar to the composition of the biomineral newberyite (MgHPO4·3H2O). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Recovery and Money Management

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764

  3. Recovery and money management.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Recovery Systems Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    APPLICATIONS 2....................................................2 VEHICLE RECOVERY............................................... 2 Recovery of Target Drones ...approach to parachute of target drones and missile components. The cluster- design and performance prediction. The Germans ing of parachutes of all sizes and...availability of data to the authors and the technical compunity In genera. 1] VEHICLE RECOVERY KD2R-5 and MOM-74C Target Drones . The first target drone of the

  5. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  6. Hospital service recovery.

    PubMed

    Gutbezahl, Cary; Haan, Perry

    2006-01-01

    An organization's ability to correct service errors is an important factor in achieving success in today's service economy. This paper examines service recovery in hospitals in the U.S. First is a general review of service recovery theories. Next is a discussion of specific service issues related to the hospital environment. The literature on service recovery is used to make specific recommendations to hospitals for ways to improve their ability to remedy service errors when they occur. Suggestions for future research in the field of service recovery are also made.

  7. APOLLO 10 RECOVERY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-05-26

    S69-20638 (26 May 1969) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot, egresses the Apollo 10 spacecraft during recovery operations in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Already in life raft are astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), commander; and John W. Young, command module pilot. The three crewmen were picked up by helicopter and flown to the prime recovery ship, USS Princeton. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m. (CDT), May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa, and about four miles from the recovery ship, to conclude a successful eight-day lunar orbit mission.

  8. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  9. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  10. Quantifying fault recovery in multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Harary, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Various aspects of reliable computing are formalized and quantified with emphasis on efficient fault recovery. The mathematical model which proves to be most appropriate is provided by the theory of graphs. New measures for fault recovery are developed and the value of elements of the fault recovery vector are observed to depend not only on the computation graph H and the architecture graph G, but also on the specific location of a fault. In the examples, a hypercube is chosen as a representative of parallel computer architecture, and a pipeline as a typical configuration for program execution. Dependability qualities of such a system is defined with or without a fault. These qualities are determined by the resiliency triple defined by three parameters: multiplicity, robustness, and configurability. Parameters for measuring the recovery effectiveness are also introduced in terms of distance, time, and the number of new, used, and moved nodes and edges.

  11. Comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Luis A.; Lister, Tedd E.; Parkman, Jacob A.; Clark, Gemma G.

    2016-04-08

    The development of technologies that contribute to the proper disposal and treatment of electronic waste is not just an environmental need, but an opportunity for the recovery and recycle of valuable metals and critical materials. Value elements in electronic waste include gold, palladium, silver, copper, nickel, and rare earth elements (RE). Here, we present the development of a process that enables efficient recycling of metals from scrap mobile electronics. An electro recycling (ER) process, based on the regeneration of Fe3+ as a weak oxidizer, is studied for the selective recovery of base metals while leaving precious metals for separate extraction at reduced chemical demand. A separate process recovers rare earth oxides from magnets in electronics. Furthermore, recovery and extraction efficiencies ca. 90 % were obtained for the extraction of base metals from the non-ferromagnetic fraction in the two different solution matrices tested (H2SO4, and HCl). The effect of the pre-extraction of base metals in the increase of precious metals extraction efficiency was verified. On the other hand, the extraction of rare earths from the ferromagnetic fraction, performed by means of anaerobic extraction in acid media, was assessed for the selective recovery of rare earths. We developed a comprehensive flow sheet to process electronic waste to value products.

  12. Comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste

    DOE PAGES

    Diaz, Luis A.; Lister, Tedd E.; Parkman, Jacob A.; ...

    2016-04-08

    The development of technologies that contribute to the proper disposal and treatment of electronic waste is not just an environmental need, but an opportunity for the recovery and recycle of valuable metals and critical materials. Value elements in electronic waste include gold, palladium, silver, copper, nickel, and rare earth elements (RE). Here, we present the development of a process that enables efficient recycling of metals from scrap mobile electronics. An electro recycling (ER) process, based on the regeneration of Fe3+ as a weak oxidizer, is studied for the selective recovery of base metals while leaving precious metals for separate extractionmore » at reduced chemical demand. A separate process recovers rare earth oxides from magnets in electronics. Furthermore, recovery and extraction efficiencies ca. 90 % were obtained for the extraction of base metals from the non-ferromagnetic fraction in the two different solution matrices tested (H2SO4, and HCl). The effect of the pre-extraction of base metals in the increase of precious metals extraction efficiency was verified. On the other hand, the extraction of rare earths from the ferromagnetic fraction, performed by means of anaerobic extraction in acid media, was assessed for the selective recovery of rare earths. We developed a comprehensive flow sheet to process electronic waste to value products.« less

