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Sample records for recreational long-distance runners

  1. Index of mechanical efficiency in competitive and recreational long distance runners.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Davis, Judith A; Alley, Jessica R; Knorr, Daniel P; Goodman, Courtney L; Snyder, James G; Battista, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare external work and net energy expenditure during a bout of repetitive stretch-shortening cycles between competitive and recreational long-distance runners. Participants were divided into either competitive or recreational runners based on their maximal oxygen consumption and self-reported 1600 m times. The stretch-shortening cycle involved a repetitive hopping protocol on a force plate while measuring oxygen consumption and lactate accumulation for a total of 10 min. External work and net energy expenditure were calculated for 3 min after steady state was achieved and the ratio between these variables was utilised as an index of mechanical efficiency. Lower extremity stiffness was calculated during this interval as well. Net energy expenditure was significantly lower in competitive runners (152.6 ± 33.3 kJ) in comparison to recreational runners (200.6 ± 41.4 kJ) (P = 0.02) given similar amounts of external work performed in both groups (competitive runners = 65.6 ± 20.1 kJ, recreational runners = 68.8 ± 12.1 kJ) (P = 0.67). Index of mechanical efficiency was significantly different between competitive runners (43.2 ± 9.0%) and recreational runners (34.8 ± 5.3%) (P = 0.03). No significant differences were found in lower extremity stiffness (P = 0.64). Competitive distance runners can perform similar levels of external work with lower net energy expenditure and thus a higher index of mechanical efficiency during repetitive stretch-shortening cycles in comparison to recreational runners with similar values of lower extremity stiffness. This ability could possibly be due differences in muscle-tendon length changes, muscle pre-activation, cross-bridge potentiation and short-latency reflex responses as a result of training which should be considered for future investigation.

  2. Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race.

    PubMed

    Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.

  3. Bioenergetics and neuromuscular determinants of the time to exhaustion at velocity corresponding to VO2max in recreational long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Romulo; Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Acquesta, Fernanda M; Batista, Mauro B; Roschel, Hamilton; Kiss, Maria A P D M; Serrão, Júlio C; Tricoli, Valmor; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the main bioenergetics and neuromuscular determinants of the time to exhaustion (T(lim)) at the velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen uptake in recreational long-distance runners. Twenty runners performed the following tests on 5 different days: (a) maximal incremental treadmill test, (b) 2 submaximal tests to determine running economy and vertical stiffness, (c) exhaustive test to measured the T(lim), (d) maximum dynamic strength test, and (e) muscle power production test. Aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions during the T(lim) test were also estimated. The stepwise multiple regression method selected 3 independent variables to explain T(lim) variance. Total energy production explained 84.1% of the shared variance (p = 0.001), whereas peak oxygen uptake (V(O2)peak) measured during T(lim)and lower limb muscle power ability accounted for the additional 10% of the shared variance (p = 0.014). These data suggest that the total energy production, V(O2)peak, and lower limb muscle power ability are the main physiological and neuromuscular determinants of T(lim)in recreational long-distance runners.

  4. Sulfur status in long distance runners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.; Lourenço, T.; Macedo, D.

    2015-07-01

    In sports medicine, sulfur plays an important role and its deficiency can cause muscle injury affecting the performance of the athletes. However, its evaluation is unusual in conventional clinical practice. In this study the sulfur levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. Twenty six male amateur runners, age 18 to 36 years, participated of this study. The athletes had a balanced diet, without multivitamin/mineral supplements. The blood collection was performed at LABEX (Laboratoriode Bioquimica do Exercicio, UNICAMP-SP) and the samples were irradiated for 300 seconds in a pneumatic station in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities) and showed that the sulfur concentration was 44% higher in amateurs athletes than control group. These data can be considered for preparation of balanced diet, as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation.

  5. Body composition and two-compartment model assumptions in male long distance runners.

    PubMed

    Penn, I W; Wang, Z M; Buhl, K M; Allison, D B; Burastero, S E; Heymsfield, S B

    1994-03-01

    Long distance running increases bone mineral mass, skeletal muscle weight, and extracellular fluid volume. Each of these changes may have an impact on classic two-compartment body composition methods that assume a constant fat-free body mass (FFM) density (1.100 g.cc-1), potassium content (65 mmol.kg-1 FFM), and hydration (0.73 kg H2O.kg-1 FFM). The aims of the present study were: to use newly developed multi-component methods to evaluate the validity of two-compartment methods in white male recreational long-distance runners (N = 10); and to compare the body composition of these runners to sedentary controls (N = 10) of similar age, body weight, and body mass index. Runners had a significantly smaller fraction of body weight as fat (P = 0.001) and a larger fraction of FFM as lower extremity skeletal muscle (P = 0.045) and bone (P = 0.049). Although FFM constituted a larger proportion of body weight in the runners, the fractional contributions of water, protein, and mineral were similar to those in the control group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in density of FFM, total body potassium/FFM, and total body water/FFM. New methods thus allow in-depth analyses of body composition in athletes, with results suggesting that classic two-compartment methods are valid in white recreational long-distance runners.

  6. Acute ischaemic colitis in a female long distance runner.

    PubMed Central

    Heer, M; Repond, F; Hany, A; Sulser, H; Kehl, O; Jäger, K

    1987-01-01

    A 34 year old female long distance runner is reported with bloody diarrhoea. Colonoscopy revealed patchy haemorrhagic mucosal lesions throughout the colon. The most extensive lesions were found in the sigmoid colon. Histologic examination disclosed mucosal haemorrhage, dilated capillaries, patchy fibrosis and superficial erosions. Additional findings in this patient were haemorrhagic gastritis, microscopic haematuria and rhabdomyolysis. The only medication taken by the patient was oral contraceptives. We conclude that ischaemic colitis is one of the possible mechanisms leading to gastrointestinal blood loss in competitive runners. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3498668

  7. The effect of marathon on mRNA expression of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins and sirtuins family in male recreational long-distance runners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence shows that a single bout of strenuous exercise induces oxidative stress in circulating human lymphocytes leading to lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, mitochondrial perturbations, and protein oxidation. In our research, we investigated the effect of physical load on the extent of apoptosis in primary cells derived from blood samples of sixteen healthy amateur runners after marathon (a.m.). Results Blood samples were collected from ten healthy amateur runners peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and bcl-2, bax, heat shock protein (HSP)70, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT4 (Sirtuins) RNA levels were determined by Northern Blot analysis. Strenuous physical load significantly increased HSP70, HSP32, Mn-SOD, Cu-Zn SOD, iNOS, GADD45, bcl-2, forkhead box O (FOXO3A) and SIRT1 expression after the marathon, while decreasing bax, SIRT3 and SIRT4 expression (P < 0.0001). Conclusion These data suggest that the physiological load imposed in amateur runners during marathon attenuates the extent of apoptosis and may interfere with sirtuin expression. PMID:20462402

  8. Common Leg Injuries of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Robert A.; Plakke, Michael; Silvis, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Long-distance running (greater than 3000 m) is often recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Running injury rates increase significantly when weekly mileage extends beyond 40 miles cumulatively. With the development of running analysis and other diagnostic tests, injuries to the leg secondary to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes can be diagnosed and successfully managed. Evidence Acquisition Searches used the terms running, injuries, lower extremity, leg, medial tibial stress syndrome, compartment syndrome, stress fractures, popliteal artery entrapment, gastrocnemius soleus tears, and Achilles tendinopathy. Sources included Medline, Google Scholar, and Ovid from 1970 through January 2012. Results Tibial stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome can sometimes be prevented and/or treated by correcting biomechanical abnormalities. Exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are caused by anatomic abnormalities and are difficult to treat without surgical correction. Conclusion Leg pain due to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes is common among long-distance runners. Knowledge of the underlying biomechanical and/or anatomic abnormality is necessary to successfully treat these conditions. PMID:24179587

  9. Young long distance runners. Physiological and psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nudel, D B; Hassett, I; Gurian, A; Diamant, S; Weinhouse, E; Gootman, N

    1989-11-01

    This study presents the physiological and psychological characteristics and the running histories of 16 subjects who began long distance running at age 4-12 years. Running duration was 3-15 years (mean 8.4 +/- 3.6 yrs). Seven children completed 41 marathons, seven 30-mile races, and eight 60-mile races. The other nine competed at shorter distances. All trained at 30-105 miles/week. Two stress fractures, one back sprain and one knee injury occurred. Athletes who reported injuries from recollection may have underreported some injuries. At age 15.4 +/- 4.2 years bone age was 15.3 +/- 2.6 years and height was at 51 +/- 26.0 percentile. Athletes had larger left ventricular diastolic diameter, higher max O2 uptake, and delayed onset of anaerobic metabolism compared to controls. Psychological profile: IQ = 121 +/- 11, scholastic grade point average (GPA) (n = 13) was less than or equal to 3.0 in four, 3.6-3.9 in four, and 4.0 in five. Cattell 16 personality factor (PF): Seven scored above the 85th percentile on boldness, warmth, conformity, sensitivity, dominance, and high drive with tension. Eight scored above the 93rd percentile for self discipline and emotional stability. Human Figure Drawing showed a distorted body image in seven. Two developed anorexia nervosa, and another girl committed suicide. Thus, high physical fitness and no growth retardation were observed. These runners, however, shared distinct positive and negative personality characteristics. The relatively high incidence of severe psychological disorders possibly suggests a need for psychological screening for young children entering a strenuous training program and for close monitoring for development of psychological problems during the program.

  10. Gonadotropin Pulsatllity in FemaIe Long Distance Runners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-24

    that higher androgen levels may be advantageous to runners due to their anabolic effects. He hypothesized that higher androgen levels can be...50.9+1.9 miles per week of running for the three months prior to the study. All of thes.e women were competetive runners racing frequently and all

  11. Stress-related injuries around the lesser trochanter in long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Josephine T; Peterson, Jeffrey S; Biswal, Sandip; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Imaging abnormalities around the lesser trochanter are occasionally found in long-distance runners, yet little research has been conducted concerning this area of the hip. In addition, the relation between iliopsoas insertional abnormalities at the lesser trochanter and femoral neck stress injuries has not been examined, to our knowledge. We report MRI findings at the lesser trochanter in nine long-distance runners with hip or groin pain and a consistent constellation of the following findings: abnormalities associated with the iliopsoas tendon and its insertion, including marrow edema at the lesser trochanter; periostitis around the lesser trochanter; and bone marrow edema in the femoral neck. One case involved temporal progression to a cortical fracture. Long-distance runners with hip or groin pain and abnormal MRI findings involving the insertion of the iliopsoas tendon and marrow edema in the lesser trochanter may be at risk of stress injuries at the femoral neck.

  12. Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

  13. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite long-distance runners in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renata Nakata; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Costa, Luiz Augusto Riani; Martins, Milton Arruda; Mickleborough, Timothy Derick; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among elite long-distance runners in Brazil and whether there is a difference in the training loads among athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. This was a cross-sectional study involving elite long-distance runners with neither current asthma symptoms nor a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. All of the participants underwent eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests, as well as completing questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and physical activity, in order to monitor their weekly training load. Among the 86 male athletes recruited, participation in the study was agreed to by 20, of whom 5 (25%) were subsequently diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. There were no differences between the athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction regarding anthropometric characteristics, peak oxygen consumption, baseline pulmonary function values, or reported asthma symptoms. The weekly training load was significantly lower among those with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than among those without. In this sample of long-distance runners in Brazil, the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was high.

  14. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT: THE ATTITUDES OF MIDDLE- AND LONG-DISTANCE RUNNERS AND THEIR COACHES

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma; Ramskov, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which factors do you believe influence the risk of running injuries?”. In response to this question, the athletes and coaches had to click “Yes” or “No” to 19 predefined factors. In addition, they had the possibility to submit a free-text response. Results A total of 68 athletes and 19 coaches were included in the study. A majority of the athletes (76% [95%CI: 66%; 86%]) and coaches (79% [95%CI: 61%; 97%]) reported “Ignoring pain” as a risk factor for running injury. A majority of the coaches reported “Reduced muscle strength” (79% [95%CI: 61%; 97%]) and “high running distance” (74% [95%CI: 54%; 94%]) to be associated with injury, while half of the runners found “insufficient recovery between running sessions” (53% [95%CI: 47%; 71%]) important. Conclusion Runners and their coaches emphasize ignoring pain as a factor associated with injury development. The question remains how much running, if any at all, runners having slight symptoms or mild pain, are able to tolerate before these symptoms develop into a running-related injury. Level of Evidence 3b PMID:28900570

  15. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key pointsFatigue does not increase foot pressuresEvery runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favoursFoot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run.

  16. Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    van Gent, R N; Siem, D; van Middelkoop, M; van Os, A G; Bierma‐Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a systematic overview of published reports on the incidence and associated potential risk factors of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners. An electronic database search was conducted using the PubMed–Medline database. Two observers independently assessed the quality of the studies and a best evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. The incidence of lower extremity running injuries ranged from 19.4% to 79.3%. The predominant site of these injuries was the knee. There was strong evidence that a long training distance per week in male runners and a history of previous injuries were risk factors for injuries, and that an increase in training distance per week was a protective factor for knee injuries. PMID:17473005

  17. The association between plantar heel pain and running surfaces in competitive long-distance male runners.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Takayuki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Adachi, Daiki; Morino, Saori; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-09-01

    Plantar heel pain (PHP) is a common complaint, and is most often caused by plantar fasciitis. Plantar fasciitis is reported to be associated with running surfaces, however the association between PHP and running surfaces has not previously been revealed in an epidemiological investigation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the association between PHP and running surfaces. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 347 competitive long-distance male runners participated in this study. The participants completed an original questionnaire, which included items assessing demographic characteristics, training characteristics focusing on running surfaces (soft surface, hard surface and tartan), and the prevalence of PHP during the previous 12 months. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of running surfaces on PHP. We found that 21.9% of participants had experienced PHP during the previous 12 months. The multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for demographic and training characteristics, revealed that running on tartan was associated with PHP (odds ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.42 to 5.61; P<0.01). Our findings suggest that running more than 25% on tartan is associated with PHP in competitive long-distance male runners.

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use and Endurance During Running in Male Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Eduardo; Pinto, Ronei S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Kruel, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The effect of ibuprofen on pain tolerance during exercise is controversial, and its effects on endurance performance have been poorly investigated. Objective: To investigate the effect of prophylactic administration of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen on the time until the self-report of fatigue (tlim) in runners with exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty healthy male long-distance runners (age = 18.8 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen consumption = 55.5 ± 5.9 mL·kg−1·min−1). Intervention(s): Participants were assigned to 2 groups (ibuprofen group = 10, placebo group = 10) to perform tlim trials (speed corresponded to their previously determined secondventilatory thresholds) 48 hours before and 48 hours after the induction of a lower limb muscle-damage protocol (isokinetic dynamometry). One hour before the second tlim trial, the ibuprofen group received 1.2 g ibuprofen, and the placebo group received lactose orally. Main Outcome Measure(s): Time until self-reported fatigue, heart rate, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and perceived exertion were recorded during each tlim test. Results: Both groups reported increases in muscle pain in the knee extensors and flexors 48 hours after the muscle-damage protocol. We observed a reduction in the endurance performance of both groups (P < .01) but no difference between groups (P = .55). Conclusions: Ibuprofen did not reduce the effect of muscle damage and pain on performance. Prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs did not have an ergogenic effect on running performance after exercise-induced muscle damage in male long-distance runners. PMID:25622243

  19. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and endurance during running in male long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eduardo; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Kruel, Luiz F

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ibuprofen on pain tolerance during exercise is controversial, and its effects on endurance performance have been poorly investigated. To investigate the effect of prophylactic administration of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen on the time until the self-report of fatigue (tlim) in runners with exercise-induced muscle damage. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. Twenty healthy male long-distance runners (age = 18.8 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen consumption = 55.5 ± 5.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Participants were assigned to 2 groups (ibuprofen group = 10, placebo group = 10) to perform tlim trials (speed corresponded to their previously determined secondventilatory thresholds) 48 hours before and 48 hours after the induction of a lower limb muscle-damage protocol (isokinetic dynamometry). One hour before the second tlim trial, the ibuprofen group received 1.2 g ibuprofen, and the placebo group received lactose orally. Time until self-reported fatigue, heart rate, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and perceived exertion were recorded during each tlim test. Both groups reported increases in muscle pain in the knee extensors and flexors 48 hours after the muscle-damage protocol. We observed a reduction in the endurance performance of both groups (P < .01) but no difference between groups (P = .55). Ibuprofen did not reduce the effect of muscle damage and pain on performance. Prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs did not have an ergogenic effect on running performance after exercise-induced muscle damage in male long-distance runners.

  20. Iliac artery endofibrosis in a middle-aged female long-distance runner.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Dina Christina Janse; van Rensburg, Audrey Jansen; van Duuren, Elsa Margaretha; Grant, Catharina Cornelia

    2014-12-01

    Exercise-induced iliac artery endofibrosis is a recently described abnormality of the external iliac artery that typically affects younger, healthy endurance athletes. Characteristic of the initially termed cyclist's iliac syndrome is lower limb pain during exercise with rapid recovery after exercise. This clinically complicated case describes an older female long-distance runner in whom an incorrect diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia was originally made when she presented with claudication and thrombosis of the right external iliac artery. A thrombectomy and bilateral balloon angioplasty were performed; however, her symptoms persisted. Four months later, she unexpectedly complained of dual calf claudication, a diagnosis of exercise-induced iliac artery endofibrosis was made, and a bilateral prosthetic graft bypass procedure was performed, which resulted in a good outcome.

  1. Abdominal pain in long distance runners: case report and analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, F C; Peters, J; Guderian, H

    2004-10-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint among participants in endurance sports. It may be severe, recurrent, and resistant to treatment. There is no direct evidence of the cause of this phenomenon. This report is of a long distance runner who had severe pain in the upper right abdominal quadrant during strenuous exertion. The symptom had been present for several years and did not respond to conservative treatment. Laparoscopy showed congenital supernumerary ligaments binding the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. The complaint resolved after cholecystectomy and resection of adhesions. There was evidence of chronic cholecystitis on histopathological examination. Two years after the operation, he remains free of symptoms. The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in athletes is discussed.

  2. Oligo-amenorrheic long-distance runners may lose more bone in spine than in femur.

    PubMed

    Gremion, G; Rizzoli, R; Slosman, D; Theintz, G; Bonjour, J P

    2001-01-01

    Strenuous training can be associated with amenorrhea leading to amenorrhea-related accelerated bone loss. Insufficient calorie energy, calcium, and/or protein intakes can also be frequently encountered in women with intense training, possibly contributing to bone loss. Long-distance runners with or without regular menses (age range 19-37 yr) were prospectively studied. Changes in areal bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at 1-yr interval. Among 10 eumenorrheic, 11 oligo-amenorrheic, and 9 oral contraceptive users, there was no difference in energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Baseline BMD values were significantly lower in the oligo-amenorrheic group than in the two others at the level of lumbar spine (anteroposterior view: 0.941+/-0.039 in oligo-amenorrheic vs 1.077+/-0.029 or 1.051 +/-0.017 g x cm(-2), P < 0.005, in the eumenorrheic and contraceptive user groups, respectively) but not in weight-bearing bone such as proximal and midshaft femur. Over a 1-yr interval, during which the three groups did not differ in terms of running distances and dietary intakes, oligo-amenorrheic women displayed a significant decrease in lumbar spine BMD in lateral view (-0.049+/-0.012 in oligo-amenorrheic vs -0.001+/-0.013 and 0.014+/-0.012 g x cm(-2), p < 0.005, in the eumenorrheic and contraceptive user groups, respectively). We did not detect any significant change in femoral neck, trochanter, or midshaft BMD. Oligo-amenorrhea in long-distance runners, with adequate dietary intakes, was associated with a decrease in BMD affecting more the lumbar spine than the proximal and midshaft femur during a 1-yr follow-up.

  3. Adipose tissue characteristics of ex-obese long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    1984-01-01

    Mean fat cell diameter and lipolytic activities of adipose tissue were determined in five ex-obese runners (EOR) who had experienced a mean weight loss of 39.5 kg during the course of a long-distance running program. At the time of investigation, their mean weekly running distance was 95 km in which no diet manipulation was needed to maintain their body weight. Body fat was estimated to be 14.3 percent of their body weight. Despite the high amount of exercise, subjects were not able to reduce body weight any further. Their values were compared with those obtained in the two following groups (1): six elite long-distance runners (ER) having a lower percent body fat (percent fat = 9.5); (2) five sedentary controls (SC) who were paired for adiposity with EOR (percent fat = 14.4). All subjects were submitted to a biopsy of subcutaneous fat in the suprailiac region, in which mean fat cell diameter was 57.5, 74.5, and 86 microns in EOR, ER and SC respectively. Basal and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis were similar in EOR and SC, while ER exhibited higher values. These results indicate that exercise-training can produce important weight losses when subjects are capable of tolerating high levels of energy expenditure for extended periods of time. Moreover, the reduced fat cell diameter for a higher adiposity in EOR as compared to ER suggests that resistance to further fat loss may occur when the fat cell size is markedly reduced. No deficit in maximal epinephrine stimulated lipolysis of isolated fat cells was found in EOR in comparison to SC subjects, but they failed to adapt like lean ER subjects.

  4. Changes in low back pain in a long distance runner after stretching the iliotibial band

    PubMed Central

    Kasunich, Norman J.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective This case report describes a long distance runner with low-back pain and sacroiliac pain and proposes iliotibial band tightness as a possible causative factor. Clinical Features A 38-year-old female amateur runner experienced an exacerbation of right-sided lower back and sacroiliac pain, which she had experienced for several months. The problem became worse as she increased the miles she ran. She had a positive Noble compression test and tightness of the iliotibial band on the right. Gaenslen's, Kemp's, and Patrick's tests were negative on the right, but created her pain of chief complaint. Trigger points were found in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and tensor fascia lata muscles. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using chiropractic manipulative therapy, trigger point therapy and stretching of the iliotibial band. Her running schedule was also changed; at the beginning of treatment, she stopped running. As she progressed, she ran on flat surfaces, and with further rehabilitation, she resumed her pre-injury schedule and route. She did not demonstrate much improvement until extensive stretching was included in the treatment plan. Conclusion A patient had low back and sacroiliac pain that seemed to originate from a dysfunctional iliotibial band. This case illustrates that it is important to consider iliotibial band tightness as a possible cause of low back and sacroiliac pain and that proper management may need to include stretching of the iliotibial band along with trigger point therapy and chiropractic manipulation. PMID:19674593

  5. Preparticipation evaluation of novice, middle-age, long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Philip; Sahlén, Anders; Bergfeldt, Lennart; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiovascular health and risk profile in middle-age men making an entry to participate for their first time in a long-distance race. Male first-time participants, 45 yr and older, in the world's largest cross-country running race, the Lidingöloppet, were evaluated with a medical history and physical examination, European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), 12-lead ECG, echocardiography, and blood tests. Further diagnostic workup was performed when clinically indicated. Of 265 eligible runners, 153 (58%, age 51 ± 5 yr) completed the study. Although the 10-yr fatal cardiovascular event risk was low (SCORE, 1%; interquartile range, 0%-1%), mild abnormalities were common, for example, elevated blood pressure (19%), left ventricular hypertrophy (6%), and elevated LDL cholesterol (5%). ECG changes compatible with the "athlete's heart" were present in 82%, for example, sinus bradycardia (61%) and/or early repolarization (32%). ECG changes considered training unrelated were found in 24%, for example, prolonged QTc-interval (13%), left axis deviation (5.3%), and left atrial enlargement (4%). In 14 runners (9%), additional diagnostic workup was clinically motivated, and 4 runners (2%) were ultimately discouraged from vigorous exercise because of QTc intervals >500 ms (n = 2), symptomatic atrioventricular block (n = 1), and cardiac tumor (n = 1). The physician examination and the ECG identified 12 of the 14 participants requiring further evaluation. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-age men, including a physician examination and a 12-lead ECG, appears useful to identify individuals requiring further testing before vigorous exercise. The additional yield of routine echocardiography was small.

  6. The Feasibility and Usability of RunningCoach: A Remote Coaching System for Long-Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Aranki, Daniel; Peh, Gao Xian; Kurillo, Gregorij; Bajcsy, Ruzena

    2018-01-10

    Studies have shown that about half of the injuries sustained during long-distance running involve the knee. Cadence (steps per minute) has been identified as a factor that is strongly associated with these running-related injuries, making it a worthwhile candidate for further study. As such, it is critical for long-distance runners to minimize their risk of injury by running at an appropriate running cadence. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the feasibility and usability of RunningCoach, a mobile health (mHealth) system that remotely monitors running cadence levels of runners in a continuous fashion, among other variables, and provides immediate feedback to runners in an effort to help them optimize their running cadence.

  7. Weight set-point theory predicts HDL-cholesterol levels in previously obese long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T

    1990-05-01

    I have proposed that long-distance runners have the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol metabolism of men who are below their sedentary weight set-point. This hypothesis was tested by correlating HDL-cholesterol levels with other variables in 33 long-distance runners who ran at least 24 km/week. The most significant determinant of the runners' plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations was the difference between the runners' current weight and their self-reported greatest weight (r = -0.50, P less than 0.0001). HDL-cholesterol levels were highest in previously-obese runners who had lost the most weight, i.e. highest in those who were the furthest below their presumed weight set-point. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were unrelated to training level, running performance, current weight and upper-body obesity. Although these results do not prove homeostatic regulation of weight at a set point, they do suggest that deviations from sedentary weight affect metabolism. Moreover, with respect to male runners elevating their HDL-cholesterol concentrations, these results suggest, 'tis better to have been fat and lost than to have never been fat at all.

  8. Effects of summer camp endurance training on non-specific immunity in long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Kumae, T; Yamasaki, K; Ishizaki, K; Ito, T

    1999-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of endurance training during a 1-month summer camp on the non-specific host defence systems of ten highly trained male long-distance runners. Examinations with informed consent were carried out three times: 2 days before the training began, an intermediate day, and 2 days after the camp. The subjects ran a total of about 800 km during the camp. Neutrophilic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation determined by luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and cytochrome c reduction methods was assayed at two time points because the camp was held far from our laboratory: neutrophils isolated 6 hours after blood sampling were examined at all three time points and neutrophils isolated immediately after blood sampling were examined before and after the camp. The ROS production indicated by peak height of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and peak velocity of cytochrome c reduction from neutrophils isolated 6 hours after blood sampling was suppressed after the camp (P < 0.05 for both), but, the ROS production from neutrophils isolated immediately after blood sampling and the serum opsonic activity appeared not to be affected. Neutrophils diminished their activity during the 6-hour waiting time after the camp. These results suggest that the non-specific host defence system is not directly impaired by long, strenuous endurance training.

  9. Weight Set-Point Theory and the High-Density Lipoprotein Concentrations of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance runners have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations and lower adiposity than sedentary men. Most cross-sectional studies claim that the runners’ elevated HDL-cholesterol is not due to the runners’ leanness. However, when cross-sectional studies use analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to adjust for adiposity, or when they compare runners with lean sedentary men, they make an incorrect tacit assumption. They assume that the relationship between change in adiposity and change in HDL-cholesterol in men who have lost fat by running is the same as the cross-sectional difference in HDL-cholesterol between naturally fat and lean sedentary men. Regression slopes for HDL-cholesterol versus adiposity during and at the end of 1 year of running in 35 initially sedentary men suggest this assumption is incorrect; the increase in HDL-cholesterol that accompanies weight loss (−4.28 ± 1.0l mg/l00mL per kg/m2) is considerably greater than the increase in HDL-cholesterol that is associated with lower adiposity cross-sectionally (−0.78±0.46 mg/l00mL per kg/m2). These results suggest the following theory: long-distance runners have the HDL metabolism of men who are below their sedentary set-point weight rather than the HDL metabolism of men who are naturally lean without exercising or dieting. This theory was applied to data from 23 published comparisons between long-distance runners and sedentary men. The differences were highly correlated (r = 0.80) with the theory’s predictions (ie, the HDL-cholesterol differences predicted by applying the regression slope for change in HDL-cholesterol vs. change in adiposity to the average differences in adiposity between the runners and sedentary men). These analyses suggest that comparing long-distance runners to a reference population suitably matched for adiposity, and adjusting for adiposity by ANCOVA may each seriously underestimate the contribution of the runners’ leanness to their HDL

  10. Training-overtraining. A prospective, experimental study with experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Dickhuth, H H; Gendrisch, G; Lazar, W; Thum, M; Kaminski, R; Aramendi, J F; Peterke, E; Wieland, W; Keul, J

    1991-10-01

    Overtraining may be one frequent cause of stagnation or decrease in performance capacity of athletes. Israel (19) differentiates between addisonoid (parasympathetic) and basedowoid (sympathetic) overtraining, characterized by inhibition or excitation. We tried to induce an overtraining syndrome in 8 experienced middle- and long-distance runners, based on an increase in training volume from an average 85.9 km (week 1) to 115.1 km (week 2) and 143.1 km (week 3) to 174.6 km per week (week 4). The influence of this training on cardiovascular, metabolic and hormonal parameters was examined with special respect to plasma and urinary catecholamines. Laboratory testing including graded treadmill running was performed on the days 0, 14 and 28. Training was held six days each week, with nearly 30 km per day in the fourth week. A stagnation in endurance performance capacity (running velocity at the aerobic-anaerobic transition range) and a decrease in maximum working capacity were observed in 6 and a stagnation in 2 of the 8 sportsmen, indicated by a decrease in total running distance from 4719 + 912 m to 4361 + 788 m during incremental treadmill ergometry. The sportsmen could neither improve nor could they even approximately reach their personal records during the subsequent competitive season. Subjective complaints, classified on a four-point scale, increased from 1.2 (week 1) to 3.2 in week 4. Glucose, lactate, ammonia, glycerol, free fatty acids, albumin, LDL, VLDL cholesterol, hemoglobin level (transient), leukocytes, and heart rate (before and during exercise) decreased significantly. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, GOT, GPT, gamma-GT, serum electrolytes (except phosphate and calcium) remained constant at the measuring times, CPK was elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Regional body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relation to training, sex hormones, and serum lipids in male long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Hetland, M L; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    1998-04-01

    This study investigated the regional distribution of fatty and lean tissue in long-distance runners, and the relation to training, sex hormones, and serum lipids. One hundred and twenty lean men (22 elite, 86 recreational runners and 12 non-running controls) aged 32 +/- 8.1 years (mean +/- SD) participated. Body composition (adipose and lean tissue) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the total body and in the abdomen, the arms and the legs. Regional and total body fat correlated inversely with the performance at an incremental treadmill exercise test (-0.61 < r < -0.52, P < 0.0001), and the fat percentage in the abdomen and in the legs was 42% and 36% lower in the elite runners in comparison with the non-running controls. Sex hormonal status and serum lipids were unrelated to training. After multiple regression analysis the most significant determinant of the fat percentage in the legs was the weekly distance run (partial r = -0.40, P < 0.0001), whereas in the abdominal region the free testosterone index also contributed strongly (partial r = 0.39, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, long-distance runners had very low amounts of fatty tissue in the abdomen and in the extremities, and the fat percentages in the abdomen and in the legs were associated with both the training intensity and androgenic activity. Since the abdominal fatty tissue is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, running may have a positive impact on the long-term risk.

  12. Iron excess in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Mettler, S; Zimmermann, M B

    2010-05-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia may impair athletic performance, and iron supplements are commonly consumed by athletes. However, iron overload should be avoided because of the possible long-term adverse health effects. We investigated the iron status of 170 male and female recreational runners participating in the Zürich marathon. Iron deficiency was defined either as a plasma ferritin (PF) concentration <15 microg/l (iron depletion) or as the ratio of the concentrations of transferrin receptor (sTfR) to PF (sTfR:log(PF) index) of > or =4.5 (functional iron deficiency). After excluding subjects with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, iron overload was defined as PF >200 microg/l. Iron depletion was found in only 2 out of 127 men (1.6% of the male study population) and in 12 out of 43 (28.0%) women. Functional iron deficiency was found in 5 (3.9%) and 11 (25.5%) male and female athletes, respectively. Body iron stores, calculated from the sTfR/PF ratio, were significantly higher (P<0.001) among male compared with female marathon runners. Median PF among males was 104 microg/l, and the upper limit of the PF distribution in males was 628 microg/l. Iron overload was found in 19 out of 127 (15.0%) men but only 2 out of 43 in women (4.7%). Gender (male sex), but not age, was a predictor of higher PF (P<0.001). Iron depletion was present in 28% of female runners but in <2% of males, whereas one in six male runners had signs of iron overload. Although iron supplements are widely used by athletes in an effort to increase performance, our findings indicate excess body iron may be common in male recreational runners and suggest supplements should only be used if tests of iron status indicate deficiency.

  13. Calcaneal Bone Mass Modification in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2016-11-01

    The calcaneus is the bone of the foot that first receives the impact of running, generating vibrations that might have a positive effect in modifying the trabecular bone mass. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in calcaneal bone density in runners during a 6-month training season, comparing it with a control sample. Bone density of the heel was measured in 33 male recreational runners by means of a contact ultrasonic bone analyzer. Measurements were made on three occasions during a training season: at the beginning, at 350 km, and at 700 km. All of the runners wore the same model of running shoes during this period. Measurements of bone density were also made in a control sample of 62 men who did not engage in physical exercise. There was a significant decrease in mean calcaneal bone density over the course of the training season (from 86.1 dB/MHz to 83.2 dB/MHz; P = .006), but no significant differences with the control sample value (from 80.7 dB/MHz to 81.1 dB/MHz; P = .314). The runners' body composition changed during the study period, with lean mass increasing and fat mass decreasing. Distance running seems to have a negative effect on calcaneal bone mass density during the course of a 700-km training season.

  14. Perceived Muscle Soreness in Recreational Female Runners.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D; Smith, K; Smeltzer, C; Young, K; Burns, S

    The purpose of this study was to determine if rating of perceived exertion correlated with perceived muscle soreness during delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in female runners. This study examined the pre and post running economy measures and perceived muscle soreness before and after a 30-min downhill run (DHR) at -15% grade and 70% of the subjects predetermined maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Six female recreational runners (mean age = 24.5) performed level running at 65%, 75%, and 85% of their VO2 peak prior to DHR (baseline economy runs), as well as, immediately following and 4 successive days after the DHR. Subjective response related to perceived muscle soreness increased significantly from a mean of 2 (pre DHR) to 62 (2 days post DHR) on a scale of 1-100. Creatine kinase levels and oxygen consumption increased post DHR compared to pre DHR. Rating of perceived exertion did not change between the economy runs performed prior to or at any point after the DHR. Perceived muscle soreness is a better tool than the RPE scale to monitor exercise intensity for recreational female runners during periods of DOMS and running economy is adversely affected by DOMS.

  15. Treatment of distal iliotibial band syndrome in a long distance runner with gait re-training emphasizing step rate manipulation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Darrell J

    2014-04-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common injury associated with long distance running. Researchers have previously described biomechanical factors associated with ITBS. The purpose of this case report is to present the treatment outcomes in a runner with distal ITBS utilizing running gait re-training to increase step rate above the runner's preferred or self-chosen step rate. The subject was a 36 year old female runner with a diagnosis of left knee ITBS, whose pain prevented her from running greater than three miles for three months. Treadmill video analysis of running form was utilized to determine that the subject had an excessive stride length, strong heel strike, decreased knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, and excessive vertical displacement. Cadence was 168 steps/minute at a preferred running pace of 6.5 mph. Treatment emphasized gait re-training to increase cadence above preferred. Treatment also included iliotibial band flexibility and multi-plane eccentric lower extremity strengthening. The subject reported running pain free within 6 weeks of the intervention with a maximum running distance of 7 miles and 10-15 miles/week progressing to half marathon distance and 20-25 miles/week at 4 month follow up. Step rate increased 5% to 176 steps/minute and was maintained at both the 6 week and 4 month follow up. 5K run pace improved from 8:45 to 8:20 minutes/Km. LEFS score improved from 71/80 to 80/80 at 4 month follow up. This case demonstrated that a 5% increased step rate above preferred along with a home exercise program for hip strengthening and iliotibial band stretching, improved running mechanics and reduced knee pain in a distance runner. 4-single case report.

  16. Lateral Foot Pain in a Recreational Runner.

    PubMed

    Young, Brian A; Kniss, Joshua R; Islas, Felix

    2017-01-01

    A 35-year-old male recreational runner with a 9-month history of left lateral foot pain self-referred to physical therapy while awaiting orthopaedic consultation. Before presenting to physical therapy, his primary care physician ordered radiographs and referred him to orthopaedics with a provisional diagnosis of multipartite os peroneum. Following examination, the initial treatment hypothesis was cuboid syndrome, as he met the majority of items in a proposed diagnostic cluster. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(1):41. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6941.

  17. Relationships between training load, salivary cortisol responses and performance during season training in middle and long distance runners.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Ma; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r = -0.777) and RPE (r = 0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r = -0.426), distance run (r = -0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r = 0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g = 0.65) and the RPE (-17.6%, g = 0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season's worst competition performance. Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way.

  18. Relationships between Training Load, Salivary Cortisol Responses and Performance during Season Training in Middle and Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring training from a multifactorial point of view is of great importance in elite endurance athletes. This study aims to analyze the relationships between indicators of training load, hormonal status and neuromuscular performance, and to compare these values with competition performance, in elite middle and long-distance runners. Method Fifteen elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3±5.1 yrs) were measured for training volume, training zone and session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (daily), countermovement jump (CMJ) and salivary free cortisol (weekly) for 39 weeks (i.e., the whole season). Competition performance was also observed throughout the study, registering the season best and worst competitions. Results Season average salivary free cortisol concentrations correlate significantly with CMJ (r = −0.777) and RPE (r = 0.551). Also, weekly averages of CMJ significantly correlates with RPE (r = −0.426), distance run (r = −0.593, p<0.001) and training zone (r = 0.437, p<0.05). Finally, it was found that the CMJ (+8.5%, g = 0.65) and the RPE (−17.6%, g = 0.94) measured the week before the best competition performance of the season were significantly different compared with the measurement conducted the week before the season’s worst competition performance. Conclusions Monitoring weekly measurements of CMJ and RPE could be recommended to control training process of such athletes in a non-invasive, field-based, systematic way. PMID:25153137

  19. Myocardial infarction & sudden death in recreational master marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Finn, Suzanne Elizabeth; Coviello, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    This review of the current literature on myocardial infarction and sudden death in recreational master marathon runners aims to help raise awareness of the scope of the problem to primary care providers, and to provide guidelines for educating and screening in recreational master marathon runners.

  20. Pacing accuracy in collegiate and recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Green, J Matthew; Sapp, Amber L; Pritchett, Robert C; Bishop, Phil A

    2010-02-01

    To examine runners' ability to produce a prescribed pace, we compared prescribed versus actual 400 m splits for collegiate (COL, n = 12) and recreational runners (REC, n = 16). Participants completed a VO(2max) trial and on a 400 m track, three 3,200 m time trials. During three subsequent sessions, participants completed 800 m warm-up; then, based on their fastest 3,200 m steady pace, subjects completed six laps total at three prescribed paces: (a) 2x 400 m at 7% slower than steady pace (SLO), (b) 2x 400 m at steady pace (AT) and (c) 2x 400 m at 7% faster than steady pace (FAS). Instructions were to complete the sets of two laps in prescribed times (e.g., 75 s per 400 m) (no feedback). Deviation scores (absolute value of difference: prescribed vs. actual time) (s) for each 400 m lap were compared using a 2 (group) x 3 (trial) repeated measures ANOVA. Main effects for deviations among trials SLO (7.3 +/- 6.5), AT (6.6 +/- 6.9) and FAS (6.2 +/- 5.7) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, group main effect for deviation scores was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (greater accuracy) for COL (2.9 +/- 3.2 s) versus REC (9.5 +/- 6.6 s). Deviation scores were also significantly different (p < 0.05) for SLO (COL: 3.1 +/- 2.7 s, REC: 10.4 +/- 6.7 s) and AT (COL: 1.9 +/- 1.9 s, REC: 10.1 +/- 7.2 s), with a trend for FAS (p = 0.06) (COL: 3.8 +/- 4.3 s, REC: 7.9 +/- 6.1 s). Bland-Altman plots showed better agreement (prescribed vs. actual) for COL. Experience and fitness of collegiate runners resulted in improved pacing accuracy.

  1. Running economy assessment within cardiopulmonary exercise testing for recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of running economy (RE) on running performance within recreational runners of different maximal aerobic capacity, and the feasibility of RE assessment within routine cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Sixty-eight recreational runners (m: 49, f: 19; age: 21-54) completed a graded exercise test (GXT) until exhaustion. Maximal oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point were obtained via CPET. RE was calculated as relative oxygen uptake per covered distance (mL/kg/km) one step below respiratory compensation point (RCP). Subjects were grouped for RE via median split and categorized into one of six fitness levels (Very Poor, Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent, Superior) (ACSM 2010). Irrespective of fitness levels, recreational runners with a more energy efficient movement (RE<215.28 mL/kg/km) reached a significant (P<0.05) higher velocity at RCP (12.2 vs. 10.8 km/h). The measured VO2max values ranged between 35.2 and 66.0 ml/min/kg. Running velocity at RCP of runners within VO2max categories Good and Superior differed significantly (P<0.05) between RE groups. This study provides evidence that RE influences submaximal running performance in recreational distance runners within a broad range of maximal aerobic capacity. Complementing routine CPET with RE assessment at physiological threshold intensities and ACSM based categorization seems feasible to delineate the impact of movement efficiency and aerobic fitness on performance in recreational runners.

  2. Protocol for evaluating the effects of a therapeutic foot exercise program on injury incidence, foot functionality and biomechanics in long-distance runners: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Matias, Alessandra B; Taddei, Ulisses T; Duarte, Marcos; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2016-04-14

    Overall performance, particularly in a very popular sports activity such as running, is typically influenced by the status of the musculoskeletal system and the level of training and conditioning of the biological structures. Any change in the musculoskeletal system's biomechanics, especially in the feet and ankles, will strongly influence the biomechanics of runners, possibly predisposing them to injuries. A thorough understanding of the effects of a therapeutic approach focused on feet biomechanics, on strength and functionality of lower limb muscles will contribute to the adoption of more effective therapeutic and preventive strategies for runners. A randomized, prospective controlled and parallel trial with blind assessment is designed to study the effects of a "ground-up" therapeutic approach focused on the foot-ankle complex as it relates to the incidence of running-related injuries in the lower limbs. One hundred and eleven (111) healthy long-distance runners will be randomly assigned to either a control (CG) or intervention (IG) group. IG runners will participate in a therapeutic exercise protocol for the foot-ankle for 8 weeks, with 1 directly supervised session and 3 remotely supervised sessions per week. After the 8-week period, IG runners will keep exercising for the remaining 10 months of the study, supervised only by web-enabled software three times a week. At baseline, 2 months, 4 months and 12 months, all runners will be assessed for running-related injuries (primary outcome), time for the occurrence of the first injury, foot health and functionality, muscle trophism, intrinsic foot muscle strength, dynamic foot arch strain and lower-limb biomechanics during walking and running (secondary outcomes). This is the first randomized clinical trial protocol to assess the effect of an exercise protocol that was designed specifically for the foot-and-ankle complex on running-related injuries to the lower limbs of long-distance runners. We intend to show

  3. Ovarian impairments of female recreational distance runners during a season of training.

    PubMed

    Rosetta, L; Harrison, G A; Read, G F

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the level of training and the impairment of ovarian function among female recreational distance runners, and its reversibility. Thirty-six female distance runners self-recorded, for 7 consecutive days each month, the duration and distance of daily running from October 1989 to May 1990 in Great Britain. During the last 3 months of the survey, saliva samples were taken for progesterone assay and a subsample was measured for body composition. No trend in weight loss was observed over the season of training. Amenorrheic (AM) and oligomenorrheic (Oligo) runners had a significantly lower body mass index than eumenorrheic (EU) and irregularly menstruating (IM) runners. The amenorrheic and oligomenorrheic subjects did not show any rise in progesterone, at any time, during the 3 months of sampling. The eumenorrheic subjects showed evidence of a rise in progesterone, though the mean level was always significantly lower than that of sedentary controls. The most severely impaired runners (AM and Oligo) ran more than EU or irregularly menstruating runners in this sample, had lower body weight, a younger age and had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI). They tended to run faster during training sessions than those with apparently normal menstrual cycle or just irregular periods. It is suggested that low BMI, which is an indicator of body energy stores, reflects the intensity of regular training runs among female athletes with a stable body weight. It is possible that repeated elevations of beta-endorphins or other suppressors of gonadotropin release, secreted above a level of training commonly exceeded by long distance runners, when concurrent with energy restriction, could contribute to impairment of menstrual cycle.

  4. Prospective monitoring of health problems among recreational runners preparing for a half marathon.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Karsten; Baumann, Antje; Zech, Astrid; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    While the health benefits of running are legitimately advocated, participation in running can also lead to health problems. There is a high range of reported prevalence rates especially of running-related overuse injuries in high-level athletes and during competition. Little consensus exists for acute injuries and illnesses especially in recreational runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to record the prevalence of health problems in recreational long-distance runners preparing for an event. Recreational runners aged 18-65 years who were registered 13 weeks prior to a half-marathon running event were invited to take part in this study. Participants were prospectively monitored weekly over 13 weeks by applying a standardised surveillance system for injuries and illnesses (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire). From this, prevalence and severity of acute and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses, were calculated. We received 3213 fully answered questionnaires from 327 participants (40.7% female, 40.9±11.7 years of age, 31.5±21.1 km weekly mileage, 8.3±7.8 years of running experience). At any point in time over the preparation phase, 37.3% of the participants had health problems. Overuse injuries were the major burden (18%). They were followed by illnesses (14.1%) and acute injuries (7.9%). The median weekly severity score was 56.5 (IQR 37.0-58.0). The high prevalence of health problems in our cohort suggests that future efforts are needed to further specify the underlying mechanism and develop adequate prevention strategies for recreational runners.

  5. Prospective monitoring of health problems among recreational runners preparing for a half marathon

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Antje; Zech, Astrid; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives While the health benefits of running are legitimately advocated, participation in running can also lead to health problems. There is a high range of reported prevalence rates especially of running-related overuse injuries in high-level athletes and during competition. Little consensus exists for acute injuries and illnesses especially in recreational runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to record the prevalence of health problems in recreational long-distance runners preparing for an event. Methods Recreational runners aged 18–65 years who were registered 13 weeks prior to a half-marathon running event were invited to take part in this study. Participants were prospectively monitored weekly over 13 weeks by applying a standardised surveillance system for injuries and illnesses (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire). From this, prevalence and severity of acute and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses, were calculated. Results We received 3213 fully answered questionnaires from 327 participants (40.7% female, 40.9±11.7 years of age, 31.5±21.1 km weekly mileage, 8.3±7.8 years of running experience). At any point in time over the preparation phase, 37.3% of the participants had health problems. Overuse injuries were the major burden (18%). They were followed by illnesses (14.1%) and acute injuries (7.9%). The median weekly severity score was 56.5 (IQR 37.0–58.0). Conclusion The high prevalence of health problems in our cohort suggests that future efforts are needed to further specify the underlying mechanism and develop adequate prevention strategies for recreational runners. PMID:29387447

  6. Methodological innovations for measuring economic impacts of long-distance recreation trails

    Treesearch

    Noah Pollock; Lisa C. Chase; Jane Kolodinsky

    2008-01-01

    Rural communities are increasingly interested in understanding the economic impacts of visitors drawn to their region for recreational opportunities. Economic impact assessments often rely on input-output (I/O) modeling software, which requires estimates of visitation rates and visitor expenditures. Collecting sufficient data for I/O models is relatively...

  7. Effect of creatine malate supplementation on physical performance, body composition and selected hormone levels in spinters and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Tyka, A K; Chwastowski, M; Cison, T; Palka, T; Tyka, Anna; Szygula, Z; Pilch, W; Strzala, M; Cepero, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether creatine malate (CML) supplementation results in similar ergogenic effect in sprinters and long-distance runners. The other goal was to compare changes in body composition, physical performance and hormone levels after six-week training in athletes, divided into subgroups supplemented with creatine malate or taking placebo. Six-week supplementation combined with physical training induced different effects in athletes. Significantly higher increases in relative and absolute peak power and total work (p < 0.05) were found in sprinters compared to other groups. Except for growth hormone, post-exercise venous blood serum hormone levels exhibited no statistically significant differences in athletes. After CML loading period, a significant increase in growth hormone was found in the group of sprinters. A significant ergogenic effect was found in sprinters, which was reflected by the increase in anaerobic exercise indices and morphological indices and elevated growth hormone level, after graded exercise testing. The significant increase in the distance covered during graded test was only observed in supplemented long-distance runners, whereas no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake, relative peak power and relative total work were noticed. This could be caused by later anaerobic threshold appearance in exercise test to exhaustion.

  8. Sex differences in knee loading in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Selfe, J

    2015-07-16

    Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic pathology in recreational runners. Female runners are at greater risk of developing patellofemoral pain, although the exact mechanism behind this is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine whether female recreational runners exhibit distinct knee loading compared to males. Fifteen males and 15 females recreational runners underwent 3D running analysis at 4.0 ms(-1)±5%. Sagittal/coronal joint moments, patellofemoral contact forces (PTF) and pressures (PCP) were compared between sexes. The results show that females exhibited significantly greater knee extension (p<0.008, pη(2)=0.27: males=3.04; females=3.47 N m kg(-1)) and abduction (p<0.008, pη(2)=0.28: males=0.54; females=0.82 N m kg(-1)) moments as well as PTF (p<0.008, pη(2)=0.29: males=3.25; females=3.84 B.W.) and PCP (p<0.008, pη(2)=0.26: males=7.96; females=9.27 MPa) compared to males. Given the proposed relationship between knee joint loading and patellofemoral pathology, the current investigation provides insight into the incidence of patellofemoral pain in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. Objectives This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. Materials and Methods The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. Results A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Conclusions Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty. PMID:27217926

  10. Kinematic Gait Patterns in Competitive and Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Clermont, Christian A; Osis, Sean T; Phinyomark, Angkoon; Ferber, Reed

    2017-08-01

    Certain homogeneous running subgroups demonstrate distinct kinematic patterns in running; however, the running mechanics of competitive and recreational runners are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether we could separate and classify competitive and recreational runners according to gait kinematics using multivariate analyses and a machine learning approach. Participants were allocated to the 'competitive' (n = 20) or 'recreational' group (n = 15) based on age, sex, and recent race performance. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data were collected during treadmill running at 2.7 m/s. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to determine if the groups were separable and classifiable based on kinematic time point variables as well as principal component (PC) scores. A cross-fold classification accuracy of 80% was found between groups using the top 5 ranked time point variables, and the groups could be separated with 100% cross-fold classification accuracy using the top 14 ranked PCs explaining 60.29% of the variance in the data. The features were primarily related to pelvic tilt, as well as knee flexion and ankle eversion in late stance. These results suggest that competitive and recreational runners have distinct, 'typical' running patterns that may help explain differences in injury mechanisms.

  11. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

    1992-01-01

    Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence. PMID:1490214

  12. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

    1992-12-01

    Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence.

  13. Time Evolution of Sublingual Microcirculatory Changes in Recreational Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Pranskunas, Andrius; Arstikyte, Justina; Pranskuniene, Zivile; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Kiudulaite, Inga; Vaitkaitiene, Egle; Vaitkaitis, Dinas; Brazaitis, Marius

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate changes in sublingual microcirculation induced by a marathon race. Thirteen healthy male controls and 13 male marathon runners volunteered for the study. We performed sublingual microcirculation, using a Cytocam-IDF device (Braedius Medical, Huizen, Netherlands), and systemic hemodynamic measurements four times: 24 hours prior to their participation in the Kaunas Marathon (distance: 41.2 km), directly after finishing the marathon, 24 hours after the marathon, and one week after the marathon. The marathon runners exhibited a higher functional capillary density (FCD) and total vascular density of small vessels at the first visit compared with the controls. Overall, we did not find any changes in sublingual microcirculation of the marathon runners at any of the other visits. However, in a subgroup of marathon runners with a decreased FCD compared to the subgroup with increased FCD, the subgroup with decreased FCD had shorter running time (190.37 ± 30.2 versus 221.80 ± 23.4 min, p = 0.045), ingested less fluids (907 ± 615 versus 1950 ± 488 mL, p = 0.007) during the race, and lost much more weight (-2.4 ± 1.3 versus -1.0 ± 0.8 kg, p = 0.041). Recreational marathon running is not associated with an alteration of sublingual microcirculation. However, faster running and dehydration may be crucial for further impairing microcirculation.

  14. Time Evolution of Sublingual Microcirculatory Changes in Recreational Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Arstikyte, Justina; Vaitkaitiene, Egle; Vaitkaitis, Dinas

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate changes in sublingual microcirculation induced by a marathon race. Thirteen healthy male controls and 13 male marathon runners volunteered for the study. We performed sublingual microcirculation, using a Cytocam-IDF device (Braedius Medical, Huizen, Netherlands), and systemic hemodynamic measurements four times: 24 hours prior to their participation in the Kaunas Marathon (distance: 41.2 km), directly after finishing the marathon, 24 hours after the marathon, and one week after the marathon. The marathon runners exhibited a higher functional capillary density (FCD) and total vascular density of small vessels at the first visit compared with the controls. Overall, we did not find any changes in sublingual microcirculation of the marathon runners at any of the other visits. However, in a subgroup of marathon runners with a decreased FCD compared to the subgroup with increased FCD, the subgroup with decreased FCD had shorter running time (190.37 ± 30.2 versus 221.80 ± 23.4 min, p = 0.045), ingested less fluids (907 ± 615 versus 1950 ± 488 mL, p = 0.007) during the race, and lost much more weight (−2.4 ± 1.3 versus −1.0 ± 0.8 kg, p = 0.041). Recreational marathon running is not associated with an alteration of sublingual microcirculation. However, faster running and dehydration may be crucial for further impairing microcirculation. PMID:28828386

  15. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  16. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxic Training Followed by Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Aerobic Capacity of Long Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Fernanda P; Ivamoto, Rafael K; Andrade, Marilia Dos S; de Lira, Claudio A B; Silva, Bruno M; da Silva, Antonio C

    2016-06-01

    Effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) are still controversial and detraining effects remain uninvestigated. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether IHT improves aerobic capacity; (b) whether aerobic detraining occurs post-IHT; and (c) whether intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) at rest reduces a possible aerobic detraining post-IHT. Twenty eight runners (21 men/7 women; 36 ± 2 years; maximal oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2max] 55.4 ± 1.3 ml·kg·min) participated in a single-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Twice a week, 1 group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 11), followed by 4 weeks of IHE (n = 11) at rest (IHT+IHE group). Another group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 10), followed by 4 weeks of normoxic exposure (NE, n = 9) at rest (IHT+NE group). A control group performed 6 weeks of normoxic training (NT, n = 7), followed by 4 weeks of NE (n = 6) at rest (NT+NE group). Hematological and submaximal/maximal aerobic measurements were conducted in normoxia at pretraining, posttraining, and postexposure. Hemoglobin concentration did not change, but lactate threshold and running economy improved in all groups at posttraining (p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining). Ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max increased after IHT (IHT+IHE group: 7.3, 5.4, and 9.2%, respectively; IHT+NE group: 10.7, 7.5, and 4.8%; p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining), but not after NT (-1.1, -1.0, and -3.8%; p > 0.05 vs. pretraining). Such IHT-induced adaptations were maintained at postexposure (p > 0.05 vs. postexposure). In conclusion, IHT induced further aerobic improvements than NT. These additional IHT adaptations were maintained for 4 weeks post-IHT, regardless of IHE.

  17. Predictor variables for marathon race time in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-06-01

    We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=- 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=- 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= - 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r(2)=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) -11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners.

  18. Predictor Variables for Marathon Race Time in Recreational Female Runners

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Methods Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. Results The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=− 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=− 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= − 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r 2=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) –11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Conclusions Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners. PMID:22942994

  19. Physiological and training characteristics of recreational marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dan; Wightman, Sarah; Basevitch, Itay; Johnstone, James; Espejo-Sanchez, Carolina; Beckford, Chelsea; Boal, Mariette; Scruton, Adrian; Ferrandino, Mike; Merzbach, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the physical and training characteristics of recreational marathon runners within finish time bandings (2.5–3 h, 3–3.5 h, 3.5–4 h, 4–4.5 h and >4.5 h). Materials and methods A total of 97 recreational marathon runners (age 42.4 ± 9.9 years; mass 69.2 ± 11.3 kg; stature 172.8 ± 9.1 cm), with a marathon finish time of 229.1 ± 48.7 min, of whom n = 34 were female and n = 63 were male, completed an incremental treadmill test for the determination of lactate threshold (LT1), lactate turn point (LT2) and running economy (RE). Following a 7-min recovery, they completed a test to volitional exhaustion starting at LT2 for the assessment of V˙O2max. In addition, all participants completed a questionnaire gathering information on their current training regimes exploring weekly distances, training frequencies, types of sessions, longest run in a week, with estimations of training speed, and load and volume derived from these data. Results Training frequency was shown to be significantly greater for the 2.5–3 h group compared to the 3.5–4 h runners (P < 0.001) and >4.5 h group (P = 0.004), while distance per session (km·session−1) was significantly greater for the 2.5–3 h group (16.1 ± 4.2) compared to the 3.5–4 h group (15.5 ± 5.2; P = 0.01) and >4.5 h group (10.3 ± 2.6; P = 0.001). Race speed correlated with LT1 (r = 0.791), LT2 (r = 0.721) and distance per session (r = 0.563). Conclusion The data highlight profound differences for key components of marathon running (V˙O2max, LT1, LT2, RE and % V˙O2max) within a group of recreational runners with the discriminating training variables being training frequency and the absolute training speed. PMID:29200895

  20. Physiological and training characteristics of recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dan; Wightman, Sarah; Basevitch, Itay; Johnstone, James; Espejo-Sanchez, Carolina; Beckford, Chelsea; Boal, Mariette; Scruton, Adrian; Ferrandino, Mike; Merzbach, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical and training characteristics of recreational marathon runners within finish time bandings (2.5-3 h, 3-3.5 h, 3.5-4 h, 4-4.5 h and >4.5 h). A total of 97 recreational marathon runners (age 42.4 ± 9.9 years; mass 69.2 ± 11.3 kg; stature 172.8 ± 9.1 cm), with a marathon finish time of 229.1 ± 48.7 min, of whom n = 34 were female and n = 63 were male, completed an incremental treadmill test for the determination of lactate threshold (LT1), lactate turn point (LT2) and running economy (RE). Following a 7-min recovery, they completed a test to volitional exhaustion starting at LT2 for the assessment of [Formula: see text]. In addition, all participants completed a questionnaire gathering information on their current training regimes exploring weekly distances, training frequencies, types of sessions, longest run in a week, with estimations of training speed, and load and volume derived from these data. Training frequency was shown to be significantly greater for the 2.5-3 h group compared to the 3.5-4 h runners (P < 0.001) and >4.5 h group (P = 0.004), while distance per session (km·session-1) was significantly greater for the 2.5-3 h group (16.1 ± 4.2) compared to the 3.5-4 h group (15.5 ± 5.2; P = 0.01) and >4.5 h group (10.3 ± 2.6; P = 0.001). Race speed correlated with LT1 (r = 0.791), LT2 (r = 0.721) and distance per session (r = 0.563). The data highlight profound differences for key components of marathon running ([Formula: see text], LT1, LT2, RE and % [Formula: see text]) within a group of recreational runners with the discriminating training variables being training frequency and the absolute training speed.

  1. Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

    2014-09-01

    Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; P<0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does polarized training improve performance in recreational runners?

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Iker; Seiler, Stephen; Bautista, Javier; España, Javier; Larumbe, Eneko; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To quantify the impact of training-intensity distribution on 10K performance in recreational athletes. 30 endurance runners were randomly assigned to a training program emphasizing low-intensity, sub-ventilatory-threshold (VT), polarized endurance-training distribution (PET) or a moderately high-intensity (between-thresholds) endurance-training program (BThET). Before the study, the subjects performed a maximal exercise test to determine VT and respiratory-compensation threshold (RCT), which allowed training to be controlled based on heart rate during each training session over the 10-wk intervention period. Subjects performed a 10-km race on the same course before and after the intervention period. Training was quantified based on the cumulative time spent in 3 intensity zones: zone 1 (low intensity, RCT). The contribution of total training time in each zone was controlled to have more low-intensity training in PET (±77/3/20), whereas for BThET the distribution was higher in zone 2 and lower in zone 1 (±46/35/19). Both groups significantly improved their 10K time (39min18s ± 4min54s vs 37min19s ± 4min42s, P < .0001 for PET; 39min24s ± 3min54s vs 38min0s ± 4min24s, P < .001 for BThET). Improvements were 5.0% vs 3.6%, ~41 s difference at post-training-intervention. This difference was not significant. However, a subset analysis comparing the 12 runners who actually performed the most PET (n = 6) and BThET (n = 16) distributions showed greater improvement in PET by 1.29 standardized Cohen effect-size units (90% CI 0.31-2.27, P = .038). Polarized training can stimulate greater training effects than between-thresholds training in recreational runners.

  3. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  4. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    ŠKOF, Branko; ROTOVNIK KOZJEK, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. Methods The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Results Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner’s age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Conclusion Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle. PMID:27646729

  5. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  6. The Influence of Plantar Short Foot Muscle Exercises on Foot Posture and Fundamental Movement Patterns in Long-Distance Runners, a Non-Randomized, Non-Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sulowska, Iwona; Oleksy, Łukasz; Mika, Anna; Bylina, Dorota; Sołtan, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two kinds of plantar short foot muscles exercise on foot posture and fundamental movement patterns in long-distance runners. Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with 6-week follow-up. Methods Twenty five long-distance runners aged 22–35 years. They were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 13) subjects performed the exercise “Vele’s Forward Lean” and “Reverse Tandem Gait” and in Group 2 (n = 12) the “Short Foot Exercise.” The runners performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) tests were performed twice: at baseline and after 6 weeks of the exercise. Results A significant improvement was observed in FPI -6 (talar head palpation in Group 1, and inversion/eversion of the calcaneus in Group 2). Also in Group 1 a significant improvement was noted in FMS tests: deep squat, active straight leg raise and in total score. Conclusions Short foot muscles strengthening exercises have beneficial effect on functional movement patterns and on foot posture, therefore they should be included as a part of daily training program of runners. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615001200572 PMID:27336689

  7. The Influence of Plantar Short Foot Muscle Exercises on Foot Posture and Fundamental Movement Patterns in Long-Distance Runners, a Non-Randomized, Non-Blinded Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sulowska, Iwona; Oleksy, Łukasz; Mika, Anna; Bylina, Dorota; Sołtan, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two kinds of plantar short foot muscles exercise on foot posture and fundamental movement patterns in long-distance runners. A parallel group non-blinded trial with 6-week follow-up. Twenty five long-distance runners aged 22-35 years. They were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 13) subjects performed the exercise "Vele's Forward Lean" and "Reverse Tandem Gait" and in Group 2 (n = 12) the "Short Foot Exercise." The runners performed the exercises daily for 6 weeks. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) tests were performed twice: at baseline and after 6 weeks of the exercise. A significant improvement was observed in FPI -6 (talar head palpation in Group 1, and inversion/eversion of the calcaneus in Group 2). Also in Group 1 a significant improvement was noted in FMS tests: deep squat, active straight leg raise and in total score. Short foot muscles strengthening exercises have beneficial effect on functional movement patterns and on foot posture, therefore they should be included as a part of daily training program of runners. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615001200572.

  8. Running economy and body composition between competitive and recreational level distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mooses, Martin; Jürimäe, J; Mäestu, J; Mooses, K; Purge, P; Jürimäe, T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare running economy between competitive and recreational level athletes at their individual ventilatory thresholds on track and to compare body composition parameters that are related to the individual running economy measured on track. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a total 45 male runners classified as competitive runners (CR; n = 28) and recreational runners (RR; n = 17). All runners performed an incremental test on treadmill until voluntary exhaustion and at least 48 h later a 2 × 2000 m test at indoor track with intensities according to ventilatory threshold 1, ventilator threshold 2. During the running tests, athletes wore portable oxygen analyzer. Body composition was measured with Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Running economy at the first ventilatory threshold was not significantly related to any of the measured body composition values or leg mass ratios either in the competitive or in the recreational runners group. This study showed that there was no difference in the running economy between distance runners with different performance level when running on track, while there was a difference in the second ventilatory threshold speed in different groups of distance runners. Differences in running economy between competitive and recreational athletes cannot be explained by body composition and/or different leg mass ratios.

  9. Caffeine has a small effect on 5-km running performance of well-trained and recreational runners.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Matthew P; O'Brien, Brendan J; Knez, Wade L; Paton, Carl D

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if caffeine ingestion improves 5-km time-trial performance in well-trained and recreational runners. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 15 well-trained and 15 recreational runners completed two randomized 5-km time-trials, after ingestion of either 5mgkg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. Caffeine ingestion significantly improved 5-km running performance in both the well-trained and recreational runners. In comparison to the placebo trial, the caffeine trial resulted in 1.1% (90% CI 0.4-1.6) and 1.0% (0.2-2%) faster times for the well-trained and recreational runners. Reliability testing of the recreational runners indicated a test-retest error of measurement of 1.4%. We conclude that caffeine ingestion is likely to produce small but significant gains in 5-km running performance for both well-trained and recreational runners.

  10. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  11. Medial and Lateral Heel Whips: Prevalence and Characteristics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Souza, Richard B; Hatamiya, Nicolas; Martin, Carly; Aramaki, Andrew; Martinelli, Brian; Wong, Jamie; Luke, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of recreational runners with medial and lateral heel whips. Observational cohort study. Clinical research laboratory. A total of 256 recreationally active runners and joggers participated. High-definition video was acquired from a posterior view while runners ran at a self-selected pace on a treadmill. Heel whips, defined as the medial or lateral rotation of the foot in the transverse plane during initial swing, were measured with Dartfish software. Subjects were stratified by direction (medial and lateral) and severity (W_5-10 = 5-10 degrees; W_10+ = >10 degrees) of heel whip. Body mass index and gender comparisons, as well as measurement reliability, also were explored. Mean heel whip angle across runners was 0.4 degrees (medial) with a standard deviation of 9.2 degrees. Of the 512 feet analyzed, 274 (54%) demonstrated a 5 degree whip or greater. There was a similar number of medial and lateral heel whips observed (27% each). Female runners were twice as likely to demonstrate a lateral heel whip of greater than 8.9 degrees. Overweight runners had more medially directed whips when compared with normal and underweight runners. More than half of the recreational runners studied were observed to have a medial or lateral heel whip of greater than 5 degrees. These data reveal the age, body mass index, and gender distribution of recreational runners with and without heel whips. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among recreational runners who are about to compete: an observational study of 1049 runners.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alexandre Dias; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Adami, Fernando; Verhagen, Evert

    2011-01-01

    What is the prevalence and nature of musculoskeletal pain in recreational runners immediately before a race? Cross-sectional survey. Adults intending to compete in a recreational running race between 5000 and 10 000 metres. Demographic data collected about the respondents included: age, gender, height, weight, duration of running experience, distance run per week, number of training sessions per week, training surface, and use of coaching. Respondents were asked if they had any pain. If pain was present, data were collected regarding its location, duration, current intensity, and behaviour. All data were self-reported. Data were collected from 1049 runners at five recreational races in São Paulo, Brazil. Of these respondents, 227 (22%) reported musculoskeletal pain before the race. Male respondents reported a greater running experience, a higher distance run per week, and a greater body mass index. Despite this, the prevalence of pain was 20% among the 796 male respondents and 27% among the 253 female respondents (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.72). Where pain was present, it was typical of overuse injuries and its duration, intensity, and behaviour were similar between male and female respondents. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in recreational runners about to compete is substantial. Physiotherapists might be able to circumvent worsening of existing overuse injuries in this population with advice and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  13. The morphology of foot soft tissues is associated with running shoe type in healthy recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianyi; Delabastita, Tijs; Lissens, Joselien; De Beenhouwer, Floor; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-11-22

    To determine the differences in the morphology of foot soft tissues between runners using different types of running shoes. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-eight recreational runners were divided into four groups based on running shoe type, namely, neutral shoes, motion control shoes, minimalistic shoes and neutral shoes with custom-made insoles. An arch height index and a relative arch deformation index were calculated for each participant. An ultrasound device was used to measure the cross-sectional area and/or the thickness of selected intrinsic foot muscles (abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis and flexor digitorum brevis) and extrinsic foot muscles (flexor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior and the peroneus muscles), and the thickness of the plantar fascia, Achilles tendon and heel pad. Recreational runners using minimalistic shoes demonstrated stiffer foot arches than those using neutral shoes. Among the selected foot muscles, only abductor hallucis showed a significant morphological difference between shoe groups. Runners using minimalistic shoes had the thickest abductor hallucis. The minimalistic shoe runners also showed a thinner proximal plantar fascia and a thicker Achilles tendon than other runners. Insole runners had a thinner heel pad than neutral shoe runners. This study suggests that the morphology of foot soft tissues is associated with running shoe type in recreational runners. A sudden change in running shoe type without adjusting training volume should be undertaken with caution, since it may take time for foot soft tissues to adapt to a new shoe condition. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of plantar fasciitis and pain on plantar pressure distribution of recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Tessutti, Vitor D; Lima, Fernanda R; João, Sílvia M A; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2011-02-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the third most frequent injury in runners. Despite its high prevalence, its pathogenesis remains inconclusive. The literature reports overload as the basic mechanism for its development. However, the way that these plantar loads are distributed on the foot surface of runners with plantar fasciitis and the effects of pain on this mechanical factor has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the plantar pressure distributions during running in runners with symptom or history of plantar fasciitis and runners without the disease. Forty-five recreational runners with plantar fasciitis (30 symptomatic and 15 with previous history of the disease) and 60 runners without plantar fasciitis (control group) were evaluated. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale. All runners were evaluated by means of the Pedar system insoles during running forty meters at a speed of 12(5%) km/h, using standard sport footwear. Two-way ANOVAS were employed to investigate the main and interaction effects between groups and plantar areas. No interaction effects were found for any of the investigated variables: peak pressure (P = 0.61), contact area (P = 0.38), contact time (P = 0.91), and the pressure-time integral (P = 0.50). These findings indicated that the patterns of plantar pressure distribution were not affected in recreational runners with plantar fasciitis when compared to control runners. Pain also did not interfere with the dynamic patterns of the plantar pressure distributions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the rearfoot pattern the most frequently foot strike pattern among recreational shod distance runners?

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-02-01

    To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  17. Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Hokka, L; Nummela, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to predict changes in endurance performance during 28 weeks of endurance training. The training was divided into 14 weeks of basic training (BTP) and 14 weeks of intensive training periods (ITP). Endurance performance characteristics, nocturnal HRV, and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after both training periods in 28 recreational endurance runners. During the study peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak ) improved by 7.5 ± 4.5%. No changes were observed in HRV indices after BTP, but after ITP, these indices increased significantly (HFP: 1.9%, P=0.026; TP: 1.7%, P=0.007). Significant correlations were observed between the change of Vpeak and HRV indices (TP: r=0.75, P<0.001; HFP: r=0.71, P<0.001; LFP: r=0.69, P=0.01) at baseline during ITP. In order to lead to significant changes in HRV among recreational endurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity training are needed. This study showed that recreational endurance runners with a high HRV at baseline improved their endurance running performance after ITP more than runners with low baseline HRV. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Scale model on performance prediction in recreational and elite endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Tartaruga, Marcus P; Mota, Carlos B; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2014-07-01

    To identify the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between running efficiency (R(Eff)) and middle-distance-running performance according to performance level. Thirteen male recreational middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 33.3 ± 8.4 y, body mass 76.4 ± 8.6 kg, maximal oxygen uptake [VO(2max)] 52.8 ± 4.6 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); G1) and 13 male high-level middle-distance runners (age 25.5 ± 4.2 y, body mass 62.8 ± 2.7 kg, VO(2max) 70.4 ± 1.9 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); G2) performed a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion to determine VO(2max) and a 6-min submaximal running test at 70% of VO(2max) to assess R(Eff). Significant correlation between R(Eff) and performance were found for both groups; however, the strongest correlations were observed in recreational runners, especially when using the allometric exponent (respectively for G1, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r = .80 vs r = .86; and for G2, nonallometric vs allometric scaling: r = .55 vs r = .50). These results indicate that an allometric normalization may improve endurance-performance prediction from R(Eff) values in recreational, but not in elite, runners.

  19. ACCURACY OF SELF-REPORTED FOOT STRIKE PATTERN IN INTERCOLLEGIATE AND RECREATIONAL RUNNERS DURING SHOD RUNNING.

    PubMed

    Bade, Michael B; Aaron, Katie; McPoil, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    Clinicians are interested in the foot strike pattern (FSP) in runners because of the suggested relationship between the strike pattern and lower extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of collegiate cross-country runners and recreational runners to self-report their foot strike pattern during running. Cross-sectional Study. Twenty-three collegiate cross-country and 23 recreational runners voluntarily consented to participate. Inclusion criteria included running at least 18 miles per week, experience running on a treadmill, no history of lower extremity congenital or traumatic deformity, or acute injury three months prior to the start of the study. All participants completed a pre-test survey to indicate their typical foot strike pattern during a training run (FSPSurvey). Prior to running, reflective markers were placed on the posterior midsole and the vamp of the running shoe. A high-speed camera was used to film each runner in standing and while running at his or her preferred speed on a treadmill. The angle between the vector formed by the two reflective markers and the superior surface of the treadmill was used to calculate the foot strike angle (FSA). To determine the foot strike pattern from the video data (FSPVideo), the static standing angle was subtracted from the FSA at initial contact of the shoe on the treadmill. In addition to descriptive statistics, percent agreement and Chi square analysis was used to determine distribution differences between the video analysis results and the survey. The results of the chi-square analysis on the distribution of the FSPSurvey in comparison to the FSPVideo were significantly different for both the XCRunners (p < .01; Chi-square = 8.77) and the REC Runners (p < .0002; Chi-square = 16.70). The cross-country and recreational runners could correctly self-identified their foot strike pattern 56.5% and 43.5% of the time, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the

  20. ACCURACY OF SELF-REPORTED FOOT STRIKE PATTERN IN INTERCOLLEGIATE AND RECREATIONAL RUNNERS DURING SHOD RUNNING

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Michael B.; Aaron, Katie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Clinicians are interested in the foot strike pattern (FSP) in runners because of the suggested relationship between the strike pattern and lower extremity injury. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of collegiate cross-country runners and recreational runners to self-report their foot strike pattern during running. Study Design Cross-sectional Study Methods Twenty-three collegiate cross-country and 23 recreational runners voluntarily consented to participate. Inclusion criteria included running at least 18 miles per week, experience running on a treadmill, no history of lower extremity congenital or traumatic deformity, or acute injury three months prior to the start of the study. All participants completed a pre-test survey to indicate their typical foot strike pattern during a training run (FSPSurvey). Prior to running, reflective markers were placed on the posterior midsole and the vamp of the running shoe. A high-speed camera was used to film each runner in standing and while running at his or her preferred speed on a treadmill. The angle between the vector formed by the two reflective markers and the superior surface of the treadmill was used to calculate the foot strike angle (FSA). To determine the foot strike pattern from the video data (FSPVideo), the static standing angle was subtracted from the FSA at initial contact of the shoe on the treadmill. In addition to descriptive statistics, percent agreement and Chi square analysis was used to determine distribution differences between the video analysis results and the survey. Results The results of the chi-square analysis on the distribution of the FSPSurvey in comparison to the FSPVideo were significantly different for both the XCRunners (p < .01; Chi-square = 8.77) and the REC Runners (p < .0002; Chi-square = 16.70). The cross-country and recreational runners could correctly self-identified their foot strike pattern 56.5% and 43.5% of the time

  1. Effect of Peer Influence on Exercise Behavior and Enjoyment in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Andrew J; Petersen, Jennifer L; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-02-01

    Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n = 12 males, n = 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex- and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex- and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein.

  2. What do recreational runners think about risk factors for running injuries? A descriptive study of their beliefs and opinions.

    PubMed

    Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2014-10-01

    Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews. To describe the beliefs and opinions of runners about risk factors associated with running injuries. Despite the health benefits of running, a high prevalence of injury has been reported in runners. Preventive strategies for running injuries may be more successful with a better knowledge of runners' beliefs. A semi-structured interview of recreational runners was based on the question, "What do you think can cause injuries in runners?" Analysis of the interviews was performed in 3 steps: (1) organizing the data into thematic units, (2) reading and reorganizing the data according to frequency of citation, and (3) interpreting and summarizing the data. The runner interviews were continued until no new beliefs and opinions of runners regarding injuries were being added to the data, indicating saturation of the topic. A total of 95 recreational runners (65 men, 30 women) between the ages of 19 and 71 years were interviewed. Of those interviewed, the average running experience was 5.5 years and approximately 45% had experienced a running-related injury in the past. The factors suggested by the runners were divided into extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The most cited extrinsic factors were "not stretching," "excess of training," "not warming up," "lack of strength," and "wearing the wrong shoes." For the intrinsic factors, the main terms cited were "not respecting the body's limitations" and "foot-type changes." Recreational runners mainly attributed injury to factors related to training, running shoes, and exceeding the body's limits. Knowing the factors identified in this study may contribute to the development of better educational strategies to prevent running injuries, as some of the runners' beliefs are not supported by the research literature.

  3. Comparison between recreational male Ironman triathletes and marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Daniele; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Recent investigations described a personal best marathon time as a predictor variable for an Ironman race time in recreational male Ironman triathletes. Similarities and differences in anthropometry and training were investigated between 83 recreational male Ironman triathletes and 81 recreational male marathoners. Ironman triathletes were significantly taller and had a higher body mass and a higher skin-fold thickness of the calf compared to the marathoners. Weekly training volume in hours was higher in Ironman triathletes. In the Ironman triathletes, percent body fat was related to overall race time and both the split time in cycling and running. The weekly swim kilometres were related to the split time in swimming, and the speed in cycling was related to the bike split time. For the marathoners, the calf skin-fold thickness and running speed during training were related to marathon race time. Although personal best marathon time was a predictor of Ironman race time in male triathletes, anthropometric and training characteristics of male marathoners were different from those of male Ironman triathletes, probably due to training of different muscle groups and metabolic endurance beyond marathon running, as the triathletes are also training for high-level performance in swimming and cycling. Future studies should compare Olympic distance triathletes and road cyclists with Ironman triathletes.

  4. Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    Billat, Véronique L.; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min). Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m−1) (r = −0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners. PMID:22645458

  5. Cardiac output and performance during a marathon race in middle-aged recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Billat, Véronique L; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min). Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m(-1)) (r = -0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners.

  6. Comparison of achilles tendon loading between male and female recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Greenhalgh; Jonathan, Sinclair

    2014-12-09

    Recreational running is an activity with multiple reported health benefits for both sexes, however, chronic injuries caused by excessive and/or repetitive loading of the Achilles tendon are common. Males have been identified as being at an increased risk of suffering an injury to the Achilles tendon and as such, knowledge of differences in loading between the sexes may provide further information to better understand why this is the case. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether gender differences in the Achilles tendon load exist in recreational runners. Fifteen male (age 26.74 ± 5.52 years, body height 1.80 ± 0.11 m and body mass 74.22 ± 7.27 kg) and fifteen female (age 25.13 ± 6.39 years, body height 1.68 ± 0.12 m and body mass 67.12 ± 9.11 kg) recreational runners volunteered to take part in the current investigation. Participants completed 10 trials running at 4.0 m·s(-1) ±5% striking a force platform (1000 Hz) with their right foot. Ankle joint kinematics were synchronously recorded (250 Hz) using an optoelectric motion capture system. Ankle joint kinetics were computed using Newton-Euler inverse-dynamics. Net external ankle joint moments were then calculated. To estimate Achilles tendon kinetics the plantarflexion moment calculated was divided by an estimated Achilles tendon moment arm of 0.05 m. Differences in Achilles tendon kinetics were examined using independent sample t-tests (p<0.05). The results indicate that males were associated with significantly (p<0.05) greater Achilles tendon loads than females. The findings from this study support the notion that male recreational runners may be at greater risk of Achilles tendon pathology.

  7. Management and treatment of femoral neck stress fractures in recreational runners: a report of four cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Biz, Carlo; Berizzi, Antonio; Crimì, Alberto; Marcato, Chiara; Trovarelli, Giulia; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-10-18

    Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs) in healthy young subjects are uncommon and most prevalent among long-distance runners and military recruits. Women seem to be at higher risk of developing stress fractures because of possible eating disorders followed by amenorrhea and osteoporosis. This case report describes four young and middle-aged, active female recreational runners who developed stress fractures of the femoral neck. In three of them, with a clinical history of persistent pain in the groin region, which worsened during training, early diagnosis by MRI was considered essential in detecting the fractures. The patients were clinically, metabolically and radiographically evaluated; they were then treated and followed-up at our institution. Only one case was treated conservatively, while the others underwent surgical internal fixation using a screw-plate (DHS®). All of them returned to sport physical activity after a recovery period. Regarding the challenging management of FNSFs, our report highlights the importance of groin pain, especially in athletic females, an early diagnosis by MRI, and a proper classification of these injuries for a correct choice of treatment in order to prevent further dislocation and avoid avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  8. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners. Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126) participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011. Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices. Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81) for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes) = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(-0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week]) + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km) + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]). The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165-266 minutes.

  9. Marathon performance in relation to body fat percentage and training indices in recreational male runners

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of anthropometric characteristics and training indices on marathon race times in recreational male marathoners. Methods Training and anthropometric characteristics were collected for a large cohort of recreational male runners (n = 126) participating in the Basel marathon in Switzerland between 2010 and 2011. Results Among the parameters investigated, marathon performance time was found to be affected by mean running speed and the mean weekly distance run during the training period prior to the race and by body fat percentage. The effect of body fat percentage became significant as it exceeded a certain limiting value; for a relatively low body fat percentage, marathon performance time correlated only with training indices. Conclusion Marathon race time may be predicted (r = 0.81) for recreational male runners by the following equation: marathon race time (minutes) = 11.03 + 98.46 exp(−0.0053 mean weekly training distance [km/week]) + 0.387 mean training pace (sec/km) + 0.1 exp(0.23 body fat percentage [%]). The marathon race time results were valid over a range of 165–266 minutes. PMID:24379719

  10. Running Performance While Wearing a Heat Dissipating Compression Garment in Male Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Leoz-Abaurrea, Iker; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Grobler, Lara; Engelbrecht, Louise; Aguado-Jiménez, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Leoz-Abaurrea, I, Santos-Concejero, J, Grobler, L, Engelbrecht, L, and Aguado-Jiménez, R. Running performance while wearing a heat dissipating compression garment in male recreational runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3367-3372, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a heat dissipating compression garment (CG) during a running performance test. Ten male recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 23 ± 3 years; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 55.8 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min) completed 2 identical sessions wearing either CG or conventional t-shirt (CON). Each trial included a 45-minute run at 60% of the peak treadmill speed (PTS) followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) run at 80% of the PTS and a 10-minute recovery period. During the tests, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses were monitored. Participants wearing the CG displayed an impaired running performance (508 ± 281 vs. 580 ± 314 seconds, p = 0.046; effect size [ES] = 0.24). In addition, a higher respiratory exchange ratio (1.06 ± 0.04 vs. 1.02 ± 0.07, p = 0.01; ES = 0.70) was observed at TTE when wearing the CG in comparison to CON. Changes in core temperature did not differ between garments after the 45-minute run (p = 0.96; ES = 0.03) or TTE (1.97 ± 0.32 vs. 1.98 ± 0.38° C; p = 0.93; ES = 0.02) for CG and CON, respectively. During recovery, significantly higher heart rate and blood lactate values were observed when wearing CG (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that the use of a heat dissipating CG may not improve running performance in male recreational runners during a running performance test to exhaustion.

  11. Low back and lower-limb muscle performance in male and female recreational runners with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congcong; Kong, Pui W

    2015-06-01

    Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. To compare lumbar extensor muscle fatigability, lumbar stabilizing muscle activation, and lower-limb strength between male and female runners with chronic low back pain (LBP) and healthy runners. Little is known about muscle performance in runners with chronic LBP. Eighteen recreational runners with chronic LBP (9 men, 9 women; mean age, 27.8 years) and 18 healthy recreational runners (9 men, 9 women; mean age, 24.6 years) were recruited. The median frequency slopes for bilateral iliocostalis and longissimus were calculated from electromyographic signals captured during a 2-minute Sorensen test. The thickness changes of the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus between resting and contraction were measured using an ultrasound scanner. Peak concentric torques of the bilateral hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The average values for both sides were used for statistical analysis. When averaged across sexes, peak knee extensor torque was 12.2% lower in the LBP group compared to the healthy group (mean difference, 0.29 Nm/kg; 95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.53; P = .016). Male runners with chronic LBP exhibited smaller lumbar multifidus thickness changes compared to healthy male runners (mean difference, 0.13 cm; 95% confidence interval: 0.01, 0.25; P = .033). No other group differences were observed. Runners with chronic LBP exhibited diminished knee extensor strength compared to healthy runners. Male runners with chronic LBP demonstrated additional deficits in lumbar multifidus activation.

  12. Energy Drinks Improve Five-Kilometer Running Performance in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    PubMed

    Prins, Philip J; Goss, Fredric L; Nagle, Elizabeth F; Beals, Kim; Robertson, Robert J; Lovalekar, Mita T; Welton, Gary L

    2016-11-01

    Prins, PJ, Goss, FL, Nagle, EF, Beals, K, Robertson, RJ, Lovalekar, MT, and Welton, GL. Energy drinks improve five-kilometer running performance in recreational endurance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2979-2990, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate exercise performance time and related physiological and perceptual responses of recreational endurance runners after they had ingested a commercially available energy drink (Red Bull, Red Bull GmbH, Fuschl am See, Austria) containing caffeine, glucose, and taurine. Recreational endurance runners (n = 18; 13 men and 5 women; age: 20.39 ± 3.27 years; weight: 71.25 ± 17.17 kg; height: 178.00 ± 7.57 cm; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 55.94 ± 7.66 ml·kg·min) participated in a double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures study where they were randomized to supplement with 500 ml of the commercially available energy drink Red Bull and a noncaffeinated, sugar-free placebo (PLA) 60 minutes before completing a 5-km time trial on a treadmill, separated by 7 days. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (RPE-Overall; RPE-Chest; RPE-Legs), and affect were recorded at rest, 1 hour before ingestion, at 5-minute intervals during the 5-km time trial, and immediately after exercise. Session RPE and session affect were obtained 5 minutes after completion of the 5-km time trial. The distance covered at each 5-minute interval during the 5-km time trial was recorded. Performance improved with the energy drink compared with placebo (Red Bull: 1,413.2 ± 169.7 vs. PLA: 1,443.6 ± 179.2 seconds; p = 0.016), but there were no differences in RPE, affect, session RPE, session affect, or the distance covered at 5-minute splits between the two 5-km time trials (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that consuming a commercially available energy drink before exercise can improve 5-km performance. These results may have application for altering pre-exercise nutritional strategies in recreational runners.

  13. Long distance quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  14. The Effect of Clinical Pilates on Functional Movement in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Laws, Anna; Williams, Sean; Wilson, Cassie

    2017-09-01

    Biomechanical imbalances and inefficient functional movements are considered contributing factors to running-related injuries. Clinical Pilates uses a series of exercises focused on retraining normal movement patterns. This study investigated whether a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates improves functional movement and thereby, potentially, reduces the risk of running-related injuries associated with movement dysfunction. A modified functional movement screen was used to analyze the functional movement ability of forty runners. Forty participants completed a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates delivered by a Clinical Pilates instructor. The movement screen was carried out 3 times for each runner: 6 weeks pre-intervention (baseline), within one week pre-intervention (pre) and within one week post-intervention (post). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post-hoc tests found significant increases in scores between baseline and post (mean±SD; 13.4±2.4 vs. 17.0±1.7, p<0.01) and pre and post (mean±SD; 13.5±2.5 vs. 17.0±1.7, p<0.01), but no significant difference between baseline and pre (p=0.3). A 6-week course of Clinical Pilates significantly improves functional movement in recreational runners, and this may lead to a reduction in the risk of running-related injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Some physiological demands of a half-marathon race on recreational runners.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C.; Nute, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological demands of a half-marathon race on a group of ten recreational runners (8 men and 2 women). The average running speed was 223.1 +/- 22.7 m.min-1 (mean +/- SD) for the group and this represented 79 +/- 5% VO2 max for these runners. There was a good correlation between VO2 max and performance time for the race (4 = -0.81; p less than 0.01) and an even better correlation between running speed equivalent to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1 and performance times (r = -0.877; p less than 0.01). The blood lactate concentration os 4 of the runners at the end of the race was 5.65 +/- 1.42 mmol.l-1 (mean +/- SD) and the estimated energy expenditure for the group was 6.22 M.J. While there was only a poor correlation between total energy expenditure and performance time for the race, the correlation coefficient was improved when the energy expenditure of each individual was expressed in KJ.kg-1 min-1 (r = 0.938; p less than 0.01). Images p152-a p152-b PMID:6652396

  16. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence of fluid associated with the iliotibial band in asymptomatic recreational runners: an ultrasonographic study.

    PubMed

    Jelsing, Elena J; Finnoff, Jonathan; Levy, Bruce; Smith, Jay

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and distribution of fluid associated with the iliotibial band (ITB) in asymptomatic recreational runners. Prospective cohort study. Sports medicine center at a tertiary medical center. Five male and 15 female asymptomatic recreational runners (10-30 miles per week) ages 18-40 years. Participants were examined with the use of ultrasonography to assess for the presence of fluid at the level of the lateral femoral epicondyle and determine its relationship to the ITB at 0 and 30° of knee flexion in both supine (non-weight-bearing) and standing (weight-bearing) positions. Fluid was associated with the ITB in 100% of asymptomatic recreational runners and was bilateral in 90%. When examined in full extension with the subject supine, fluid was seen in 67.5% of knees (n = 40) compared with 95% of the knees when standing. When examined in 30° of flexion, the presence of fluid decreased to 30% when supine and 22.5% when standing. With the knee in full extension in a supine/standing position, fluid was located anterior and deep 70%/74% of the time and was anterior only 11%/0% of the time. With the knee flexed to 30° in a supine/standing position, fluid was located anterior and deep 50%/33% of the time and anterior only 33%/67% of the time. The prevalence of fluid associated with the ITB varied with body and knee position, was most common in the standing position with the knee extended, and was generally located anterior or anterior and deep to the ITB. The clinical significance of our findings are 2-fold: (1) body position should be considered when searching for fluid in the vicinity of the ITB, and (2) clinicians and imagers should exercise caution when interpreting the clinical significance of fluid associated with the ITB during ultrasonographic evaluation of runners with lateral knee pain. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between functional hamstring: quadriceps ratios and running economy in highly trained and recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Sundby, Oyvind H; Gorelick, Mark L S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE), functional hamstring:quadriceps peak torque ratios (f-H:Q), and flexibility among female runners. Seven highly trained (HT) female runners (age: 25.7 ± 4.7 years, VO2peak of 62.0 ± 4.8 ml·kg-1·min-1) and 11 recreational female runners (age of 28.8 ± 5.6 years, VO2peak of 49.2 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) were measured for maximal aerobic power (VO2peak), RE, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, f-H:Q (Hecc:Qcon and Hcon:Qecc), and sit-and-reach hamstring/trunk flexibility. On 2 separate days, RE was measured on a treadmill at 1% grade at 2 velocities (160.9 and 201.2 m·min-1) for 6 minutes each, and isokinetic knee strength was measured at 3 angular velocities (60, 120, and 180°·s-1) for both concentric and eccentric muscle actions. The unpaired t-tests showed a consistent trend toward higher f-H:Q ratios at all angular velocities among the HT runners. Highly trained runners had significantly higher Hecc:Qcon at 120°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05) and 180°·s-1 (p ≤ 0.05). Whole group correlations demonstrated a significant correlation between Hcon:Qecc at 180°·s-1 and RE (ml·kg-1·km-1) at 201.2 m·min-1 (R = -0.48, p ≤ 0.05). No significant relationships were found between flexibility, or hamstring and quadriceps peak torque (N·m) and RE (p > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis suggests that higher f-H:Q torque ratios, and not muscle strength per se, are associated with a lower metabolic cost of running. Therefore, runners should consider implementing hamstring exercises to improve their f-H:Q ratios.

  19. Effects of minimal dose of strength training on running performance in female recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Štohanzl, Michal; Baláš, Jiri; Draper, Nick

    2017-04-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the extent to which minimal dose strength training would elicit improvements in running performance for female recreational runners. Forty-one female recreational runners were randomly assigned to one of three groups (endurance running [E] n=14; combined endurance running and strength training program once [ES30] n=14 and twice a week [ES60] n=13, respectively). During the 10-week training program, the E group completed 3 hours of continuous endurance running per week; ES30 completed 2 ½ hours of continuous endurance running and 1 x 30 min of strength training per week, while ES60 group completed 2 hours of continuous endurance running and 2x30 min of strength training per week. Body composition, standing long jump, running economy and maximal endurance performance characteristics were assessed using ANOVA with repeated measures. Both concurrent training groups significantly improved their maximum treadmill test performance, ES30 from 168.5 ± 43.2 to 191.3 ± 43.8 s, ES60 from 203.1 ± 47.8 to 249.3 ± 49.7 s. No significant differences were detected between and within groups for body composition, power output (standing long jump), exercise economy and V̇O2max. The findings suggest strength training in volume 30 min or 1 hour per week was sufficient to increase maximal running performance, however it did not lead to improvement in running economy or aerobic capacity.

  20. Inspiratory flow resistive loading improves respiratory muscle function and endurance capacity in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, T D; Nichols, T; Lindley, M R; Chatham, K; Ionescu, A A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of inspiratory flow resistive loading (IFRL) on respiratory muscle function, exercise performance and cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise. Twenty-four recreational road runners (12 male) were randomly assigned from each gender into an IFRL group (n=8) and sham-IFRL group (n=8), which performed IFRL for 6 weeks, or a control group (n=8). Strength (+43.9%Delta), endurance (+26.6%Delta), maximum power output (+41.9%Delta) and work capacity (+38.5%Delta) of the inspiratory muscles were significantly increased (P<0.05) at rest following the study period in IFRL group only. In addition, ventilation (-25.7%Delta), oxygen consumption (-13.3%Delta), breathing frequency (-11.9%Delta), tidal volume (-16.0%Delta), heart rate (HR) (-13.1%Delta), blood lactate concentration (-38.9%Delta) and the perceptual response (-33.5%Delta) to constant workload exercise were significantly attenuated (P<0.05), concomitant with a significant improvement (P<0.05) in endurance exercise capacity (+16.4%Delta) during a treadmill run set at 80% VO2max in IFRL group only. These data suggest that IFRL can alter breathing mechanics, attenuate the oxygen cost, ventilation, HR, blood lactate and the perceptual response during constant workload exercise and improve endurance exercise performance in recreational runners.