  13. Inventory and review of aquifer storage and recovery in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    publications > water resources investigations > report 02-4036 US Department of the Interior US Geological Survey WRI 02-4036Inventory and Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Southern Florida By Ronald S. ReeseTallahassee, Florida 2002 prepared as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Place-Based Studies Program ABSTRACT Abstract Introduction Inventory of Data Case Studies Summary References Tables Aquifer storage and recovery in southern Florida has been proposed on an unprecedented scale as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Aquifer storage and recovery wells were constructed or are under construction at 27 sites in southern Florida, mostly by local municipalities or counties located in coastal areas. The Upper Floridan aquifer, the principal storage zone of interest to the restoration plan, is the aquifer being used at 22 of the sites. The aquifer is brackish to saline in southern Florida, which can greatly affect the recovery of the freshwater recharged and stored.Well data were inventoried and compiled for all wells at most of the 27 sites. Construction and testing data were compiled into four main categories: (1) well identification, location, and construction data; (2) hydraulic test data; (3) ambient formation water-quality data; and (4) cycle testing data. Each cycle during testing or operation includes periods of recharge of freshwater, storage, and recovery that each last days or months. Cycle testing data include calculations of recovery efficiency, which is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered.Calculated cycle test data include potable water recovery efficiencies for 16 of the 27 sites. However, the number of cycles at most sites was limited; except for two sites, the highest number of cycles was five. Only nine sites had a recovery efficiency above 10 percent for the first cycle, and 10 sites achieved a recovery efficiency above 30 percent during at least one cycle. The

  14. A review of enhanced recovery for thoracic anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, N L; Edmonds, L; Ghosh, S; Klein, A A

    2013-02-01

    During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of thoracic surgical procedures carried out in the UK. The current financial climate dictates that more efficient use of resources is necessary to meet escalating demands on healthcare. One potential means to achieve this is through the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols, designed to produce productivity savings by driving reduction in length of stay. These have been promoted by government bodies in a number of surgical specialties, including colorectal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. This review focuses on aspects of peri-operative care that might be incorporated into such a programme for thoracic anaesthesia, for which an enhanced recovery programme has not yet been introduced in the UK, and a review of the literature specific to this area of practice has not been published before. We performed a comprehensive search for published work relating to the peri-operative management and optimisation of patients undergoing thoracic surgery, and divided these into appropriate areas of practice. We have reviewed the specific interventions that may be included in an enhanced recovery programme, including: pre-optimisation; minimising fasting time; thrombo-embolic prophylaxis; choice of anaesthetic and analgesic technique and surgical approach; postoperative rehabilitation; and chest drain management. Using the currently available evidence, the design and implementation of an enhanced recovery programme based on this review in selected patients as a package of care may reduce morbidity and length of hospital stay, thus maximising utilisation of available resources. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high…

  16. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery... service in the area served by the LEC, including that LEC. The LEC shall use a cost recovery...

  17. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high…

  18. Integrated analysis of error detection and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated modeling and analysis of error detection and recovery is presented. When fault latency and/or error latency exist, the system may suffer from multiple faults or error propagations which seriously deteriorate the fault-tolerant capability. Several detection models that enable analysis of the effect of detection mechanisms on the subsequent error handling operations and the overall system reliability were developed. Following detection of the faulty unit and reconfiguration of the system, the contaminated processes or tasks have to be recovered. The strategies of error recovery employed depend on the detection mechanisms and the available redundancy. Several recovery methods including the rollback recovery are considered. The recovery overhead is evaluated as an index of the capabilities of the detection and reconfiguration mechanisms.

  19. Orion Underway Recovery Test 5 (URT-5)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Recovery team members watch Orion Underway Recovery Test 5 activities on the flight deck of the USS San Diego in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California. NASA's Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and the U.S. Navy are practicing recovery techniques using the well deck of the ship and a test version of the Orion crew module to prepare for recovery of Orion on its return from deep space missions. The testing will allow the team to demonstrate and evaluate recovery processes, procedures, hardware and personnel in open waters. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and NASA's Journey to Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. Orion is scheduled to launch on NASA's Space Launch System in late 2018. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/orion.

  20. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.