  1. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    PubMed

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  2. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the ‘Half Marathon Basel’ completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD) 103.9 (16.5) min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9) km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56), suprailiacal (r = 0.36) and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53) were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = −0.54) were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150) and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045) were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r2 = 0.44): Race time (min) = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m2) −3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. PMID:24198577

  3. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the 'Half Marathon Basel' completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD) 103.9 (16.5) min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9) km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56), suprailiacal (r = 0.36) and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53) were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = -0.54) were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150) and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045) were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.44): Race time (min) = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m(2)) -3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable.

  4. Gender comparison of physiologic and perceptual responses in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Loftin, Mark; Sothern, Melinda; Tuuri, Georgianna; Tompkins, Connie; Koss, Cathie; Bonis, Marc

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare gender differences in physiologic and perceptual responses during a 1-h run at recent marathon pace and running economy at three speeds in recreational marathon runners. In a counterbalanced design, 10 men and 10 women completed a 1-h treadmill run and a running economy test. Treadmill speed for the 1-h run ranged from 141 to 241 mmin(-1) and 134, 168, and 188 m x min(-1) for running economy. Physiologic parameters (oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, and heart rate) and perceived exertion were measured. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare any gender differences (P < .05) during the 1-h run and a two-way ANOVA was used to compare running economy. With this sample, estimated marathon energy expenditure, body composition, and maximal physiologic function was reported. With the exception of an allometric expression of VO2 (mL x min(-1) kg BW(-0.75)), similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were found during the 1-h run. Although not significant, the females exercised at a higher percent VO2(max) (8% to 9%) during the run. Similar gender differences were also noted during the running economy tests. Although the male runners completed a recent marathon significantly faster than the females, similar gender physiologic and perceptual responses were generally found during the 1-h treadmill run and the running economy tests.

  5. Effect of protein and carbohydrate solutions on running performance and cognitive function in female recreational runners

    PubMed Central

    Si, Gangyan

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a carbohydrate–electrolyte–protein solution (CEPS, 2% protein plus 4% carbohydrate), carbohydrate–electrolyte solution (CES, 6% carbohydrate), and noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) on both 21-km running performance and cognitive function. Eleven female recreational endurance runners performed a 21-km time-trial running on three occasions, separated by at least 28 days. In a randomized cross-over design, they ingested CEPS, CES, or PLA at a rate of 150 mL every 2.5 km with no time feedback. A cognitive function test was performed before and after the run. Participants ingested approximately 24 g/h carbohydrate plus 12 g/h protein in CEPS trial, and 36 g/h carbohydrate in CES trial during each 21-km trial. Time to complete the time-trial was slightly shorter (P < 0.05) during CES (129.6 ± 8.8 min) than PLA (134.6 ± 11.5 min), with no differences between CEPS and the other two trials. The CEPS trial showed higher composite of visual motor speed than the PLA trial (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CES feedings might improve 21-km time-trial performance in female recreational runners compared with a PLA. However, adding protein to the CES provided no additional time-trial performance benefit. CEPS feeding during prolonged exercise could benefit visual motor speed compared to PLA alone, but no differences in the performance of the other cognitive function tests were found. PMID:29023535

  6. Effect of protein and carbohydrate solutions on running performance and cognitive function in female recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhaohuan; Sun, Fenghua; Si, Gangyan; Chen, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte-protein solution (CEPS, 2% protein plus 4% carbohydrate), carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES, 6% carbohydrate), and noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) on both 21-km running performance and cognitive function. Eleven female recreational endurance runners performed a 21-km time-trial running on three occasions, separated by at least 28 days. In a randomized cross-over design, they ingested CEPS, CES, or PLA at a rate of 150 mL every 2.5 km with no time feedback. A cognitive function test was performed before and after the run. Participants ingested approximately 24 g/h carbohydrate plus 12 g/h protein in CEPS trial, and 36 g/h carbohydrate in CES trial during each 21-km trial. Time to complete the time-trial was slightly shorter (P < 0.05) during CES (129.6 ± 8.8 min) than PLA (134.6 ± 11.5 min), with no differences between CEPS and the other two trials. The CEPS trial showed higher composite of visual motor speed than the PLA trial (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CES feedings might improve 21-km time-trial performance in female recreational runners compared with a PLA. However, adding protein to the CES provided no additional time-trial performance benefit. CEPS feeding during prolonged exercise could benefit visual motor speed compared to PLA alone, but no differences in the performance of the other cognitive function tests were found.

  7. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  8. Pacemaker safety and long-distance running

    PubMed Central

    Bennekers, J.H.; van Mechelen, R.; Meijer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To prove that long-distance running is safe for athletes with pacemaker devices, pacemaker function was evaluated in nine long-distance runners. Method Nine runners participated in a nine-month training programme that involved running for 1000 or 2000 km in preparation for either a full or a half marathon. A professional coach, three cardiologists and a technician — all with running experience — conducted the training and medical checkups. Commercial heart rate monitors were used during training to assess heart rates at rest, and during exercise and long-distance running. Sensing and pacing functions of the pacemaker system were tested during training sessions as well as during the race. In addition, the ChampionChip (a time registration device used in competition) and the Polar heart rate monitor (a widely used self-monitoring device) were tested for possible interference with the pacemaker. Results All nine athletes completed the Amsterdam 2001 half or full marathon without any pacemaker dysfunction. A short survey after two years showed no pacemaker dysfunction. Conclusion Long-distance running is safe for athletes with pacemaker implants. Overall fitness and sufficient endurance training remain the prerequisites for maintaining the condition necessary for successful completion of a marathon regardless of medical status. In our study, it became clear that for patients who had received a pacemaker because of complete heart block, the upper rate of the pacemaker programme needed to be adjusted to 170 to 180 ppm to insure 1:1 atrio-ventricular synchrony during high atrial rates. It is concluded that there is no a priori reason for cardiologists to advise against long-distance running in athletes with pacemakers. Patients with known or suspected structural heart disease should be screened according the recommendations. PMID:25696264

  9. Mechanical Work and Long-Distance Performance Prediction: the Influence of Allometric Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Mota, Carlos Bolli; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Gomeñuka, Natalia Andrea; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between mechanical work and long-distance running performance in recreational runners. Fourteen recreational long-distance runners (male, mean ± SD - age: 29 ± 7 years; body mass: 70.0 ± 10.2 kg; body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max 52.0 ± 4.9 ml·kg−1·min−1) performed two tests: a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion in order to determine VO2max, and a 6-minute running submaximal test at 3.1 m·s−1, during which segments in the sagittal plane were recorded using a digital camera and the internal (Wint), external (Wext) and total (Wtot) mechanic work, in J·kg−1·m−1, was subsequently calculated. The results indicated a significant correlation between mechanical work and performance, however, the strongest correlations were observed when allometric exponents were used (respectively for Wint, Wext and Wtot; non allometric vs. allometric scaling defined by literature (0.75) or determined mathematically (0.49): r = 0.38 vs. r = 0.44 and r = 0.50; r = 0.80 vs. r = 0.83 and r = 0.82; r = 0.70 vs. r = 0.77 and r = 0.78). These results indicate that mechanical work could be used as a predictor of recreational long-distance performance and an allometric model may improve this prediction. PMID:24235986

  10. Long distance RNA movement.

    PubMed

    Kehr, Julia; Kragler, Friedrich

    2018-04-01

    Contents Summary 29 I. Introduction 29 II. Phloem as a conduit for macromolecules 30 III. Classes of phloem transported RNAs and their function 32 IV. Mode of RNA transport 35 V. Conclusions 37 Acknowledgements 37 References 37 SUMMARY: In higher plants, small noncoding RNAs and large messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are transported between cells and over long distances via the phloem. These large macromolecules are thought to get access to the sugar-conducting phloem vessels via specialized plasmodesmata (PD). Analyses of the phloem exudate suggest that all classes of RNA molecules, including silencing-induced RNAs (siRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), ribosomal RNA (rRNAs) and mRNAs, are transported via the vasculature to distant tissues. Although the functions of mobile siRNAs and miRNAs as signalling molecules are well established, we lack a profound understanding of mobile mRNA function(s) in recipient cells and tissues, and how they are selected for transport. A surprisingly high number of up to thousands of mRNAs were described in diverse plant species such as cucumber, pumpkin, Arabidopsis and grapevine to move long distances over graft junctions to distinct body parts. In this review, we present an overview of the classes of mobile RNAs, the potential mechanisms facilitating RNA long-distance transport, and the roles of mobile RNAs in regulating transcription and translation. Furthermore, we address potential function(s) of mobile protein-encoding mRNAs with respect to their characteristics and evolutionary constraints. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. A consensus definition of running-related injury in recreational runners: a modified Delphi approach.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê Parma; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-05-01

    Delphi study. To reach a consensus definition of running-related injury in recreational runners through a modified Delphi approach. Many studies have suggested the need for a standardized definition of running-related injury to provide uniformity to injury surveillance in running. We invited 112 researchers from running-related injury studies identified in a previous systematic review to classify words and terms frequently used in definitions of running-related injury in an online form during 3 rounds of study. In the last round, participants were asked to approve or disapprove the consensus definition. We considered an agreement level of at least 75% to be a consensus. Thirty-eight participants agreed to participate in the study. The response rates were 94.7% (n = 36) for the first round, 83.3% (n = 30) for the second round, and 86.7% (n = 26) for the third round. A consensus definition of running-related injury was reached, with 80% of participants approving the following: "Running-related (training or competition) musculoskeletal pain in the lower limbs that causes a restriction on or stoppage of running (distance, speed, duration, or training) for at least 7 days or 3 consecutive scheduled training sessions, or that requires the runner to consult a physician or other health professional." The proposed standardized definition of running-related injury could assist in standardizing the definitions used in sport science research and facilitate between-study comparisons. Future studies testing the validity of the proposed consensus definition, as well as its accurate translation to other languages, are also needed.

  12. Mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract symptoms in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Schumann, Moritz; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week endurance-training intervention on salivary proteins and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URS) in 25 young men. Saliva samples of 25 recreational male endurance runners (age 34.6 years, body mass index = 23.8 kg·m(-2), peak aerobic capacity = 47.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were collected before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, in a fasting state, as well as both before and after a maximal incremental treadmill run. The training consisted of both continuous and interval training sessions, 4-6 times per week based on the polarized training approach. Participants filled in Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and were retrospectively divided into 2 groups according to whether they reported URS (URS group, n = 13) or not (HEALTHY group, n = 12). Basal salivary immunoglobulin A (sa-sIgA) levels were significantly higher (+70%, p < 0.05) in the HEALTHY group both at PRE and POST whereas no significant differences were observed in salivary immunoglobulin M, salivary immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, or salivary α-amylase activity (sAA). Sa-sIgA concentration at PRE significantly correlated with the number of sick-days (R = -0.755, p < 0.001) in all subjects. The incremental treadmill run acutely increased sAA significantly (p < 0.05) at PRE (200%) and POST (166%) in the HEALTHY group but not in the URS group. This study demonstrated that subjects, who experienced URS during the 12 weeks of progressive endurance training intervention, had significantly lower basal sa-sIgA levels both before and after the experimental endurance training period. In addition to sa-sIgA, acute sAA response to exercise might be a possible determinant of susceptibility to URS in endurance runners.

  13. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups < 0.08). All three modes of strength training used concurrently with endurance training were effective in improving treadmill running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance

  14. Training-Load-Guided vs Standardized Endurance Training in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Botella, Javier; Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of a standardized endurance-training program with individualized endurance training modified based on the cumulative training load provided by the Polar training-load feature. After 12 wk of similar training, 24 recreationally endurance-trained men were matched to a training-load-guided (TL, n = 10) or standardized (ST, n = 14) group and continued training for 12 wk. In TL, training sessions were individually chosen daily based on an estimated cumulative training load, whereas in ST the training was standardized with 4-6 sessions/wk. Endurance performance (shortest 1000-m running time during an incremental field test of 6 × 1000 m) and heart-rate variability (HRV) were measured every 4 wk, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) was measured during an incremental treadmill test every 12 wk. During weeks 1-12, similar changes in VO 2 max and 1000-m time were observed in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .004 and -6% ± 4%, P = .069) and ST (+5% ± 7%, P = .019 and -8% ± 5%, P < .001). During wk 13-24, VO 2 max statistically increased in ST only (3% ± 4%, P = .034). The 1000-m time decreased in TL during wk 13-24 (-9% ± 5%, P = .011), but in ST only during wk 13-20 (-3% ± 2%, P = .003). The overall changes in VO 2 max and 1000-m time during wk 0-24 were similar in TL (+7% ± 4%, P = .001 and -9% ± 5%, P = .011) and ST (+10% ± 7%, P < .001 and -13% ± 5%, P < .001). No between-groups differences in total training volume and frequency were observed. HRV remained statistically unaltered in both groups. The main finding was that training performed according to the cumulative training load led to improvements in endurance performance similar to those with standardized endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

  15. The effects of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Isherwood, Josh; Taylor, Paul J

    2015-02-01

    Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m · s(-1) with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot.

  16. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. Observational field study at the 'Half Marathon Basel' in Switzerland. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60), body mass index (r = 0.48), body fat (r = 0.56), skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61), mid-axilla (r = 0.69), triceps (r = 0.49), subscapular (r = 0.61), abdominal (r = 0.59), suprailiac (r = 0.55) medial calf (r = 0.53) site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68) correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04) and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001) remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.71): Race time (min) = 166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm) - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h). Running speed during training was related to skinfold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31), subscapular (r = -0.38), abdominal (r = -0.44), suprailiacal (r = -0.41), the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36) and percent body fat (r = -0.31). Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners.

  17. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. METHODS: Observational field study at the ‘Half Marathon Basel’ in Switzerland. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60), body mass index (r = 0.48), body fat (r = 0.56), skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61), mid-axilla (r = 0.69), triceps (r = 0.49), subscapular (r = 0.61), abdominal (r = 0.59), suprailiac (r = 0.55) medial calf (r = 0.53) site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68) correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04) and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001) remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r2 = 0.71): Race time (min)  =  166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm) - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h). Running speed during training was related to skin-fold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31), subscapular (r = -0.38), abdominal (r = -0.44), suprailiacal (r = -0.41), the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36) and percent body fat (r = -0.31). CONCLUSION: Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners. PMID:21484048

  18. The Effects of Long Distance Running on Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, N. Kay

    This study investigated the effects of selected physiological variables on preadolescent male and female long distance runners. The trained group was comprised of 20 children between the ages of 8 and 10 who had been running a minimum of 20 miles per week for two months or longer. The control group was made up of 20 children of the same ages who…

  19. Coronary atherosclerosis burden, but not transient troponin elevation, predicts long-term outcome in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Leineweber, Kirsten; Lehmann, Nils; Braun, Siegmund; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Perrey, Mareike; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Budde, Thomas; Halle, Martin; Mann, Klaus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prognostic value of transient increases in high-sensitive serum troponin I (hsTnI) during a marathon and its association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and imaging-based risk markers for incident coronary events and all-cause mortality in recreational marathon runners. Baseline data of 108 marathon runners, 864 age-matched controls and 216 age- and risk factor-matched controls from the general population were recorded and their coronary event rates and all-cause mortality after 6 ± 1 years determined. hsTnI was measured in 74 marathon finishers before and after the race. Other potential predictors for coronary events, i.e., Framingham Risk Score (FRS), coronary artery calcium (CAC) and presence of myocardial fibrosis as measured by magnetic resonance imaging-based late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), were also assessed. An increase beyond the 99 % hsTnI-threshold, i.e., 0.04 μg/L, was observed in 36.5 % of runners. FRS, CAC, or prevalent LGE did not predict hsTnI values above or increases in hsTnI beyond the median after the race, nor did they predict future events. However, runners with versus without LGE had higher hsTnI values after the race (median (Q1/Q3), 0.08 μg/L (0.04/0.09) versus 0.03 μg/L (0.02/0.06), p = 0.039), and higher increases in hsTnI values during the race (median (Q1/Q3), 0.05 μg/L (0.03/0.08) versus 0.02 μg/L (0.01/0.05), p = 0.0496). Runners had a similar cumulative event rate as age-matched or age- and risk factor-matched controls, i.e., 6.5 versus 5.0 % or 4.6 %, respectively. Event rates in runners with CAC scores <100, 100-399, and ≥400 were 1.5, 12.0, and 21.4 % (p = 0.002 for trend) and not different from either control group. Runners with coronary events had a higher prevalence of LGE than runners without events (57 versus 8 %, p = 0.003). All-cause mortality was similar in marathon runners (3/108, 2.8 %) and controls (26/864, 3.0 % or 5/216, 2.4 %, respectively). Recreational marathon runners with

  20. Orthotic comfort is related to kinematics, kinetics, and EMG in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Mündermann, Anne; Nigg, Benno M; Humble, R Neil; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between differences in comfort and changes in lower extremity kinematic and kinetic variables and muscle activity in response to foot orthoses. Twenty-one recreational runners volunteered for this study. Three orthotic conditions (posting, custom-molding, and posting and custom-molding) were compared with a control (flat) insert. Lower extremity kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected for 108 trials per subject and condition in nine sessions per subject for overground running at 4 m.s-1. Comfort for all orthotic conditions was assessed in each session using a visual analog scale. The statistical tests used included repeated measures ANOVA, linear regression analysis, and discriminant analysis (alpha = 0.05). Comfort ratings were significantly different between orthotic conditions and the control condition ([lower, upper] confidence limits; posting: [-3.1, -0.8]; molding: [0.4, 3.4]; and posting and molding: [-1.1, 1.9]); 34.9% of differences in comfort were explained by changes in 15 kinematic, kinetic, and EMG variables. The 15 kinematic, kinetic, and EMG variables that partially explained differences in comfort classified 75.0% of cases correctly to the corresponding orthotic condition. In general, comfort is an important and relevant feature of foot orthoses. Evaluations of foot orthoses using comfort do not only reflect subjective perceptions but also differences in functional biomechanical variables. Future research should focus on defining the relationship between comfort and biomechanical variables for material modifications of footwear, different modes of locomotion, and the general population.

  1. The relationships between exercise and affective states: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Tim; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Although people generally feel more positive and more energetic in the aftermath of exercise than before, longitudinal research on how exercise relates to within-person fluctuations in affect over the course of everyday life is still relatively limited. One constraint on doing such research is the need to provide participants with accelerometers to objectively record their exercise, and pagers to capture affective reports. We aimed to develop a methodology for studying affect and exercise using only technology that participants already possess, namely GPS running watches and smartphones. Using this methodology, we aimed to characterize within-individual fluctuations in affective valence and arousal in relation to bouts of exercise, and explore possible moderators of these fluctuations. We recruited a sample of 38 recreational runners. Participants provided daily affective reports for six weeks using their smartphones. Information on their runs was harvested from their own GPS devices via an online platform for athletes. Average valence and arousal were higher on days when the person had run than on the next day, and higher the day after a run than on the days after that. Over the course of the day of a run, valence and arousal declined significantly as the time since the run increased. Physically fitter participants had more positive valence overall, and this was particularly true when they had not run recently. There was some evidence of higher-dose (i.e., longer and faster) runs being associated with lower arousal on the next and subsequent days. Gender did not moderate associations between running and valence or arousal. Our study demonstrated the potential for studying the associations between affect and exercise in a way that is precise, undemanding for participants, and convenient for researchers, using technologies that participants already own and use.

  2. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, M; Pelttari, P; Doma, K; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2016-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HR max ). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, p<0.001) and 24 (E+S+7±7%, E -6±5%, p<0.001) weeks. 1 000 m running time determined during an incremental field test decreased in E+S and E after 12 (-7±3%, p<0.001 and -8±5%, p=0.001) and 24 (-9±5%, p=0.001 and -13±5%, p<0.001) weeks. Strength training performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Costa, Leonardo O P; Carvalho, Aline C A; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2012-01-01

    Running is one of the most popular physical activities in the world and the number of runners has increased over the past 40 years. One of the consequences of the growing running popularity is the increase of musculoskeletal injuries. To describe the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5) years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3) kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0) kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9). The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  4. Alterations in purine metabolism in middle-aged elite, amateur, and recreational runners across a 1-year training cycle.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Jacek; Kusy, Krzysztof; Słomińska, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Changes in purine derivatives may be considered as signs of training-induced metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 1-year training cycle on the response of hypoxanthine (Hx) concentration and Hx-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) activity. Three groups of middle-aged male runners were examined: 11 elite master runners (EL; 46.0 ± 3.8 years), 9 amateur runners (AM; 45.1 ± 4.7 years), and 10 recreational runners (RE; 45.9 ± 6.1 years). Plasma Hx concentration and erythrocyte HGPRT activity were measured in three characteristic training phases of the annual cycle. Significant differences in post-exercise Hx concentration and resting HGPRT activity were demonstrated between the EL, AM, and RE groups across consecutive training phases. The EL group showed lowest Hx concentration and highest HGPRT activity compared to the AM and RE groups. Analogous differences were observed between the AM and RE groups during specific preparation. For the EL group, the changes were observed across all examinations and the lowest Hx concentration and highest HGPRT activity were found in the competition phase. Significant change was also revealed in the AM group between the general and specific preparation, but not in the competition phase. No significant changes were found in the RE runners who did not use anaerobic exercise in their training. In conclusion, a long-lasting endurance training, incorporating high-intensity exercise, results in significant changes in purine metabolism, whereas training characterized by constant low-intensity exercise does not. Plasma Hx concentration and erythrocyte HGPRT activity may be sensitive indicators of training adaptation and training status in middle-aged athletes.

  5. Effects of foot orthoses on Achilles tendon load in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Isherwood, J; Taylor, P J

    2014-09-01

    Achilles tendon pathology is a frequently occurring musculoskeletal disorder in runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to reduce the symptoms of pain in runners but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aimed to examine differences in Achilles tendon load when running with and without orthotic intervention. Twelve male runners ran at 4.0 m·s(-1). Ankle joint moments and Achilles tendon forces were compared when running with and without orthotics. The results indicate that running with foot orthotics was associated with significant reductions in Achilles tendon load compared to without orthotics. In addition to providing insight into the mechanical effects of orthotics in runners, the current investigation suggests that via reductions in Achilles tendon load, foot orthoses may serve to reduce the incidence of chronic Achilles tendon pathologies in runners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The reproducibility of 10 and 20km time trial cycling performance in recreational cyclists, runners and team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Borg, David N; Osborne, John O; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T; Sims, Jesse N L; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-26

    This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km. Multiple statistical methods were used to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reliability. Intraclass correlations, standard error of the measurement, minimum difference required for a worthwhile change and coefficient of variation were determined for completion time and mean trial variables (power output, speed, cadence, heart rate, RPE, session RPE). A meaningful change in performance for cyclists, runners, team sport athletes would be represented by 7.5, 3.6 and 12.9% improvement for 10km and a 4.9, 4.0 and 5.6% for 20km completion time. After a familiarisation, a 4.0, 3.7 and 6.4% improvement for 10km and a 4.1, 3.0 and 4.4% would be required for 20km. Data from this study suggest not all athletic subgroups require a familiarisation to produce substantially reliable 10 and 20km cycling performance. However, a familiarisation considerably improves the reliability of pacing strategy adopted by recreational runners and team sport athletes across these distances. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-distance running, bone density, and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.E.; Bloch, D.A.; Jones, H.H.; Marshall, W.H. Jr.; Wood, P.D.; Fries, J.F.

    1986-03-07

    Forty-one long-distance runners aged 50 to 72 years were compared with 41 matched community controls to examine associations of repetitive, long-term physical impact (running) with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Roentgenograms of hands, lateral lumbar spine, and knees were assessed without knowledge of running status. A computed tomographic scan of the first lumbar vertebra was performed to quantitate bone mineral content. Runners, both male and female, have approximately 40% more bone mineral than matched controls. Female runners, but not male runners, appear to have somewhat more sclerosis and spur formation in spine and weight-bearing knee x-ray films, but not in hand x-ray films. There were no differences between groups in joint space narrowing, crepitation, joint stability, or symptomatic osteoarthritis. Running is associated with increased bone mineral but not, in this cross-sectional study, with clinical osteoarthritis.

  8. Prediction of half-marathon race time in recreational female and male runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Patrizia; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Half-marathon running is of high popularity. Recent studies tried to find predictor variables for half-marathon race time for recreational female and male runners and to present equations to predict race time. The actual equations included running speed during training for both women and men as training variable but midaxillary skinfold for women and body mass index for men as anthropometric variable. An actual study found that percent body fat and running speed during training sessions were the best predictor variables for half-marathon race times in both women and men. The aim of the present study was to improve the existing equations to predict half-marathon race time in a larger sample of male and female half-marathoners by using percent body fat and running speed during training sessions as predictor variables. In a sample of 147 men and 83 women, multiple linear regression analysis including percent body fat and running speed during training units as independent variables and race time as dependent variable were performed and an equation was evolved to predict half-marathon race time. For men, half-marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.42, adjusted r(2) = 0.41, SE = 13.3) half-marathon race time (min) = 142.7 + 1.158 × percent body fat (%) - 5.223 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001) to the achieved race time. For women, half-marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.68, adjusted r(2) = 0.68, SE = 9.8) race time (min) = 168.7 + 1.077 × percent body fat (%) - 7.556 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001) to the achieved race time. The coefficients of determination of the models were slightly higher than for the existing equations. Future studies might include physiological

  9. Effects of High Intensity Training and Continuous Endurance Training on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition in Recreationally Active Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish

  10. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  11. Biomechanical, metabolic and cardiopulmonary responses of masters recreational runners during running at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Hallie; Vincent, Kevin R; Herman, Daniel C; Chen, Cong; Zdziarski, Laura Ann; Morgan, Christine; Vincent, Heather K

    2017-01-01

    This study tested interactions between age and running speed on biomechanics, metabolic responses and cardiopulmonary responses. Three-hundred participants ran at preferred and standardized speeds. Age group (younger, masters [≥40 years]) by speed (self-selected 8.8 km/h, 11.2 km/h and 13.6 km/h) interactions were tested on main outcomes of sagittal kinematic, temporal spatial, metabolic and cardiopulmonary parameters. At all speeds, angular displacements of the ankle, pelvis and knee were less in masters than younger runners (Hedges g effect size range = 0.30-1.04; all p < 0.05). A significant age group by speed interaction existed for hip angular displacement (Wald χ2 = 10.753; p = 0.013). Masters runners ran at higher relative heart rates (p < 0.05) but at similar rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure. Masters runners used hip-dominant motion and step lengthening as running speed increased, but did not change centre of mass vertical displacement. This may increase mechanical stresses on tissues of the lower extremity in masters runners, especially hamstrings, hip joint and Achilles.

  12. Effects of Fatigue on Running Mechanics: Spring-Mass Behavior in Recreational Runners After 60 Seconds of Countermovement Jumps.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gabriela; Storniolo J, L L; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute fatigue on spring-mass model (SMM) parameters among recreational runners at different speeds. Eleven participants (5 males and 6 females) performed running trials at slower, self-selected, and faster speeds on an indoor track before and after performing a fatigue protocol (60 s of countermovement jumps). Maximal vertical force (Fmax), impact peak force (Fpeak), loading rate (LR), contact time (Tc), aerial time (Ta), step frequency (SF), step length (SL), maximal vertical displacement of the center of mass (ΔZ), vertical stiffness (Kvert), and leg work (Wleg) were measured using a force plate integrated into the track. A significant reduction (-43.1 ± 8.6%; P < .05) in mechanical power during jumps indicated that the subjects became fatigued. The results showed that under fatigue conditions, the runners adjusted their running mechanics at slower (≈2.7 ms-1; ΔZ -12% and SF +3.9%; P < .05), self-selected (≈3.3 ms-1; SF +3%, SL -6.8%, Ta -16%, and Fmax -3.3%; P < .05), and faster (≈3.6 ms-1 SL -6.9%, Ta -14% and Fpeak -9.8%; P < .05) speeds without significantly altering Kvert (P > .05). During constant running, the previous 60 s of maximal vertical jumps induced mechanical adjustments in the spatiotemporal parameters without altering Kvert.

  13. The association between eccentric hip abduction strength and hip and knee angular movements in recreational male runners: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Brund, R B K; Rasmussen, S; Nielsen, R O; Kersting, U G; Laessoe, U; Voigt, M

    2018-02-01

    Weak hip abductors may be related with increased hip adduction and knee abduction angular movement, which may be risk factors of lower extremity injuries. As the role of eccentric hip abduction strength (EHAS) on hip adduction angular movement and knee abduction angular movement (KABD) remains unclear, the purpose of this study was to explore the association between EHAS and hip and knee angular movement. In 100 healthy male recreational runners, EHAS was quantified using an isokinetic dynamometer, while hip and knee angular movements were collected using pressure-sensitive treadmill and Codamotion active marker system. Using multiple linear regression models (n=186 legs), no relationships between EHAS and hip and knee kinematics were found. A possible reason for the lack of relationship between EHAS and hip and knee kinematics may be owing to differences in the running kinematics. Some runners with weak EHAS may compensate the weakness by leaning toward the stance limb and thereby reduces the demand on the hip abductors with the consequence of increased knee abduction moment, which may lead to an increased knee abduction angular excursion. Possible, others mechanism as the quadriceps strength and activity in the hip and thigh muscles may also be able to explain the lack of relationship that may or may not exist. Despite the inconclusive results of this study, the findings may suggest that weak hip abductor muscles may be a relevant factor to focus on in future studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Fatigue on Running Mechanics: Spring-Mass Behavior in Recreational Runners After 60 Seconds of Countermovement Jumps.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gabriela; Storniolo J, L L; Eyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo A P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute fatigue on spring-mass model (SMM) parameters among recreational runners at different speeds. Eleven participants (5 males and 6 females) performed running trials at slower, self-selected, and faster speeds on an indoor track before and after performing a fatigue protocol (60 s of countermovement jumps). Maximal vertical force (Fmax), impact peak force (Fpeak), loading rate (LR), contact time (Tc), aerial time (Ta), step frequency (SF), step length (SL), maximal vertical displacement of the center of mass (Z), vertical stiffness (Kvert), and leg work (Wleg) were measured using a force plate integrated into the track. A significant reduction (-43.1 ± 8.6%; P < .05) in mechanical power during jumps indicated that the subjects became fatigued. The results showed that under fatigue conditions, the runners adjusted their running mechanics at slower (2.7 ms-1; Z -12% and SF +3.9%; P < .05), self-selected (3.3 ms-1; SF +3%, SL -6.8%, Ta -16%, and Fmax -3.3%; P < .05), and faster (3.6 ms-1 SL -6.9%, Ta -14% and Fpeak -9.8%; P < .05) speeds without significantly altering Kvert (P > .05). During constant running, the previous 60 s of maximal vertical jumps induced mechanical adjustments in the spatiotemporal parameters without altering Kvert.

  15. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P < 0.001), no significant changes occurred in HVT (RSpeak : 0.5 ± 1.9%). However, large individual variation was found in the changes of RSpeak in both groups (HVT: -2.8 to 4.1%; HIT: 0-10.2%). A negative relationship was observed between baseline high-frequency power of HRV (HFPnight ) and the individual changes of RSpeak (r = -0.74, P = 0.006) in HVT and a positive relationship (r = 0.63, P = 0.039) in HIT. Individuals with lower HFP showed greater change of RSpeak in HVT, while individuals with higher HFP responded well in HIT. It is concluded that nocturnal HRV can be used to individualize endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of Marathon Running on Aerobic Fitness and Performance in Recreational Runners One Week after a Race

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Atsushi; Shimazu, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether or not recreational runners can recover aerobic fitness and performance within one week after marathon running. This study aimed to investigate the effects of running a marathon race on aerobic fitness and performance one week later. Eleven recreational runners (six men, five women) completed the race in 3 h 36 min 20 s ± 41 min 34 s (mean ± standard deviation). Before and 7 days after the race, they performed a treadmill running test. Perceived muscle soreness was assessed before the race and for the following 7 days. The magnitude of changes in the treadmill running test was considered possibly trivial for maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) (mean difference −1.2 ml/kg/min; ±90% confidence limits 2 ml/kg/min), unclear for %V˙O2max at anaerobic threshold (AT) (−0.5; ±4.1%) and RE (0.2; ±3.5 ml/kg/km), and likely trivial for both velocity at AT and peak (−0.2; ±0.49 km/h and −0.3; ±0.28 km/h). Perceived muscle soreness increased until 3 days after the race, but there were no clear differences between the values before the race and 4–7 days after it. These results show that physiological capacity associated with marathon running performance is recovered within 7 days after a marathon run. PMID:29138757

  17. Effects of Marathon Running on Aerobic Fitness and Performance in Recreational Runners One Week after a Race.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Fuminori; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Shimazu, Wataru; Nabekura, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether or not recreational runners can recover aerobic fitness and performance within one week after marathon running. This study aimed to investigate the effects of running a marathon race on aerobic fitness and performance one week later. Eleven recreational runners (six men, five women) completed the race in 3 h 36 min 20 s ± 41 min 34 s (mean ± standard deviation). Before and 7 days after the race, they performed a treadmill running test. Perceived muscle soreness was assessed before the race and for the following 7 days. The magnitude of changes in the treadmill running test was considered possibly trivial for maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max) (mean difference -1.2 ml/kg/min; ±90% confidence limits 2 ml/kg/min), unclear for %[Formula: see text]O2max at anaerobic threshold (AT) (-0.5; ±4.1%) and RE (0.2; ±3.5 ml/kg/km), and likely trivial for both velocity at AT and peak (-0.2; ±0.49 km/h and -0.3; ±0.28 km/h). Perceived muscle soreness increased until 3 days after the race, but there were no clear differences between the values before the race and 4-7 days after it. These results show that physiological capacity associated with marathon running performance is recovered within 7 days after a marathon run.

  18. Long distance tracking of birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of radio telemetry techniques to the long distance tracking of birds is discussed. The types of equipment developed and methods for attachment to a bird are described. The operating range of the radio transmitter receiver system is examined, and methods for acquiring and analyzing the data are explained.

  19. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p < 0.01), whereas no changes in body mass occurred. No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for VO2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short

  20. Long distance transportation patterns : mode choice

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-05-01

    Americans total 1.3 trillion person-miles of long distance travel a year on about 2.6 : billion long-distance trips. Long-distance trips are journeys of more than 50 miles : from home to the furthest destination. More than half of long-distance trips...

  1. Changes of Gait Parameters and Lower Limb Dynamics in Recreational Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SungJoong; Yu, JaeHo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the mechanical gait changes caused by achilles tendinopathy by comparing gait parameters and changes in hip, knee, and ankle moments between an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Twenty runners with achilles tendinopathy were included in the EG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.00 ± 4.63), and 20 CG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.25 ± 4.33) participants were recruited. Subjects walked a 13-m distance at their normal walking speed 5 times to obtain motion analysis and joint moment data. Gait parameter analysis showed significant differences in double-limb support (EG: 22.65 ± 4.26%, CG: 20.37 ± 4.46%), step length (EG: 0.58 ± 0.0 7m, CG: 0.64 ± 0.08 m), step width (EG: 0.16 ± 0.04 m, CG: 0.14 ± 0.05 m), stride time (EG: 1.09 ± 0.10 second, CG: 1.05 ± 0.08 second), and walking speed (EG: 1.09±0.18 m·s-1, CG: 1.23 ± 0.17 m·s-1) between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in hip joint moment for initial contact, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing phases; knee joint moment for initial contact and pre-swing phases; and ankle joint moment for pre-swing and terminal swing phases (p < 0.05). Gait parameters and hip, knee, and ankle moments were altered in runners with achilles tendinopathy. Thus, clinical features of gait changes should be understood for optimal treatment of achilles tendinopathy; further research is required in this field. Key points A reduction in gait parameters, namely, step length, stride length, and walking speed, and an increase in double-limb support occurs in runners with achilles tendinopathy. A reduction in the hip extension moment occurs during the initial contact, as well as a reduction in the knee flexion moment from the mid-stance to pre-swing phases, a continuous decrease in the knee flexion moment from the early stance phase, and a reduction in the extension moment during the terminal stance phase. A reduction in the ankle plantar flexion moment occurs from

  2. Changes of gait parameters and lower limb dynamics in recreational runners with achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, SungJoong; Yu, JaeHo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the mechanical gait changes caused by achilles tendinopathy by comparing gait parameters and changes in hip, knee, and ankle moments between an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Twenty runners with achilles tendinopathy were included in the EG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.00 ± 4.63), and 20 CG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.25 ± 4.33) participants were recruited. Subjects walked a 13-m distance at their normal walking speed 5 times to obtain motion analysis and joint moment data. Gait parameter analysis showed significant differences in double-limb support (EG: 22.65 ± 4.26%, CG: 20.37 ± 4.46%), step length (EG: 0.58 ± 0.0 7m, CG: 0.64 ± 0.08 m), step width (EG: 0.16 ± 0.04 m, CG: 0.14 ± 0.05 m), stride time (EG: 1.09 ± 0.10 second, CG: 1.05 ± 0.08 second), and walking speed (EG: 1.09±0.18 m·s(-1), CG: 1.23 ± 0.17 m·s(-1)) between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in hip joint moment for initial contact, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing phases; knee joint moment for initial contact and pre-swing phases; and ankle joint moment for pre-swing and terminal swing phases (p < 0.05). Gait parameters and hip, knee, and ankle moments were altered in runners with achilles tendinopathy. Thus, clinical features of gait changes should be understood for optimal treatment of achilles tendinopathy; further research is required in this field. Key pointsA reduction in gait parameters, namely, step length, stride length, and walking speed, and an increase in double-limb support occurs in runners with achilles tendinopathy.A reduction in the hip extension moment occurs during the initial contact, as well as a reduction in the knee flexion moment from the mid-stance to pre-swing phases, a continuous decrease in the knee flexion moment from the early stance phase, and a reduction in the extension moment during the terminal stance phase.A reduction in the ankle plantar flexion moment occurs from

  3. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6-174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Kassem, Eias; Eliakim, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively) compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001); middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001); and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively). The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection. PMID:28828083

  4. Physiological differences between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol in recreational runners and metabolic demand prediction.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad J; Govindasamay, Balasekaran; Kay Hiang, Hoon; Seet Gim Lee, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, ṼO2, BLa), and overall perceptual (RPEO) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included ṼO2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT). Session 2 was the noncontinuous CS test until exhaustion, having 4:1 min work-to-rest ratio at CS, whereas session 3 was the continuous CS test till exhaustion. As 1-min recovery during session 2 may change fatigue behavior, it was hypothesized that it will significantly change the physiological stress and hence endurance outcomes. Results reported average time to exhaustion (TTE) was 37.33(9.8) mins for session 2 and 23.28(9.87) mins for session 3. Participants experienced relatively higher metabolic demand (BLa) 6.78(1.43) mmol.l-1 in session 3 as compared to session 2 (5.52(0.93) mmol.l-1). RER was observed to increase in session 3 and decrease in session 2. Student's paired t-test only reported a significant difference in TTE, ṼO2, RER, RPEO, and BLa at "End" between session 2 and 3. Reported difference in RPEO and %HRmax at "AT" were 5 (2.2) and 89.8 (2.60)% during session 2 and 6 (2.5) and 89.8 (2.59)% during session 3, respectively. Regression analysis reported strong correlation of %HRmax (adj. R-square = 0.588) with BLa than RPEO (adj. R-square = 0.541). The summary of findings suggests that decreasing RER increased TTE and reduced BLa toward "End" during session 2 which might have helped to have better endurance. The %HRmax was identified to be used as a better noninvasive surrogate of endurance intensity estimator. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by

  5. The Effects of Barefoot and Shod Running on Limb and Joint Stiffness Characteristics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Taylor, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to determine the effects of barefoot (BF) and several commercially available barefoot-inspired (BFIS) footwear models on limb and joint stiffness characteristics compared with conventional footwear (CF). Fifteen male participants ran over a force platform at 4.0 m.s(-1), in BF, BFIS, and CF conditions. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated for each footwear. The results indicate that limb and knee stiffness were greater in BF and minimalist BFIS than in CF. CF and more structured BFIS were associated with a greater ankle stiffness compared with BF and minimalist BFIS. These findings serve to provide further insight into the susceptibility of runners to different injury mechanisms as a function of footwear.

  6. Effects of two different knee tape procedures on lower-limb kinematics and kinetics in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Howe, A; Campbell, A; Ng, L; Hall, T; Hopper, D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Mulligan's tape (MT) and kinesio tape (KT) with no tape (NT) on hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during running. Twenty-nine female recreational runners performed a series of 'run-throughs' along a 10-m runway under the three taping conditions. Two force plates and a 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system (Oxford Metrics, Inc., Oxford, UK) captured kinematic and kinetic data for each dependent variable from ground contact to toe off. Comparisons of each dependent variable under three taping conditions were assessed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA; P-value < 0.01) using repeated measure analyses of variance. For each dependent variable with a P-value < 0.01, repeated measures with pairwise comparisons and Bonferroni adjustment were conducted to compare the three taping conditions. MT induced a significant reduction in anterior and posterior hip forces, knee flexion angular velocity, knee extensor moments, and hip flexion and extension moments compared with NT and KT (P = 0.001). There was no difference in hip or knee, kinematics or kinetics, between KT and NT (P = 1.000). MT appears to influence hip and knee biomechanics during running in an asymptomatic sample, whereas KT appeared to be biomechanically not different from NT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Associations between recreational runners' anti-inflammatory drug use, coping strategies, and time loss due to injury and illness during preparations for a marathon event.

    PubMed

    Tillander, Bo; Gauffin, Håkan; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas

    2018-01-04

    Due to the dominance of overuse injuries among runners, knowledge of how use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and behavioural factors contribute to injury events is important. The aim of this study was to explore recreational marathon runners' strategies for coping with injury and illness, including use of drugs for control of pain and inflammation, and to investigate whether these strategies were associated with the 1-year prevalence of time-loss injury and illness. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in this cross-sectional study. The population consisted of runners who had registered for a marathon (n=341). Strategies used to understand and manage perceptions of injury and illness were measured with the Brief COPE instrument and the use of NSAIDs was investigated. Complete survey data were provided by 161 runners (47%). 42% reported NSAID use. A notable injury in the past year was reported by 43%, and 19% reported having had a time-loss illness episode. Runners who reported NSAID use in the past year reported significantly fewer time-loss injuries (p=0.003). Time loss due to illness only showed a negative correlation with using emotional support for coping (p=0.010) and a positive correlation with self-blame (p=0.039). Runners stating NSAID use reported fewer time-loss running injuries than non-NSAID users. Time loss due to illness showed different correlates with NSAID use and coping strategies than time loss due to injury, i.e. no association with drug use, less use of emotional support for coping and more use of self-blame.

  8. Incidence of Running-Related Injuries Per 1000 h of running in Different Types of Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Videbæk, Solvej; Bueno, Andreas Moeballe; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-07-01

    No systematic review has identified the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners. The purpose of the present review was to systematically search the literature for the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners, and to include the data in meta-analyses. A search of the PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Web of Science databases was conducted. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were screened by two blinded reviewers to identify prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials reporting the incidence of running-related injuries in novice runners, recreational runners, ultra-marathon runners, and track and field athletes. Data were extracted from all studies and comprised for further analysis. An adapted scale was applied to assess the risk of bias. After screening 815 abstracts, 13 original articles were included in the main analysis. Running-related injuries per 1000 h of running ranged from a minimum of 2.5 in a study of long-distance track and field athletes to a maximum of 33.0 in a study of novice runners. The meta-analyses revealed a weighted injury incidence of 17.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.7-19.1) in novice runners and 7.7 (95% CI 6.9-8.7) in recreational runners. Heterogeneity in definitions of injury, definition of type of runner, and outcome measures in the included full-text articles challenged comparison across studies. Novice runners seem to face a significantly greater risk of injury per 1000 h of running than recreational runners.

  9. Runner's Knee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Runner's Knee KidsHealth / For Teens / Runner's Knee What's in this ... told he had runner's knee. What Is Runner's Knee? Runner's knee is the term doctors use for ...

  10. DISTAL FIBULAR STRESS FRACTURE IN A FEMALE RECREATIONAL RUNNER: A CASE REPORT WITH MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND IMAGING FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Hoglund, Lisa T; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Taweel, Nicholas R

    2015-12-01

    This case report describes a physical therapist's use of diagnostic ultrasound imaging in the decision making process used to refer a patient to a physician for a suspected fibular stress fracture. The purpose of this case report is to 1) describe the history, subjective examination, and objective examination findings of a fibular stress fracture, 2) describe the ultrasound findings associated with a fibular stress fracture, and 3) describe the decision making process of a physical therapist in the decision to refer the patient to a medical physician for further work-up. A 52-year-old female recreational runner with a recent increase in running intensity self-referred to a physical therapist with a 19-day history of lateral lower leg pain. Examination revealed relatively normal ankle range of motion, mild weakness of ankle invertors and evertors, no increase in pain with resisted muscle tests of the ankle, and tenderness to palpation over the fibularis brevis muscle and distal fibula. Diagnostic ultrasound examination of the fibularis muscles revealed cortical irregularity of the distal third of the fibula in the location of tenderness. The physical therapist used the abnormal ultrasound findings, running history, symptoms, and physical examination for differential diagnosis, and decided to refer the patient to a physician for further examination. Radiographs revealed a fibular stress fracture. Follow-up ultrasound imaging demonstrated a mixed hypoechoic-hyperechoic appearance of the fibular cortex typical of healing fracture and the presence of bony callus. Diagnostic ultrasound imaging is increasingly being used by physical therapists to guide rehabilitation. Ultrasound imaging of musculotendinous structures may display adjacent bone. Physical therapists should be knowledgeable of normal and abnormal bony ultrasound imaging findings. Abnormal ultrasound findings may be one sign indicating the need to refer a patient for consultation by a physician.

  11. Reliability of video-based identification of footstrike pattern and video time frame at initial contact in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Damsted, C; Larsen, L H; Nielsen, R O

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional video recordings are used in clinical practice to identify footstrike pattern. However, knowledge about the reliability of this method of identification is limited. To evaluate intra- and inter-rater reliability of visual identification of footstrike pattern and video time frame at initial contact during treadmill running using two-dimensional (2D) video recordings. Thirty-one recreational runners were recorded twice, 1 week apart, with a high-speed video camera. Two blinded raters evaluated each video twice with an interval of at least 14 days. Kappa values for within-day identification of footstrike pattern revealed intra-rater agreement of 0.83-0.88 and inter-rater agreement of 0.50-0.63. Corresponding figures for between-day identification of footstrike pattern were 0.63-0.69 and 0.41-0.53, respectively. Identification of video time frame at initial contact ranged from five frames to 12 frames (95% limits of agreement). For clinical use, the intra-rater within-day identification of footstrike pattern is highly reliable (kappa>0.80). For the inter-rater between-day identification inconsistencies may, in worst case, occur in 36% of the identifications (kappa=0.41). The 95% limits of agreement for identification of video time frame at initial contact may, at times, allow for different identification of footstrike pattern. Clinicians should, therefore, be encouraged to continue using clinical 2D video setups for intra-rater identification of footstrike pattern, but bear in mind the restrictions related to the between day identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The mechanics of jumping over an obstacle during running: a comparison between athletes trained to hurdling and recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, G; Schepens, B; Willems, P A

    2014-04-01

    This study compares the mechanism of running in trained athletes (TA) experienced in hurdling and in recreational runners (RR), as they approach and jump over an obstacle. The movements of the centre of mass of the body (COM), the external muscular work (W ext) and the leg-spring stiffness (k leg) were evaluated in athletes approaching an obstacle at 18 km h(-1), from the ground reaction forces (measured by force-platforms) and the orientation of the lower-limb segments (measured by camera). These results were compared to those obtained in RR. Two steps before the obstacle, k leg is reduced by 10-20 %; so, the COM is lowered and accelerated forward. During the step preceding the obstacle, k leg is increased by 40-60 %; so the COM is raised and accelerated upwards, whereas its forward velocity is reduced. This change in the running pattern is similar to the one observed in RR while leaping an obstacle. However, in TA, the change in stiffness is less pronounced. As a result, the orientation of the velocity vector at the beginning of the aerial phase over the obstacle is more horizontal than in RR, which involves a 10-20 % greater horizontal velocity and a 40-60 % smaller vertical excursion of the COM when crossing the obstacle; subsequently, W ext during contact before the obstacle is 10-20 % less. Athletes use the same mechanisms as non-specialists to cross an obstacle. However, athletes adapt the mechanism of jumping to reduce the loss in the velocity of progression when crossing an obstacle.

  13. Reproducibility and validity of the myotest for measuring step frequency and ground contact time in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Wolfard, Robin; Griek, Nouschka; de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Boschman, Julitta S; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility (test-retest reliability and agreement) and concurrent validity of the Myotest for measuring step frequency (SF) and ground contact time (GCT) in recreational runners. Based on a within-subjects design (test and retest), SF and GCT of 14 participants (11 males, 3 females) were measured at three different running speeds with the Myotest during two test sessions. SF and GCT were also assessed with a foot-mounted accelerometer (Gold Standard, previously validated by comparing to force plate data) during the first test session. Levels of test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were expressed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), agreement with standard errors of measurement (SEM). For SF, test-retest reliability (ICC's > 0.75) and agreement of the Myotest were considered as good at all running speeds. For GCT, test-retest reliability was found to be moderate at a running speed of 14 km/h and poor at speeds of 10 and 12 km/h (ICC < 0.50). Agreement of the Myotest for GCT at all three running speeds was considered not acceptable given the SEM's calculated. Concurrent validity of the Myotest with the foot-mounted accelerometer (Gold Standard) at all three running speeds was found to be good for SF (ICC's > 0.75) and moderate for GCT (0.50 < ICC's < 0.75). The conclusion of our study is that estimates obtained with the Myotest are reproducible and valid for SF but not for GCT.

  14. Reproducibility and Validity of the Myotest for Measuring Step Frequency and Ground Contact Time in Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Wolfard, Robin; Griek, Nouschka; de Ruiter, Cornelis J.; Boschman, Julitta S.; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility (test-retest reliability and agreement) and concurrent validity of the Myotest for measuring step frequency (SF) and ground contact time (GCT) in recreational runners. Based on a within-subjects design (test and retest), SF and GCT of 14 participants (11 males, 3 females) were measured at three different running speeds with the Myotest during two test sessions. SF and GCT were also assessed with a foot-mounted accelerometer (Gold Standard, previously validated by comparing to force plate data) during the first test session. Levels of test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were expressed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), agreement with standard errors of measurement (SEM). For SF, test-retest reliability (ICC’s > 0.75) and agreement of the Myotest were considered as good at all running speeds. For GCT, test-retest reliability was found to be moderate at a running speed of 14 km/h and poor at speeds of 10 and 12 km/h (ICC < 0.50). Agreement of the Myotest for GCT at all three running speeds was considered not acceptable given the SEM’s calculated. Concurrent validity of the Myotest with the foot-mounted accelerometer (Gold Standard) at all three running speeds was found to be good for SF (ICC’s > 0.75) and moderate for GCT (0.50 < ICC’s < 0.75). The conclusion of our study is that estimates obtained with the Myotest are reproducible and valid for SF but not for GCT. PMID:25964806

  15. The effect of strength training on three-kilometer performance in recreational women endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cherina M; Burnett, Angus F; Newton, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we investigated whether a heavy strength training program, as an additive to an endurance running program, would cause significant improvements in 3-km run time in a group of recreationally fit women when compared with endurance-only (EO) training. Sixteen women aged between 18 and 27 years of age were randomly assigned to either an EO group (n = 9) or a concurrent strength and endurance (CSE) group (n = 7). A 10-week training program for both groups consisted of an endurance running program performed three afternoons per week. The CSE group also participated in strength training on the morning of each running session. Testing was conducted pre and post training in a 3-km time trial and measured VO2peak, running economy, muscular strength (1 repetition maximum), and body composition and girth. There was a trend (P = 0.07) toward greater improvement in 3-km performance time for the CSE group (106.7 +/- 91.4 seconds) when compared with the EO group (77.3 +/- 93.0 seconds). Further, the CSE group showed an increase in strength levels when compared with the EO group. The CSE group showed significant increases (P

  16. Acute Changes in Inflammatory Biomarker Levels in Recreational Runners Participating in a Marathon or Half-Marathon.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Markus; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Bloigu, Risto; Juvonen, Tatu

    2016-12-01

    Strenuous physical activity activates the participant's immune responses; however, few studies exist, observing exercise-induced simultaneous changes in mediators of inflammation. We examined individual responses in soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a marker of immune activation, soluble endocytic receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes (CD163), a marker of monocyte-macrophage activation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from blood samples drawn at baseline, at 3- and 48-h post-races from recreational runners who successfully completed the marathon (199 ± 8 min, n = 4) or half-marathon (132 ± 4 min, n = 4) run. For comparisons, biomarkers reflecting muscle, heart, kidney, and liver functions were measured. Significant 3-h post-race increases occurred in levels of suPAR (p < 0.01), CD163 (p < 0.05), white blood cells (p < 0.001), pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p < 0.001), IL-8 (p < 0.05), and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < 0.05), whereas tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) remained relatively stable. Full-marathon running lead to more pronounced increases in suPAR, CD163, IL-8, and IL-10 than half-marathon running. In addition, 3-h post-race increases of all these parameters correlated significantly with changes in serum TNF-α and cortisol. The 48-h levels of serum suPAR and both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines had decreased to baseline levels, whereas CRP, a marker of acute phase response, increased in those with the most prominent IL-6 and IL-10 elevations in their preceding samples. The highest suPAR, CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and cortisol levels were noted in the individual with the most severe post-race fatigue. Prolonged running increases mediators of inflammation in an exercise-dose-dependent manner which should be considered in the assessment of health status of physically

  17. The immediate effect of triceps surae myofascial trigger point therapy on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion in recreational runners: a crossover randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grieve, Rob; Cranston, Amy; Henderson, Andrew; John, Rachel; Malone, George; Mayall, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the immediate effect on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), after a single intervention of myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy on latent triceps surae MTrPs in recreational runners. A crossover randomised controlled trial. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men and 11 women; mean age 24.57; ±8.7 years) with a restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion and presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were screened for a restriction in active ankle dorsiflexion in either knee flexion (soleus) or knee extension (gastrocnemius) and the presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were randomly allocated a week apart to both the intervention (combined pressure release and 10 s passive stretch) and the control condition. A clinically meaningful (large effect size) and statistically significant increase in ankle ROM in the intervention compared to the control group was achieved, for the soleus (p = 0.004) and the gastrocnemius (p = 0.026). Apart from the statistical significance (p < 0.05), these results are clinically relevant due to the immediate increase in ankle dorsiflexion. These results must be viewed in caution due to the carry-over effect in the RCT crossover design and the combined MTrP therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF STRETCHING STATIC, DYNAMIC, BALLISTIC, AND NO STRETCH OF THE ILIOPSOAS ON 40‐YARD SPRINT TIMES IN RECREATIONAL RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Scott D.; Perry, Craig; Hoover, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential adverse effects of static stretching on athletic performance are well documented, but still appears to be controversial, especially as they relates to sprinting. The prevalence of this practice is demonstrated by the number of competitive and recreational athletes who regularly engage in stretching immediately prior to sprinting with the mindset of optimizing their performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static, dynamic, and ballistic stretching, and no stretching of the iliopsoas muscle on 40‐yard sprint times in 18‐37 year‐old non‐competitive, recreational runners. Methods: Twenty‐five healthy recreational runners (16 male and 9 female) between the ages of 24 and 35 (Mean = 26.76 yrs., SD = 2.42 yrs.) completed this study. A repeated measures design was used, which consisted of running a 40‐yard sprint trial immediately following each of 4 different stretching conditions aimed at the iliopsoas muscle and lasting 1 minute each. The 4 conditions were completed in a randomized order within a 2‐week time period, allowing 48‐72 hours between each condition. Prior to each 40‐yard sprint trial, a 5‐minute walking warm‐up was performed at 3.5 mph on a treadmill. The subject then ran a baseline 40‐yard sprint. After a 10‐minute self‐paced walk, each subject performed one of the 4 stretching conditions (ballistic, dynamic, static, and no stretch) and then immediately ran a timed 40‐yard sprint. Results: There was a significant interaction between stretching conditions and their effects on sprint times, F(3,72) = 9.422, p<.0005. To break down this interaction, simple main effects were performed with 2 repeated measures ANOVAs and 4 paired t‐tests using a Bonferroni corrected alpha (α = .0083). There were no significant differences between the 4 pre‐condition times, p = 0.103 (Greenhouse‐Geisser) or the post‐condition times, p = 0.029. In the no stretch condition

  19. The acute effects of various types of stretching static, dynamic, ballistic, and no stretch of the iliopsoas on 40-yard sprint times in recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Wallmann, Harvey W; Christensen, Scott D; Perry, Craig; Hoover, Donald L

    2012-10-01

    The potential adverse effects of static stretching on athletic performance are well documented, but still appears to be controversial, especially as they relates to sprinting. The prevalence of this practice is demonstrated by the number of competitive and recreational athletes who regularly engage in stretching immediately prior to sprinting with the mindset of optimizing their performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute static, dynamic, and ballistic stretching, and no stretching of the iliopsoas muscle on 40-yard sprint times in 18-37 year-old non-competitive, recreational runners. Twenty-five healthy recreational runners (16 male and 9 female) between the ages of 24 and 35 (Mean = 26.76 yrs., SD = 2.42 yrs.) completed this study. A repeated measures design was used, which consisted of running a 40-yard sprint trial immediately following each of 4 different stretching conditions aimed at the iliopsoas muscle and lasting 1 minute each. The 4 conditions were completed in a randomized order within a 2-week time period, allowing 48-72 hours between each condition. Prior to each 40-yard sprint trial, a 5-minute walking warm-up was performed at 3.5 mph on a treadmill. The subject then ran a baseline 40-yard sprint. After a 10-minute self-paced walk, each subject performed one of the 4 stretching conditions (ballistic, dynamic, static, and no stretch) and then immediately ran a timed 40-yard sprint. There was a significant interaction between stretching conditions and their effects on sprint times, F(3,72) = 9.422, p<.0005. To break down this interaction, simple main effects were performed with 2 repeated measures ANOVAs and 4 paired t-tests using a Bonferroni corrected alpha (α = .0083). There were no significant differences between the 4 pre-condition times, p = 0.103 (Greenhouse-Geisser) or the post-condition times, p = 0.029. In the no stretch condition, subjects improved significantly from pre- to post- sprint times (p<0

  20. Comparison of foot muscle morphology and foot kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and with asymptomatic over-pronated feet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianyi; Aeles, Jeroen; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-05-01

    Over-pronated feet are common in adults and are associated with lower limb injuries. Studying the foot muscle morphology and foot kinematic patterns is important for understanding the mechanism of over-pronation related injuries. The aim of this study is to compare the foot muscle morphology and foot inter-segmental kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and those with asymptomatic over-pronated feet. A total of 26 recreational runners (17 had normal feet and 9 had over-pronated feet) participated in this study and their foot type was assessed using the 6-item Foot Posture Index. Selected foot muscles were scanned using an ultrasound device and the scanned images were processed to measure the thickness and cross-sectional area of the muscles. Muscles of interest include abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and longus, tibialis anterior and peroneus muscles. Foot kinematic data during walking was collected using a 3D motion capture system incorporating the Oxford Foot Model. The results show that individuals with over-pronated feet have larger size of abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis and longus and smaller abductor digiti minimi than controls. Higher rearfoot peak eversion and forefoot peak supination during walking were observed in individuals with over-pronated feet. However, during gait the forefoot peak abduction was comparable. These findings indicate that in active asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet, the foot muscle morphology is adapted to increase control of the foot motion. The morphological characteristics of the foot muscles in asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet may affect their foot kinematics and benefit prevention from injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rethinking the role of fat oxidation: substrate utilisation during high-intensity interval training in well-trained and recreationally trained runners

    PubMed Central

    Hetlelid, Ken J; Plews, Daniel J; Herold, Eva; Laursen, Paul B; Seiler, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although carbohydrate is the predominant fuel source supporting high-intensity exercise workloads, the role of fat oxidation, and the degree to which it may be altered by training status, is less certain. Methods We compared substrate oxidation rates, using indirect calorimetry, during a high-intensity interval training (HIT) session in well-trained (WT) and recreationally trained (RT) runners. Following preliminary testing, 9 WT (VO2max 71±5 mL/min/kg) and 9 RT (VO2max 55±5 mL/min/kg) male runners performed a self-paced HIT sequence consisting of six, 4 min work bouts separated by 2 min recovery periods on a motorised treadmill set at a 5% gradient. Results WT and RT runners performed the HIT session with the same perceived effort (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) =18.3±0.7 vs 18.2±1.1, respectively), blood lactate (6.4±2.1 vs 6.2±2.5 mmol/L) and estimated carbohydrate oxidation rates (4.2±0.29 vs 4.4±0.45 g/min; effect size (ES) 90% confidence limits (CL)=−0.19±0.85). Fat oxidation (0.64±0.13 vs 0.22±0.16 g/min for WT and RT, respectively) accounted for 33±6% of the total energy expenditure in WT vs 16±6% in RT most likely very large difference in fat oxidation (ES 90% CL=1.74±0.83) runners. Higher rates of fat oxidation had a very large correlation with VO2max (r=0.86; 90% CI (0.7 to 0.94). Conclusions Despite similar RPE, blood lactate and carbohydrate oxidation rates, the better performance by the WT group was explained by their nearly threefold higher rates of fat oxidation at high intensity. PMID:27900134

  2. The Long-Distance Binding of "ZIJI."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liejiong, XU

    1993-01-01

    Addresses "ziji," notorious long-distance reflexive in Chinese, which can take antecedent infinitively far away. Argues that theories concerned with anaphoric properties should be formed and evaluated on basis of following observations: no barriers can block anaphoric relation; and subjects of any clauses containing reflexive are its…

  3. Increase in plasma calprotectin during long-distance running.

    PubMed

    Fagerhol, M K; Nielsen, H G; Vetlesen, A; Sandvik, K; Lyberg, T

    2005-01-01

    Running leads to biochemical and hematological changes consistent with an inflammatory reaction to tissue injury. We report changes in the plasma concentration of the leukocyte-derived protein calprotectin after long-distance running. Blood samples were collected from runners before and after a marathon, half-marathon, a 30-km cross-country run, a military ranger-training course and short-term maximal physical exercise until exhaustion, VO2max. Leukocyte counts, plasma calprotectin concentration and calprotectin per neutrophilic granulocyte were assayed using a new method. During the marathon, half-marathon, the 30-km run, the ranger-training course and the VO2max exercise, calprotectin levels increased 96.3-fold, 13.3-fold, 20.1-fold, 7.5-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively. These changes may reflect damage to the tissues or vascular endothelium, causing microthrombi with subsequent activation of neutrophils. These cells are known to phagocytose platelets in microthrombi and may contribute to the prevention of clinical thrombosis. The half-life of calprotectin in plasma was about 5 h. The content of calprotectin per neutrophil remained unchanged during exercise at a level similar to that in healthy blood donors: mean: 25 pg/cell, range 18.8-33.6. A reference interval (mean +/- 2 SD) of 18.6-31.4 pg/cell is suggested.

  4. The impact of self-reported psychological stress levels on changes to peripheral blood immune biomarkers in recreational marathon runners during training and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Kristina E; Elci, Okan U; Hahn, Kathryn; Marshall, Gailen D

    2013-01-01

    Marathon training is both physically and psychologically stressful, both of which can lead to altered immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the overall immunoregulatory changes associated with the physical stress of marathon training are affected by psychological stress. Nineteen recreational marathoners completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and had levels of T cell subpopulations and cytokine (IFNγ, IL4 and IL10) production determined 4 weeks before (baseline), 24-48 h before (prerace) and 1 week after (recovery) participation in a marathon. PSS scores decreased at the prerace visit compared to baseline and remained low at recovery. Compared to baseline, there were significant changes to numerous immune measures at the prerace visit, including decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio, Tc1/Tc2 ratio, Tr1 and Th3 cell populations as well as decreases in IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio and IL10 production. Most immune parameters had returned to near baseline values at the recovery visit. Higher levels of perceived stress, anxiety and worry exacerbated many of the alterations in immunity that were observed at the prerace visit. Higher levels of perceived stress and worry had significant effects on changes to Treg, IL4 production and the IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio. Stress had an additional impact on changes in IL10 production. High anxiety levels resulted in significant changes to Treg, Tr1 and Th3. These data suggest that recreational marathon runners with higher levels of psychological stress may be more at risk for the immune alterations that are common during periods of prolonged physical training. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The effect of moderate running on foot posture index and plantar pressure distribution in male recreational runners.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Martínez, Elena; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Gómez-Martín, Beatriz; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns. A baropodometric evaluation was made, using the FootScan platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium), of 30 men who were regular runners and their foot posture was examined using the Foot Posture Index before and after a 60-min continuous run at a moderate pace (3.3 m/sec). Foot posture showed a tendency toward pronation after the 60-min run, gaining 2 points in the foot posture index. The total support and medial heel contact areas increased, as did pressures under the second metatarsal head and medial heel. Continuous running at a moderate speed (3.3 m/sec) induced changes in heel strike related to enhanced pronation posture, indicative of greater stress on that zone after physical activity. This observation may help us understand the functioning of the foot, prevent injuries, and design effective plantar orthoses in sport.

  6. Spectroscopic thermometry for long-distance surveying.

    PubMed

    Tomberg, Teemu; Fordell, Thomas; Jokela, Jorma; Merimaa, Mikko; Hieta, Tuomas

    2017-01-10

    Electronic distance meters are routinely used to accurately determine the distance between two points. To reach relative measurement uncertainties of 10-7, the average temperature along the beam has to be known within 100 mK since it is a key component in determining the refractive index of air. Temperature measurements at this level are extremely challenging over long distances and especially in an outdoor environment. This paper presents a thermometer for accurate temperature measurements over distances up to a few km. The thermometer is based on direct laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen near 770 nm. The thermometer yields a spatially continuous measurement of air temperature, and it can provide spatially and temporally well-matching data with an actual distance-measuring laser beam. A field measurement campaign at the 864-m Nummela standard baseline demonstrates applicability of the developed thermometer for improving the refractive index compensation of current high-performance electronic distance meters.

  7. Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances. PMID:26876670

  8. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  9. Does polyploidy facilitate long-distance dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Linder, H. Peter; Barker, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The ability of plant lineages to reach all continents contributes substantially to their evolutionary success. This is exemplified by the Poaceae, one of the most successful angiosperm families, in which most higher taxa (tribes, subfamilies) have global distributions. Due to the old age of the ocean basins relative to the major angiosperm radiations, this is only possible by means of long-distance dispersal (LDD), yet the attributes of lineages with successful LDD remain obscure. Polyploid species are over-represented in invasive floras and in the previously glaciated Arctic regions, and often have wider ecological tolerances than diploids; thus polyploidy is a candidate attribute of successful LDD. Methods The link between polyploidy and LDD was explored in the globally distributed grass subfamily Danthonioideae. An almost completely sampled and well-resolved species-level phylogeny of the danthonioids was used, and the available cytological information was assembled. The cytological evolution in the clade was inferred using maximum likelihood (ML) as implemented in ChromEvol. The biogeographical evolution in the clade was reconstructed using ML and Bayesian approaches. Key Results Numerous increases in ploidy level are demonstrated. A Late Miocene–Pliocene cycle of polyploidy is associated with LDD, and in two cases (the Australian Rytidosperma and the American Danthonia) led to secondary polyploidy. While it is demonstrated that successful LDD is more likely in polyploid than in diploid lineages, a link between polyploidization events and LDD is not demonstrated. Conclusions The results suggest that polyploids are more successful at LDD than diploids, and that the frequent polyploidy in the grasses might have facilitated the extensive dispersal among continents in the family, thus contributing to their evolutionary success. PMID:24694830

  10. An Evaluation of Time-Trial Based Predictions of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and Recommended Training Paces for Collegiate and Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, E M; Barry, V W; Coons, J M

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of Jack Daniels' VDOT Running Calculator for the prediction of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and recommendations of interval and training paces (pIN & pTH) in samples of NCAA Division 1 track athletes (ATH, n = 11) and recreational runners (REC; n = 9). Predicted variable data were obtained using results from indoor 5km time-trials. Data from the VDOT calculator was compared to laboratory tested V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, pace at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxpace), and lactate threshold pace (LTpace). Results indicated that VDOT underestimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in ATH (t (10) = -6.00, p <.001, d = 1.75) and REC (t (8) = -8.96, p <.001, d = 3.44). Follow up between-groups analysis indicated that the difference between VDOT and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly greater in REC than ATH (p = .0031, d = 1.59). pIN was slower than V[Combining Dot Above]O2maxpace in REC (t (8) = -4.26, p = .003, d = 1.76), but not different in ATH (t (10) = 0.52, p = .614, d = 0.14). Conversely, pTH was faster than LTpace in ATH (t (8) = -4.17, p = .003, d = 1.49), but not different in REC (t (8) = 1.64, p = .139, d =0.57). Practically, pTH can be confidently used for threshold training regardless of ability level. pIN also appeared to be accurate for ATH, but may be not be optimal for improving V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in REC. Practitioners should interpret VDOT with caution as it may underestimate V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

  11. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  12. Providing Quality Laboratories to Long-Distance Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Tammy; Sutton, John

    2003-01-01

    North Carolina State University (UNC) has been on the forefront of long-distance education by offering a Bachelor of Science in Engineering with a Mechatronics Concentration at its remote campus located at UNC Asheville. The program demonstrates that long-distance laboratories are feasible and should not be a stumbling block to offering…

  13. Intelligent monitoring system applied to super long distance telerobotic tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, Yujin; Hirai, Shigeoki; Machida, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    Time delay and small capacity of communication are the primary constraint in super long distance telerobotic systems such as astronautical robotic tasks. Intelligent telerobotics is thought to break this constraint. We aim to realize this super long distance telerobotic system with object handling knowledge base and intelligent monitoring. We will discuss physical and technical factors for this purpose.

  14. Long Distance Caregiving: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, John G.; Munn, Jean C.

    2017-01-01

    There are an estimated 5–7 million long distance caregivers in the United States, but relatively little is known about this growing subpopulation of caregivers. This study systematically reviewed the existing empirical literature on long distance caregiving and critically examined 15 identified studies: 8 quantitative, 2 mixed-method, and 5 qualitative. Although studies defined long distance caregiving very differently, a composite description of who long distance caregivers are and what they do is presented. Long distance caregivers make substantial contributions to care in terms of physical, financial, and social support. Distance complicates the exchange of information about the care recipient’s health and care needs, as well as the types of care that can be provided. Related to this, geographic separation can exacerbate care-related stressors. Implications for future research are also identified. PMID:23078605

  15. Effects of Strength Training on the Physiological Determinants of Middle- and Long-Distance Running Performance: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howatson, Glyn; Hayes, Philip R

    2017-12-16

    Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice. Electronic databases were searched using a variety of key words relating to ST exercise and distance running. This search was supplemented with citation tracking. To be eligible for inclusion, a study was required to meet the following criteria: participants were middle- or long-distance runners with ≥ 6 months experience, a ST intervention (heavy resistance training, explosive resistance training, or plyometric training) lasting ≥ 4 weeks was applied, a running only control group was used, data on one or more physiological variables was reported. Two independent assessors deemed that 24 studies fully met the criteria for inclusion. Methodological rigor was assessed for each study using the PEDro scale. PEDro scores revealed internal validity of 4, 5, or 6 for the studies reviewed. Running economy (RE) was measured in 20 of the studies and generally showed improvements (2-8%) compared to a control group, although this was not always the case. Time trial (TT) performance (1.5-10 km) and anaerobic speed qualities also tended to improve following ST. Other parameters [maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), velocity at [Formula: see text], blood lactate, body composition] were typically unaffected by ST. Whilst there was good evidence that ST improves RE, TT, and sprint performance, this was not a consistent finding across all works that were

  16. Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Pesquero, João Bosco; Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Borin, João Paulo; Montagner, Paulo César; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects) have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes) in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints. PMID:24891818

  17. Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Pesquero, João Bosco; Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Borin, João Paulo; Montagner, Paulo César; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects) have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes) in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints.

  18. Body Composition and Aerobic Requirements of Male and Female Marathon Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christine L.; And Others

    This study investigates the physical characteristics, body composition, cardiovascular and pulmonary functions, and aerobic capabilities of male and female long distance runners. Eleven runners volunteered to take tests to determine background information, body fat, oxygen uptake, and running time and pace. Conclusions made from this study…

  19. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects-a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Robert; Luke, Anthony; Ma, C Benjamin; Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of knee abnormalities was found in marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences.

  20. Metabolic adaptations in the liver of born long-distance running mice.

    PubMed

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Walz, Christina; Renne, Ulla; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wolf, Carola; Langhammer, Martina; Schwerin, Manfred; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Long-distance runners have increased needs of energy supply. To unravel genetically based mechanisms required for efficient energy supply, we have analyzed hepatic metabolism of mice characterized by the inborn capacity to perform as long-distance runners. The mouse model had been established by phenotypic selection for high treadmill performance for 90 generations and was characterized by approximately 3.8-fold higher running capacities (Dummerstorf high Treadmill Performance mouse line [DUhTP]) compared with unselected and also untrained controls (Dummerstorf Control mouse line [DUC]). From 7-wk-old male mice, serum and liver samples were collected and analyzed for messenger RNA, protein, and metabolite levels, respectively. In livers from DUhTP mice, we identified significantly higher messenger RNA transcript levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and higher protein levels of sirtuin-1, acetyl-CoA-synthetase, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glutamate-dehydrogenase, suggesting higher gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in DUhTP mice. In fact, higher hepatic levels of glycogen and triglycerides as well as higher concentrations of carbohydrate, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolites were found in DUhTP mice. In parallel, in DUhTP mice, which did not have access to running wheels, a marked hyperlipidemia (cholesterol = 160% ± 8%, triglycerides = 174% ± 14% of controls, respectively), and abdominal obesity (DUhTP = 0.396 ± 0.019 g, DUC = 0.291 ± 0.019 g) were found. From our data, we conclude that the physiological basis of genetically fixed higher endurance-running performance in DUhTP marathon mouse is related to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Expression of sirtuin 1 as well as of gluconeogenic and lipogenic key enzymes may be related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Metabolic adaptations presented in our study represent inborn features of superior endurance

  1. Distributed temperature monitoring of long distance submarine cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Martin; Christiansen, Willi; Kjær, Søren Valdemar; Hill, Wieland

    2011-05-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) of long distance power cables is shown to provide valuable information for cable design optimisation and proper operation of wind farms. The long range sensing is enabled by using the Raman-OFDR (optical frequency domain reflectometry) technology in single-mode fibres. Raman-OFDR uses a modulated continuous wave laser for detection. The low peak power minimizes stimulated Raman-scattering in single-mode fibres making accurate temperature sensing over long distances feasible.

  2. Biomechanical and Psychological Analysis of High School, Intercollegiate, and Elite Long-Distance Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorio, Claribel; Hickey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is undeniable that efficiency and mentality are crucial to achieving optimal athletic performance during competition. However, development of psychological skills is often neglected, particularly in lower levels of competition. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the biomechanical efficiency and psychological skills use among…

  3. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  4. The long-distance signaling of mineral macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2009-06-01

    In response to varying nutrient availability in soil, plants display a high degree of physiological and developmental plasticity that relies on both local and systemic signaling pathways to coordinate the expression of genes involved in adaptive responses. The integration of these responses at the whole-plant level requires long-distance signaling mechanisms communicating the information between the two indispensable organs, the shoot and the root, which respectively provide photosynthates and mineral nutrients. Although such long-distance signaling is not well understood at the molecular level, several molecules, including hormones, sugars, and nutrients themselves or their metabolites, have been suggested to function as the systemic signals. Moreover, recent discoveries of the phloem-mobile microRNA399s as key components mediating the plant responses to phosphorus stress reveal a novel biological role of small RNA in the long-distance signaling of nutrient status.

  5. Long-distance coherent coupling in a quantum dot array.

    PubMed

    Braakman, F R; Barthelemy, P; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Vandersypen, L M K

    2013-06-01

    Controlling long-distance quantum correlations is central to quantum computation and simulation. In quantum dot arrays, experiments so far rely on nearest-neighbour couplings only, and inducing long-distance correlations requires sequential local operations. Here, we show that two distant sites can be tunnel-coupled directly. The coupling is mediated by virtual occupation of an intermediate site, with a strength that is controlled via the energy detuning of this site. It permits a single charge to oscillate coherently between the outer sites of a triple dot array without passing through the middle, as demonstrated through the observation of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. The long-distance coupling significantly improves the prospects of fault-tolerant quantum computation using quantum dot arrays, and opens up new avenues for performing quantum simulations in nanoscale devices.

  6. Metabolism and long-distance translocation of cytokinins.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toru; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    During plant development, distantly-located organs must communicate in order to adapt morphological and physiological features in response to environmental inputs. Among the recognized signaling molecules, a class of phytohormones known as the cytokinins functions as both local and long-distance regulatory signals for the coordination of plant development. This cytokinin-dependent communication system consists of orchestrated regulation of the metabolism, translocation, and signal transduction of this phytohormone class. Here, to gain insight into this elaborate signaling system, we summarize current models of biosynthesis, trans-membrane transport, and long-distance translocation of cytokinins in higher plants.

  7. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  8. Long distance movement by a coyote within the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires

    2004-01-01

    We documented a long distance movement of a juvenile male coyote (Canis latrines) between February 2002 and February 2003. The radiocollared coyote, last located in west central Montana, U.S.A. traveled ≥310 km to southwestern Alberta, Canada where it was trapped. This is the longest documented movement by a coyote in western North America.

  9. 2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Long distance view from the SW of former Cotton Yards (now used as a parking lot); Cotton Yard Gates at far right, Red Building and Produce Freight Warehouse in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Cotton Yard Gates, West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 47 CFR 32.5100 - Long distance message revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... terminate beyond the basic service area of the originating wire center and are individually priced. This... subscriber access line. It also includes those long distance calls placed from mobile and public telephones... of a specific call. This account shall also include revenue derived from individually priced message...

  11. 47 CFR 32.5100 - Long distance message revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... terminate beyond the basic service area of the originating wire center and are individually priced. This... subscriber access line. It also includes those long distance calls placed from mobile and public telephones... of a specific call. This account shall also include revenue derived from individually priced message...

  12. 47 CFR 32.5100 - Long distance message revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... terminate beyond the basic service area of the originating wire center and are individually priced. This... subscriber access line. It also includes those long distance calls placed from mobile and public telephones... of a specific call. This account shall also include revenue derived from individually priced message...

  13. Biochemical Parameters of Orienteers Competing in a Long Distance Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikan, Vladimir; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…

  14. Long-distance thermal temporal ghost imaging over optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Huang, Yidong

    2018-02-15

    A thermal ghost imaging scheme between two distant parties is proposed and experimentally demonstrated over long-distance optical fibers. In the scheme, the weak thermal light is split into two paths. Photons in one path are spatially diffused according to their frequencies by a spatial dispersion component, then illuminate the object and record its spatial transmission information. Photons in the other path are temporally diffused by a temporal dispersion component. By the coincidence measurement between photons of two paths, the object can be imaged in a way of ghost imaging, based on the frequency correlation between photons in the two paths. In the experiment, the weak thermal light source is prepared by the spontaneous four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide. The temporal dispersion is introduced by single-mode fibers of 50 km, which also could be looked at as a fiber link. Experimental results show that this scheme can be realized over long-distance optical fibers.

  15. Towards ultra-long-distance distributed fiber optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zinan; Jia, Xinhong; Wu, Huijuan; Peng, Fei; Fu, Yun; Rao, Yunjiang

    2017-04-01

    Distributed fiber-optic sensing (DFOS) has drawn great attention in both academic research and industrial applications due to its unique advantages. Recent progress at University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC) in DFOS, mainly on ultra-long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) and phase-sensitive optical timedomain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR), is discussed in this paper, including research progress and real-life applications.

  16. Identifying impediments to long-distance mammal migrations.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Renee G; Long, Ryan A; Berger, Joel; Bergen, Scott; Beckmann, Jon P

    2015-02-01

    In much of the world, the persistence of long-distance migrations by mammals is threatened by development. Even where human population density is relatively low, there are roads, fencing, and energy development that present barriers to animal movement. If we are to conserve species that rely on long-distance migration, then it is critical that we identify existing migration impediments. To delineate stopover sites associated with anthropogenic development, we applied Brownian bridge movement models to high-frequency locations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We then used resource utilization functions to assess the threats to long-distance migration of pronghorn that were due to fences and highways. Migrating pronghorn avoided dense developments of natural gas fields. Highways with relatively high volumes of traffic and woven-wire sheep fence acted as complete barriers. At crossings with known migration bottlenecks, use of high-quality forage and shrub habitat by pronghorn as they approached the highway was lower than expected based on availability of those resources. In contrast, pronghorn consistently utilized high-quality forage close to the highway at crossings with no known migration bottlenecks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of minimizing development in migration corridors in the future and of mitigating existing pressure on migratory animals by removing barriers, reducing the development footprint, or installing crossing structures. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. ADAPTIVELY IMPROVING LONG DISTANCE NETWORK TRANSFERS WITH LOGISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.

    2007-01-01

    Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

  18. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K., E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.com; Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predictedmore » the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.« less

  19. Long distance atomic teleportation with as good success as desired

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Prakash, Hari

    2015-09-15

    Long distance atomic teleportation (LDAT) is of prime importance in long distance quantum communication. Scheme proposed by Bose et al. (1999) in principle enables us to have LDAT using cavity decay. However it gives message state dependent fidelity and success rate. Here, using interaction of entangled coherent states with atom–cavity systems and a two-step measurement, we show how, LDAT can be achieved with unit fidelity and as good success as desired under ideal conditions. The scheme is unique in that, the first measurement predicts success or failure. If success is predicted then second measurement gives perfect teleportation. If failure is predicted the message-qubit remains conserved therefore a second attempt may be started. We found that even in presence of decoherence due to dissipation of energy our scheme gives message state independent success rate and almost perfect teleportation in single attempt with mean fidelity of teleportation equal to 0.9 at long distances. However if first attempt fails, unlike ideal case where message-qubit remains conserved with unit fidelity, in presence of decoherence the message-qubit remains conserved to some degree, therefore mean fidelity of teleportation can be increased beyond 0.9 by repeating the process.

  20. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our

  1. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOEpatents

    Mariotti, Razvan

    1991-01-01

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  2. Long-distance oxygen plasma sterilization: Effects and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Chen, Jierong; Yang, Liqing; Zhou, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of electrons, ions and oxygen radicals in long-distance oxygen plasma and the germicidal effect (GE) of Escherichia coli on the surface of medical poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film were studied. The quantity of protein leakage and the production of lipid peroxide in bacterial suspension as well as the state of DNA were measured after sterilization to analyse the inactivation mechanisms. The results showed that the concentration of electrons and ions decreased rapidly with increasing the distance from the center of induction coil, which approximated to 0 at 30 cm, whereas the concentration of oxygen radicals reduced slowly, i.e. decreased 30% within 40 cm. GE value reached 3.42 in the active discharge zone (0 cm) and exceeded 3.32 within 40 cm when plasma treatment parameters were set as follows: plasma rf power at 100 W, treatment time at 60 s and oxygen flux at 40 cm 3/min. Fast etching action on cell membrane by electrons, ions and attacking polyunsaturation fatty acid (PUFA) in cell membrane by oxygen radicals are primary reasons of oxygen plasma sterilization in the active discharge and the afterglow zone, respectively. The GE of UV radiation in long-distance oxygen plasma is feebleness.

  3. Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Díaz-Benito, Pablo; Abadía, Anunciación; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Abadía, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms plants use to transport metals from roots to shoots are not completely understood. It has long been proposed that organic molecules participate in metal translocation within the plant. However, until recently the identity of the complexes involved in the long-distance transport of metals could only be inferred by using indirect methods, such as analyzing separately the concentrations of metals and putative ligands and then using in silico chemical speciation software to predict metal species. Molecular biology approaches also have provided a breadth of information about putative metal ligands and metal complexes occurring in plant fluids. The new advances in analytical techniques based on mass spectrometry and the increased use of synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy have allowed for the identification of some metal-ligand species in plant fluids such as the xylem and phloem saps. Also, some proteins present in plant fluids can bind metals and a few studies have explored this possibility. This study reviews the analytical challenges researchers have to face to understand long-distance metal transport in plants as well as the recent advances in the identification of the ligand and metal-ligand complexes in plant fluids. PMID:24723928

  4. Long distance laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Shin, He-Jin; Chia, Chen Ciang; Dhital, Dipesh; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Huh, Yong-Hak

    2011-12-01

    Wind turbine blade failure is the most prominent and common type of damage occurring in operating wind turbine systems. Conventional nondestructive testing systems are not available for in situ wind turbine blades. We propose a portable long distance ultrasonic propagation imaging (LUPI) system that uses a laser beam targeting and scanning system to excite, from a long distance, acoustic emission sensors installed in the blade. An examination of the beam collimation effect using geometric parameters of a commercial 2 MW wind turbine provided Lamb wave amplitude increases of 41.5 and 23.1 dB at a distance of 40 m for symmetrical and asymmetrical modes, respectively, in a 2 mm-thick stainless steel plate. With this improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, a feasibility study of damage detection was conducted with a 5 mm-thick composite leading edge specimen. To develop a reliable damage evaluation system, the excitation/sensing technology and the associated damage visualization algorithm are equally important. Hence, our results provide a new platform based on anomalous wave propagation imaging (AWPI) methods with adjacent wave subtraction, reference wave subtraction, reference image subtraction, and the variable time window amplitude mapping method. The advantages and disadvantages of AWPI algorithms are reported in terms of reference data requirements, signal-to-noise ratios, and damage evaluation accuracy. The compactness and portability of the proposed UPI system are also important for in-field applications at wind farms.

  5. Lipoprotein Subfractions of Runners and Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Wood, Peter D.; Lindgren, Frank T.; Giotas, Christine; Vranizan, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Serum concentrations of lipoprotein mass by flotation rate were measured in 12 long-distance runners and 64 sedentary men by analytic ultracentrifugation. The runners had significantly lower serum mass concentrations of the smaller, denser low-density lipoprotein particles of flotation rates Sf0-7 (including the LDL-II, LDL-III, and LDL-IV subspecies), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles of Sf 20-400, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles of flotation rates F1.20 0-1.5 (predominately the HDL3 subspecies), and higher serum mass concentrations of HDL particles with flotation rates between F1.20 2.0-9.0 (including HDL2a and HDL2b and less dense particles belonging to HDL3) than did sedentary men. Lipoprotein lipase activity was higher, and hepatic lipase activity was lower in runners than in the sedentary men. Thus, the effects of endurance exercise training to lower LDL may be specific to the smaller, denser LDL particle region. Similarities in the lipoprotein mass profiles of the runners and the low-risk profiles of sedentary, middle-aged women suggest the effects of common metabolic factors possibly leading to reduced risk of coronary artery disease. PMID:3941608

  6. Florida long-distance travel characteristics and their potential impacts on the transportation system.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    The overall goal of this project is to enhance the fundamental understanding of Florida long-distance travel characteristics, and to provide policy implications for long-distance transportation planning in the future. To achieve the research goal, th...

  7. Long-distance transport of endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Regnault, Thomas; Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones controlling major aspects of plant growth and development. Although previous studies suggested the existence of a transport of GAs in plants, the nature and properties associated with this transport were unknown. We recently showed through micrografting and biochemical approaches that the GA12 precursor is the chemical form of GA undergoing long-distance transport across plant organs in Arabidopsis. Endogenous GA12 moves through the plant vascular system from production sites to recipient tissues, in which GA12 can be converted to bioactive forms to support growth via the activation of GA-dependent processes. GAs are also essential to promote seed germination; hence GA biosynthesis mutants do not germinate without exogenous GA treatment. Our results suggest that endogenous GAs are not (or not sufficiently) transmitted to the offspring to successfully complete the germination under permissive conditions.

  8. Long-distance practical quantum key distribution by entanglement swapping.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Artur; Sanders, Barry C; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2011-02-14

    We develop a model for practical, entanglement-based long-distance quantum key distribution employing entanglement swapping as a key building block. Relying only on existing off-the-shelf technology, we show how to optimize resources so as to maximize secret key distribution rates. The tools comprise lossy transmission links, such as telecom optical fibers or free space, parametric down-conversion sources of entangled photon pairs, and threshold detectors that are inefficient and have dark counts. Our analysis provides the optimal trade-off between detector efficiency and dark counts, which are usually competing, as well as the optimal source brightness that maximizes the secret key rate for specified distances (i.e. loss) between sender and receiver.

  9. Conflicting evidence about long-distance animal navigation.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, Thomas

    2006-08-11

    Because of conflicting evidence about several fundamental issues, long-distance animal navigation has yet to be satisfactorily explained. Among the unsolved problems are the nature of genetic spatial control of migration and the relationships between celestial and magnetic compass mechanisms and between different map-related cues in orientation and homing, respectively. In addition, navigation is expected to differ between animal groups depending on sensory capabilities and ecological conditions. Evaluations based on modern long-term tracking techniques of the geometry of migration routes and individual migration history, combined with behavioral experiments and exploration of the sensory and genetic mechanisms, will be crucial for understanding the spatial principles that guide animals on their global journeys.

  10. Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration.

    PubMed

    de Riedmatten, H; Marcikic, I; Tittel, W; Zbinden, H; Collins, D; Gisin, N

    2004-01-30

    A long distance quantum teleportation experiment with a fiber-delayed Bell state measurement (BSM) is reported. The source creating the qubits to be teleported and the source creating the necessary entangled state are connected to the beam splitter realizing the BSM by two 2 km long optical fibers. In addition, the teleported qubits are analyzed after 2.2 km of optical fiber, in another laboratory separated by 55 m. Time-bin qubits carried by photons at 1310 nm are teleported onto photons at 1550 nm. The fidelity is of 77%, above the maximal value obtainable without entanglement. This is the first realization of an elementary quantum relay over significant distances, which will allow an increase in the range of quantum communication and quantum key distribution.

  11. Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Marcikic, I; de Riedmatten, H; Tittel, W; Zbinden, H; Gisin, N

    2003-01-30

    Matter and energy cannot be teleported (that is, transferred from one place to another without passing through intermediate locations). However, teleportation of quantum states (the ultimate structure of objects) is possible: only the structure is teleported--the matter stays at the source side and must be already present at the final location. Several table-top experiments have used qubits (two-dimensional quantum systems) or continuous variables to demonstrate the principle over short distances. Here we report a long-distance experimental demonstration of probabilistic quantum teleportation. Qubits carried by photons of 1.3 micro m wavelength are teleported onto photons of 1.55 micro m wavelength from one laboratory to another, separated by 55 m but connected by 2 km of standard telecommunications fibre. The first (and, with foreseeable technologies, the only) application of quantum teleportation is in quantum communication, where it could help to extend quantum cryptography to larger distances.

  12. Career Development as a Long-distance Hike

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Traditional images of achievement do not capture today’s more complex career development realities. Approaching career development as a long-distance expedition can help professionals in addressing the strenuous challenges they face, in seeing that a career can be built in many ways, and in taking a long-term view of their journeys. Skills are like muscles, self-efficacy is like sturdy boots, advancement “how-to’s” are like maps, and mentors are like trail guides. Among the tasks each hiker faces are selecting destinations, navigating through rough terrain and weather, and balancing their packs. To further their hikers’ resilience, departments should pay more attention to the career development ecology, including improving access to qualified trail guides and to alternate paths. PMID:18953615

  13. Career development as a long-distance hike.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Traditional images of achievement do not capture today's more complex career development realities. Approaching career development as a long-distance expedition can help professionals in addressing the strenuous challenges they face, in seeing that a career can be built in many ways, and in taking a long-term view of their journeys. Skills are like muscles, self-efficacy is like sturdy boots, advancement "how-to's" are like maps, and mentors are like trail guides. Among the tasks each hiker faces are selecting destinations, navigating through rough terrain and weather, and balancing their packs. To further their hikers' resilience, departments should pay more attention to the career development ecology, including improving access to qualified trail guides and to alternate paths.

  14. Scorpio and Long-Distance Trade in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmel Beyer, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    This paper establishes a relationship between Scorpio and the astronomical group of the Ciudadela at Teotihuacan, linking them to the city's merchant elite. Its argument is based on a brief discussion of the alacrán and the context in which it appears in Prehispanic documents and art. Human figures with a scorpion-tail are emphasized because of their association with the merchant class and Venus. The iconography used to represent this star takes on many shapes, some of which were related to war. The origin of this symbol can be found on the southern coast of Guatemala, from where cacao was distributed to Oaxaca and the highlands. During the Postclassic the Soconusco was one of the most cherished domains of the Aztec, whose pochteca not only carried out long-distance trade but also had the power to solve or promote diplomatic conflicts.

  15. Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile). Long distance juvenile movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crespo, Rafael; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Mazzotti, Frank; Cherkiss, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Crocodylus acutus (American Crocodile) is the most widely distributed New World crocodilian species with its range extending from Peru in the south to the southern tip of peninsular Florida in the north. Crocodylus acutus occupies primarily coastal brackish water habitat, however it also occurs in freshwater to hypersaline habitats (Thorbjarnarson 2010. In Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. [Third Edition], American Crocodile Crocodylus acutus, pp. 46–53 S.C. Manolis and C. Stevenson. Crocodile Specialist Group, Darwin). There is limited literature on long distance movements of juvenile crocodilians worldwide and no literature on juvenile crocodiles in Florida. However, adult C. acutus in Florida have been documented to make seasonal movements of 5–15 km from preferred foraging habitat to nesting beaches (Mazzotti 1983. The Ecology of Crocodylus acutus in Florida. PhD Dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. 161pp), and one adult was documented making a 35 km trip from her nest site to preferred foraging habitat (Cherkiss et. al. 2006. Herpetol. Rev. 38:72–73). Rodda (1984. Herpetologica 40:444–451) reported on juvenile C. acutus movement in Gatun Lake, Panama, and found that juveniles stayed within 1 km of their nest site for the first month. Movements of juvenile Crocodylus porosus (Saltwater Crocodile) in a river system in Northern Australia showed a maximum movement of 38.9 km from a known nest site, with the majority of the crocodiles staying within 15.6 km downstream to 6.8 km upstream (Webb and Messel 1978. Aust. Wildlife Res. 5:263–283). Juvenile movement of Crocodylus niloticus (Nile Crocodile) in Lake Ngezi, Zimbabwe showed crocodiles restricted their movements from 1.0 km up to 4.5 km through the wet and dry seasons (Hutton 1989. Am. Zool. 29:1033–1049). Long distance movements of alligators were recorded for sizes ranging from 28 cm to 361 cm in a coastal refuge in Louisiana, where

  16. Rapid, Long-Distance Dispersal by Pumice Rafting

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Scott E.; Cook, Alex G.; Evans, Jason P.; Hebden, Kerry; Hurrey, Lucy; Colls, Peter; Jell, John S.; Weatherley, Dion; Firn, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Pumice is an extremely effective rafting agent that can dramatically increase the dispersal range of a variety of marine organisms and connect isolated shallow marine and coastal ecosystems. Here we report on a significant recent pumice rafting and long-distance dispersal event that occurred across the southwest Pacific following the 2006 explosive eruption of Home Reef Volcano in Tonga. We have constrained the trajectory, and rate, biomass and biodiversity of transfer, discovering more than 80 species and a substantial biomass underwent a >5000 km journey in 7–8 months. Differing microenvironmental conditions on the pumice, caused by relative stability of clasts at the sea surface, promoted diversity in biotic recruitment. Our findings emphasise pumice rafting as an important process facilitating the distribution of marine life, which have implications for colonisation processes and success, the management of sensitive marine environments, and invasive pest species. PMID:22815770

  17. Long-Distance Neuronal Migration in the Adult Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lois, Carlos; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    1994-05-01

    During the development of the mammalian brain, neuronal precursors migrate to their final destination from their site of birth in the ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ and SVZ, respectively). SVZ cells in the walls of the lateral ventricle continue to proliferate in the brain of adult mice and can generate neurons in vitro, but their fate in vivo is unknown. Here SVZ cells from adult mice that carry a neuronal-specific transgene were grafted into the brain of adult recipients. In addition, the fate of endogenous SVZ cells was examined by microinjection of tritiated thymidine or a vital dye that labeled a discrete population of SVZ cells. Grafted and endogenous SVZ cells in the lateral ventricle of adult mice migrate long distances and differentiate into neurons in the olfactory bulb.

  18. The Effect of Periodisation and Training Intensity Distribution on Middle- and Long-Distance Running Performance: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kenneally, Mark; Casado, Arturo; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2017-11-28

    This review aimed to examine the current evidence for three primary training intensity distribution types; 1) Pyramidal Training, 2) Polarised Training and 3) Threshold Training. Where possible, we calculated training intensity zones relative to the goal race pace, rather than physiological or subjective variables. We searched 3 electronic databases in May 2017 (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) for original research articles. After analysing 493 resultant original articles, studies were included if they met the following criteria: a) participants were middle- or long-distance runners; b) studies analysed training intensity distribution in the form of observational reports, case studies or interventions; c) studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and d) studies analysed training programs with a duration of 4 weeks or longer. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which included 6 observational reports, 3 case studies, 6 interventions and 1 review. According to the results of this analysis, pyramidal and polarised training are more effective than threshold training, although the latest is used by some of the best marathon runners in the world. Despite this apparent contradictory findings, this review presents evidence for the organisation of training into zones based on a percentage of goal race pace which allow for different periodisation types to be compatible. This approach requires further development to assess whether specific percentages above and below race pace are key to inducing optimal changes.

  19. Runner's knowledge of their foot type: do they really know?

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    The use of correct individually selected running shoes may reduce the incidence of running injuries. However, the runner needs to be aware of their foot anatomy to ensure the "correct" footwear is chosen. The purpose of this study was to compare the individual runner's knowledge of their arch type to the arch index derived from a static footprint. We examined 92 recreational runners with a mean age of 35.4±11.4 (12-63) years. A questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge of the runners about arch height and overpronation. A clinical examination was undertaken using defined criteria and the arch index was analysed using weight-bearing footprints. Forty-five runners (49%) identified their foot arch correctly. Eighteen of the 41 flat-arched runners (44%) identified their arch correctly. Twenty-four of the 48 normal-arched athletes (50%) identified their arch correctly. Three subjects with a high arch identified their arch correctly. Thirty-eight runners assessed themselves as overpronators; only four (11%) of these athletes were positively identified. Of the 34 athletes who did not categorize themselves as overpronators, four runners (12%) had clinical overpronation. The findings of this research suggest that runners possess poor knowledge of both their foot arch and dynamic pronation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  1. Pronounced resting bradycardia in male elite runners is associated with high heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Urstad, K; Saltin, B; Ericson, M; Storck, N; Jensen-Urstad, M

    1997-10-01

    Forty-eight hour Holter monitoring was undertaken of 16 male elite middle- and long-distance runners, age 25 +/- 3 years, with peak oxygen uptake 4.83 +/- 0.43 1 O2/min or 73.0 +/- 3.9 ml O2/kg/min. The athletes had pronounced bradycardia during the night-time, with heart rate calculated from four RR intervals < 30 beats/min in five runners. Twelve of 16 runners had RR intervals > 2 s. Of those, 10 runners had sinus pauses exceeding 2 s, the longest being 3.06 s. Three runners had AV block II, two with Mobitz type 1, and one with both Mobitz type 1 and 2. Autonomic function was estimated by time domain and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. The runners were compared with a control group of 13 sedentary or moderately active subjects. The runners had a mean of 14 b.p.m. lower heart rate at night than the controls. The runners had higher heart rate variability in all spectral bands. In the time domain pNN50 and rMSSD, which are considered to reflect strongly vagal tone, were markedly higher in the runners than the controls. The findings suggest that an increased parasympathetic tone might at least partly explain the pronounced resting sinus bradycardias found in endurance-trained runners.

  2. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  3. Analysis of swimming performance in FINA World Cup long-distance open water races

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Age and peak performance in ultra-endurance athletes have been mainly investigated in long-distance runners and triathletes, but not for long-distance swimmers. The present study investigated the age and swimming performance of elite ultra-distance swimmers competing in the 5-, 10- and 25-km Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Cup swimming events. Methods The associations of age and swimming speed in elite male and female swimmers competing in World Cup events of 5-, 10- and 25-km events from 2000 to 2012 were analysed using single and multi-level regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the swimming speed of the annual top ten women decreased significantly from 4.94 ± 0.20 to 4.77 ± 0.09 km/h in 5 km and from 4.60 ± 0.04 to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h in 25 km, while it significantly increased from 4.57 ± 0.01 to 5.75 ± 0.01 km/h in 10 km. For the annual top ten men, peak swimming speed decreased significantly from 5.42 ± 0.04 to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h in 5 km, while it remained unchanged at 5.03 ± 0.32 km/h in 10 km and at 4.94 ± 0.35 km/h in 25 km. The age of peak swimming speed for the annual top ten women remained stable at 22.5 ± 1.2 years in 5 km, at 23.4 ± 0.9 years in 10 km and at 23.8 ± 0.9 years in 25 km. For the annual top ten men, the age of peak swimming speed increased from 23.7 ± 2.8 to 28.0 ± 5.1 years in 10 km but remained stable at 24.8 ± 1.0 years in 5 km and at 27.2 ± 1.1 years in 25 km. Conclusion Female long-distance swimmers competing in FINA World Cup races between 2000 and 2012 improved in 10 km but impaired in 5 and 25 km, whereas men only impaired in 5 km. The age of peak performance was younger in women (approximately 23 years) compared to men (about 25–27 years). PMID:24382200

  4. Kinanthropometric Profile and Physical Performance of Athletic Track Events in Relation to Different Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Zamirullah; ahmed, Naseem; Raja, Waseem Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out kinanthropometric profile of 20 Athletes of middle distance 800 meters, & long distance runners 5000 meters of Track Event of age 17 years were assessed for the present study. The data of athletes was collected at Athletics Summer Camp 2015 in Kashmir region. The athletes having participation of at…

  5. The Relationship between Running Economy and Biomechanical Variables in Distance Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Peyre-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Avila, Aluisio Otavio Vargas; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Coertjens, Marcelo; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanical parameters in a group running at the same relative intensity and same absolute velocity. Sixteen homogeneous male long-distance runners performed a test to determine RE at 4.4 m.s[superscript -1], corresponding to 11.1% below velocity at the ventilatory…

  6. Foot-strike haemolysis in an ultramarathon runner.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Abid A; Whittemore, Mary S; DeGeorge, Katharine C

    2017-12-13

    This case report describes mild anaemia and intravascular haemolysis in an otherwise healthy 41-year-old ultramarathon runner. In long-distance endurance athletes, trace gastrointestinal bleeding and plasma volume expansion are recognised sources of mild anaemia, often found incidentally. However, repetitive forceful foot striking can lead to blood cell lysis in the feet, resulting in a mild macrocytic anaemia and intravascular haemolysis, as was demonstrated in the patient described herein. Mild anaemia in runners, often called 'runner's pseudoanaemia', is typically clinically insignificant and does not require intervention. However, an unexplained anaemia can cause undue worry for otherwise healthy patients and lead to costly further testing, providing an argument against routine testing with complete blood counts in healthy, asymptomatic patients. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-04-23

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns.

  8. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes somemore » 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.« less

  9. Discrimination of individual tigers (Panthera tigris) from long distance roars.

    PubMed

    Ji, An; Johnson, Michael T; Walsh, Edward J; McGee, JoAnn; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the extent of tiger (Panthera tigris) vocal individuality through both qualitative and quantitative approaches using long distance roars from six individual tigers at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo in Omaha, NE. The framework for comparison across individuals includes statistical and discriminant function analysis across whole vocalization measures and statistical pattern classification using a hidden Markov model (HMM) with frame-based spectral features comprised of Greenwood frequency cepstral coefficients. Individual discrimination accuracy is evaluated as a function of spectral model complexity, represented by the number of mixtures in the underlying Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and temporal model complexity, represented by the number of sequential states in the HMM. Results indicate that the temporal pattern of the vocalization is the most significant factor in accurate discrimination. Overall baseline discrimination accuracy for this data set is about 70% using high level features without complex spectral or temporal models. Accuracy increases to about 80% when more complex spectral models (multiple mixture GMMs) are incorporated, and increases to a final accuracy of 90% when more detailed temporal models (10-state HMMs) are used. Classification accuracy is stable across a relatively wide range of configurations in terms of spectral and temporal model resolution.

  10. Insulator speckles associated with long-distance chromatin contacts

    PubMed Central

    Buxa, Melanie K.; Slotman, Johan A.; van Royen, Martin E.; Paul, Maarten W.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear foci of chromatin binding factors are, in many cases, discussed as sites of long-range chromatin interaction in the three-dimensional nuclear space. Insulator binding proteins have been shown to aggregate into insulator bodies, which are large structures not involved in insulation; however, the more diffusely distributed insulator speckles have not been analysed in this respect. Furthermore, insulator binding proteins have been shown to drive binding sites for Polycomb group proteins into Polycomb bodies. Here we find that insulator speckles, marked by the insulator binding protein dCTCF, and Polycomb bodies show differential association with the insulator protein CP190. They differ in number and three-dimensional location with only 26% of the Polycomb bodies overlapping with CP190. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to identify long-range interaction (kissing) of the Hox gene clusters Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C), we found the frequency of interaction to be very low. However, these rare kissing events were associated with insulator speckles at a significantly shorter distance and an increased speckle number. This suggests that insulator speckles are associated with long-distance interaction. PMID:27464669

  11. Insulator speckles associated with long-distance chromatin contacts.

    PubMed

    Buxa, Melanie K; Slotman, Johan A; van Royen, Martin E; Paul, Maarten W; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2016-09-15

    Nuclear foci of chromatin binding factors are, in many cases, discussed as sites of long-range chromatin interaction in the three-dimensional nuclear space. Insulator binding proteins have been shown to aggregate into insulator bodies, which are large structures not involved in insulation; however, the more diffusely distributed insulator speckles have not been analysed in this respect. Furthermore, insulator binding proteins have been shown to drive binding sites for Polycomb group proteins into Polycomb bodies. Here we find that insulator speckles, marked by the insulator binding protein dCTCF, and Polycomb bodies show differential association with the insulator protein CP190. They differ in number and three-dimensional location with only 26% of the Polycomb bodies overlapping with CP190. By using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to identify long-range interaction (kissing) of the Hox gene clusters Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C), we found the frequency of interaction to be very low. However, these rare kissing events were associated with insulator speckles at a significantly shorter distance and an increased speckle number. This suggests that insulator speckles are associated with long-distance interaction. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Long-distance, low-frequency elephant communication.

    PubMed

    Garstang, Michael

    2004-10-01

    The production, transmission, and reception of and the behavioral response to long-distance, low-frequency sound by elephants is reviewed. The structure of low-frequency calls generated by elephants is separated into the "source" and the "filter" roles played by the lungs, larynx and vocal track, the composition of the expired air and the ambient air temperature. Implications regarding the size, age, sex, sexual and physical status follow from the call structure and detection. Reception of the signal is discussed in terms of the characteristics of the elephant's ear with particular attention to the determination of the threshold of hearing and the ability to locate the source of low-frequency sounds. Factors which influence the transmission of near infrasound are related to atmospheric structure. The critical role played by the thermal stratification and vertical gradient and magnitude of the wind in determining both the range and the detection of a signal are discussed for open and closed elephant habitats. Infrasound plays a pervasive role in reproduction, resource utilization, avoidance of predation and other social interactions. Current and future technology can be expected to contribute to the detection and interpretation of elephant communication. This will aid in the understanding of behavior and in efforts to sustain the species.

  13. Long distance spin communication in chemical vapour deposited graphene

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Groenveld, Christiaan; Dankert, André; Dash, Saroj P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is an ideal medium for long-distance spin communication in future spintronic technologies. So far, the prospect is limited by the smaller sizes of exfoliated graphene flakes and lower spin transport properties of large-area chemical vapour-deposited (CVD) graphene. Here we demonstrate a high spintronic performance in CVD graphene on SiO2/Si substrate at room temperature. We show pure spin transport and precession over long channel lengths extending up to 16 μm with a spin lifetime of 1.2 ns and a spin diffusion length ∼6 μm at room temperature. These spin parameters are up to six times higher than previous reports and highest at room temperature for any form of pristine graphene on industrial standard SiO2/Si substrates. Our detailed investigation reinforces the observed performance in CVD graphene over wafer scale and opens up new prospects for the development of lateral spin-based memory and logic applications. PMID:25857650

  14. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  15. Donor spin qubits with robust long-distance coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Vivien; Tosi, Guilherme; Mohiyaddin, Fahd; Tenberg, Stefanie; Laucht, Arne; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Morello, Andrea

    Single-donor spin qubits in silicon have been shown to be among the most coherent in the solid state. However, scaling up beyond one donor to build a scalable quantum computer architecture remains a great challenge. Here we propose to use the flip-flop states of electron and nucleus of an implanted phosphorus atom as a qubit. We induce an electric dipole by biasing the electron wavefunction between the donor and an interface state. This dipole couples the flip-flop states to a resonant oscillating electric field, which can drive fast transitions between the qubit states. The electric dipole-dipole interaction between two donors allows robust two-qubit logic gates at long-distance (200 nm). We present simulated single- and two-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99% in the presence of realistic values of charge noise, and show that the ability to electrically drive and couple the qubits does not result in a deterioration of their coherence properties. Prototypical devices are currently being tested to demonstrate the predicted behavior.

  16. Effect of two sitting postures on lumbar sagittal alignment and intervertebral discs in runners.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, A; Smith, F; Mavrogenis, A F; Pope, M H; Papagelopoulos, P J; Karantanas, A; Hadjipavlou, A; Katonis, P

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated in vivo changes in lumbar lordosis and intervertebral discs in runners and assessed the relationship between these changes and degenerative disc disease in runners with and without a history of low back pain. Using open upright magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, we prospectively studied changes in lumbar lordosis and intervertebral discs of 25 elite long-distance runners in two sitting postures (neutral and extended) before and after 1 h of running and compared the results with disc height and dehydration/degeneration. Seventeen of the 25 runners had a history of low back pain. After 1 h of running, mean lordosis in neutral posture reduced by 4°; reduction was significant in runners with a history of low back pain. A significant reduction in mean lordosis in extension was not observed. Mean disc height significantly reduced in both postures, without, however, any statistical significance between runners with and without a history low back pain in any posture. Variable degrees of disc dehydration/degeneration were observed in 23 runners (57 discs), more commonly at L5-S1. A significant difference of disc dehydration/degeneration between runners with and without a history of low back pain was not observed. Intervertebral discs undergo significant strain after 1 h of running that in the long term may lead to low back pain and degenerative disc disease. Runners, especially those with low back pain and degenerative disc disease, should be evaluated after training to preserve the normal lumbar lordosis.

  17. Long-Distance Phloem Transport of Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sixue; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Schulz, Alexander; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2001-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites found mainly in the order Capparales, which includes a large number of economically important Brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis. In the present study, several lines of evidence are provided for phloem transport of glucosinolates in Arabidopsis. When radiolabeled p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (p-OHBG) and sucrose were co-applied to the tip of detached leaves, both tracers were collected in the phloem exudates at the petioles. Long-distance transport of [14C]p-OHBG was investigated in wild-type and transgenic 35S::CYP79A1 plants, synthesizing high amounts of p-OHBG, which is not a natural constituent of wild-type Arabidopsis. In both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, radiolabeled p-OHBG was rapidly transported from the application site into the whole plant and intact p-OHBG was recovered from different tissues. The pattern of distribution of the radioactivity corresponded to that expected for transport of photoassimilates such as sucrose, and was consistent with translocation in phloem following the source-sink relationship. Radiolabeled p-OHBG was shown to accumulate in the seeds of wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants, where p-OHBG had been either exogenously applied or endogenously synthesized from Tyr in the leaves. p-OHBG was found in phloem exudates collected from cut petioles of leaves from both wild-type and 35S::CYP79A1 plants. Phloem exudates were shown to contain intact glucosinolates, and not desulphoglucosinolates, as the transport form. It is concluded that intact glucosinolates are readily loaded into and transported by the phloem. PMID:11553747

  18. Go long! Predictors of positive relationship outcomes in long-distance dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Dargie, Emma; Blair, Karen L; Goldfinger, Corrie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about long-distance dating relationships. This study aimed to investigate differences between long-distance dating relationships and geographically close relationships and to explore predictors of relationship quality. Participants were 474 women and 243 men in long-distance dating relationships and 314 women and 111 men in geographically close relationships. Few differences existed between long-distance dating relationships and geographically close relationships, while individual and relationship characteristics predicted relationship quality. These results indicate that individuals in long-distance dating relationships are not at a disadvantage and that relationship and individual characteristics predict relationship quality. This knowledge could be a powerful tool for helping those in long-distance dating relationships.

  19. Soleus Muscle Herniation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound Correlation in a Female Long-Distance Runner: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cormier, David J; Gellhorn, Alfred C; Singh, Jaspal R

    2017-05-01

    This is a case of a 40-year-old female endurance athlete with right leg pain while running. A comprehensive workup revealed a fascial defect with soleus muscle herniation. Although historically in many practice settings magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for suspected muscle herniation through the fascia, the use of ultrasound is increasing because of lower cost, ease of access, and dynamic evaluation. To the authors' knowledge, there has not been a direct comparison between the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging versus ultrasound in determining the size or location of a soleus muscle herniation. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Evolutionary history of human locomotor system--from walking to long-distance running].

    PubMed

    Viranta-Kovanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Bipedality evolved in hominids more than 4 million years ago. Bipedals were a diverse group including the lineage of obligatory walkers that finally lead to humans. Important anatomical changes in this group were: enhanced lumbar lordosis, shortening of the ilium, and emphasize on the parasagittal movements. Long-distance running evolved much later and it was associated with well-developed plantar arches, strengthening of muscles supporting the erect trunk, and decoupling of the pectoral girdle and head. In addition to anatomical changes, humans have many physiological adaptations to long-distance running. It is likely that the ability to run long-distance has been important for the survival of our species.

  1. Lifting the Runners

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-25

    Under the unflinching summer sun, workers at NASA Deep Space Network complex in Goldstone, Calif., use a crane to lift a runner segment that is part of major surgery on a giant, 70-meter-wide antenna.

  2. [Urinary incontinence in non-professional female marathon runners].

    PubMed

    Abitteboul, Y; Leonard, F; Mouly, L; Riviere, D; Oustric, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence within a population of female recreational runners during a marathon. Observational study carried on a marathon from the analysis of questionnaire handed to the participants before the beginning of the marathon. The questionnaire was handed to 800 participants and among them, 517 (64.6%) agreed to fill it. Among the participants, 268 (52.4%) were marathon runners and 243 (47.5%) were relay runners. Mean age of the runners was 41.1 (±9.7), 479 (93.7%) of them were caucasian, mean body mass index was 20,7 (±1.9) kg/m(2) and 173 (34%) were nulliparous. Among responders, 157 (30.7%) runners declared to have urinary incontinence symptoms (any circumstances). Among 157 runners who declared an urinary incontinence, 83 (52,9%) presented with urinary leaks during the running. In half of the cases, these urinary leaks usually arose at the end of race. Urinary incontinence during coughing, sneezing or laughing was reported by 96/517 (18,5%) women. The prevalence of urge urinary incontinence was 63/517 (12%). Concerning the frequency of urinary incontinence, 39/517 (7.5%) women reported at least once weekly. For urinary incontinence bother, scores on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0 to 100) was 1.6 (±1.7). In this series, the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 30.7% within a population of female recreational runners. This rate seems to be similar to the current prevalence in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-distance dispersal of eastern spruce budworm in Minnesota (USA) via the atmospheric pathway

    Treesearch

    Brian Sturtevant; Gary Achtemeier; Dean Anderson; Joseph Charney; Barry. Cooke

    2011-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal is thought to play an important role in synchronizing disparate populations of forest insect defoliators, but its importance relative to other factors remains unclear due to the difficulty of quantifying dispersal.

  4. Long-distance travel modeling: proof of concept : research results digest.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    This research project was established to provide ADOT with direction on the best sources of data and best practices for updating its long-distance personal travel models to better reflect observed travel behavior. Its original intent was to recommend...

  5. Taking the Flight to the Enemy: Chinese Thinking About Long-Distance and Expeditionary Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    provides internal critiques of PLA capabilities. He starts with an analysis of the book Long-Distance Operations, by a strategist from the Academy of...Military Science of the Chinese PLA, published in 2007. Although Long-Distance Operations was an aspirational book urging the military to “take the...fight to the enemy” and hold an enemy’s popula- tion and infrastructure at risk, as Wortzel points out in his analysis, other books of a similar genre

  6. Relationship of Distance Run per Week to Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in 8283 Male Runners The National Runners’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Official guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine state that every adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. Objective To examine the dose-response relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and vigorous exercise above the recommended minimum levels to assess whether further benefits accrue. Methods Physician-supplied medical data were compared with reported distance run in a national cross-sectional survey of 8283 male recreational runners. Results Compared with runners who ran less than 16 km (10 miles) per week, long-distance runners (≥80 km/wk) showed an 85% reduced prevalence of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels that were clinically low {<0.9 mmol/L (<35 mg/dL)}, a 2.5-fold increased prevalence of clinically defined high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ie, ≥1.55 mmol/L or ≥60 mg/dL), the level thought to be protective against CHD), a nearly 50% reduction in hypertension, and more than a 50% reduction in the use of medications to lower blood pressure and plasma cholesterol levels. Estimated age-adjusted 10-year CHD risk was 30% lower in runners who averaged more than 64 km/wk than in those who averaged less than 16 km/wk (42 vs 61 events per 1000 men). Each 16-km incremental increase in weekly distance run up to 64 to 79 km/wk was associated with significant increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and significant decreases in adiposity, triglyceride levels, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and estimated CHD risk. Conclusions Our data (1) suggest that substantial health benefits occur at exercise levels that exceed current minimum guidelines and (2) do not exhibit a point of diminishing return to the health benefits of running at any distance less than 80 km/wk. PMID:9009976

  7. How do elite endurance runners alter movements of the spine and pelvis as running speed increases?

    PubMed

    Preece, Stephen J; Mason, Duncan; Bramah, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Elite endurance runners are characterised by their performance ability and higher running economy. However, there is relatively little research aimed at identifying the biomechanical characteristics of this group. This study aimed to understand how motions of the pelvis, lumbar spine and thorax change with speed in a cohort of elite endurance runners (n=14) and a cohort of recreational runners (n=14). Kinematic data were collected during over ground running at four speeds ranging from 3.3 to 5.6ms(-1) and a linear mixed model used to understand the effect of speed on both range of motion and mean sagittal inclination. The results showed the two groups to exhibit similar changes in range of motion as speed was increased, with the most pronounced increases being observed in the transverse plane. However, the adaptation of thorax inclination with speed differed between the two groups. Whereas the recreational runners increased thorax inclination as running speed was increased, elite endurance runners consistently maintained a more upright thorax position. This is the first study to identify specific differences in upper body motions between recreational and elite runners and the findings may have implications for training protocols aimed at improving running performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Executive overview: welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals.

    PubMed

    Adams, David B; Thornber, Peter M; Murray, Gardner

    2008-01-01

    A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of animals, how various governments approach public policy on the subject, the implementation of quality management for the transportation of different species of animals in different situations, future directions for quality management, design and engineering of infrastructures, transport safety and animal welfare and the education and training necessary for the successful management of animal welfare during long distance transportation. A seamless connection between animal health and animal welfare is an absolute necessity given the critical importance of animal movements in the spread of infection and the devastation to animal and human welfare produced by infectious disease. A compendium of papers brings together a range of perspectives on the long distance transportation of animals. The purpose is to assist in the strengthening of global public policies for the protection of animal health and welfare. The audience targeted is the wide range of people involved in shaping sound public policy. Papers cover the history of long distance transportation of animals, the viewpoints of the foremost civil society organisations involved in the long distance transport of animals, how various governments approach public policy on the subject, the implementation of quality management for the transportation of different species of animals in different situations, future directions for quality management, design and engineering of infrastructures, transport safety and animal welfare and the

  9. Distant Runner Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    was for a section of ring beam weighing 355 lbs. 1830 J_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, DISTANT RUNNER 28 OCT 81 - LARGE DEBRIS MAP FURTHEREST RING BEAM ;10 K .200...Services Center is reviewing for possible modification. 1834( 1. The shelter foundation to arch bond 2. The possible use of shorter ring beams 3. Redesign of

  10. Seasonal Strength Performance and Its Relationship with Training Load on Elite Runners

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos M.; del Campo-Vecino, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the time-course of force production of elite middle and long-distance runners throughout an entire season and at the end of the off-season, as well as its relationships with training load and hormonal responses. Training load was recorded daily throughout an entire season by measuring and evaluating the session distance (km), training zone and session-RPE in a group of 15 elite middle and long-distance runners (12 men, 3 women; age = 26.3 ± 5.1yrs, BMI = 19.7 ± 1.1). Also, basal salivary-free cortisol levels were measured weekly, and 50-metre sprints, mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean propulsive power (MPP), repetition maximum (RM) and peak rate of force development (RFD) of half-squats were measured 4 times during the season, and once more after the off-season break. There were no significant variations in force production during the season or after the off-season break, except for the RFD (-30.2%, p = 0.005) values, which changed significantly from the beginning to the end of the season. Significant correlations were found between session-RPE and MPV (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), MPP (r = -0.602, p = 0.009), RM (r = -0.650, p = 0.004), and the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.560, p = 0.015). Meanwhile, salivary-free cortisol correlated significantly with the 50-metre sprint (r = 0.737, p < 0.001) and the RM ( r = -0.514, p = 0.025). Finally, the training zone correlated with the 50-metre sprint (r = -0.463, p = 0.041). Session-RPE, training zone and salivary-free cortisol levels are related to force production in elite middle and long-distance runners. Monitoring these variables could be a useful tool in controlling the training programs of elite athletes. Key points Session-RPE, training zone and salivary free cortisol levels correlate significantly with strength-related variables in middle and long-distance elite runners. A month of active rest during the off-season break is enough to prevent decreases in force production of such

  11. Working Memory in the Processing of Long-Distance Dependencies: Interference and Filler Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Tal; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya

    2017-01-01

    During the temporal delay between the filler and gap sites in long-distance dependencies, the "active filler" strategy can be implemented in two ways: the filler phrase can be actively maintained in working memory ("maintenance account"), or it can be retrieved only when the parser posits a gap ("retrieval account").…

  12. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  13. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-05-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  14. Long-Distance, Nonstop Neonatal Transport From Shanghai, China, to Genoa, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Carlo; Serveli, Simona; A, Luigi; M, Pietro; S, Daniele; Ramenghi, Luca A; Cinti, Tiziana; Campone, Francesco

    The purpose of this article is to describe the long-distance, nonstop intercontinental transport of a severely ill, mechanically ventilated newborn from Shanghai, China, to Genoa, Italy focusing in particular on the clinical and planning difficulties. The aircraft equipment, the assessment and preparation for transport are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-distance dispersal of non-native pine bark beetles from host resources

    Treesearch

    Kevin Chase; Dave Kelly; Andrew M. Liebhold; Martin K.-F. Bader; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff

    2017-01-01

    Dispersal and host detection are behaviours promoting the spread of invading populations in a landscape matrix. In fragmented landscapes, the spatial arrangement of habitat structure affects the dispersal success of organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the long distance dispersal capabilities of two non-native pine bark beetles (Hylurgus...

  16. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  17. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  18. Necessity Fuels Creativity: Adapting Long-Distance Collaborative Methods for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopoci Drake, Katie; Larson, Eliza; Rugh, Rachel; Tait, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Improved technology has made it possible to virtually bridge distance between dance makers, rendering physical location another choreographic device to be manipulated. Long-distance collaboration as an artistic process is not only a fertile new ground for creation and necessary for many practicing dance artists in the field today, but there is…

  19. Long-distance dispersal of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species indigenous to the mature pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Continued loss and fragmentation of the mature forests of the South have increased the isolation of extant woodpecker groups throughout the range of this endangered species. The authors discuss long-distance...

  20. The Virtual Learning Environment ROODA: An Institutional Project of Long Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Patricia Alejandra; Leite, Silvia Meirelles

    2006-01-01

    This article describes ROODA (http://www.homer.nuted.edu.ufrgs.br), a virtual learning environment and one of the official Long Distance Education platforms that has been in use since 2005 at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. It is free software that integrates syncronous and assyncronous…

  1. Characteristics of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) long-distance movements across their distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earl, Julia E.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Haukos, David A.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Elmore, Dwayne; Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance movements are important adaptive behaviors that contribute to population, community, and ecosystem connectivity. However, researchers have a poor understanding of the characteristics of long-distance movements for most species. Here, we examined long-distance movements for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern. We addressed the following questions: (1) At what distances could populations be connected? (2) What are the characteristics and probability of dispersal movements? (3) Do lesser prairie-chickens display exploratory and round-trip movements? (4) Do the characteristics of long-distance movements vary by site? Movements were examined from populations using satellite GPS transmitters across the entire distribution of the species in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. Dispersal movements were recorded up to 71 km net displacement, much farther than hitherto recorded. These distances suggest that there may be greater potential connectivity among populations than previously thought. Dispersal movements were displayed primarily by females and had a northerly directional bias. Dispersal probabilities ranged from 0.08 to 0.43 movements per year for both sexes combined, although these movements averaged only 16 km net displacement. Lesser prairie-chickens displayed both exploratory foray loops and round-trip movements. Half of round-trip movements appeared seasonal, suggesting a partial migration in some populations. None of the long-distance movements varied by study site. Data presented here will be important in parameterizing models assessing population viability and informing conservation planning, although further work is needed to identify landscape features that may reduce connectivity among populations.

  2. Long-distance communication and signal amplification in systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jyoti; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism in plants that confers enhanced resistance against a variety of pathogens. SAR is activated in the uninfected systemic (distal) organs in response to a prior (primary) infection elsewhere in the plant. SAR is associated with the activation of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and the priming of defense responses for robust activation in response to subsequent infections. The activation of SAR requires communication by the primary infected tissues with the distal organs. The vasculature functions as a conduit for the translocation of factors that facilitate long-distance intra-plant communication. In recent years, several metabolites putatively involved in long-distance signaling have been identified. These include the methyl ester of SA (MeSA), the abietane diterpenoid dehydroabietinal (DA), the dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid (AzA), and a glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P)-dependent factor. Long-distance signaling by some of these metabolites also requires the lipid-transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE 1). The relative contribution of these factors in long-distance signaling is likely influenced by environmental conditions, for example light. In the systemic leaves, the AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1)-dependent production of the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip), FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1) signaling, as well as SA synthesis and downstream signaling are required for the activation of SAR. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction between long-distance SAR signals and details the recently discovered role of Pip in defense amplification and priming that allows plants to acquire immunity at the systemic level. Recent advances in SA signaling and perception are also highlighted. PMID:23440336

  3. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, E. C.; Gamble, F. O.

    1980-01-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete. Images p110-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7407448

  4. Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography founded on the laws of physics could revolutionize the way in which communication information is protected. Significant progresses in long-distance quantum key distribution based on discrete variables have led to the secure quantum communication in real-world conditions being available. However, the alternative approach implemented with continuous variables has not yet reached the secure distance beyond 100 km. Here, we overcome the previous range limitation by controlling system excess noise and report such a long distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution experiment. Our result paves the road to the large-scale secure quantum communication with continuous variables and serves as a stepping stone in the quest for quantum network. PMID:26758727

  5. Spatial pattern of long-distance symplasmic transport and communication in trees.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Brysz, Alicja Maria; Zagórska-Marek, Beata

    2013-11-01

    Symplasmic short- and long-distance communication may be regulated at different levels of plant body organization. It depends on cell-to-cell transport modulated by plasmodesmata conductivity and frequency but above all on morphogenetic fields that integrate a plant at the supracellular level. Their control of physiological and developmental processes is especially important in trees, where the continuum consists of 3-dimensional systems of: 1) stem cells in cambium, and 2) living parenchyma cells in the secondary conductive tissues. We found that long-distance symplasmic transport in trees is spatially regulated. Uneven distribution of fluorescent tracer in cambial cells along the branches examined illustrates an unknown intrinsic phenomenon that can possibly be important for plant organism integration. Here we illustrate the spatial dynamics of symplasmic transport in cambium, test and exclude the role of callose in its regulation, and discuss the mechanism that could possibly be responsible for the maintenance of this spatial pattern.

  6. [Health risks of long-distance air travel. Role of the general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Bazex, Jacques; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain

    2010-06-01

    Air transport is seeing an increase in long-distance flights (12-16 hours average flight time), greater seating capacity, and a higher proportion of elderly, and hence more fragile, passengers. The French Academy of Medicine recommends that medical care be reinforced, particularly on long-distance flights, through the following measures: (i) passengers should be informed in advance of potential risks, through a Passenger's Guide, (ii) all future passengers should be encouraged to seek health advice and information from their general practitioner, (iii) flight crew members should receive training as "in-flight medical correspondents", and (iv) airlines and plane designers should reserve a "medical space" on the plane, equipped with appropriate medical materials.

  7. Long-distance endosome trafficking drives fungal effector production during plant infection.

    PubMed

    Bielska, Ewa; Higuchi, Yujiro; Schuster, Martin; Steinberg, Natascha; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Talbot, Nicholas J; Steinberg, Gero

    2014-10-06

    To cause plant disease, pathogenic fungi can secrete effector proteins into plant cells to suppress plant immunity and facilitate fungal infection. Most fungal pathogens infect plants using very long strand-like cells, called hyphae, that secrete effectors from their tips into host tissue. How fungi undergo long-distance cell signalling to regulate effector production during infection is not known. Here we show that long-distance retrograde motility of early endosomes (EEs) is necessary to trigger transcription of effector-encoding genes during plant infection by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. We demonstrate that motor-dependent retrograde EE motility is necessary for regulation of effector production and secretion during host cell invasion. We further show that retrograde signalling involves the mitogen-activated kinase Crk1 that travels on EEs and participates in control of effector production. Fungal pathogens therefore undergo long-range signalling to orchestrate host invasion.

  8. Effect of clenbuterol on tracheal mucociliary transport in horses undergoing simulated long-distance transportation.

    PubMed

    Norton, J L; Jackson, K; Chen, J W; Boston, R; Nolen-Walston, R D

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia is observed in horses after long-distance transportation in association with confinement of head position leading to reduction in tracheal mucociliary clearance rate (TMCR). Clenbuterol, a beta-2 agonist shown to increase TMCR in the horse, will ameliorate the effects of a fixed elevated head position on large airway contamination and inflammation in a model of long-distance transportation model. Six adult horses. A cross-over designed prospective study. Horses were maintained with a fixed elevated head position for 48 hours to simulate long-distance transport, and treated with clenbuterol (0.8 μg/kg PO q12h) or a placebo starting 12 hours before simulated transportation. TMCR was measured using a charcoal clearance technique. Data were collected at baseline and 48 hours, and included TMCR, tracheal wash cytology and quantitative culture, rectal temperature, CBC, fibrinogen, and serum TNFα, IL-10, and IL-2 levels. There was a 18-21 day washout between study arms, and data were analyzed using regression analysis and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Tracheal mucociliary clearance rate was significantly decreased after transportation in both treatment (P = .002) and placebo (P = .03) groups. There was a significant effect of treatment on TMCR, with the treatment group showing half the reduction in TMCR compared with the placebo group (P = .002). Other significant differences between before- and after-transportation samples occurred for serum fibrinogen, peripheral eosinophil count, quantitative culture, tracheal bacteria, and degenerate neutrophils, though no treatment effect was found. Treatment with clenbuterol modestly attenuates the deleterious effects of this long-distance transportation model on tracheal mucociliary clearance. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Sexual practices, myths and misconceptions among long distance truck drivers in North India.

    PubMed

    Sawal, N; Hans, G D R; Verma, G

    2016-07-01

    Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers. This was a retrospective study carried out at apex ART centre. Data were collected retrospectively from ART records of 129 long distance Truck drivers and 68 helpers. Details of socio-demographic characteristics, contact with commercial sex workers (CSW'S), pattern of condom usage with CSW'S and factors influencing it were studied. We found that a significant number of drivers and helpers had sexual contact with CSW's and out of these, 30% of drivers and 50% of helpers reported not using condoms and instead resorting to methods like washing genitalia after sex with battery water/urine to avoid getting HIV. There was no significant relationship between pattern of condom usage and educational status, marital status and age. We also found that certain myths like sex with young CSW's was less likely to cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV were also widespread. Owing to continuing prevalence of such sexual myths, long distance truck drivers and helpers do not use condoms while having sex with CSW's as they feel that they can enjoy sex with CSW's and still stay protected against STD's/HIV. It is imperative that this battery water/urine antiseptic myth be specifically targeted for better HIV control in this high risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Assessment of Diarrhea Among Long-Distance Backpackers in the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Derek J; Costantino, Amber; Spano, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem among long-distance backpackers, ranging in overall incidence from 11-56% as reported by previous studies on the Appalachian Trail and Long Trail. Differences in age, sex, and regularity of standard backcountry hygiene recommendations and practices have been shown to significantly affect the incidence of diarrhea. No study to date has investigated these trends among long-distance backpackers on the John Muir Trail (JMT) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. Retrospective analysis of online survey data gathered from long-distance backpackers who attempted a JMT trek in 2014. Data were assessed for the significance of variables that might contribute to the incidence and severity of on-trail diarrhea. Of 737 valid responders, 16.4% reported experiencing diarrhea (82% with minimal/mild severity; 18% with significant severity). Regular hand sanitizer use was significantly correlated with more severe diarrhea (P < .05), but had no effect on incidence. Regular hand sanitizer users followed all other recommended hygiene practices as frequently as or better than those not using hand sanitizer regularly. Of all backpackers, 88% filtered or treated their drinking water regularly, with 18% of those reporting diarrhea of any severity. JMT backpackers have a comparatively lower incidence of diarrhea than backpackers on other major long-distance backpacking routes in the United States. Most JMT backpackers follow standard backcountry hygiene recommendations, including regular filtration or treatment of drinking water. No statistical significance was found between the incidence of diarrhea and compliance with standard hygiene recommendations. Regular hand sanitizer use was significantly correlated with more severe diarrhea but was not associated with incidence. There was no significant difference in compliance with standard backcountry hygiene practices between regular and infrequent hand sanitizer users. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness

  11. Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Two Seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuoyan; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Soong, Keryea

    2016-01-01

    The wide distribution of many seagrasses may be attributable to exploitation of currents. However, many species have seeds heavier than seawater, limiting surface floating, and thus, deep water becomes a potential barrier between suitable habitats. In this investigation, we studied the dispersal potential of various life history stages of two species of seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila ovalis, at Dongsha Atoll and Penghu Islands in Taiwan Strait, west Pacific. The adult plants of both species, often dislodged naturally from substrate by waves, could float, but only that of T. hemprichii could float for months and still remain alive and potentially able to colonize new territories. The seedlings of T. hemprichii could also float for about a month once failing to anchor to substrate of coral sand, but that of H. ovalis could not. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii could both float, but for too short a duration to enable long distance travel; those seeds released from long floating fruits had low germination rates in our tests. Obviously, their seeds are not adaptive for long distance dispersal. Fruits and seeds of H. ovalis do not float. The potential of animals as vectors was tested by feeding fruits and seeds of both species to a goose, a duck, and two fish in the laboratory. The fruits and seeds of T. hemprichii were digested and could no longer germinate; those of H. ovalis could pass through the digestive tracts and have a much higher germination rates than uningested controls. Therefore, birds could be important vectors for long distance dispersal of H. ovalis. The two seagrasses adopted very different dispersal mechanisms for long distance travel, and both exploited traits originally adaptive for other purposes.

  12. Superconducting cables: Long distance energy transmission. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and evaluation of superconducting cables and power transmission lines for long distance energy transmission. Topics include methods of cryogenic refrigeration and electrical insulation, fabrication and development of niobium alloy conductors, energy loss analysis, and dielectric design of superconducting power transmission systems. Government research reports on superconducting technology for electric power transmission and distribution are also reviewed.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Long-distance and frequent movements of the flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Billie J; Catterall, Carla P; Eby, Peggy; Kanowski, John

    2012-01-01

    Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae) are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2-40 weeks (mean 25 weeks). Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted <5 consecutive days, although some individuals remained at one roost for several months. Modal 2-day distances between consecutive roosts were 21-50 km (mean 45 km, range 3-166 km). Of 13 individuals tracked for >12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that should be

  14. Long-Distance and Frequent Movements of the Flying-Fox Pteropus poliocephalus: Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Billie J.; Catterall, Carla P.; Eby, Peggy; Kanowski, John

    2012-01-01

    Flying-foxes (Pteropodidae) are large bats capable of long-distance flight. Many species are threatened; some are considered pests. Effective conservation and management of flying-foxes are constrained by lack of knowledge of their ecology, especially of movement patterns over large spatial scales. Using satellite telemetry, we quantified long-distance movements of the grey-headed flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus among roost sites in eastern Australia. Fourteen adult males were tracked for 2–40 weeks (mean 25 weeks). Collectively, these individuals utilised 77 roost sites in an area spanning 1,075 km by 128 km. Movement patterns varied greatly between individuals, with some travelling long distances. Five individuals travelled cumulative distances >1,000 km over the study period. Five individuals showed net displacements >300 km during one month, including one movement of 500 km within 48 hours. Seasonal movements were consistent with facultative latitudinal migration in part of the population. Flying-foxes shifted roost sites frequently: 64% of roost visits lasted <5 consecutive days, although some individuals remained at one roost for several months. Modal 2-day distances between consecutive roosts were 21–50 km (mean 45 km, range 3–166 km). Of 13 individuals tracked for >12 weeks, 10 moved >100 km in one or more weeks. Median cumulative displacement distances over 1, 10 and 30 weeks were 0 km, 260 km and 821 km, respectively. On average, over increasing time-periods, one additional roost site was visited for each additional 100 km travelled. These findings explain why culling and relocation attempts have had limited success in resolving human-bat conflicts in Australia. Flying-foxes are highly mobile between camps and regularly travel long distances. Consequently, local control actions are likely to have only temporary effects on local flying-fox populations. Developing alternative methods to manage these conflicts remains an important challenge that

  15. Active Morphology Control for Concomitant Long Distance Spin Transport and Photoresponse in a Single Organic Device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Mao, Zupan; Gobbi, Marco; Yan, Wenjing; Guo, Yunlong; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Chuvilin, Andrey; Casanova, Felix; Hueso, Luis E

    2016-04-06

    Long distance spin transport and photoresponse are demonstrated in a single F16 CuPc spin valve. By introducing a low-temperature strategy for controlling the morphology of the organic layer during the fabrication of a molecular spin valve, a large spin-diffusion length up to 180 nm is achieved at room temperature. Magnetoresistive and photoresponsive signals are simultaneously observed even in an air atmosphere. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Addition of long-distance heart procurement promotes changes in heart transplant waiting list status.

    PubMed

    Atik, Fernando Antibas; Couto, Carolina Fatima; Tirado, Freddy Ponce; Moraes, Camila Scatolin; Chaves, Renato Bueno; Vieira, Nubia W; Reis, João Gabbardo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the addition of long-distance heart procurement on a heart transplant program and the status of heart transplant recipients waiting list. Between September 2006 and October 2012, 72 patients were listed as heart transplant recipients. Heart transplant was performed in 41 (57%), death on the waiting list occurred in 26 (36%) and heart recovery occurred in 5 (7%). Initially, all transplants were performed with local donors. Long-distance, interstate heart procurement initiated in February 2011. Thirty (73%) transplants were performed with local donors and 11 (27%) with long-distance donors (mean distance=792 km±397). Patients submitted to interstate heart procurement had greater ischemic times (212 min ± 32 versus 90 min±18; P<0.0001). Primary graft dysfunction (distance 9.1% versus local 26.7%; P=0.23) and 1 month and 12 months actuarial survival (distance 90.1% and 90.1% versus local 90% and 86.2%; P=0.65 log rank) were similar among groups. There were marked incremental transplant center volume (64.4% versus 40.7%, P=0.05) with a tendency on less waiting list times (median 1.5 month versus 2.4 months, P=0.18). There was a tendency on reduced waiting list mortality (28.9% versus 48.2%, P=0.09). Incorporation of long-distance heart procurement, despite being associated with longer ischemic times, does not increase morbidity and mortality rates after heart transplant. It enhances viable donor pool, and it may reduce waiting list recipient mortality as well as waiting time.

  17. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  18. Vibrational long-distance communication in the termites Macrotermes natalensis and Odontotermes sp.

    PubMed

    Hager, Felix A; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2013-09-01

    Fungus-growing higher termites build long subterranean galleries that lead outwards from the nest to foraging sites. When soldiers are disturbed, they tend to drum with their heads against the substrate and thereby create vibrational alarm signals. The present study aimed at describing these acoustic signals, how they are elicited, produced and perceived, and how these signals propagate within the galleries and nests over long distances in two termite species of the Southern African savannah, Macrotermes natalensis and an Odontotermes sp. The signals consist of trains of pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 10-20 Hz. The galleries have physical features that promote vibrational communication and are used as channels for long-distance communication. In M. natalensis, the signal propagation velocity is ~130 m s(-1) and the signals are attenuated by ~0.4 dB per centimetre distance. Nestmates are extremely sensitive to these vibrations with a behavioural threshold amplitude of 0.012 m s(-2). Workers respond by a fast retreat into the nest and soldiers are recruited to the source of vibration. Soldiers also start to drum with a reaction time of about 0.3 s, thereby amplifying the intensity of the signal. This social long-distance communication through chains of signal-reamplifying termites results in a relatively slow propagation (1.3 m s(-1)) of the signal without decrement over distances of several metres.

  19. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner.

  20. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Venuti, L.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2007-11-15

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supports 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures.

  1. Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin

    2016-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Antoine; Ronce, Ophélie; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; Guillaume, Frédéric; Bohrer, Gil; Nathan, Ran; Bridle, Jon R; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Klein, Etienne K; Ritland, Kermit; Kuparinen, Anna; Gerber, Sophie; Schueler, Silvio

    2012-04-01

    Forest trees are the dominant species in many parts of the world and predicting how they might respond to climate change is a vital global concern. Trees are capable of long-distance gene flow, which can promote adaptive evolution in novel environments by increasing genetic variation for fitness. It is unclear, however, if this can compensate for maladaptive effects of gene flow and for the long-generation times of trees. We critically review data on the extent of long-distance gene flow and summarise theory that allows us to predict evolutionary responses of trees to climate change. Estimates of long-distance gene flow based both on direct observations and on genetic methods provide evidence that genes can move over spatial scales larger than habitat shifts predicted under climate change within one generation. Both theoretical and empirical data suggest that the positive effects of gene flow on adaptation may dominate in many instances. The balance of positive to negative consequences of gene flow may, however, differ for leading edge, core and rear sections of forest distributions. We propose future experimental and theoretical research that would better integrate dispersal biology with evolutionary quantitative genetics and improve predictions of tree responses to climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  4. Long-distance impact of Iceland plume on Norway's rifted margin.

    PubMed

    Koptev, Alexander; Cloetingh, Sierd; Burov, Evgueni; François, Thomas; Gerya, Taras

    2017-09-04

    Results of a 3D modeling study inspired by recent seismic tomography of the Northern Atlantic mantle suggest that a complex pattern of hot mantle distribution with long horizontal flows originating from the Iceland mantle plume has been the norm in the geological past. In the Northern Atlantic the Iceland plume has a strong long-distance impact on intraplate deformation affecting both onshore and offshore parts of Norway's rifted margin. As a result, this margin is characterized by large magnitude differential topography sustained over at least several tens of Myr. Here we use high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical modeling to demonstrate that the long-distance plume impact can be explained by its fast lateral propagation controlled by pre-existing lithosphere structures. Numerical models show that these structures strongly affect the style of horizontal flow of plume head material. This results in long-distance propagation of hot material emplaced at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary causing long-wavelength anomalies in onshore topography of Norway's rifted margin. Short-wavelength offshore topographic domes are likely caused by joint occurrence of plume-related thermal perturbations and gravitational forces related to plate thickening (ridge push). Our 3D modeling brings together plume impingement, spreading ridge dynamics, and the formation of anomalous intraplate structures offshore Norway in one scenario.

  5. Moving Large Data Sets Over High-Performance Long Distance Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Stephen W; Poole, Stephen W; Ruwart, Thomas; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2011-04-01

    In this project we look at the performance characteristics of three tools used to move large data sets over dedicated long distance networking infrastructure. Although performance studies of wide area networks have been a frequent topic of interest, performance analyses have tended to focus on network latency characteristics and peak throughput using network traffic generators. In this study we instead perform an end-to-end long distance networking analysis that includes reading large data sets from a source file system and committing large data sets to a destination file system. An evaluation of end-to-end data movement is also an evaluation of the system configurations employed and the tools used to move the data. For this paper, we have built several storage platforms and connected them with a high performance long distance network configuration. We use these systems to analyze the capabilities of three data movement tools: BBcp, GridFTP, and XDD. Our studies demonstrate that existing data movement tools do not provide efficient performance levels or exercise the storage devices in their highest performance modes. We describe the device information required to achieve high levels of I/O performance and discuss how this data is applicable in use cases beyond data movement performance.

  6. Long-distance ABA transport can mediate distal tissue responses by affecting local ABA concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenrao; de Ollas, Carlos; Dodd, Ian C

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses that perturb plant water relations influence abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, but it is unclear whether long-distance ABA transport contributes to changes in local ABA levels. To determine the physiological relevance of ABA transport, we made reciprocal- and self-grafts of ABA-deficient flacca mutant and wild-type (WT) tomato plants, in which low phosphorus (P) conditions decreased ABA concentrations while salinity increased ABA concentrations. Whereas foliar ABA concentrations in the WT scions were rootstock independent under conditions, salinity resulted in long-distance transport of ABA: flacca scions had approximately twice as much ABA when grafted on WT rootstocks compared to flacca rootstocks. Root ABA concentrations were scion dependent: both WT and flacca rootstocks had less ABA with the flacca mutant scion than with the WT scion under conditions. In WT scions, whereas rootstock genotype had limited effects on stomatal conductance under conditions, a flacca rootstock decreased leaf area of stressed plants, presumably due to attenuated root-to-shoot ABA transport. In flacca scions, a WT rootstock decreased stomatal conductance but increased leaf area of stressed plants, likely due to enhanced root-to-shoot ABA transport. Thus, long-distance ABA transport can affect responses in distal tissues by changing local ABA concentrations. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Efficient utilization of wind power: Long-distance transmission or local consumption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanzhang; Ma, Xiyuan; Xu, Jian; Bao, Yi; Liao, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    Excess wind power produced in wind-intensive areas is normally delivered to remote load centers via long-distance transmission lines. This paper presents a comparison between long-distance transmission, which has gained popularity, and local energy consumption, in which a fraction of the generated wind power can be locally consumed by energy-intensive industries. First, the challenges and solutions to the long-distance transmission and local consumption of wind power are presented. Then, the two approaches to the utilization of wind power are compared in terms of system security, reliability, cost, and capability to utilize wind energy. Finally, the economic feasibility and technical feasibility of the local consumption of wind power are demonstrated by a large and isolated industrial power system, or supermicrogrid, in China. The coal-fired generators together with the short-term interruptible electrolytic aluminum load in the supermicrogrid are able to compensate for the intermittency of wind power. In the long term, the transfer of high-energy-consumption industries to wind-rich areas and their local consumption of the available wind power are beneficial.

  8. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Both, Christiaan; Visser, Marcel E.

    2001-05-01

    Spring temperatures in temperate regions have increased over the past 20years, and many organisms have responded to this increase by advancing the date of their growth and reproduction. Here we show that adaptation to climate change in a long-distance migrant is constrained by the timing of its migratory journey. For long-distance migrants climate change may advance the phenology of their breeding areas, but the timing of some species' spring migration relies on endogenous rhythms that are not affected by climate change. Thus, the spring migration of these species will not advance even though they need to arrive earlier on their breeding grounds to breed at the appropriate time. We show that the migratory pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca has advanced its laying date over the past 20years. This temporal shift has been insufficient, however, as indicated by increased selection for earlier breeding over the same period. The shift is hampered by its spring arrival date, which has not advanced. Some of the numerous long-distance migrants will suffer from climate change, because either their migration strategy is unaffected by climate change, or the climate in breeding and wintering areas are changing at different speeds, preventing adequate adaptation.

  9. Processing classifier-noun agreement in a long distance: an ERP study on Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Shu-Hua; Yang, Chin-Lung; Chen, Jenn-Yeu

    2014-10-01

    The classifier system categorizes nouns on a semantic basis. By inserting an object-gap relative clause (RC) between a classifier and its associate noun, we examined how temporary classifier-noun semantic incongruity and long-distance classifier-noun dependency are processed. Instead of a typical N400 effect, a midline anterior negativity was elicited by the temporary semantic incongruity, suggesting that the anticipation of coming words influences semantic processing and that metacognitive processes are involved in resolving the conflict. The lack of reduced P600 effects at the RC marker suggests that classifier-noun mismatch may not be effective in RC prediction. The N400 observed at the head noun suggests that the parser retains the temporary incongruity in the memory and computes the classifier-noun semantic agreement over a long distance. In addition, both successful and unsuccessful long-distance integration elicited P600 effects, supporting the view that P600 indexes more than just syntactic processing. Detailed discussion and implications are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Antoine; Ronce, Ophélie; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; Guillaume, Frédéric; Bohrer, Gil; Nathan, Ran; Bridle, Jon R; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Klein, Etienne K; Ritland, Kermit; Kuparinen, Anna; Gerber, Sophie; Schueler, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Forest trees are the dominant species in many parts of the world and predicting how they might respond to climate change is a vital global concern. Trees are capable of long-distance gene flow, which can promote adaptive evolution in novel environments by increasing genetic variation for fitness. It is unclear, however, if this can compensate for maladaptive effects of gene flow and for the long-generation times of trees. We critically review data on the extent of long-distance gene flow and summarise theory that allows us to predict evolutionary responses of trees to climate change. Estimates of long-distance gene flow based both on direct observations and on genetic methods provide evidence that genes can move over spatial scales larger than habitat shifts predicted under climate change within one generation. Both theoretical and empirical data suggest that the positive effects of gene flow on adaptation may dominate in many instances. The balance of positive to negative consequences of gene flow may, however, differ for leading edge, core and rear sections of forest distributions. We propose future experimental and theoretical research that would better integrate dispersal biology with evolutionary quantitative genetics and improve predictions of tree responses to climate change. PMID:22372546

  11. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Campos Venuti, L.; Giampaolo, S. M.; CNR-INFM Coherentia, Napoli

    2007-11-15

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supportsmore » 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures.« less

  12. Long-distance dispersal of plants by vehicles as a driver of plant invasions.

    PubMed

    von der Lippe, Moritz; Kowarik, Ingo

    2007-08-01

    Roadsides are preferential migration corridors for invasive plant species and can act as starting points for plant invasions into adjacent habitats. Rapid spread and interrupted distribution patterns of introduced plant species indicate long-distance dispersal along roads. The extent to which this process is due to species' migration along linear habitats or, alternatively, to seed transport by vehicles has not yet been tested systematically. We tested this by sampling seeds inside long motorway tunnels to exclude nontraffic dispersal. Vehicles transported large amounts of seeds. The annual seed rain caused by vehicles on the roadsides of five different tunnel lanes within three tunnels along a single urban motorway in Berlin, Germany, ranged from 635 to 1579 seeds/m(2)/year. Seeds of non-native species accounted for 50.0% of the 204 species and 54.4% of the total 11,818 seeds trapped inside the tunnels. Among the samples were 39 (19.1%) highly invasive species that exhibit detrimental effects on native biodiversity in some parts of the world. By comparing the flora in the tunnel with that adjacent to the tunnel entrances we confirmed long-distance dispersal events (>250 m) for 32.3% of the sampled species. Seed sources in a radius of 100 m around the entrances of the tunnels had no significant effect on species richness and species composition of seed samples from inside the tunnels, indicating a strong effect of long-distance dispersal by vehicles. Consistently, the species composition of the tunnel seeds was more similar to the regional roadside flora of Berlin than to the local flora around the tunnel entrances. Long-distance dispersal occurred significantly more frequently in seeds of non-native (mean share 38.5%) than native species (mean share 4.1%). Our results showed that long-distance dispersal by vehicles was a routine rather than an occasional mechanism. Dispersal of plants by vehicles will thus accelerate plant invasions and induce rapid changes in

  13. Do women with smaller breasts perform better in long-distance running?

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Scurr, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Literature has established that a range of physiological, biomechanical, and training variables influence marathon performance. The influence of anthropometric characteristics has also received attention. However, despite major marathons exceeding 40,000 participants and approximately a third of these runners being female, no data exist on the influence of the breast on running performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the impact of breast mass on marathon finish time. One hundred and sixty-eight of 321 female marathon runners contacted completed an on-line survey focusing on marathon performance during the 2012 London marathon. Participants were categorised as smaller (<500 g, 54%) or larger breasted (>500 g, 46%). Regression analysis identified that 24% of marathon performance variance could be explained by body mass index (BMI), but breast mass improved the model to explain 28% of performance variation. The model determined that for women with 32/34 or 36/38 underband each increase in cup size equates to a performance decrement of 4.6 min or 8.6 min, equivalent to 34.4 min difference between a woman with 36A compared to 36DD breast size. Larger breasted runners had greater BMIs, completed less marathons and had slower marathon finish times (316 ± 48 min) compared to smaller breasted runners (281 ± 51 min). Twenty-five per cent less larger breasted women finished in the fastest quartile. These results suggest that differences in breast mass are an important factor for female athletes and should be considered in future research in this area.

  14. Recreation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the designs of the Williams Center and DLK/Kachel Fieldhouse athletic and recreational facility and the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, and the Student Recreation Center at the University of Montana in Missoula. (EV)

  15. Perspectives on Long-Distance Air Travel with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Jordan E; Schoenberg, Benjamen E; Garey, Colleen; Runion, Asher; Larez, Arianna; Kerr, David

    2017-12-01

    We sought to determine the real-life experiences of individuals traveling long distance (across five or more time-zones) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Five hundred three members of the T1D Exchange online community ( www.myglu.org ) completed a 45-question survey about their travel experiences flying long distance. The cohort was stratified by duration of T1D and whether or not participants used continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and/or a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). In the last 5 years, 71% of participants had flown long distance. When asked about their perceived "fear of flying," CSII users (with and without a CGM) reported their primary anxiety was "losing supplies," while non-CSII users described concerns over "unstable blood glucose (highs and lows)" (P < 0.05). In addition, 74% of participants reported more hypoglycemia and/or hyperglycemia while traveling overseas and 9% had avoided international travel altogether because of problems related to diabetes management. Furthermore, 22% of participants had run out of insulin at some point during a trip and 37% reported inadequate attention in current sources of information to the unpredictability of self-management needs while traveling. Especially problematic for individuals traveling with T1D are a lack of resources adequately addressing (1) protocols for emergencies while abroad, (2) how to navigate airport security, and (3) managing basal insulin rates when crossing time zones. A strong need exists for easily accessible, free resources for traveling with T1D that is tailored to both device use and duration of the disease.

  16. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A one-way quantum amplifier for long-distance quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elemy, Hany

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a model for single photon amplification based on cluster-state quantum computation is proposed. A rescaling of the probability amplitudes of a deteriorated qubit in favor of the one-photon component will define the amplifier's gain. Unlike the heralded quantum amplifiers, the probabilistic success of the whole process will not depend on the successful detection of a heralding signal. Instead, the whole procedure will rely upon a single-qubit measurement, which is simpler compared to any two-qubit interaction gate in the heralded quantum amplifiers. The proposed model can be used as a qubit protector against propagation losses in long-distance quantum communication networks.

  18. Long-distance electronic energy transfer in light-harvesting supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Winiger, Christian B; Li, Shaoguang; Kumar, Ganesh R; Langenegger, Simon M; Häner, Robert

    2014-12-01

    The efficient collection of solar energy relies on the design and construction of well-organized light-harvesting systems. Herein we report that supramolecular phenanthrene polymers doped with pyrene are effective collectors of light energy. The linear polymers are formed through the assembly of short amphiphilic oligomers in water. Absorption of light by phenanthrene residues is followed by electronic energy transfer along the polymer over long distances (>100 nm) to the accepting pyrene molecules. The high efficiency of the energy transfer, which is documented by large fluorescence quantum yields, suggests a quantum coherent process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Study on Resources Assessment of Coal Seams covered by Long-Distance Oil & Gas Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Wei; Hou, Hanfang

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of mineral resources covered by construction projects plays an important role in reducing the overlaying of important mineral resources and ensuring the smooth implementation of construction projects. To take a planned long-distance gas pipeline as an example, the assessment method and principles for coal resources covered by linear projects are introduced. The areas covered by multiple coal seams are determined according to the linear projection method, and the resources covered by pipelines directly and indirectly are estimated by using area segmentation method on the basis of original blocks. The research results can provide references for route optimization of projects and compensation for mining right..

  20. Long-distance quantum information transfer with strong coupling hybrid solid system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Yang; Chen, Xin-Yu; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how information can be transferred among the long-distance memory units in a hybrid solid architecture, which consists the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) ensemble acting as the memory unit, the LC circuit acting as the transmitter (receiver), and the flux qubit acting as the interface. Numerical simulation demonstrates that the high-fidelity quantum information transfer between memory unit and transmitter (receiver) can be implemented, and this process is robust to both the LC circuit decay and NV ensemble spontaneous emission. PMID:26585779

  1. Long-distance quantum information transfer with strong coupling hybrid solid system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Yang; Chen, Xin-Yu; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan

    2015-11-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate how information can be transferred among the long-distance memory units in a hybrid solid architecture, which consists the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) ensemble acting as the memory unit, the LC circuit acting as the transmitter (receiver), and the flux qubit acting as the interface. Numerical simulation demonstrates that the high-fidelity quantum information transfer between memory unit and transmitter (receiver) can be implemented, and this process is robust to both the LC circuit decay and NV ensemble spontaneous emission.

  2. Long distance Φ-OTDR system based on Raman and EDFA synthetic amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaozhong; Yu, Yuan; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Guohui

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive using of Raman amplifier and bi-directional Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), a long distance (72.3 km) Φ-OTDR system is demonstrated. In this system, a LD laser ( 500mw) with wavelength from 1420 nm to 1470 nm is used as both EDFA pump power and Raman pump power. Meanwhile, difference value of upper-envelope and lower-envelope of Rayleigh scattering trace is calculated to test the sensitivity of the system, the intrusion with SNR of 3.99 dB、8.59 dB at two test points of sensing fiber is extracted.

  3. On a model of spatial spread of epidemics with long-distance travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyuss, Konstantin B.

    2005-09-01

    This Letter studies the dynamics of infectious diseases which are spread geographically through long-distance travel between two regions and subsequent local redistribution through a process of diffusion. A particular case of an equiproportionate travel is considered, and the model describes migration rather than short visits. We examine uniform and nonuniform steady states together with their linear stability. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the evolution of initial distribution of population towards its final stage, which is represented by uniform distribution of the total population among infected individuals.

  4. Fast long-distance control of spin qubits by photon-assisted cotunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Braakman, Floris R.; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.; Loss, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the long-distance coupling and spin exchange in an array of quantum dot spin qubits in the presence of microwaves. We find that photon-assisted cotunneling is boosted at resonances between photon and energies of virtually occupied excited states and show how to make it spin selective. We identify configurations that enable fast switching and spin echo sequences for efficient and nonlocal manipulation of spin qubits. We devise configurations in which the near-resonantly boosted cotunneling provides nonlocal coupling which, up to certain limit, does not diminish with distance between the manipulated dots before it decays weakly with inverse distance.

  5. Cable Bacteria Take a New Breath Using Long-Distance Electricity.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Filip J R

    2017-11-21

    Recently, a new group of multicellular microorganisms was discovered, called 'cable bacteria', which are capable of generating and mediating electrical currents across centimetre-scale distances. By transporting electrons from cell to cell, cable bacteria can harvest electron donors and electron acceptors that are widely separated in space, thus providing them with a competitive advantage for survival in aquatic sediments. The underlying process of long-distance electron transport challenges some long-held ideas about the energy metabolism of multicellular organisms and entails a whole new type of electrical cooperation between cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these intriguing multicellular bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterosis May Result in Selection Favouring the Products of Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, João; Potts, Brad M.; Lopez, Gustavo A.

    2014-01-01

    Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP) with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N) outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S) indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N) was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the products of

  7. Lower limb dynamics vary in shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Powers, Christopher M; Salem, George J

    2016-01-25

    Relative to traditional shod rear-foot strike (RFS) running, habituated barefoot running is associated with a forefoot-strike (FFS) and lower loading rates. Accordingly, barefoot running has been purported to reduce lower-extremity injury risk. Investigations, however, indicate that novice barefoot runners may not innately adopt a FFS. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine lower-extremity dynamics of habitually shod runners who acutely transition to barefoot running. 22 recreational RFS runners were included in this investigation. This laboratory controlled study consisted of two visits one-week apart, examining habitually shod, then novice barefoot running. Foot-strike patterns and loading rates were determined using motion analysis and force plates, and joint energy absorption was calculated using inverse dynamics. Of the 22 runners, 8 maintained a RFS, 9 adopted a MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. All runners demonstrated a reduction in knee energy absorption when running barefoot; MFS and FFS runners also demonstrated a significant increase in ankle energy absorption. Runners who maintained a RFS presented with loading rates significantly higher than traditional shoe running, whereas FFS runners demonstrated a significant reduction in loading rate. Mid-foot strikers did not demonstrate a significant change in loading rate. These results indicate that habitually shod RFS runners demonstrate a variety of foot-strike and lower-extremity dynamic responses during the acute transition to barefoot running. Accordingly, explicit instruction regarding foot-strike patterns may be necessary if transitioning to barefoot. Long-term prospective studies are required in order to determine the influence of FFS barefoot running on injury rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of long-distance transportation on serum metabolic profiles of steer calves.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Satoshi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-12-01

    Long-distance transportation is sometimes inevitable in the beef industry because of the geographic separation of major breeding and fattening areas. Long-distance transportation negatively impacts production and health of cattle, which may, at least partly, result from the disturbance of metabolism during and after transportation. However, alteration of metabolism remains elusive in transported cattle. We investigated the effects of transportation on the metabolomic profiles of Holstein steer calves. Non-targeted analysis of serum concentrations of low molecular weight metabolites was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Transportation affected 38 metabolites in the serum. A pathway analysis suggested that 26, 10, and 10 pathways were affected immediately after transportation, and 3 and 7 days after transportation, respectively. Some pathways were disturbed only immediately after transportation, likely because of feed and water withdrawal during transit. Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, and citric acid cycle were affected for 3 days after transportation, whereas propionate metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism were affected throughout the experiment. Four pathways were not affected immediately after transportation, but were altered thereafter. These results suggested that many metabolic pathways had marked perturbations during transportation. Metabolites such as citric acid, propionate, tyrosine and niacin can be candidate supplements for mitigating transportation-induced adverse effects. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Iron-Nicotianamine Transporters Are Required for Proper Long Distance Iron Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh K.; Abundis, Celina; Vasques, Kenneth; Rodriguez, David Chan

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of root iron uptake and the transcriptional networks that control root-level regulation of iron uptake have been well studied, but the mechanisms by which shoots signal iron status to the roots remain opaque. Here, we characterize an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double mutant, yellow stripe1-like yellow stripe3-like (ysl1ysl3), which has lost the ability to properly regulate iron deficiency-influenced gene expression in both roots and shoots. In spite of markedly low tissue levels of iron, the double mutant does not up- and down-regulate iron deficiency-induced and -repressed genes. We have used grafting experiments to show that wild-type roots grafted to ysl1ysl3 shoots do not initiate iron deficiency-induced gene expression, indicating that the ysl1ysl3 shoots fail to send an appropriate long-distance signal of shoot iron status to the roots. We present a model to explain how impaired iron localization in leaf veins results in incorrect signals of iron sufficiency being sent to roots and affecting gene expression there. Improved understanding of the mechanism of long-distance iron signaling will allow improved strategies for the engineering of staple crops to accumulate additional bioavailable iron in edible parts, thus improving the iron nutrition of the billions of people worldwide whose inadequate diet causes iron deficiency anemia. PMID:28894019

  10. A Grounded Theory of Students' Long-Distance Coping With a Family Member's Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basinger, Erin D; Wehrman, Erin C; Delaney, Amy L; McAninch, Kelly G

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explore how family members cope with one source of stress-cancer diagnosis and treatment. We suggest that coping away from one's family is characterized by constraints that are not common to proximal coping. We conducted six focus groups with college students (N = 21) at a university in the United States to investigate their long-distance coping experiences and used grounded theory methods to develop a model of college students' long-distance coping. Negotiating the tension between being here (at school) and being there (at home) was central to their experiences. Participants described four manifestations of their negotiation between here and there (i.e., expressing/hiding emotion, longing to care for the patient there/avoiding responsibility here, feeling shock at degeneration there/escaping degeneration by being here, and lacking information from there) and three strategies they used to cope (i.e., being here and withdrawing, being here and doing school, and seeking/not seeking support). © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S.; Pendergast, Thomas H.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337–552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700–2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants. PMID:21429923

  12. Capability of long distance 100  GHz FMCW using a single GDD lamp sensor.

    PubMed

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Aharon Akram, Avihai; Kopeika, Natan S; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-12-20

    Millimeter wave (MMW)-based imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, homeland security, concealed weapon detection, and space technology. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging sensors makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. A 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the 2D image. New experiments show the capability of long distance FMCW detection by using a large scale Cassegrain projection system, described first (to our knowledge) in this paper. The system presents the capability to employ a long distance of at least 20 m with a low-cost plasma-based glow discharge detector (GDD) focal plane array (FPA). Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable relatively inexpensive 3D MMW imaging.

  13. Long-distance aerial dispersal modelling of Culicoides biting midges: case studies of incursions into Australia.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Debbie; Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Bellis, Glenn; Zalucki, Myron P; Walker, Peter J; Durr, Peter A

    2014-06-19

    Previous studies investigating long-distance, wind-borne dispersal of Culicoides have utilised outbreaks of clinical disease (passive surveillance) to assess the relationship between incursion and dispersal event. In this study, species of exotic Culicoides and isolates of novel bluetongue viruses, collected as part of an active arbovirus surveillance program, were used for the first time to assess dispersal into an endemic region. A plausible dispersal event was determined for five of the six cases examined. These include exotic Culicoides specimens for which a possible dispersal event was identified within the range of two days--three weeks prior to their collection and novel bluetongue viruses for which a dispersal event was identified between one week and two months prior to their detection in cattle. The source location varied, but ranged from Lombok, in eastern Indonesia, to Timor-Leste and southern Papua New Guinea. Where bluetongue virus is endemic, the concurrent use of an atmospheric dispersal model alongside existing arbovirus and Culicoides surveillance may help guide the strategic use of limited surveillance resources as well as contribute to continued model validation and refinement. Further, the value of active surveillance systems in evaluating models for long-distance dispersal is highlighted, particularly in endemic regions where knowledge of background virus and vector status is beneficial.

  14. SHD digital cinema distribution over a long distance network of Internet2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Shirai, Daisuke; Fujii, Tatsuya; Nomura, Mitsuru; Fujii, Tetsuro; Ono, Sadayasu

    2003-06-01

    We have developed a prototype SHD (Super High Definition) digital cinema distribution system that can store, transmit and display eight-million-pixel motion pictures that have the image quality of a 35-mm film movie. The system contains a video server, a real-time decoder, and a D-ILA projector. Using a gigabit Ethernet link and TCP/IP, the server transmits JPEG2000 compressed motion picture data streams to the decoder at transmission speeds as high as 300 Mbps. The received data streams are decompressed by the decoder, and then projected onto a screen via the projector. With this system, digital cinema contents can be distributed over a wide-area optical gigabit IP network. However, when digital cinema contents are delivered over long distances by using a gigabit IP network and TCP, the round-trip time increases and network throughput either stops rising or diminishes. In a long-distance SHD digital cinema transmission experiment performed on the Internet2 network in October 2002, we adopted enlargement of the TCP window, multiple TCP connections, and shaping function to control the data transmission quantity. As a result, we succeeded in transmitting the SHD digital cinema content data at about 300 Mbps between Chicago and Los Angeles, a distance of more than 3000 km.

  15. Long-distance dispersal to oceanic islands: success of plants with multiple diaspore specializations

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Pablo; Arjona, Yurena; Nogales, Manuel; Heleno, Ruben H.

    2015-01-01

    A great number of scientific papers claim that angiosperm diversification is manifested by an ample differentiation of diaspore traits favouring long-distance seed dispersal. Oceanic islands offer an ideal framework to test whether the acquisition of multiple sets of diaspore traits (syndromes) by a single species results in a wider geographic distribution. To this end, we performed floristic and syndrome analyses and found that diplochorous species (two syndromes) are overrepresented in the recipient flora of the Azores in contrast to that of mainland Europe, but not to mainland Portugal. An additional analysis of inter-island colonization showed a general trend of a higher number of islands colonized by species with a single syndrome (monochorous) and two syndromes than species with no syndrome (unspecialized). Nevertheless, statistical significance for differences in colonization is meagre in some cases, partially due to the low proportion of diplochorous species in Europe (244 of ∼10 000 species), mainland Portugal (89 of 2294 species), and the Azores (9 of 148 species), Canaries (17 of 387 lowland species) and Galápagos (18 of 313 lowland species). Contrary to expectations, this first study shows only a very marginal advantage for long-distance dispersal of species bearing multiple syndromes. PMID:26174146

  16. Confession-building, long-distance networks, and the organization of Jesuit science.

    PubMed

    Harris, S J

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Society of Jesus to engage in a broad and enduring tradition of scientific activity is here addressed in terms of its programmatic commitment to the consolidation and extension of the Catholic confession (i.e., to a multipronged program of confession-building) and its mastery of the administrative apparatus necessary to operate long-distance networks. The Society's early move into two major apostolates, one in education and the other in the overseas missions, brought Jesuits into regular contact with the educated elites of Europe and at the same time placed the society's missionaries in remote parts of the natural world. The modes of organization of travel and communication required by the Society's long-distance networks (i.e., the training and deployment of reliable agents willing to work under direction in remote locations and capable of providing trustworthy reports and observations to their superiors through regular exchange of correspondence) not only facilitated scientific communication and collaboration within the order, it also provided Jesuits with the resources they needed to engage successfully in 'ministries among the learned'. Evidence of a sustained attempt by Jesuit authors to assume the role of Kulturträger is found in the several genres of scientific publications that dominate the society's scientific corpus. Thus the society's early recognition of the "apostolic value" of scientific publications in recruiting friends and allies among Europe's intellectual elites, I argue, allowed a robust interest in natural knowledge to emerge as a legitimate part of the Jesuit vocation.

  17. Seasonal Food Scarcity Prompts Long-Distance Foraging by a Wild Social Bee.

    PubMed

    Pope, Nathaniel S; Jha, Shalene

    2018-01-01

    Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons. By mapping the locations of 669 wild-caught individual foragers, we find substantial variation in colony-level foraging distances, often exhibiting a 60-fold difference within a study region. Our analysis of visitation rates indicates that foragers display a preference for destination patches with high floral cover and forage significantly farther for these patches, but only in the summer, when landscape-level resources are low. Overall, these results indicate that an increasing proportion of long-distance foraging bouts take place in the summer. Because wild bees are pollinators, their foraging dynamics are of urgent concern, given the potential impacts of global change on their movement and services. The behavioral shift toward long-distance foraging with seasonal declines in food resources suggests a novel, phenologically directed approach to landscape-level pollinator conservation and greater consideration of late-season floral resources in pollinator habitat management.

  18. Analysis of long distance wakes behind a row of turbines - a parameter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2014-06-01

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the long distance wake behind a row of 10 turbines are conducted to predict wake recovery. The Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys3D is used in combination with the actuator disc concept. Neutral atmospheric conditions are assumed in combination with synthetic turbulence using the Mann method. Both the wind shear profile and turbulence are introduced into the flow field using body forces. Previous simulations using the same simulation method to model the Horns Rev wind farm showed a higher wake recovery at long distances compared to measurements. The current study investigates further the sensitivity to parameters such as the grid resolution, Reynolds number, the turbulence characteristics as well as the impact of using different internal turbine spacings. The clearest impact on the recovery behind the farm could be seen from the turbulence intensity of the incoming flow. The impact of the wind shear on the turbulence intensity in the domain needs further studies. A lower turbulence level gives slower wake recovery as expected. A slower wake recovery can also be seen for a higher grid resolution. The Reynolds number, apart from when using a very low value, has a small impact on the result. The variation of the internal spacing is seen to have a relatively minor impact on the farm wake recovery.

  19. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  20. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, G.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Yi, W. S.; Zhao, Z.; Nie, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system.

  1. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S; Pendergast, Thomas H; Flecker, Alexander S

    2011-11-22

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, little is known about seed dispersal effectiveness of fishes. Extensive mobility of frugivorous fish could result in extremely effective, multi-directional, long-distance seed dispersal. Over three annual flood seasons, we tracked fine-scale movement patterns and habitat use of wild Colossoma, and seed retention in the digestive tracts of captive individuals. Our mechanistic model predicts that Colossoma disperses seeds extremely long distances to favourable habitats. Modelled mean dispersal distances of 337-552 m and maximum of 5495 m are among the longest ever reported. At least 5 per cent of seeds are predicted to disperse 1700-2110 m, farther than dispersal by almost all other frugivores reported in the literature. Additionally, seed dispersal distances increased with fish size, but overfishing has biased Colossoma populations to smaller individuals. Thus, overexploitation probably disrupts an ancient coevolutionary relationship between Colossoma and Amazonian plants.

  2. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory bird, the Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus, by tracking individuals from different breeding populations throughout northern Europe. We identified three main migration routes towards wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Wintering areas and migration routes of different breeding populations overlapped, a pattern best described by ‘weak (diffuse) connectivity’. Migratory performance, i.e. timing, duration, distance and speed of migration, was surprisingly similar for the three routes despite differences in habitat characteristics. This study provides, to our knowledge, a first comprehensive overview of the migration system of a Palaearctic-African long-distance migrant. We emphasize the importance of spatial scale (e.g. distances between breeding populations) in defining patterns of connectivity and suggest that knowledge about fundamental aspects determining distribution patterns, such as the among-individual variation in mean migration directions, is required to ultimately understand migratory connectivity. Furthermore, we stress that for conservation purposes it is pivotal to consider wintering areas as well as migration routes and in particular stopover sites. PMID:24430850

  3. The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shuai; Merlin, Christine; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Reppert, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16, 866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals: a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. PMID:22118469

  4. The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shuai; Merlin, Christine; Boore, Jeffrey L; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-11-23

    We present the draft 273 Mb genome of the migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and a set of 16,866 protein-coding genes. Orthology properties suggest that the Lepidoptera are the fastest evolving insect order yet examined. Compared to the silkmoth Bombyx mori, the monarch genome shares prominent similarity in orthology content, microsynteny, and protein family sizes. The monarch genome reveals a vertebrate-like opsin whose existence in insects is widespread; a full repertoire of molecular components for the monarch circadian clockwork; all members of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway whose regulation shows unexpected sexual dimorphism; additional molecular signatures of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant of the sodium/potassium pump that underlies a valuable chemical defense mechanism. The monarch genome enhances our ability to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of long-distance migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Viterbi equalization for long-distance, high-speed underwater laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Siqi; Mi, Le; Zhou, Tianhua; Chen, Weibiao

    2017-07-01

    In long-distance, high-speed underwater laser communication, because of the strong absorption and scattering processes, the laser pulse is stretched with the increase in communication distance and the decrease in water clarity. The maximum communication bandwidth is limited by laser-pulse stretching. Improving the communication rate increases the intersymbol interference (ISI). To reduce the effect of ISI, the Viterbi equalization (VE) algorithm is used to estimate the maximum-likelihood receiving sequence. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the stretching of the received laser pulse and the maximum communication rate at a wavelength of 532 nm in Jerlov IB and Jerlov II water channels with communication distances of 80, 100, and 130 m, respectively. The high-data rate communication performance for the VE and hard-decision algorithms is compared. The simulation results show that the VE algorithm can be used to reduce the ISI by selecting the minimum error path. The trade-off between the high-data rate communication performance and minor bit-error rate performance loss makes VE a promising option for applications in long-distance, high-speed underwater laser communication systems.

  6. Long-Distance Charge Carrier Funneling in Perovskite Nanowires Enabled by Built-in Halide Gradient.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenming; Leng, Jing; Zhao, Chunyi; Jin, Shengye

    2017-01-18

    The excellent charge carrier transportation in organolead halide perovskites is one major contributor to the high performance of many perovskite-based devices. There still exists a possibility for further enhancement of carrier transportation through nanoscale engineering, owing to the versatile wet-chemistry synthesis and processing of perovskites. Here we report the successful synthesis of bromide-gradient CH3NH3PbBrxI3-x single-crystalline nanowires (NWs) by a solid-to-solid ion exchange reaction starting from one end of pure CH3NH3PbI3 NWs, which was confirmed by local photoluminescence (PL) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements. Due to the built-in halide gradient, the long-distance carrier transportation was driven by the energy funnel, rather than the spontaneous carrier diffusion. Indeed, local PL kinetics demonstrated effective charge carrier transportation only from the high-bandgap bromide-rich region to the low-bandgap iodine-rich region over a few micrometers. Therefore, these halide gradient NWs might find applications in various optoelectronic devices requiring long-distance and directional delivery of excitation energy.

  7. Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine.

    PubMed

    Opedal, Øystein H; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Albertsen, Elena; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Stenøien, Hans K; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates among populations. To assess bee-mediated pollen dispersal on a smaller scale, we conducted paternity analyses within a focal population, and quantified within-population spatial genetic structure in four populations. Gene flow was limited to certain nearby populations within continuous forest blocks, whereas drift appeared to dominate on larger scales. Limited long-distance gene flow was supported by within-population patterns; gene flow was biased towards nearby plants, and significant small-scale spatial genetic structure was detected within populations. These findings suggest that, although female euglossine bees might be effective at moving pollen within populations, and perhaps within forest blocks, their contribution to gene flow on the regional scale seems too limited to counteract genetic drift in patchily distributed tropical plants. Among-population gene flow might have been reduced following habitat fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Drent, Rudi H; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory bird, the Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus, by tracking individuals from different breeding populations throughout northern Europe. We identified three main migration routes towards wintering areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Wintering areas and migration routes of different breeding populations overlapped, a pattern best described by 'weak (diffuse) connectivity'. Migratory performance, i.e. timing, duration, distance and speed of migration, was surprisingly similar for the three routes despite differences in habitat characteristics. This study provides, to our knowledge, a first comprehensive overview of the migration system of a Palaearctic-African long-distance migrant. We emphasize the importance of spatial scale (e.g. distances between breeding populations) in defining patterns of connectivity and suggest that knowledge about fundamental aspects determining distribution patterns, such as the among-individual variation in mean migration directions, is required to ultimately understand migratory connectivity. Furthermore, we stress that for conservation purposes it is pivotal to consider wintering areas as well as migration routes and in particular stopover sites.

  9. Predictive Variables of Half-Marathon Performance for Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Camara, Jesus; Stickley, Christoper; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A; García-López, Juan

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to establish and validate various predictive equations of half-marathon performance. Seventy-eight half-marathon male runners participated in two different phases. Phase 1 (n = 48) was used to establish the equations for estimating half-marathon performance, and Phase 2 (n = 30) to validate these equations. Apart from half-marathon performance, training-related and anthropometric variables were recorded, and an incremental test on a treadmill was performed, in which physiological (VO 2max , speed at the anaerobic threshold, peak speed) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step length and step rate) were registered. In Phase 1, half-marathon performance could be predicted to 90.3% by variables related to training and anthropometry (Equation 1), 94.9% by physiological variables (Equation 2), 93.7% by biomechanical parameters (Equation 3) and 96.2% by a general equation (Equation 4). Using these equations, in Phase 2 the predicted time was significantly correlated with performance (r = 0.78, 0.92, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively). The proposed equations and their validation showed a high prediction of half-marathon performance in long distance male runners, considered from different approaches. Furthermore, they improved the prediction performance of previous studies, which makes them a highly practical application in the field of training and performance.

  10. Metabolic and hormonal changes during aerobic exercise in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pastor, V J; Ruiz, M; Diego-Acosta, A M; Avila, C; García, J C; Pérez, F; Guirado, F; Noguer, N

    1999-03-01

    A group of long-distance runners is studied in order to clarify aspects concerning neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating organic adaptation to maximum effort, with special interest in the function of the growth hormone in fat metabolism and the possible use of ketone bodies as an alternative source of energy. A test is designed on a treadmill with a gradient of 3% and progressive increases in speed of 2 Km/h every 10 min, starting at 6 Km/h, and continuing until exhaustion. Masks are worn to enable the breath by breath measurement of expired gases and the subjects are monitored electrocardiographically using V5. For blood sample collection an antecubital vein is catheterized with a system enabling the replacement of the blood volume extracted by means of perfusion with physiological saline solution, and the increasing concentration of hormones in the blood is evaluated. The results obtained, indicate that epinephrine as well as GH hormones increase significatively from 20 min of exercise in runners promoting changes from carbohydrates to lipids as fuels to carry out exercise. The concomitant variations in energy substrates support the former hypothesis of work. Moreover, the muscle could employ acetylCoA originating from acetoacetate as an alternative metabolic source of fuel during maximum effort.

  11. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in distance runners and weight lifters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Kelly, A. R.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of athletes including long-distance runners, competitive and amateur weight lifters, and age- and sex-matched control subjects have been studied by hemodynamic and echocardiographic methods in order to determine the effect of the training programs on the cardiovascular response to static exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and double product data at rest and at fatigue suggest that competitive endurance (dynamic exercise) training alters the cardiovascular response to static exercise. In contrast to endurance exercise, weight lifting (static exercise) training does not alter the cardiovascular response to static exercise: weight lifters responded to static exercise in a manner very similar to that of the control subjects.

  12. Factors contributing to the development of medial tibial stress syndrome in high school runners.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J E; Reinking, M F; Pluemer, B; Pentel, A; Seaton, M; Killian, C

    2001-09-01

    Predictive correlational study. To identify the incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a group of high school cross-country runners and to determine if a relationship exists between lower extremity structural measures and the incidence of MTSS. Medial tibial stress syndrome is an overuse injury that occurs in long-distance runners. Literature exists that implicates structural deformity as a contributor to MTSS, but no studies have developed a predictive model. We measured 125 high school cross-country runners for tibiofibular varum, resting calcaneal position during stance, and gastrocnemius length. Runners developing MTSS over an 8-week period were placed in the injured group (2 men, 13 women; age 15.3 years 1.0), and 21 randomly selected uninjured runners were placed in the uninjured group (13 men, 8 women; age 15.7 years +/-1.5). Navicular drop was measured for runners in both groups. Reliability of measures was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1). Paired t tests were used to compare the injury and noninjury groups. A logistic regression analysis was used to establish if the descriptive data could accurately predict the development of MTSS. Paired t tests showed a significant difference in navicular drop test measures between the injured (6.8 mm 3.7) and noninjured (3.6 mm 3.3) groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed navicular drop test measurements and sex correctly identified athletes who developed MTSS with 76% accuracy. Our study supported the hypothesis that a pronatory foot type is related to MTSS. The combination of sex and navicular drop test measures provides an accurate prediction for the development of MTSS. Clinical measures that identify biomechanical risk factors for MTSS may allow prevention or early intervention.

  13. Bone marrow edema lesions in the professional runner.

    PubMed

    Kornaat, Peter R; Van de Velde, Samuel K

    2014-05-01

    The clinical significance of an incidental finding of bone marrow edema (BME) on MRI in professional runners is poorly understood. To investigate the prevalence and clinical and radiological progression of BME lesions in professional runners who consider themselves to be asymptomatic. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixteen athletes (13 men and 3 women; mean age, 22.9 ± 2.7 years) were recruited from the Dutch National Committee middle-distance and long-distance running selection. All athletes had been injury free for the year before the study. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before the start of the season and at the end of the season. Both pubic bones, hips, knees, and ankles were scanned in a single session. Preseason and postseason Lysholm scores were obtained. Fourteen of the 16 athletes had BME lesions before the start of the season (45 BME lesions in total). Most BME lesions (69%; 31/45) were located in the ankle joint and foot. More than half of the lesions (58%; 26/45) fluctuated during the season, with new lesions occurring (20%; 9/45) and old lesions disappearing (22%; 10/45). The few clinical complaints that occurred throughout the season were not related to the presence of BME lesions. Almost all asymptomatic athletes showed BME lesions, with more than half of the lesions fluctuating during the season. These data suggest that the incidental finding of a BME lesion on MRI of professional runners should not immediately be related to clinical complaints or lead to an altered training program.

  14. Use of loaded conditioning activities to potentiate middle- and long-distance performance: a narrative review and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Richard C; Howatson, Glyn; Hayes, Philip R

    2018-01-29

    The warm-up is an integral component of a middle- and long-distance athlete's pre-performance routine. The use of a loaded conditioning activity (LCA), which elicits a post-activation potentiation (PAP) response to acutely enhance explosive power performance, is well-researched. A similar approach incorporated into the warm-up of a middle- or long-distance athlete potentially provides a novel strategy to augment performance. Mechanisms that underpin a PAP response, relating to acute adjustments within the neuromuscular system, should theoretically improve middle- and long-distance performance via improvements in sub-maximal force-generating ability. Attempts to enhance middle- and long-distance related outcomes using a LCA have been used in several recent studies. Results suggest benefits to performance may exist in well-trained middle- and long-distance athletes by including high-intensity resistance training (1-5 repetition maximum) or adding load to the sport skill itself during the latter part of warm-ups. Early stages of performance appear to benefit most, and it is likely that recovery (5-10 min) also plays an important role following a LCA. Future research should consider how priming activity, designed to enhance the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetic response, and a LCA may interact to affect performance, and how different LCA's might benefit various modes and durations of middle- and long-distance exercise.

  15. Examining injury risk and pain perception in runners using minimalist footwear.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael; Elashi, Maha; Newsham-West, Richard; Taunton, Jack

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the effect of progressive increases in footwear minimalism on injury incidence and pain perception in recreational runners. One hundred and three runners with neutral or mild pronation were randomly assigned a neutral (Nike Pegasus 28), partial minimalist (Nike Free 3.0 V2) or full minimalist shoe (Vibram 5-Finger Bikila). Runners underwent baseline testing to record training and injury history, as well as selected anthropometric measurements, before starting a 12-week training programme in preparation for a 10 km event. Outcome measures included number of injury events, Foot and Ankle Disability (FADI) scores and visual analogue scale pain rating scales for regional and overall pain with running. 99 runners were included in final analysis with 23 injuries reported; the neutral shoe reporting the fewest injuries (4) and the partial minimalist shoe (12) the most. The partial minimalist shoe reported a significantly higher rate of injury incidence throughout the 12-week period. Runners in the full minimalist group reported greater shin and calf pain. Running in minimalist footwear appears to increase the likelihood of experiencing an injury, with full minimalist designs specifically increasing pain at the shin and calf. Clinicians should exercise caution when recommending minimalist footwear to runners otherwise new to this footwear category who are preparing for a 10 km event. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, O.; Nilsson, K.; Breton, S.-P.; Ivanell, S.

    2015-06-01

    The future development of offshore wind power will include many wind farms built in the same areas. It is known that wind farms produce long distance wakes, which means that we will see more occasions of farm to farm interaction, namely one wind farm operating in the wake of another wind farm. This study investigates how to perform accurate power predictions on large wind farms and how to assess the long distance wakes generated by these farms. The focus of this paper is the production's and wake's sensitivity to the extension of the grid as well as the turbulence when using Large-eddy simulations (LES) with pregenerated Mann turbulence. The aim is to determine an optimal grid which minimizes blockage effects and ensures constant resolution in the entire wake region at the lowest computational cost. The simulations are first performed in the absence of wind turbines in order to assess how the atmospheric turbulence and wind profile are evolving downstream (up to 12,000 m behind the position where the turbulence is imposed). In the second step, 10 turbines are added in the domain (using an actuator disc method) and their production is analyzed alongside the mean velocities in the domain. The blockage effects are tested using grids with different vertical extents. An equidistant region is used in order to ensure high resolution in the wake region. The importance of covering the entire wake structure inside the equidistant region is analyzed by decreasing the size of this region. In this step, the importance of the lateral size of the Mann turbulence box is also analyzed. In the results it can be seen that the flow is acceptably preserved through the empty domain if a larger turbulence box is used. The relative production is increased (due to blockage effects) for the last turbines using a smaller vertical domain, increased for a lower or narrower equidistant region (due to the smearing of the wake in the stretched area) and decreased when using a smaller turbulence

  17. Epidemiology of road traffic crashes among long distance drivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejugbagbe, Adewale Moses; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Rukewe, Ambrose; Alonge, Temitope

    2015-06-01

    Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Few studies in Ibadan have focused on the distribution and determinants of RTC among long distance drivers. To describe the distribution of crashes by place, times of occurrence, characteristics of persons involved and identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among consenting long distance drivers within selected parks in Ibadan. Respondents (592) were males, with median age of 42.0 years (range 22.0-73.0 years). Secondary education was the highest level of education attained by 38.0%. About 34.0% reported current use of alcohol. The life-time prevalence of crashes was 35.3% (95% CI= 31.5-39.2%) and 15.9% (95% CI=13.1-19.0%) reported having had at least one episode of crash in the last one year preceding the study. The crash occurred mainly on narrow roads [32/94 (34.0%,)] and bad portions of tarred roads [35/94 (37.2%,)] with peak of occurrence on Saturdays 18/94 (19.1%,). Significantly higher proportions of drivers aged ≤39years (23.4%) versus >39years (11.7%), those with no education (29.9%) versus the educated (13.8%) and those who reported alcohol use (21.9%) versus non users (12.8%) were involved in crashes in the year preceding the study. Significant predictor of the last episode of crashes in the last one year were age (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5), education (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.5-4.6) and alcohol use (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.2-3.0). Road traffic crashes occurred commonly on bad roads, in the afternoon and during weekends, among young and uneducated long-distance drivers studied. Reconstruction of bad roads and implementation of road safety education programmes aimed at discouraging the use of alcohol and targeting the identified groups at risk are recommended.

  18. Long distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Liao, Zhongfa; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2013-08-01

    We present a feasible method that can make quantum key distribution (QKD), both ultra-long-distance and immune, to all attacks in the detection system. This method is called measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) with entangled photon sources in the middle. By proposing a model and simulating a QKD experiment, we find that MDI-QKD with one entangled photon source can tolerate 77 dB loss (367 km standard fiber) in the asymptotic limit and 60 dB loss (286 km standard fiber) in the finite-key case with state-of-the-art detectors. Our general model can also be applied to other non-QKD experiments involving entanglement and Bell state measurements.

  19. Long-distance axonal growth from human induced pluripotent stem cells after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Paul; Woodruff, Grace; Wang, Yaozhi; Graham, Lori; Hunt, Matt; Wu, Di; Boehle, Eileen; Ahmad, Ruhel; Poplawski, Gunnar; Brock, John; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2014-08-20

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a healthy 86-year-old male were differentiated into neural stem cells and grafted into adult immunodeficient rats after spinal cord injury. Three months after C5 lateral hemisections, iPSCs survived and differentiated into neurons and glia and extended tens of thousands of axons from the lesion site over virtually the entire length of the rat CNS. These iPSC-derived axons extended through adult white matter of the injured spinal cord, frequently penetrating gray matter and forming synapses with rat neurons. In turn, host supraspinal motor axons penetrated human iPSC grafts and formed synapses. These findings indicate that intrinsic neuronal mechanisms readily overcome the inhibitory milieu of the adult injured spinal cord to extend many axons over very long distances; these capabilities persist even in neurons reprogrammed from very aged human cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical DNA documents long-distance natal homing in marine fish.

    PubMed

    Bonanomi, Sara; Overgaard Therkildsen, Nina; Retzel, Anja; Berg Hedeholm, Rasmus; Pedersen, Martin Waever; Meldrup, Dorte; Pampoulie, Christophe; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Grønkjaer, Peter; Nielsen, Einar Eg

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long-distance natal homing (>1000 km) over more than 60 years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation single-nucleotide polymorphism assay, we demonstrate that the vast majority of cod tagged in West Greenland and recaptured on Icelandic spawning grounds belonged to the Iceland offshore population, strongly supporting a hypothesis of homing. The high degree of natal fidelity observed provides the evolutionary settings for development of locally adapted populations in marine fish and emphasize the need to consider portfolio effects in marine fisheries management strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Long-distance transmission of light in a scintillator-based radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Jonathan L.; Talbott, Dale V.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2017-07-11

    Scintillator-based radiation detectors capable of transmitting light indicating the presence of radiation for long distances are disclosed herein. A radiation detector can include a scintillator layer and a light-guide layer. The scintillator layer is configured to produce light upon receiving incident radiation. The light-guide layer is configured to receive light produced by the scintillator layer and either propagate the received light through the radiation detector or absorb the received light and emit light, through fluorescence, that is propagated through the radiation detector. A radiation detector can also include an outer layer partially surrounding the scintillator layer and light-guide layer. Themore » index of refraction of the light-guide layer can be greater than the index of refraction of adjacent layers.« less

  2. Long-distance transmission of light in a scintillator-based radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Jonathan L.; Talbott, Dale V.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2017-07-11

    Scintillator-based radiation detectors capable of transmitting light indicating the presence of radiation for long distances are disclosed herein. A radiation detector can include a scintillator layer and a light-guide layer. The scintillator layer is configured to produce light upon receiving incident radiation. The light-guide layer is configured to receive light produced by the scintillator layer and either propagate the received light through the radiation detector or absorb the received light and emit light, through fluorescence, that is propagated through the radiation detector. A radiation detector can also include an outer layer partially surrounding the scintillator layer and light-guide layer. The index of refraction of the light-guide layer can be greater than the index of refraction of adjacent layers.

  3. Daily time budgets of long-distance commuting workers in Tokyo megalopolis.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, M; Ishimaru, H; Ohtsuka, R

    1999-01-01

    In Tokyo Megalopolis, long-distance commuting between residences in the suburbs and work places in the centre of the city was examined. Using a questionnaire, heads of household in two suburbs were asked about the influences of long commuting hours on their daily time budgets. The results showed that on workdays, the workers who spent longer commuting rose and left home for work earlier, and came back home and retired later; accordingly, both time spent on in-home activities on workdays and hours slept on the day before a workday were shorter. Comparison of time budgets between the subjects who work 5 and 6 days per week revealed more vulnerable influences of long commuting hours in the former than the latter. The expected health consequences of these findings are discussed from a biosocial/human ecological viewpoint.

  4. Long-distance plant dispersal to North Atlantic islands: colonization routes and founder effect

    PubMed Central

    Alsos, Inger Greve; Ehrich, Dorothee; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Solstad, Heidi; Westergaard, Kristine Bakke; Schönswetter, Peter; Tribsch, Andreas; Birkeland, Siri; Elven, Reidar; Brochmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) processes influence the founder effect on islands. We use genetic data for 25 Atlantic species and similarities among regional floras to analyse colonization, and test whether the genetic founder effect on five islands is associated with dispersal distance, island size and species traits. Most species colonized postglacially via multiple dispersal events from several source regions situated 280 to >3000 km away, and often not from the closest ones. A strong founder effect was observed for insect-pollinated mixed maters, and it increased with dispersal distance and decreased with island size in accordance with the theory of island biogeography. Only a minor founder effect was observed for wind-pollinated outcrossing species. Colonization patterns were largely congruent, indicating that despite the importance of stochasticity, LDD is mainly determined by common factors, probably dispersal vectors. Our findings caution against a priori assuming a single, close source region in biogeographic analyses. PMID:25876627

  5. Testing the Münch hypothesis of long distance phloem transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, Michael; Knoblauch, Jan; Mullendore, Daniel L; Savage, Jessica A; Babst, Benjamin A; Beecher, Sierra D; Dodgen, Adam C; Jensen, Kaare H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-01-01

    Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure differentials that are supposed to drive the movement of sugars and other solutes in the phloem, but this hypothesis has long faced major challenges. The key issue is whether the conductance of sieve tubes, including sieve plate pores, is sufficient to allow pressure flow. We show that with increasing distance between source and sink, sieve tube conductivity and turgor increases dramatically in Ipomoea nil. Our results provide strong support for the Münch hypothesis, while providing new tools for the investigation of one of the least understood plant tissues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15341.001 PMID:27253062

  6. High-precision two-way time transfer system via long-distance commercial fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Cheng; Zhao, Ying-xin; Wu, Hong; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Xue-song; Zhang, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Time synchronization techniques, especially on the pulse per second (PPS) temporal basis, have attracted growing research interests in recent years. In this paper, we have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a high-precision two-way time transfer (TWTT) system to realize long-distance dissemination of 1 PPS signal generated by a hydrogen maser. A dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) system and bi-directional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (Bi-EDFAs) have also been adopted to suppress the impact of Rayleigh backscattering and optimize the signal to noise ratio ( SNR) as well. We have theoretically analyzed the systematic delay in detail. The ultimate root mean square ( RMS) variation of time synchronization accuracy is sub-26 ps and the time deviation can be reduced to as low as 1.2 ps at 100 s and 0.253 ps at 12 000 s, respectively.

  7. Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Steven. A.; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2015-09-01

    Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phased array, the frequency comb modes are resolved spectrally to the level of an individual mode. Having the frequency comb stabilized against an atomic clock, thousands of accurately known wavelengths are available for interferometry. From the spectrally resolved output of a Michelson interferometer a distance is derived. The presented measurement method combines spectral interferometry, white light interferometry and multi-wavelength interferometry in a single scheme. Comparison with a fringe counting laser interferometer shows an agreement within <10-8 for a distance of 50 m.

  8. Cable bacteria associated with long-distance electron transport in New England salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Steffen; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae have been proposed as 'cable bacteria', which electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction in marine sediment and thereby create a centimetre-deep suboxic zone. We incubated New England salt marsh sediment and found long-distance electron transport across 6 mm and 16S rRNA genes identical to those of previously observed cable bacteria in Aarhus Bay sediment incubations. Cable bacteria density in sediment cores was quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to the coastal, subtidal sediments with short-termed blooms of cable bacteria based on rapidly depleted iron sulfide pools, the salt marsh cable community was based on ongoing sulfate reduction and therefore probably more persistent. Previously observed seasonal correlation between Desulfobulbaceae dominance and extensive reduced sulfur oxidation in salt marshes suggest that cable bacteria at times may have an important role in situ. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Does size and buoyancy affect the long-distance transport of floating debris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Peter G.

    2015-08-01

    Floating persistent debris, primarily made from plastic, disperses long distances from source areas and accumulates in oceanic gyres. However, biofouling can increase the density of debris items to the point where they sink. Buoyancy is related to item volume, whereas fouling is related to surface area, so small items (which have high surface area to volume ratios) should start to sink sooner than large items. Empirical observations off South Africa support this prediction: moving offshore from coastal source areas there is an increase in the size of floating debris, an increase in the proportion of highly buoyant items (e.g. sealed bottles, floats and foamed plastics), and a decrease in the proportion of thin items such as plastic bags and flexible packaging which have high surface area to volume ratios. Size-specific sedimentation rates may be one reason for the apparent paucity of small plastic items floating in the world’s oceans.

  10. Testing the Münch hypothesis of long distance phloem transport in plants

    DOE PAGES

    Knoblauch, Michael; Knoblauch, Jan; Mullendore, Daniel L.; ...

    2016-06-02

    Long distance transport in plants occurs in sieve tubes of the phloem. The pressure flow hypothesis introduced by Ernst Münch in 1930 describes a mechanism of osmotically generated pressure differentials that are supposed to drive the movement of sugars and other solutes in the phloem, but this hypothesis has long faced major challenges. The key issue is whether the conductance of sieve tubes, including sieve plate pores, is sufficient to allow pressure flow. We show that with increasing distance between source and sink, sieve tube conductivity and turgor increases dramatically in Ipomoea nil . Our results provide strong support formore » the Münch hypothesis, while providing new tools for the investigation of one of the least understood plant tissues.« less

  11. Mortality amongst participants in Vasaloppet: a classical long-distance ski race in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, B Y; Ahlbom, A; Ekblom, O; Ekblom, B; Hållmarker, U; Aronson, D; Brobert, G Persson

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mortality amongst participants in long-distance ski races during the Vasaloppet week. We considered the 90 km races for men and 90 or 30 km for women. The vast majority of the participants in these races are not competing on the elite level. It is assumed, however, that they have to undergo regular physical training during a long period of time in order to successfully finish the race. The cohort study consisted of 49 219 men and 24 403 women, who participated in any of the races during 1989-1998. All subjects were followed up in the National-Cause-of-Death-Register until 31 December 1999. We computed the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusting for age and calendar year. Overall, 410 deaths occurred, compared with 850.6 expected, yielding an SMR of 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.53]. Low SMRs were found in all age groups in both men and women and in all groups after categorization by finishing time and number of races. The lowest SMRs were found amongst older participants and in those who participated in several races. A decreased mortality was observed in all major diagnostic groups, namely cancers (SMR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.52-0.71), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.51), and injuries and poisoning (SMR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.89). For lung cancer the SMR was 0.22, but even after exclusion of lung cancer the all-cancer mortality was low (SMR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.86). We conclude that participants in long-distance skiing races, which demand prolonged regular physical training, have low mortality. The extent to which this is due to physical activity, related lifestyle factors, genetics or selection bias is yet to be assessed.

  12. Long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling mediated by glial network facilitates visual function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Reddig, Keith; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Neurons rely on glia to recycle neurotransmitters such as glutamate and histamine for sustained signaling. Both mammalian and insect glia form intercellular gap-junction networks, but their functional significance underlying neurotransmitter recycling is unknown. Using the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model, here we show that a multicellular glial network transports neurotransmitter metabolites between perisynaptic glia and neuronal cell bodies to mediate long-distance recycling of neurotransmitter. In the first visual neuropil (lamina), which contains a multilayer glial network, photoreceptor axons release histamine to hyperpolarize secondary sensory neurons. Subsequently, the released histamine is taken up by perisynaptic epithelial glia and converted into inactive carcinine through conjugation with β-alanine for transport. In contrast to a previous assumption that epithelial glia deliver carcinine directly back to photoreceptor axons for histamine regeneration within the lamina, we detected both carcinine and β-alanine in the fly retina, where they are found in photoreceptor cell bodies and surrounding pigment glial cells. Downregulating Inx2 gap junctions within the laminar glial network causes β-alanine accumulation in retinal pigment cells and impairs carcinine synthesis, leading to reduced histamine levels and photoreceptor synaptic vesicles. Consequently, visual transmission is impaired and the fly is less responsive in a visual alert analysis compared with wild type. Our results suggest that a gap junction-dependent laminar and retinal glial network transports histamine metabolites between perisynaptic glia and photoreceptor cell bodies to mediate a novel, long-distance mechanism of neurotransmitter recycling, highlighting the importance of glial networks in the regulation of neuronal functions. PMID:24550312

  13. Experimental realization of SDA-method for the detection of substance at long distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Denisov, Anton D.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays, the detection and identification of dangerous substances at long distance (several metres, for example) by using of THz pulse reflected from the object is an important problem. The main problem with this technique is the absorption of THz energy by water vapor. However, using THz pulsed radiation is possible at distance of some metres as it is well-known. Below we demonstrate possibility of THz signal measuring reflected from a flat metallic mirror placed about 3.2 metres from the parabolic mirror. Investigated object is placed before this mirror. Therefore, at present time our measurements contain features of both transmission and reflection modes. The reflecting mirror is used because of weak averaged power of femtosecond laser. This power is about 1 W. Nevertheless, the laser beam splits many times. Therefore, the averaged power falling on the THz emitter decreases at least 8 times. The pulse duration generated by the femtosecond laser is equal to 68 fs. In this mode of measurements we took measurements for a chocolate brick, cookies, a bag made from thick paperboard, many layers of thin papers (paper napkin for computer monitor). In particular, it should be stressed that a spectrum of the measured signal is highly sensitive to a angle position of the flat mirror. Therefore, at long distance the position of object, that reflects the THz pulse, will influence essentially on the measured spectrum. Other very important features of the measurements with the multilayer of paper are the strong modulation of the spectrum of the reflected signal. As a consequence, we see additional frequencies, which correspond to absorption frequencies of various explosives, in the spectrum of the reflected signal. In fact, these substances are absent in our experiment. The last important result consists of unusual influence of the cookies on the measured signal: it becomes strong modulated. Consequently, cookies act as disordered structures.

  14. Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Hugh C.; Clement, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The location of the original home of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, and the extent of its natural dispersal are not known. Proponents of a South American origin must explain why it is not indigenous there and why it shows greatest diversity in southern Asia. Conversely, proponents of an Asian origin must explain why there are no Asian Cocoseae and why the closest botanical relative to Cocos is in South America. Both hypotheses share the common problems of how, when, where and in what directions long-distance dispersal occurred. Hypothesis These difficulties are resolved by accepting that C. nucifera originated and dispersed by populating emerging islands of the coral atoll ecosystem, where establishment conditions impose high selection pressures for survival. When lifted by wave action onto virtually sterile, soilless coralline rocks just above sea level and exposed to the full impact of the sun, seednuts must germinate, root and establish vigorous populations. The cavity within the nut augments the buoyancy provided by the thick husk, which in turn protects the embryo and, by delaying germination, simultaneously extends viability while floating and provides a moisture-retentive rooting medium for the young seedling. These adaptations allow coconuts to disperse widely through the coral atoll ecosystem. Conclusions The monthly production of fruit and the long floating duration ensure that viable seednuts are always available in the lagoon to replace those destroyed by hurricanes and tsunamis, or to populate newly emerged coral atolls elsewhere. Long-distance dispersal is secondary, because it was the spontaneous, independent migration of coral polyps on a prolonged geological time scale that generated new coral atolls in new areas where the coconuts would be amongst the earliest inhabitants. The coconut palm became an intermittent, itinerant, pioneer endemic there, and also on suitable beaches on volcanic or large islands and continental coastlines

  15. Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Harries, Hugh C; Clement, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    The location of the original home of the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, and the extent of its natural dispersal are not known. Proponents of a South American origin must explain why it is not indigenous there and why it shows greatest diversity in southern Asia. Conversely, proponents of an Asian origin must explain why there are no Asian Cocoseae and why the closest botanical relative to Cocos is in South America. Both hypotheses share the common problems of how, when, where and in what directions long-distance dispersal occurred. These difficulties are resolved by accepting that C. nucifera originated and dispersed by populating emerging islands of the coral atoll ecosystem, where establishment conditions impose high selection pressures for survival. When lifted by wave action onto virtually sterile, soilless coralline rocks just above sea level and exposed to the full impact of the sun, seednuts must germinate, root and establish vigorous populations. The cavity within the nut augments the buoyancy provided by the thick husk, which in turn protects the embryo and, by delaying germination, simultaneously extends viability while floating and provides a moisture-retentive rooting medium for the young seedling. These adaptations allow coconuts to disperse widely through the coral atoll ecosystem. The monthly production of fruit and the long floating duration ensure that viable seednuts are always available in the lagoon to replace those destroyed by hurricanes and tsunamis, or to populate newly emerged coral atolls elsewhere. Long-distance dispersal is secondary, because it was the spontaneous, independent migration of coral polyps on a prolonged geological time scale that generated new coral atolls in new areas where the coconuts would be amongst the earliest inhabitants. The coconut palm became an intermittent, itinerant, pioneer endemic there, and also on suitable beaches on volcanic or large islands and continental coastlines.

  16. Impaired Long Distance Functional Connectivity and Weighted Network Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F.; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a disconnection syndrome, which leads to cognitive impairment due to the disruption of functional activity across large networks or systems of interconnected brain regions. We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18) and age-matched healthy volunteers (N = 21). We found that patients had reduced amplitude and regional homogeneity of low-frequency fMRI oscillations, and reduced the strength of functional connectivity, in several regions previously described as components of the default mode network, for example, medial posterior parietal cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In patients with severe AD, functional connectivity was particularly attenuated between regions that were separated by a greater physical distance; and loss of long distance connectivity was associated with less efficient global and nodal network topology. This profile of functional abnormality in severe AD was consistent with the results of a comparable analysis of data on 2 additional groups of patients with mild AD (N = 17) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 18). A greater degree of cognitive impairment, measured by the mini-mental state examination across all patient groups, was correlated with greater attenuation of functional connectivity, particularly over long connection distances, for example, between anterior and posterior components of the default mode network, and greater reduction of global and nodal network efficiency. These results indicate that neurodegenerative disruption of fMRI oscillations and connectivity in AD affects long-distance connections to hub nodes, with the consequent loss of network efficiency. This profile was evident also to a lesser degree in the patients with less severe cognitive impairment, indicating that the potential of resting

  17. Optimal energy-utilization ratio for long-distance cruising of a model fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Yu, Yong-Liang; Tong, Bing-Gang

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of total energy utilization and its optimization for long-distance migration of fish have attracted much attention in the past. This paper presents theoretical and computational research, clarifying the above well-known classic questions. Here, we specify the energy-utilization ratio (fη) as a scale of cruising efficiency, which consists of the swimming speed over the sum of the standard metabolic rate and the energy consumption rate of muscle activities per unit mass. Theoretical formulation of the function fη is made and it is shown that based on a basic dimensional analysis, the main dimensionless parameters for our simplified model are the Reynolds number (Re) and the dimensionless quantity of the standard metabolic rate per unit mass (Rpm). The swimming speed and the hydrodynamic power output in various conditions can be computed by solving the coupled Navier-Stokes equations and the fish locomotion dynamic equations. Again, the energy consumption rate of muscle activities can be estimated by the quotient of dividing the hydrodynamic power by the muscle efficiency studied by previous researchers. The present results show the following: (1) When the value of fη attains a maximum, the dimensionless parameter Rpm keeps almost constant for the same fish species in different sizes. (2) In the above cases, the tail beat period is an exponential function of the fish body length when cruising is optimal, e.g., the optimal tail beat period of Sockeye salmon is approximately proportional to the body length to the power of 0.78. Again, the larger fish's ability of long-distance cruising is more excellent than that of smaller fish. (3) The optimal swimming speed we obtained is consistent with previous researchers’ estimations.

  18. Meanings and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among long-distance truck drivers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Magno, Laio; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. METHODS Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability. RESULTS The results showed that the insertion of truck drivers in contexts of high social vulnerability (poor working conditions, violence on the roads, and use of alcohol and other drugs) along with the advances in access and effectiveness of treatment for AIDS promote a reduced perception of the risk and severity of this disease. In addition, the notion of “risk group” and the symbolic division between “home space” (protected) and “street space” (unprotected) intensified a restricted and specific use of condoms, guided by the opposition between “woman of the street” (unknown women, prostitutes, among others) and “woman of the house” (wives, girlfriends). CONCLUSIONS The meanings assigned by truckers to AIDS incorporated elements of recent transformations of the expanded social context, such as the development of health technologies (especially anti-retroviral drugs) and the guarantee of free access to treatment in the Brazilian public health system; but also incorporated old elements of social vulnerability context – such as the poor working conditions on Brazilian highways. PMID:28099654

  19. Postglacial population expansion drives the evolution of long-distance migration in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Milá, Borja; Smith, Thomas B; Wayne, Robert K

    2006-11-01

    The evolution of long-distance migratory behavior from sedentary populations is a central problem in studies of animal migration. Three crucial issues that remain unresolved are: (1) the biotic and abiotic factors promoting evolution of migratory behavior, (2) the geographic origin of ancestral sedentary populations, and (3) the time scale over which migration evolves. We test the role of postglacial population expansions during the Quaternary in driving the evolution of songbird migration against prevailing views favoring the role of intraspecific competition. In contrast to previous attempts to investigate these questions using interspecific phylogenies, we adopt an intraspecific approach and examine the phylogeography of a North American songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), which exhibits both long-distance migratory behavior in temperate North America and sedentary behavior in Mexico and Central America. We show that migratory populations descend from sedentary populations in southern Mexico and that migration has evolved as a result of a northward population expansion into temperate North America since the last glacial maximum 18,000 years ago. Migration appears to have evolved rapidly in some species as populations colonized areas of high seasonality in the temperate zone. The phylogeography of the yellow-eyed junco (Junco phaeonotus), a strictly sedentary species, provides a null model supporting the view that northward range expansions were driven solely by environmental factors and not by a predisposition to evolve migratory behavior. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that historical climate patterns can drive the rapid evolution of avian migration in natural populations, and they suggest a general mechanism for the repeated evolution of migration within and across bird lineages.

  20. Expression of an Activated Integrin Promotes Long-Distance Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Menghon; Andrews, Melissa R; Chew, Daniel J; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard; Fawcett, James W

    2016-07-06

    After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6-C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory-motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. Copyright © 2016 CHEAH et al.

  1. Long-distance communication facilitates cooperation among wild spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta

    PubMed Central

    Gersick, Andrew S.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Schneider, Jennifer M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2015-01-01

    Calls that catalyse group defence, as in the mobbing of predators, appear to facilitate cooperation by recruiting receivers to act collectively. However, even when such signals reliably precede cooperative behaviour, the extent to which the calls function as recruitment signals is unclear. Calls might simply arouse listeners’ attention, setting off a cascade of independent responses to the threat. By contrast, they might convey information, for example, about signaller identity and the nature of a threat that affects receivers’ decisions to participate. We explored this distinction by investigating a possible long-distance recruitment call used by spotted hyaenas. These social carnivores live in fission–fusion clans and individuals disperse widely within their territories. Putative recruitment calls must therefore attract receivers that are distant from the inciting threat and free to opt out of risky collective aggression. Hyaenas compete with lions over food, and neighbouring clans sometimes engage in violent border clashes. These high-stakes contests are decided based on numerical asymmetries, so hyaenas can only protect critical resources if the dispersed clan can converge quickly at conflict sites. We recorded and analysed whoop bouts produced in multiple contexts and found that bouts produced in response to signs of lion–hyaena conflict had shorter inter-whoop intervals than spontaneous ‘display’ bouts. In subsequent field playback experiments, resting hyaenas were significantly more likely to move in response to ‘recruitment’ bouts with shortened intervals than to otherwise identical ‘display’ bouts. Whereas only stimulus type predicted movement, lower-ranked subjects responded most quickly, perhaps because their feeding opportunities depend on arriving early at any kill site. Results demonstrate that hyaenas possess a signal that can reliably recruit allies across long distances, despite moderating effects of individual circumstances on

  2. Lower-limb dynamics and clinical outcomes for habitually shod runners who transition to barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Rami; Samarawickrame, Sachithra D; Sigward, Susan; Azen, Stanley P; Salem, George J

    2018-01-01

    Recent investigations have revealed lower vertical loading rates and knee energy absorption amongst experienced barefoot runners relative to those who rear-foot strike (RFS). Although this has led to an adoption of barefoot running amongst many recreational shoe runners, recent investigations indicate that the experienced barefoot pattern is not immediately realized. Therefore, the purpose this investigation was to quantify changes in lower-extremity dynamics and clinical outcomes measures for habitually shod runners who perform a transition to barefoot running. We examined lower-extremity dynamics and clinical outcomes for 26 RFS shod runners who performed an 8-10 week transition to barefoot running. Runners were evaluated at the University of Southern California's Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory. Foot-strike patterns, vertical load rates, and joint energetics were evaluated before and after the transition using inverse dynamics. Clinical assessments were conducted throughout the transition by two licensed clinicians. Eighteen of the 26 runners successfully completed the transition: 7 maintained a RFS, 8 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS), and 3 adopted a forefoot strike (FFS) during novice barefoot running. Following the transition, novice MFS/FFS runners often demonstrated reversions in strike-patterns and associated reductions in ankle energetics. We report no change in loading rates and knee energy absorption across transition time points. Importantly, there were no adverse events other than transient pain and soreness. These findings indicate that runners do not innately adopt the biomechanical characteristics thought to lower injury risk in-response to an uninstructed barefoot running transition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) depend on sea ice for catching marine mammal prey. Recent sea-ice declines have been linked to reductions in body condition, survival, and population size. Reduced foraging opportunity is hypothesized to be the primary cause of sea-ice-linked declines, but the costs of travel through a deteriorated sea-ice environment also may be a factor. We used movement data from 52 adult female polar bears wearing Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, including some with dependent young, to document long-distance swimming (>50 km) by polar bears in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi seas. During 6 years (2004-2009), we identified 50 long-distance swims by 20 bears. Swim duration and distance ranged from 0.7 to 9.7 days (mean = 3.4 days) and 53.7 to 687.1 km (mean = 154.2 km), respectively. Frequency of swimming appeared to increase over the course of the study. We show that adult female polar bears and their cubs are capable of swimming long distances during periods when extensive areas of open water are present. However, long-distance swimming appears to have higher energetic demands than moving over sea ice. Our observations suggest long-distance swimming is a behavioral response to declining summer sea-ice conditions.

  4. Stress fractures in 51 runners.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, D; Warren, R F; Pavlov, H; Kelman, G

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study was initiated in 1976 to investigate runners who are at risk for incurring stress fractures and how these fractures can be prevented. Fifty-one runners incurred 57 stress fractures. Tibial fractures were most common (25), followed by fibula (12) and metatarsal (8). Seven runners had previously sustained stress fractures, and six developed two stress fractures simultaneously. Five women over 30 years old had pelvic stress fractures. Stress fracture development was positively correlated with the presence of pes planus, weekly training distances greater than 20 miles, hard training surfaces, and training regimen modifications. The incidence did not correlate with generalized musculoskeletal laxity or tightness. Forty-four of 51 patients had initially positive roentgenograms. Five of five bone scans were positive. The average duration of rest before running was resumed was 7.4 weeks.

  5. Impact of long distance rowing on biological health: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frias, Miguel A; Virzi, Julien; Golaz, Olivier; Gencer, Baris; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    To determine the impact of long distance rowing (160km, nonstop) on standard biological parameters and to study the relation between inflammation, myocardial necrosis, lipid profile, heart rate and energy expenditure. Electrolytes, lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitive troponin T (hs-cTnT), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), were measured on non-fasting venous blood samples collected 8h before and after the rowing race on five healthy competitors. Heart rate and energy expenditure were measured using sporting self-measurement devices. After 16.5h of race, significant increases in median CRP (+25.2mg/l; p=0.04), IL-6 (+1.85pg/ml; p=0.04), TNF-α (+1.2pg/ml; p=0.04) and NT-proBNP levels (+88.8pg/ml; p=0.04) were observed, and a close to significant elevation for hs-cTnT(+6ng/l; p=0.06) and PCT (+0.14μg/l; p=0.07). On the other hand, significant decrease in median total cholesterol (-0.5mmol/l; p=0.04), triglycerides (-0.7mmol/l; p=0.04) were observed. Furthermore, significant correlations between the maximal heart rate reached during the race and CRP (r=0.90; p=0.03), IL-6 (r=0.90; p=0.03), and NT-proBNP (r=0.90; p=0.03) were observed, whereas no such associations were retrieved with median heart rate, the percentage of time passed over 70% of maximal heart rate or energy expenditure during the race. There was no association between PCT, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, inflammatory biomarkers, lipid profile or heart rate parameters. Long distance rowing induces inflammation and myocardial strain related to the maximal effort generated during the race, but has a favourable effect on lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  7. The Relationship Between Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Zachary M; Wyatt, Frank B; Winchester, Jason B; Smith, Dalton A; Ghetia, Vidhi

    2016-01-01

    Research has indicated that combined aerobic and anaerobic training (concurrent training) may improve aerobic performance greater than aerobic training alone. The purpose of this investigation was to establish any associations between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eleven participants (n = 11, age = 34.1 ± 13 years, VO2max = 58.4 ± 7.8) volunteered for this study. Participants were asked for endurance training experience (4.7 ± 3.7 years) and resistance training experience (4.1 ± 4.6 years). To meet training status, participants were to have a VO2max in the 80th percentile as per ACSM guidelines. The Bruce treadmill test was used to measure aerobic performance. In order to measure anaerobic performance, several tests were completed utilizing a force platform. A Pearson Product R Correlation Coefficient was calculated to determine correlations between variables. The results show significant correlation between VO2max and RFD (r = 0.68). Further analyses utilizing Cohen's effect size indicated a strong association between VO2max and peak force, as well as running efficiency and peak power, relative peak power, and power endurance. These results indicate an existing possibility that anaerobic performance measures such as RFD may have a positive relationship with aerobic performance measures such as VO2max. Therefore, it may be beneficial to integrate specific training components which focus on improving RFD as a method of improving running performance.

  8. Neuro-immuno-endocrine modulation in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Bachi, Andre L L; Rios, Francisco J O; Vaisberg, Pedro Henrique Carr; Martins, Marcia; de Sá, Matheus Cavalcante; Victorino, Angélica B; Foster, Roberta; Sierra, Ana Paula R; Kiss, Maria Augusta P Dal'Molin; Vaisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Sports practice alters the homeostasis of athletes. To achieve homeostatic equilibrium, the integrated action of the neuroendocrine and immune systems is necessary. Here we studied the relation between cytokines, hormones and mood states in marathon runners. A total of 20 male recreational marathon runners (mean age = 35.7 ± 9 years) and 20 male sedentary individuals (mean age = 35.5 ± 7 years) were recruited. We compared the serum levels of growth hormone (GH), cortisol and interleukins 8 and 10 and the amounts of these two cytokines spontaneously produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blood samples of the sedentary group were collected at rest. Blood from the marathon runners was collected at rest (baseline: 24 h before the race), immediately after a marathon and 72 h after a marathon. Mood state analysis in both groups was performed using the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS). Our results showed that, at rest, levels of interleukins 8 and 10 in the supernatant of culture cells, the serum concentration of GH, and tension and vigour (evaluated using the BRUMS), were significantly higher in athletes compared to sedentary people. Immediately after the race all serum parameters analysed were statistically higher than baseline values. At 72 h after the marathon, serum levels of hormones and interleukins returned to values at rest, but the concentrations of interleukins in the supernatant of culture cells showed a significant reduction compared to values at rest. The higher serum levels of GH in athletes at rest and the higher production of cytokines in culture without previous stimulus suggest that marathon runners present mechanisms that may be associated with preparing the body to perform prolonged strenuous exercise, such as a marathon. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Lower limb control and strength in runners with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esculier, Jean-Francois; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Bouyer, Laurent Julien

    2015-03-01

    Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) have been shown to present altered movement kinematics, muscle activations, and ground reaction forces (GRF) during running as well as decreased lower limb strength. However, these variables have never been concurrently evaluated in a specific cohort. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare lower limb control variables during running in recreational runners with and without PFPS. Lower limb control during treadmill running under typical training conditions (usual shoes, foot strike pattern, and speed) was compared between runners with (n=21) and without (n=20) PFPS using lower limb kinematics, electromyographic (EMG) recordings from representative muscles (gluteus medius/maximus, quadriceps and soleus), and vertical GRF. Isometric muscle strength was also evaluated. When comparing all runners from both groups, no between-group differences were found in variables commonly associated with PFPS such as peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation, contralateral pelvic drop, EMG of gluteal and quadriceps muscles, vertical loading rate, or lower limb strength. However, runners with PFPS showed significantly higher hip adduction at toe-off, lower excursion in hip adduction during late-stance, and longer duration of soleus activation. Sub-analyses were performed for females and for rearfoot strikers (RFS), and revealed that these subgroups accounted for most of between-group differences in hip adduction kinematics. Specifically for RFS with PFPS, lower activation of gluteus medius as well as lower GRF were observed. Our results suggest that deficits reported in runners with PFPS may vary depending on gender and on foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance at using broad THz pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral properties of THz pulses containing a few cycles reflected from a flat metallic mirror placed at long distance about 3.5 meters from the parabolic mirror are investigated. The samples for analysis were placed before this mirror. Measurements were provided at room temperature of about 18-20° C and humidity of about 70%. The aim of investigation was the detection of a substance under real conditions. At the present time our measurements contain features of both transmission and reflection modes. This leads to a strong modulation of the spectrum and makes difficulties for identification. As samples for our current research we used several neutral substances: paper layers, a thick paper bag, chocolate and cookies. The first problem deals with the detection of common and mismatched spectral properties of samples with paper layers, a thick paper bag and explosives. HMX, PETN and RDX were used as explosive samples. The dependence of the accuracy of identification of samples with paper layers and a thick bag is studied when using short transmitted THz signals with opposite absolute phases as calibration signals. Common and mismatched spectral features of neutral substances: chocolate, cookies and drugs MA, MDMA were investigated by modified integral criteria as well.

  11. Peculiarities of the detection and identification of substance at long distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the detection and identification of dangerous substances at long distance (several meters, for example) by using of THz pulse reflected from the object is an important problem. In this report we demonstrate possibility of THz signal measuring reflected from investigated object that is placed before a flat metallic mirror. A distance between the flat mirror and the parabolic mirror this mirror is equal to 3.5 meters. Therefore, at present time our measurements contain features of both transmission and reflection modes. The reflecting mirror is used because of weak average power of used femtosecond laser. Measurements were provided at room temperature and humidity about 60%. The aim of investigation was the detection of a substance in real condition. Chocolate and Cookies were used as samples for identification. We also discuss modified correlation criteria for the detection and identification of various substances using pulsed THz signal in the transmission and reflection mode at short distances of about 30-40 cm. These criteria are integral criteria in time and they are based on the SDA method. Proposed algorithms show both high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice. We compare P-spectrum and SDA- methods in the paper and show that P-spectrum method is a partial case of SDAmethod.

  12. Communication in the context of long-distance family caregiving: an integrated review and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Jennifer L; Sparks, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Understanding how geographic distance impacts how individuals communicatively negotiate family caregiving is important for a number of reasons. Though long-distance caregiving (LDC) is a growing phenomenon with serious relational and health implications, this topic has yet to be approached from a communication perspective. In this review, LDC is thus considered as a communication context to offer caregiving scholars practical applications for contributing to this emerging research area. Review of the literature from 1999 to 2009 that studied aspects of distance caregiving communication obtained through searching Academic Search Premier, EBSCO, Communication and Mass Media Complete, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed/Medline, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition online databases. Eight published original research studies were included in the review. The extent to which LDC communication is studied by caregiving researchers has the potential to provide helpful guidance for distant caregivers and care recipients to achieve successful health and relational outcomes. Upon reviewing distance caregiving communication research findings, four applications are discussed: (1) defining distance as a subjective experience; (2) encouraging the use of mediated communication in LDC; and examining (3) interpersonal conflict and (4) topic avoidance processes in the LDC context. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quarkonium polarization and the long distance matrix elements hierarchies using jet substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lin; Shrivastava, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms in jets at the LHC, using the fragmenting jet functions (FJF) approach. Specifically, we discuss the jet energy dependence of the J /ψ production cross section at the LHC. By comparing the cross sections for the different NRQCD production channels (1S0[8], 3S1[8], 3PJ[8], and 3cripts>S1[1]), we find that at fixed values of energy fraction z carried by the J /ψ , if the normalized cross section is a decreasing function of the jet energy, in particular for z >0.5 , then the depolarizing 1S0[8] must be the dominant channel. This makes the prediction made in [Baumgart et al., J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2014) 003, 10.1007/JHEP11(2014)003] for the FJF's also true for the cross section. We also make comparisons between the long distance matrix elements extracted by various groups. This analysis could potentially shed light on the polarization properties of the J /ψ production in high pT region.

  14. Pipe inspection system by guide wave using a long distance waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Riichi; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2016-02-01

    Nondestructive inspection of a high-temperature structure is required to guarantee its safety. However, there are no useful sensors for high-temperature structures. Some of them cannot work at temperatures over 50°C. Another concern is that it is too expensive to use. Therefore, a sensing system, which can transmit and receive an ultrasonic wave and travel a long distance using a long waveguide, has been studied. This means that an ultrasonic sensor could be driven at atmospheric temperature. Especially, the work was focused in applying the developed technique to a pipe which is used in a nuclear power plant. Therefore, the best rectangle-shaped wave-guide was studied and tried to wound the waveguide around a pipe to drive as an acoustic source of a guide wave. Finally, L (0,2) and T (0,1)-mode guide wave were detected successfully by devising the shape of the opposite edge of the rectangle shaped waveguide and could detect the reflected signal from an artificial defect machined into a test pipe.

  15. Long distance dispersal and vertical gene flow in the Caribbean brooding coral Porites astreoides

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baums, Iliana B.; Smith, Tyler B.; Jones, Ross J.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    To date, most assessments of coral connectivity have emphasized long-distance horizontal dispersal of propagules from one shallow reef to another. The extent of vertical connectivity, however, remains largely understudied. Here, we used newly-developed and existing DNA microsatellite loci for the brooding coral Porites astreoides to assess patterns of horizontal and vertical connectivity in 590 colonies collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15–20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida, Bermuda and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We also tested whether maternal transmission of algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp.) might limit effective vertical connectivity. Overall, shallow P. astreoides exhibited high gene flow between Florida and USVI, but limited gene flow between these locations and Bermuda. In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation by depth in Florida (Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), but not in Bermuda or USVI, despite strong patterns of depth zonation in algal symbionts at two of these locations. Together, these findings suggest that P. astreoides is effective at dispersing both horizontally and vertically despite its brooding reproductive mode and maternal transmission of algal symbionts. In addition, these findings might help explain the ecological success reported for P. astreoides in the Caribbean in recent decades. PMID:26899614

  16. Extreme spring conditions in the Arctic delay spring phenology of long-distance migratory songbirds.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Krause, Jesse S; Sweet, Shannan K; Chmura, Helen E; Perez, Jonathan H; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John C

    2017-09-01

    Arctic regions are warming rapidly, with extreme weather events increasing in frequency, duration, and intensity just as in other regions. Many studies have focused on how shifting seasonality in environmental conditions affects vegetation phenology, while far fewer have examined how the breeding phenology of arctic fauna responds. We studied two species of long-distance migratory songbirds, Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, and white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, across five consecutive breeding seasons in northern Alaskan tundra. We aimed to understand how spring environmental conditions affected breeding cycle phenology, including the timing of arrival on breeding grounds, territory establishment, and clutch initiation. Spring temperatures, precipitation, and snow-free dates differed significantly among years, with 2013 characterized by unusually late snow cover. In response, we found a significant delay in breeding-cycle phenology for both study species in 2013 relative to other study years: the first bird observed was delayed by 6-10 days, with mean arrival by 3-6 days, territory establishment by 6-13 days, and clutch initiation by 4-10 days. Further, snow cover, temperature, and precipitation during the territory establishment period were important predictors of clutch initiation dates for both species. These findings suggest that Arctic-breeding passerine communities may have the flexibility required to adjust breeding phenology in response to the increasingly extreme and unpredictable environmental conditions-although future generations may encounter conditions that exceed their current range of phenological flexibility.

  17. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  18. Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, José A.; Dias, Maria P.; Méndez, Verónica; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Gunnarsson, Tómas G.

    2016-11-01

    Landbirds undertaking within-continent migrations have the possibility to stop en route, but most long-distance migrants must also undertake large non-stop sea crossings, the length of which can vary greatly. For shorebirds migrating from Iceland to West Africa, the shortest route would involve one of the longest continuous sea crossings while alternative, mostly overland, routes are available. Using geolocators to track the migration of Icelandic whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus), we show that they can complete a round-trip of 11,000 km making two non-stop sea crossings and flying at speeds of up to 24 m s-1 the fastest recorded for shorebirds flying over the ocean. Although wind support could reduce flight energetic costs, whimbrels faced headwinds up to twice their ground speed, indicating that unfavourable and potentially fatal weather conditions are not uncommon. Such apparently high risk migrations might be more common than previously thought, with potential fitness gains outweighing the costs.

  19. Sporadic nesting reveals long distance colonisation in the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Carreras, Carlos; Pascual, Marta; Tomás, Jesús; Marco, Adolfo; Hochsheid, Sandra; Castillo, Juan José; Gozalbes, Patricia; Parga, Mariluz; Piovano, Susanna; Cardona, Luis

    2018-01-23

    The colonisation of new suitable habitats is crucial for species survival at evolutionary scale under changing environmental conditions. However, colonisation potential may be limited by philopatry that facilitates exploiting successful habitats across generations. We examine the mechanisms of long distance dispersal of the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by analysing 40 sporadic nesting events in the western Mediterranean. The analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA and 7 microsatellites of 121 samples from 18 of these nesting events revealed that these nests were colonising events associated with juveniles from distant populations feeding in nearby foraging grounds. Considering the temperature-dependent sex determination of the species, we simulated the effect of the incubation temperature and propagule pressure on a potential colonisation scenario. Our results indicated that colonisation will succeed if warm temperature conditions, already existing in some of the beaches in the area, extend to the whole western Mediterranean. We hypothesize that the sporadic nesting events in developmental foraging grounds may be a mechanism to overcome philopatry limitations thus increasing the dispersal capabilities of the species and the adaptability to changing environments. Sporadic nesting in the western Mediterranean can be viewed as potential new populations in a scenario of rising temperatures.

  20. Fitness consequences of short- and long-distance pollinations in Phlox hirsuta, an endangered species.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Lauren G; Dickens, Morgan E; Wall, Morgan E

    2015-10-01

    The persistence of rare and endangered plant species may depend on the distance pollinators travel when dispersing pollen. Pollinations between adjacent plants, which are often genetically similar, can decrease seed set, germination, and/or progeny vigor due to shared S-alleles or inbreeding depression. Interpopulation pollen dispersal is often suggested as a management tool to increase genetic diversity; however, long-distance pollinations also have the potential to decrease fitness. We performed experimental hand pollinations in the field and germination experiments in a growth chamber to determine the effect of intrapopulation pollination distance (1 m, 10 m, and 100 m) on seed set, seed germination, progeny growth, and progeny reproduction in Phlox hirsuta. In addition, we included interpopulation pollinations (6740 m) to determine whether artificial gene flow is a viable management option for this endangered species. Although pollination distance did not affect the number of healthy seeds produced or the likelihood of radicle emergence, it did significantly affect the ability of germinating seeds to successfully produce cotyledons. Outbreeding depression was observed during seed germination and early seedling development. Seedlings resulting from interpopulation pollinations developed more slowly and were less likely to survive to produce cotyledons than seedlings resulting from all three intrapopulation pollination distances. Our results suggest that the success of P. hirsuta does not depend on the distance pollinators travel within populations and that conservation strategies that involve transporting genes between populations can be counterproductive. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Building a long distance training program to enhance clinical cancer research capacity in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Caroline B; Antonia, Scott J; Sullivan, Daniel M; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G; Cáceres, William; Velez, Hector; Torres-Ruiz, Jose A; Wright, Kenneth L

    2014-01-01

    Barriers persist in the development and delivery of effective cancer therapies to under-represented minority populations. In Puerto Rico, cancer is the second leading cause of death, yet cancer research awareness and training opportunities remain somewhat limited on the island. These limitations hinder progress toward decreasing the cancer health disparities that exist within the Puerto Rican population. The predominantly Hispanic population of Puerto Rico is the focus of a partnership between the Ponce Health Sciences University-Medical School and Ponce Research Institute (PHSU) in Ponce, Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. The Partnership goals are to reduce these barriers through an integrated, multipronged approach of training and education alongside outreach and research components. This report describes the approaches, successes and challenges of enhancing clinical cancer research capacity on the island and the unique challenges of a partnership between two institutes physically separated by long distances. Once fully developed this model may be exportable to other Latin American countries where the need is even greater.

  2. Building a Long Distance Training Program to Enhance Clinical Cancer Research Capacity in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Caroline B.; Antonia, Scott J.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.; Cáceres, William; Velez, Hector; Torres-Ruiz, Jose A.; Wright, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers persist in the development and delivery of effective cancer therapies to under-represented minority populations. In Puerto Rico, cancer is the second leading cause of death, yet cancer research awareness and training opportunities remain somewhat limited on the island. These limitations hinder progress toward decreasing the cancer health disparities that exist within the Puerto Rican population. The predominantly Hispanic population of Puerto Rico is the focus of a partnership between the Ponce Health Sciences University-Medical School and Ponce Research Institute (PHSU) in Ponce, Puerto Rico and the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Florida. The Partnership goals are to reduce these barriers through an integrated, multipronged approach of training and education alongside outreach and research components. This report describes the approaches, successes and challenges of enhancing clinical cancer research capacity on the island and the unique challenges of a partnership between two institutes physically separated by long distances. Once fully developed this model may be exportable to other Latin American countries where the need is even greater. PMID:25626061

  3. Bridging the gap: microfluidic devices for short and long distance cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Vu, Timothy Quang; de Castro, Ricardo Miguel Bessa; Qin, Lidong

    2017-03-14

    Cell-cell communication is a crucial component of many biological functions. For example, understanding how immune cells and cancer cells interact, both at the immunological synapse and through cytokine secretion, can help us understand and improve cancer immunotherapy. The study of how cells communicate and form synaptic connections is important in neuroscience, ophthalmology, and cancer research. But in order to increase our understanding of these cellular phenomena, better tools need to be developed that allow us to study cell-cell communication in a highly controlled manner. Some technical requirements for better communication studies include manipulating cells spatiotemporally, high resolution imaging, and integrating sensors. Microfluidics is a powerful platform that has the ability to address these requirements and other current limitations. In this review, we describe some new advances in microfluidic technologies that have provided researchers with novel methods to study intercellular communication. The advantages of microfluidics have allowed for new capabilities in both single cell-cell communication and population-based communication. This review highlights microfluidic communication devices categorized as "short distance", or primarily at the single cell level, and "long distance", which mostly encompasses population level studies. Future directions and translation/commercialization will also be discussed.

  4. Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Alves, José A.; Dias, Maria P.; Méndez, Verónica; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Gunnarsson, Tómas G.

    2016-01-01

    Landbirds undertaking within-continent migrations have the possibility to stop en route, but most long-distance migrants must also undertake large non-stop sea crossings, the length of which can vary greatly. For shorebirds migrating from Iceland to West Africa, the shortest route would involve one of the longest continuous sea crossings while alternative, mostly overland, routes are available. Using geolocators to track the migration of Icelandic whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus), we show that they can complete a round-trip of 11,000 km making two non-stop sea crossings and flying at speeds of up to 24 m s−1; the fastest recorded for shorebirds flying over the ocean. Although wind support could reduce flight energetic costs, whimbrels faced headwinds up to twice their ground speed, indicating that unfavourable and potentially fatal weather conditions are not uncommon. Such apparently high risk migrations might be more common than previously thought, with potential fitness gains outweighing the costs. PMID:27901077

  5. Very rapid long-distance sea crossing by a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Alves, José A; Dias, Maria P; Méndez, Verónica; Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2016-11-30

    Landbirds undertaking within-continent migrations have the possibility to stop en route, but most long-distance migrants must also undertake large non-stop sea crossings, the length of which can vary greatly. For shorebirds migrating from Iceland to West Africa, the shortest route would involve one of the longest continuous sea crossings while alternative, mostly overland, routes are available. Using geolocators to track the migration of Icelandic whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus), we show that they can complete a round-trip of 11,000 km making two non-stop sea crossings and flying at speeds of up to 24 m s -1 ; the fastest recorded for shorebirds flying over the ocean. Although wind support could reduce flight energetic costs, whimbrels faced headwinds up to twice their ground speed, indicating that unfavourable and potentially fatal weather conditions are not uncommon. Such apparently high risk migrations might be more common than previously thought, with potential fitness gains outweighing the costs.

  6. X-ray beam transfer between hollow fibers for long-distance transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yoshihito, E-mail: tanaka@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Matsushita, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Ryutaro

    2016-07-27

    Fiber optics for controlling the x-ray beam trajectory has been examined at the synchrotron facility of SPring-8. Up to now, we have achieved beam deflection by several tens of milli-radian and axis shift of around 75 mm with a 1.5 m-long flexible hollow glass capillary. The achievable beam deflecting angle, axis shift, and timing delay are, in principle, proportional to the length, the square of length and the cube of length, respectively. Thus, for further applications, requiring larger beam shift and pulse delay, longer fibers are indispensable. In order to achieve long-distance transport using the fiber, we thus examined themore » connection transferring x-rays between fibers in an experimental hutch. The acceptance angle at the input end and the throughput efficiency of the second fiber is consistent with the consideration of the output beam divergence of the first fiber. The enhancement of the transfer efficiency is also discussed for the cases of a closer joint and the use of a refractive lens as a coupler.« less

  7. Altered systolic left ventricular function in horses completing a long distance endurance race.

    PubMed

    Amory, H; Votion, D-M; Fraipont, A; Goachet, A G; Robert, C; Farnir, F; Van Erck, E

    2010-11-01

    It is unknown whether or not exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF), as demonstrated in human athletes performing long duration exercise, occurs in endurance horses. To examine the effects of a long distance endurance race on left ventricular systolic function in horses. Echocardiography was performed before, and after, a 2 or 3 star international endurance race (106-132 km) in 11 horses. Systolic (s) and diastolic (d) interventricular and left ventricular free wall thickness (IVS and LVFW, respectively), left ventricular, left atrial and aortic internal diameter (LVID, LA and Ao, respectively), fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured by echocardiography. Heart rate (HR), peak flow velocity (Vmax), flow velocity integral (FVI), ejection time (ET), pre-ejection period (PEP), velocity of circumferential fibre shortening (Vcf), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were measured from aortic Doppler wave recordings. After the race, LVIDd, Ao, LA, EF, FS, FVI, SV, ET and ET indexed for HR were significantly lower and IVSd, LVFWd, HR, PEP, PEP/ET and Vcf significantly higher as compared with prerace values. Pre- to post exercise changes in those parameters were not significantly correlated with changes in HR or in LVIDd. Results suggest that EICF, with a decrease in left ventricular systolic function, could occur post exercise in horses performing long duration endurance races. However, a multanecus effect of altered preload and heart rate on the studied variables cannot be discounted. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Alerstam, Thomas; Chapman, Jason W.; Bäckman, Johan; Smith, Alan D.; Karlsson, Håkan; Nilsson, Cecilia; Reynolds, Don R.; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Hill, Jane K.

    2011-01-01

    Vast numbers of insects and passerines achieve long-distance migrations between summer and winter locations by undertaking high-altitude nocturnal flights. Insects such as noctuid moths fly relatively slowly in relation to the surrounding air, with airspeeds approximately one-third of that of passerines. Thus, it has been widely assumed that windborne insect migrants will have comparatively little control over their migration speed and direction compared with migrant birds. We used radar to carry out the first comparative analyses of the flight behaviour and migratory strategies of insects and birds under nearly equivalent natural conditions. Contrary to expectations, noctuid moths attained almost identical ground speeds and travel directions compared with passerines, despite their very different flight powers and sensory capacities. Moths achieved fast travel speeds in seasonally appropriate migration directions by exploiting favourably directed winds and selecting flight altitudes that coincided with the fastest air streams. By contrast, passerines were less selective of wind conditions, relying on self-powered flight in their seasonally preferred direction, often with little or no tailwind assistance. Our results demonstrate that noctuid moths and passerines show contrasting risk-prone and risk-averse migratory strategies in relation to wind. Comparative studies of the flight behaviours of distantly related taxa are critically important for understanding the evolution of animal migration strategies. PMID:21389024

  9. Rapid amplification of immunoglobulin heavy chain switch (IGHS) translocation breakpoints using long-distance inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, T; Willis, T G; Oscier, D G; Karran, E L; Siebert, R; Dyer, M J S

    2004-12-01

    Molecular cloning of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocation breakpoints identifies genes of biological importance in the development of normal and malignant B cells. Long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) was first applied to amplification of IGH gene translocations targeted to the joining (IGHJ) regions. We report here successful amplification of the breakpoint of IGH translocations targeted to switch (IGHS) regions by LDI-PCR. To detect IGHS translocations, Southern blot assays using 5' and 3' switch probes were performed. Illegitimate Smu rearrangements were amplified from the 5' end (5'Smu LDI-PCR) from the alternative derivative chromosome, and those of Sgamma or Salpha were amplified from the 3' end (3'Sgamma or 3'alpha LDI-PCR) from the derivative chromosome 14. Using a combination of these methods, we have succeeded in amplifying IGHS translocation breakpoints involving FGFR3/MMSET on 4p16, BCL6 on 3q27, MYC on 8q24, IRTA1 on 1q21 and PAX5 on 9p13 as well as BCL11A on 2p13 and CCND3 on 6p21. The combination of LDI-PCR for IGHJ and IGHS allows rapid molecular cloning of almost all IGH gene translocation breakpoints.

  10. High-rate-long-distance fiber-optic communication based on advanced modulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Ivankovski, Y; Mendlovic, D

    1999-09-10

    The presence of fiber attenuation and chromatic dispersion is one of the major design aspects of fiber-optic communication systems when one addresses high-rate and long-distance digital data transmission. Conventional digital communication systems implement a modulation technique that generates light pulses at the fiber input end and tries to detect them at the fiber output end. Here an advanced modulation transmission system is developed based on knowledge of the exact dispersion parameters of the fiber and the principles of space-time mathematical analogy. The information encodes the phase of the input light beam (a continuous laser beam). This phase is designed such that, when the signal is transmitted through a fiber with a given chromatic dispersion, high peak pulses emerge at the output, which follows a desired bit pattern. Thus the continuous input energy is concentrated into short time intervals in which the information needs to be represented at the output. The proposed method provides a high rate-distance product even for fibers with high dispersion parameters, high power at the output, and also unique protection properties. Theoretical analysis of the proposed method, computer simulations, and some design aspects are given.

  11. The relationship between testosterone and long-distance calling in wild male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E.; Enigk, Drew K.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Wrangham, Richard W; Muller, Martin N.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance calling is a common behaviour in animals that has various important social functions. At a physiological level, calling is often mediated by gonadal hormones such as testosterone (T), particularly when its function is linked to intra-sexual competition for mates or territory. T also plays an important role in the development of vocal characteristics associated with dominance in humans. However, the few available studies of T and vocal behaviour in non-human primates suggest that in primates T has less influence on call production than in other animals. We tested this hypothesis by studying the relationship between T concentrations and pant hooting in wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found three kinds of correlation. Hourly T averages were positively associated with hourly rates of pant-hooting. Monthly T levels were likewise correlated with monthly rates of pant hooting after controlling for other influences such as fission-fusion rates. Finally, males with high T levels had higher peak frequency at the start of the call climax. These results suggest that T affects the production of pant-hoots in chimpanzees. This implies that the pant-hoot call plays a role in male-male competition. We propose that even in cognitively sophisticated species, endocrine mechanisms can contribute to regulating vocal production. PMID:27182103

  12. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks. PMID:26057337

  13. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Willemoes, Mikkel; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Vega, Marta Lomas; Dasari, Hari P.; Araújo, Miguel B.; Wikelski, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future. PMID:28070557

  14. Evaluation of Advanced TCP Stacks on Fast Long-Distance Production Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bullot, H.

    2004-04-08

    With the growing needs of data intensive science, such as High Energy Physics, and the need to share data between multiple remote computer and data centers worldwide, the necessity for high network performance to replicate large volumes (TBytes) of data between remote sites in Europe, Japan and the U.S. is imperative. Currently, most production bulk-data replication on the network utilizes multiple parallel standard (Reno based) TCP streams. Optimizing the window sizes and number of parallel stream is time consuming, complex, and varies (in some cases hour by hour) depending on network configurations and loads. We therefore evaluated new advanced TCP stacks that do not require multiple parallel streams while giving good performances on high speed long-distance network paths. In this paper, we report measurements made on real production networks with various TCP implementations on paths with different Round Trip Times (RTT) using both optimal and sub-optimal window sizes. We compared the New Reno TCP with the following stacks: HS-TCP, Fast TCP, S-TCP, HSTCP-LP, H-TCP and Bic-TCP. The analysis will compare and report on the stacks in terms of achievable throughput, impact on RTT, intra- and inter-protocol fairness, stability, as well as the impact of reverse traffic. We also report on some tentative results from tests made on unloaded 10 Gbps paths during SuperComputing 2003.

  15. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  16. A review on some of the problems associated with long-distance journeys.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J; Edwards, B

    2008-01-01

    Long-distance travel, for business or pleasure, is becoming increasingly common. Any long journey, whether by plane, road or rail, will be associated with "travel fatigue", the combined effects of a changed routine (particularly sleep loss and altered meals) and the general disruption caused by travel. Planning any trip well in advance will minimise many of these problems, but some factors are less easy to guard against; these include sitting in cramped and uncomfortable conditions and, with flights, the hypoxic environment in the cabin. After arrival at a destination in another country, there can be problems with language, altered food and different customs. If the flight has crossed the equator, then there is also likely to be a change in season and natural lighting, and if the flight has, additionally or alternatively, crossed several time zones, then there will also be the problem of "jet lag", caused by a transient dyssynchrony between the "body clock" and the new local time. The new environment might differ from the place of departure with regard to ambient temperature and humidity, altitude, natural lighting (and hence exposure to ultra-violet radiation) and pollution. In all cases, the traveller needs to be aware of these changes before setting off, so that appropriate preparations (different clothing, for example) can be made.

  17. In-situ laser-induced contamination monitoring using long-distance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Paul; Schröder, Helmut; Riede, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Operating high power space-based laser systems in the visible and UV range is problematic due to laser-induced contamination (LIC). In this paper LIC growth on high-reflective (HR) coated optics is investigated for UV irradiation of 355 nm with naphthalene as contamination material in the range of 10-5 mbar. The investigated HR optics were coated by different processes: electron beam deposition (EBD), magnetron sputtering (MS) or ion beam sputtering (IBS). In-situ observation of contamination induced damage was performed using a long distance microscope. Additionally the onset and evolution of deposit formation and contamination induced damage of optical samples was observed by in-situ laserinduced fluorescence and reflection monitoring. Ex-situ characterization of deposits and damage morphology was performed by differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy. It was found that contamination induced a drastic reduction of laser damage threshold compared to values obtained without contamination. Contamination deposit and damage formation was strongest on IBS followed by MS and smallest on EBD.

  18. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lea, James S E; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L; Mucientes, Gonzalo R; Humphries, Nicolas E; Harvey, Guy M; Sims, David W; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2015-06-09

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  19. Dengue and chikungunya: long-distance spread and outbreaks in naïve areas.

    PubMed

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito-borne virus infections, such as dengue and chikungunya, are continuously expanding their geographical range. The dengue virus, which is known to be a common cause of febrile illness in tropical areas of the Old World, is now widespread in the Americas. In most affected areas, all the four dengue virus serotypes have circulated. Recently, small clusters of dengue have been identified also in Southern Europe during the hot season. The chikungunya virus, initially restricted to Central Africa, where is a common cause of sporadic cases or small outbreaks, and Asia, where it is used to cause large epidemics, has recently invaded new territories. After ravaging Indian Ocean Islands and the Indian subcontinent, CHIKV caused an outbreak in north-eastern Italy. Recently, chikungunya has reached the Caribbean, causing for the first time a large epidemic on the American continent. Although Aedes aegypti is the main vector of both viruses, Aedes albopictus, the Asian 'Tiger' mosquito, is now playing an increasingly important role, contributing to their spread in temperate climate areas. Hereby, we focus the attention on outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya occurring in previously disease-free areas and discuss factors associated with the long-distance spread of the vector-borne infections, such as mutations increasing viral fitness, climate change, urbanization, and globalization of humans and vectors.

  20. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  1. Long distance telementoring. A novel tool for laparoscopy aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln.

    PubMed

    Cubano, M; Poulose, B K; Talamini, M A; Stewart, R; Antosek, L E; Lentz, R; Nibe, R; Kutka, M F; Mendoza-Sagaon, M

    1999-07-01

    As general surgeons perform a growing number of laparoscopic operations in increasingly specialized environments, the ability to obtain expert advice during procedures becomes more important. Technological advances in video and computer communications are enabling surgeons to procure expertise quickly and efficiently. In this article, we present laparoscopic procedures completed through an intercontinental telementoring system and the first telementored laparoscopic procedures performed aboard a naval vessel. Video, voice, and data streams were linked between the USS Abraham Lincoln Aircraft Carrier Battlegroup cruising the Pacific Ocean and locations in Maryland and California, creating the Battlegroup Telemedicine (BGTM) system. Three modes of BGTM communication were used: intraship, ship to ship, and ship to shore. Five laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were completed aboard the Lincoln under telementoring guidance from land-based surgeons thousands of miles away. In addition, the BGTM system proved invaluable in obtaining timely expertise on a wide variety of surgical and medical problems that would otherwise have required a shore visit. Successful intercontinental laparoscopic telementoring aboard a naval vessel was accomplished using "off-the-shelf" components. In many instances, the high risk and cost of transporting patients to land-based facilities was averted because of the BGTM system. Also, the relationship between the on-site and telementoring surgeon was critical to the success of this experiment. Long-distance telementoring is an invaluable tool in providing instantly available expertise during laparoscopic procedures.

  2. Long-distance near-field energy transport via propagating surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian; Zhao, Junming; Liu, Linhua

    2018-02-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer (RHT) between two bodies can significantly exceed the far-field limit set by Planck's law due to the evanescent wave tunneling, which typically can only occur when the two bodies are separated at subwavelength distances. We show that the RHT between two SiC nanoparticles with separation distances much larger than the thermal wavelength can still exceed the far-field limit when the particles are located within a subwavelength distance away from a SiC substrate. In this configuration, the localized surface phonon polariton (SPhP) of the particles couples to the propagating SPhP of the substrate which then provides a new channel for the near-field energy transport and enhances the RHT by orders of magnitude at large distances. The enhancement is also demonstrated to appear in a chain of closely spaced SiC nanoparticles located in the near field of a SiC substrate. The findings provide a way for the long-distance transport of near-field energy.

  3. Resource tracking within and across continents in long-distance bird migrants.

    PubMed

    Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P; Willemoes, Mikkel; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Vega, Marta Lomas; Dasari, Hari P; Araújo, Miguel B; Wikelski, Martin; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Migratory birds track seasonal resources across and between continents. We propose a general strategy of tracking the broad seasonal abundance of resources throughout the annual cycle in the longest-distance migrating land birds as an alternative to tracking a certain climatic niche or shorter-term resource surplus occurring, for example, during spring foliation. Whether and how this is possible for complex annual spatiotemporal schedules is not known. New tracking technology enables unprecedented spatial and temporal mapping of long-distance movement of birds. We show that three Palearctic-African species track vegetation greenness throughout their annual cycle, adjusting the timing and direction of migratory movements with seasonal changes in resource availability over Europe and Africa. Common cuckoos maximize the vegetation greenness, whereas red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales track seasonal surplus in greenness. Our results demonstrate that the longest-distance migrants move between consecutive staging areas even within the wintering region in Africa to match seasonal variation in regional climate. End-of-century climate projections indicate that optimizing greenness would be possible but that vegetation surplus might be more difficult to track in the future.

  4. Working Memory in the Processing of Long-Distance Dependencies: Interference and Filler Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ness, Tal; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya

    2017-12-01

    During the temporal delay between the filler and gap sites in long-distance dependencies, the "active filler" strategy can be implemented in two ways: the filler phrase can be actively maintained in working memory ("maintenance account"), or it can be retrieved only when the parser posits a gap ("retrieval account"). The current study tested whether filler content is maintained during the processing of dependencies. Using a self-paced reading paradigm, we compared reading times on a noun phrase (NP) between the filler and gap sites in object relative clauses, to reading times on an NP between the antecedent and ellipsis sites in ellipsis sentences. While in the former type of dependency a filler by hypothesis can be maintained, in the latter there is no indication for the existence of a dependency prior to the ellipsis site, and hence no maintenance. By varying the amount of similarity-based interference between the antecedent and integration sites, we tested the influence of holding an unresolved dependency on reading times. Significantly increased reading times due to interference were found only in the object relative condition, and not in the ellipsis condition, demonstrating filler maintenance costs. The fact that these costs were measured as an effect on similarity-based interference indicates that the maintained representation of the filler must include at least some of the features shared by the interfering NP.

  5. Long-distance dispersal and speciation of Australasian and American species of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius.

    PubMed

    Harrower, Emma; Bougher, Neale L; Henkel, Terry W; Horak, Egon; Matheny, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    We present a multigene phylogeny (partial nuc rDNA and RPB2) of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius (i.e. the C. violaceus group), which reveals eight species distributed in Europe, Australasia, South America, Central America and North America. Relaxed molecular clock analyses suggested that diversification began during the Miocene, thus rejecting more ancient Gondwanan origin scenarios among the taxa currently occurring in the northern and southern hemispheres. There was strong support for an Australasian origin of the C. violaceus group with initial dispersal to the Neotropics, followed by migration into North America and Europe. A dispersal-extinction cladogenesis model that includes a parameter for founder effects was the most highly supported biogeographic model in the program BioGeoBEARS. A maximum likelihood analysis showed the most recent common ancestor of sect. Cortinarius was an angiosperm ectomycorrhizal associate. Ancestral associations at the plant family level, however, were ambiguous. Of eight recovered species-level lineages, C. violaceus is the only one that associates with Pinaceae and the only species to associate with both Pinaceae and angiosperms. This analysis showed that long-distance dispersal and founder event speciation have been important factors during evolution of the C. violaceus group. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. Air quality and climate benefits of long-distance electricity transmission in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei; Yuan, Jiahai; Zhao, Yu; Lin, Meiyun; Zhang, Qiang; Victor, David G.; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    2017-06-01

    China is the world’s top carbon emitter and suffers from severe air pollution. It has recently made commitments to improve air quality and to peak its CO2 emissions by 2030. We examine one strategy that can potentially address both issues—utilizing long-distance electricity transmission to bring renewable power to the polluted eastern provinces. Based on an integrated assessment using state-of-the-science atmospheric modeling and recent epidemiological evidence, we find that transmitting a hybrid of renewable (60%) and coal power (40%) (Hybrid-by-wire) reduces 16% more national air-pollution-associated deaths and decreases three times more carbon emissions than transmitting only coal-based electricity. Moreover, although we find that transmitting coal power (Coal-by-Wire, CbW) is slightly more effective at reducing air pollution impacts than replacing old coal power plants with newer cleaner ones in the east (Coal-by-Rail, CbR) (CbW achieves a 6% greater reduction in national total air-pollution-related mortalities than CbR), both coal scenarios have approximately the same carbon emissions. We thus demonstrate that coordinating transmission planning with renewable energy deployment is critical to maximize both local air quality benefits and global climate benefits.

  7. Male European eels are highly efficient long distance swimmers: effects of endurance swimming on maturation.

    PubMed

    Burgerhout, Erik; Brittijn, Sebastiaan A; Tudorache, Christian; de Wijze, Daniëlle L; Dirks, Ron P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2013-11-01

    European eels (Anguilla anguilla) migrate ~6000km towards their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Based on the recent discovery that males swim even more efficiently than females, it was predicted that males also would be able to swim ~6000km within six months. Additionally, eels do not mature naturally in captivity due to strong neural inhibition. Earlier, it was hypothesized that swimming exercise is a natural trigger to induce sexual maturation and may even result in full maturation. In the present study two groups of farmed male silver eels were subjected to either endurance swimming or resting for up to 6months. It was found that male eels were able to swim continuously for a total distance of 6670km within 6months. The body weight decrease in swimming and resting males after 6months was similar (<30g) underlining the extreme low energy cost of swimming. In contrast to our expectation long-term swimming did not induce sexual maturation in farmed silver eels, suggesting that swimming alone is not sufficient as a trigger for sexual maturation. In conclusion, male eels are efficient long distance swimmers and likely able to cover the distance to the Sargasso Sea within the expected time span of 6months. © 2013.

  8. Non-breeding season events influence sexual selection in a long-distance migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Reudink, Matthew W.; Marra, Peter P.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Boag, Peter T.; Langin, Kathryn M.; Ratcliffe, Laurene M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of sexual selection has traditionally focused on events and behaviours immediately surrounding copulation. In this study, we examine whether carry-over effects from the non-breeding season can influence the process of sexual selection in a long-distance migratory bird, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Previous work on American redstarts demonstrated that overwintering in a high-quality habitat influences spring departure dates from the wintering grounds, advances arrival dates on the breeding grounds and increases apparent reproductive success. We show that the mixed-mating strategy of American redstarts compounds the benefits of overwintering in high-quality winter habitats. Males arriving to breed in Canada from high-quality winter habitats arrive earlier than males from poor-quality habitats, resulting in a lower probability of paternity loss, a higher probability of achieving polygyny and ultimately higher realized reproductive success. Such results suggest that the process of sexual selection may be influenced by events interacting throughout the annual cycle. PMID:19203918

  9. Recreational Fisheries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable, improve the quantity, function, sustainable productivity, and distribution of U.S. aquatic resources for increased recreational fishing opportunities

  10. Photo Surfing in Blade Runner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This month's "Mining Movies" looks at Blade Runner, Ridley Scott's film set in the year 2019. It is a sad time for Earth, which is in the midst of environmental degradation so severe that other planets are being prepared for colonization. The main source of labor for this preparation work are "replicants," organic robots that look and behave like…

  11. 7 CFR 51.2711 - U.S. Runner Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Runner Splits. 51.2711 Section 51.2711... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2711 U.S. Runner Splits. “U.S. Runner Splits” consists of shelled Runner type peanut kernels of similar varietal characteristics which...

  12. Half-marathon and full-marathon runners' hydration practices and perceptions.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Eric K; Wingo, Jonathan E; Richardson, Mark T; Leeper, James D; Neggers, Yasmine H; Bishop, Phil A

    2011-01-01

    The behaviors and beliefs of recreational runners with regard to hydration maintenance are not well elucidated. To examine which beverages runners choose to drink and why, negative performance and health experiences related to dehydration, and methods used to assess hydration status. Cross-sectional study. Marathon registration site. Men (n = 146) and women (n = 130) (age = 38.3 ± 11.3 years) registered for the 2010 Little Rock Half-Marathon or Full Marathon. A 23-item questionnaire was administered to runners when they picked up their race timing chips. Runners were separated into tertiles (Low, Mod, High) based on z scores derived from training volume, expected performance, and running experience. We used a 100-mm visual analog scale with anchors of 0 (never) and 100 (always). Total sample responses and comparisons between tertile groups for questionnaire items are presented. The High group (58±31) reported greater consumption of sport beverages in exercise environments than the Low (42 ± 35 mm) and Mod (39 ± 32 mm) groups (P < .05) and perceived sport beverages to be superior to water in meeting hydration needs (P < .05) and improving performance during runs greater than 1 hour (P < .05). Seventy percent of runners experienced 1 or more incidents in which they believed dehydration resulted in a major performance decrement, and 45% perceived dehydration to have resulted in adverse health effects. Twenty percent of runners reported monitoring their hydration status. Urine color was the method most often reported (7%), whereas only 2% reported measuring changes in body weight. Greater attention should be paid to informing runners of valid techniques to monitor hydration status and developing an appropriate individualized hydration strategy.

  13. Prevalence of allergy and upper respiratory tract symptoms in runners of the London marathon.

    PubMed

    Robson-Ansley, Paula; Howatson, Glyn; Tallent, Jamie; Mitcheson, Kelly; Walshe, Ian; Toms, Chris; DU Toit, George; Smith, Matt; Ansley, Les

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of self-reported upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms in athletes has been traditionally associated with opportunistic infection during the temporal suppression of immune function after prolonged exercise. There is little evidence for this, and a competing noninfectious hypothesis has been proposed, whereby the exercise-induced immune system modulations favor the development of atopy and allergic disease, which manifests as URT symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between allergy and URT symptoms in runners after an endurance running event. Two hundred eight runners from the 2010 London Marathon completed the validated Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA) and had serum analyzed for total and specific immunoglobulin E response to common inhalant allergens. Participants who completed the marathon and nonrunning controls who lived in the same household were asked to complete a diary on URT symptoms. Forty percent of runners had allergy as defined by both a positive AQUA and elevated specific immunoglobulin E. Forty-seven percent of runners experienced URT symptoms after the marathon. A positive AQUA was a significant predictor of postmarathon URT symptoms in runners. Only 19% of nonrunning controls reported symptoms. The prevalence of allergy in recreational marathon runners was similar to that in elite athletes and higher than that in the general population. There was a strong association between a positive AQUA and URT symptoms. The low proportion of households in which both runners and nonrunners were symptomatic suggests that the nature of symptoms may be allergic or inflammatory based rather than infectious. Allergy is a treatable condition, and its potential effect on performance and health may be avoided by accurate clinical diagnosis and management. Both athletes' and coaches' awareness of the potential implications of poorly managed allergy needs to be raised.

  14. Half-Marathon and Full-Marathon Runners' Hydration Practices and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Eric K.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Richardson, Mark T.; Leeper, James D.; Neggers, Yasmine H.; Bishop, Phil A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The behaviors and beliefs of recreational runners with regard to hydration maintenance are not well elucidated. Objective: To examine which beverages runners choose to drink and why, negative performance and health experiences related to dehydration, and methods used to assess hydration status. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Marathon registration site. Patients or Other Participants: Men (n = 146) and women (n = 130) (age = 38.3 ± 11.3 years) registered for the 2010 Little Rock Half-Marathon or Full Marathon. Intervention(s): A 23-item questionnaire was administered to runners when they picked up their race timing chips. Main Outcome Measure(s): Runners were separated into tertiles (Low, Mod, High) based on z scores derived from training volume, expected performance, and running experience. We used a 100-mm visual analog scale with anchors of 0 (never) and 100 (always). Total sample responses and comparisons between tertile groups for questionnaire items are presented. Results: The High group (58±31) reported greater consumption of sport beverages in exercise environments than the Low (42 ± 35 mm) and Mod (39 ± 32 mm) groups (P < .05) and perceived sport beverages to be superior to water in meeting hydration needs (P < .05) and improving performance during runs greater than 1 hour (P < .05). Seventy percent of runners experienced 1 or more incidents in which they believed dehydration resulted in a major performance decrement, and 45% perceived dehydration to have resulted in adverse health effects. Twenty percent of runners reported monitoring their hydration status. Urine color was the method most often reported (7%), whereas only 2% reported measuring changes in body weight. Conclusions: Greater attention should be paid to informing runners of valid techniques to monitor hydration status and developing an appropriate individualized hydration strategy. PMID:22488182

  15. Bone density and cyclic ovarian function in trained runners and active controls.

    PubMed

    Winters, K M; Adams, W C; Meredith, C N; Loan, M D; Lasley, B L

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether rigorous exercise training adversely affects ovarian hormone levels and bone health in cyclically menstruating trained runners. Ovarian hormones, bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, 3-d diet records, 3-d estimated energy expenditure, and menstrual histories were evaluated in 10 trained collegiate runners and 10 moderately active controls. The trained runners had lower total body calcium per kg of soft lean tissue measured by DEXA (P = 0.045). Half of the trained runners had experienced stress fractures compared with only one of the moderately active controls. The trained runners' lumbar (L2-L4) BMD (1.178 g.cm-2) was not significantly different from that of the active controls (1.283 g.cm-2) (P = 0.074) but, for all subjects combined, there wasa significant inverse relation between L2-L4 BMD and distance run per week (P = 0.036). Further, adding age, body weight, percent body fat, daily energy intake, and daily calcium intake to a stepwise multiple regression analysis did not significantly improve predictive precision. The trained runners consumed nearly twice the amount of calcium (1089 mg.d-1 vs 641 mg.d-1, respectively; P = 0.036), while intake of other nutrients did not differ significantly between groups. Urinary estrone conjugates (E1C) were lower in the trained runners during the early follicular phase (P = 0.028), while pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) was not significantly different between groups during the luteal phase (P = 0.213). Thus, it appears that lower estrogen production, especially during the early follicular phase, and not progesterone, is associated with lower whole body calcium per kg of soft lean tissue and, probably, L2-L4 BMD. Results of this study also suggest that regular menstrual cycles do not imply normal ovarian hormone function in young women who are engaged in either recreational or competitive running.

  16. Changes of intima-media thickness in marathon runners: A mid-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Dahm, Valeria; Lorenz, Elke S; Pressler, Axel; Haller, Bernhard; Grabs, Viola; Halle, Martin; Scherr, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is used to assess cardiovascular risk and progression of atherosclerosis. It is known that regular physical activity of moderate intensity has beneficial effects on the vasculature. However, it is still discussed controversially whether prolonged exercise, including participation in exhaustive competitive sports such as long-distance races, has also beneficial effects or might even be harmful regarding the cardiovascular system. Patients and methods Thirty-eight male marathon runners (45.8 ± 7.3 years) were investigated twice (2009 and 2013) for their carotid IMT (using ultrasound techniques), anthropometrics and clinical chemistry. Additionally, training volume (running kilometres per year) and competition participation (half marathon, marathon and ultramarathon) within this follow-up period were assessed. Results During 3.8 ± 0.4 years of follow-up, runners performed 1587 (850-2500) training kilometres per year and participated in a total of 7 (4-12) long distance competitions. IMT increased in total by 0.05 ± 0.09 mm or annually by 0.013 ± 0.023 mm, respectively. Higher increase in IMT over that period was associated with higher fasting blood glucose (beta = .355, p = .045) at baseline examination. Effects of training volume and number of competitions on the progression of IMT could not be demonstrated in our longitudinal analysis. Conclusions Higher blood glucose levels are associated with detrimental effects on vasculature in otherwise healthy male marathon runners. Regular marathon training, including competition participation over at least several years, was not associated with detrimental effects on IMT or, vice versa, seems not to provide beneficial effects on vasculature.

  17. Meanings and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among long-distance truck drivers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magno, Laio; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2016-12-22

    To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability. The results showed that the insertion of truck drivers in contexts of high social vulnerability (poor working conditions, violence on the roads, and use of alcohol and other drugs) along with the advances in access and effectiveness of treatment for AIDS promote a reduced perception of the risk and severity of this disease. In addition, the notion of "risk group" and the symbolic division between "home space" (protected) and "street space" (unprotected) intensified a restricted and specific use of condoms, guided by the opposition between "woman of the street" (unknown women, prostitutes, among others) and "woman of the house" (wives, girlfriends). The meanings assigned by truckers to AIDS incorporated elements of recent transformations of the expanded social context, such as the development of health technologies (especially anti-retroviral drugs) and the guarantee of free access to treatment in the Brazilian public health system; but also incorporated old elements of social vulnerability context - such as the poor working conditions on Brazilian highways. Compreender os significados atribuídos pelos caminhoneiros de rota longa ao HIV/aids e à sua transmissão e prevenção, tendo em vista diferentes contextos de vulnerabilidade. Pesquisa qualitativa com 22 caminhoneiros. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante em rodovias do estado da Bahia em 2013. Foram selecionados caminhoneiros do sexo masculino, com um

  18. [Long distance air transport by helicopter of a patient with severe head damage].

    PubMed

    Sumida, M; Taguchi, H; Eguchi, K; Kuroki, K

    2001-04-01

    A report of a case of a patient with severe head trauma with pneumonia and cerebral infarction transported by helicopter. An eighty-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea after a fall during sightseeing at Hiroshima. He was lucid at first, but, after two days presented restlessness due to brain contusional hemorrhage and edema. Moreover, he developed pneumonia and cerebral infarction during the period of his hospitalization. He was intubated and received central venous routing. While being transported, his consciousness showed moderate disturbance, aphasia and right hemiplegia. His family asked that therapy be continued near his house in Osaka. We selected transport by helicopter because of his bad general condition and because transport time would be much shorter. He was transported by helicopter to Osaka one month after admission. First, he was transported by ambulance to the airport of Hiroshima. He was carried to the helicopter at the airport. An oxygen cylinder was connected to the incubation tube via an ambu bag because direct connection between the oxygen cylinder and the intubation tube was impossible. Just before the take off, O2 saturation was checked by the pulse oximeter of the ambulance. In the helicopter, there were six men; two pilots, two rescue men, one doctor and the patient. Suction was applied only once and there was no trouble during the flight. The weather was fine and the helicopter experienced almost no rolling during the flight. The flight time was only one hour and twenty minutes. The helicopter safely landed at an emergency heliport in Osaka. The patient was carried to a waiting ambulance and transported to the hospital. Total transport time was only two hours and thirty minutes. This is a case showing a helicopter could safely transport a patient with severe brain damage over a long distance in a short time.

  19. Modeling of Brillouin scattering in long-distance fiber optic links with bidirectional optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salwik, Karol; Śliwczyński, Łukasz; Krehlik, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    For the dissemination of precise signals from atomic clocks (like e.g. cesium clocks/fountains, H-masers or optical clocks) an optical link operating bi-directionally over the same fiber is essential. In such a link stimulated Brillouin scattering is one of the non-linear effects that may reduce the power of forward optical signal and convert it into the noise that propagates in the backward direction. In the link that uses a number of bi-directional optical amplifiers, the conditions that trigger the Brillouin scattering process may occur relatively easily because of large effective length for the scattering process. Thus in the design phase of the link, checking of the conditions for Brillouin scattering should be a part of optimization procedure (i.e. optimizing bi-directional amplifiers gains). In the paper we consider the mathematical model of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in the long distance, fiber optic links with multiple bidirectional optical amplifiers. The model was implemented in Matlab and consists of the coupled differential equations describing the propagation of pump and scattered signals that develops due to spontaneous scattering. The presence of bi-directional optical amplifiers is modeled as point-like discontinuity of the α parameter that is used to represent the attenuation of the fiber. These discontinuities create an extra level of difficulty when numerically solving the coupled equations (the problem is stiff) so special algorithm is presented that iteratively searches for the solution. The obtained results were compared with the measurements of the real link to confirm the correctness of the solution.

  20. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  1. Experimental Quantification of Long Distance Dispersal Potential of Aquatic Snails in the Gut of Migratory Birds

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.; van der Velde, Gerard; van Lith, Bart; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory) in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia) ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought. PMID:22403642

  2. Relaxed Molecular Clock Provides Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal of Nothofagus (Southern Beech)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michael; Stöckler, Karen; Havell, David; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sebastiani, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of “Kontinentaldrift”, Nothofagus has been regarded as the “key genus in plant biogeography”. This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota. PMID:15660155

  3. Seed dispersal at alpine treeline: long distance dispersal maintains alpine treelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Gaddis, K. D.; Cairns, D. M.; Krutovsky, K.

    2016-12-01

    Alpine treelines are expected to advance to higher elevations in conjunction with global warming. Nevertheless, the importance of reproductive method and seed dispersal distances at the alpine treeline ecotone remains unresolved. We address two research questions at mountain hemlock treelines on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska: (1) What is the primary mode of reproduction, and (2) are recruits derived from local treeline populations or are they arriving from more distant seed sources? We addressed our research questions by exhaustively sampling mountain hemlock individuals along a single mountain slope and then genotyped DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms using a genotyping by sequencing approach (ddRAD Seq). First we assessed mode of reproduction by determining the proportion of sampled individuals with identical multilocus genotypes that are the product of clonal reproduction. Second, we used a categorical allocation based parentage analysis to identify parent-offspring pairs, so that the proportion of treeline reproduction events could be quantified spatially and dispersal distance measured. We identified sexual reproduction as the primary mode of reproduction at our study site. Seedling establishment was characterized by extensive cryptic seed dispersal and gene flow into the ecotone. The average dispersal distance was 73 meters with long distance dispersal identified as dispersal occurring at distances greater than 450 meters. We show that production of seeds within the alpine treeline ecotone is not a necessary requirement for treelines to advance to higher elevations in response to climate change. The extensive cryptic seed dispersal and gene flow into the alpine treeline ecotone is likely sufficient to propel the ecotone higher under more favorable climate.

  4. Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyan; Iwashiro, Reika; Li, Tianzhong; Harada, Takeo

    2013-10-21

    The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain. Deletion of the DELLA domain results in constitutive suppression of GA signaling. As the GAI transcript is transportable in phloem elements, a Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) transgenic stock plant can reduce the stature of a scion through transport of gai mRNA from the stock. However, little is known about the characteristics of a scion on a gai stock. Arabidopsis Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) was fused with a T7 epitope tag and expressed under the control of a companion cell-specific expression promoter, Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter (CoYMVp), to enhance transport in the phloem. The CoYMVp:Atgai-T7 (CgT) transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana exhibited a dwarf phenotype and lower sensitivity to GA enhancement of shoot stature. A wild-type (WT) scion on a CgT stock contained both Atgai-T7 mRNA and the translated product. Microarray analysis to clarify the effect of the CgT stock on the gene expression pattern in the scion clearly revealed that the WT scions on CgT stocks had fewer genes whose expression was altered in response to GA treatment. An apple rootstock variety, Malus prunifolia, integrating CoYMVp:Atgai moderately reduced the tree height of the apple cultivar scion. Our results demonstrate that Atgai mRNA can move from companion cells to sieve tubes and that the translated product remains at the sites to which it is transported, resulting in attenuation of GA responses by reducing the expression of many genes. The induction of semi-dwarfism in an apple cultivar on root stock harbouring Atgai suggests that long-distance transport of mRNA from grafts would be applicable to horticulture crops.

  5. Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain. Deletion of the DELLA domain results in constitutive suppression of GA signaling. As the GAI transcript is transportable in phloem elements, a Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) transgenic stock plant can reduce the stature of a scion through transport of gai mRNA from the stock. However, little is known about the characteristics of a scion on a gai stock. Results Arabidopsis Δ-DELLA GAI (gai) was fused with a T7 epitope tag and expressed under the control of a companion cell-specific expression promoter, Commelina yellow mottle virus promoter (CoYMVp), to enhance transport in the phloem. The CoYMVp:Atgai-T7 (CgT) transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana exhibited a dwarf phenotype and lower sensitivity to GA enhancement of shoot stature. A wild-type (WT) scion on a CgT stock contained both Atgai-T7 mRNA and the translated product. Microarray analysis to clarify the effect of the CgT stock on the gene expression pattern in the scion clearly revealed that the WT scions on CgT stocks had fewer genes whose expression was altered in response to GA treatment. An apple rootstock variety, Malus prunifolia, integrating CoYMVp:Atgai moderately reduced the tree height of the apple cultivar scion. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Atgai mRNA can move from companion cells to sieve tubes and that the translated product remains at the sites to which it is transported, resulting in attenuation of GA responses by reducing the expression of many genes. The induction of semi-dwarfism in an apple cultivar on root stock harbouring Atgai suggests that long-distance transport of mRNA from grafts would be applicable to horticulture crops. PMID:24144190

  6. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual transactions between long distance truck drivers and female sex workers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhakhe, Nosipho Faith; Lane, Tim; McIntyre, James; Struthers, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) are considered key populations at high risk for HIV transmission due to high prevalence. The intersection of these mobile populations presents unique challenges in the fight against HIV and the movement towards reducing new infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of sex trade along a particular transport route. Sexual transactions and the vulnerabilities that exist between these two groups with regards to HIV/AIDS are described, with the purpose of furthering the agenda for targeted interventions. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 participants, seven FSWs and seven LDTDs. We recruited FSWs through snowballing, and LDTDs through intercepts at truck stops. Semi-structured interview guides were used for data collection, and thematic analysis was conducted. The sex trade in this study is characterized by competition, fuelled by money-driven and age-disparate rivalry. Despite widespread HIV knowledge, FSWs contend with persistent challenges regarding condom use negotiation, induced by more money in the exchange for unsafe sex. Despite the placement of wellness centres in truck stops along the highway, LDTDs face stigma related challenges with regards to testing for HIV and personal acknowledgement of their involvement in the sex trade. The nature of the sex trade along the highway continues to be risky despite the availability of HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment (ART). The sex trade is perceived to be increasing along trucking routes, in spite of measures instituted to limit access to FSWs. FSWs struggle to cope with the pressure of unprotected sex because of the need to generate more income, as well as avoid incidents of violence and threats. Interventions along transport routes need to be inclusive of FSWs who could play a vital role in stigma reduction amongst LDTDs through peer education.

  8. Climatic conditions produce contrasting influences on demographic traits in a long-distance Arctic migrant.

    PubMed

    Cleasby, Ian R; Bodey, Thomas W; Vigfusdottir, Freydis; McDonald, Jenni L; McElwaine, Graham; Mackie, Kerry; Colhoun, Kendrew; Bearhop, Stuart

    2017-03-01

    The manner in which patterns of variation and interactions among demographic rates contribute to population growth rate (λ) is key to understanding how animal populations will respond to changing climatic conditions. Migratory species are likely to be particularly sensitive to climatic conditions as they experience a range of different environments throughout their annual cycle. However, few studies have provided fully integrated demographic analyses of migratory populations in response to changing climatic conditions. Here, we employed integrated population models to demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a short but critical period play a central role in the demography of a long-distance migrant, the light-bellied Brent goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Female survival was positively associated with June North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) values, whereas male survival was not. In contrast, breeding productivity was negatively associated with June NAO, suggesting a trade-off between female survival and reproductive success. Both adult female and adult male survival showed low temporal variation, whereas there was high temporal variation in recruitment and breeding productivity. In addition, while annual population growth was positively correlated with annual breeding productivity, a sensitivity analysis revealed that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult survival. Our results demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a relatively short-time window at the start of the breeding season play a critical role in shaping the demography of a long-distant Arctic migrant. Crucially, different demographic rates responded in opposing directions to climatic variation, emphasising the need for integrated analysis of multiple demographic traits when understanding population dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  9. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    PubMed Central

    Mulville, Jacqueline A.; Bruford, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human–wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  10. Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, R T; Huenchuñir, C; Johansson, D; Forslund, H; Kautsky, L; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2013-08-01

    Parallel evolution has been invoked as a forceful mechanism of ecotype and species formation in many animal taxa. However, parallelism may be difficult to separate from recently monophyletically diverged species that are likely to show complex genetic relationships as a result of considerable shared ancestral variation and secondary hybridization in local areas. Thus, species' degrees of reproductive isolation, barriers to dispersal and, in particular, limited capacities for long-distance dispersal will affect demographical structures underlying mechanisms of divergent evolution. Here, we used nine microsatellite DNA markers to study intra- and interspecific genetic diversity of two recently diverged species of brown macroalgae, Fucus radicans (L. Bergström & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We further performed biophysical modelling to identify likely connectivity patterns influencing the species' genetic structures. For each species, we found intraspecific contrasting patterns of clonality incidence and population structure. In addition, strong genetic differentiation between the two species within each locality supported the existence of two distinct evolutionary lineages (FST  = 0.15-0.41). However, overall genetic clustering analyses across both species' populations revealed that all populations from one region (Estonia) were more genetically similar to each other than to their own taxon from the other two regions (Sweden and Finland). Our data support a hypothesis of parallel speciation. Alternatively, Estonia may be the ancestral source of both species, but is presently isolated by oceanographic barriers to dispersal. Thus, a limited gene flow in combination with genetic drift could have shaped the seemingly parallel structure. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Emergence of long distance bird migrations: a new model integrating global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Louchart, Antoine

    2008-12-01

    During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic-paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the 'shifting home' model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not 'northern' or 'southern' but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.

  12. Using task dynamics to quantify the affordances of throwing for long distance and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew D; Weightman, Andrew; Bingham, Geoffrey P; Zhu, Qin

    2016-07-01

    In 2 experiments, the current study explored how affordances structure throwing for long distance and accuracy. In Experiment 1, 10 expert throwers (from baseball, softball, and cricket) threw regulation tennis balls to hit a vertically oriented 4 ft × 4 ft target placed at each of 9 locations (3 distances × 3 heights). We measured their release parameters (angle, speed, and height) and showed that they scaled their throws in response to changes in the target's location. We then simulated the projectile motion of the ball and identified a continuous subspace of release parameters that produce hits to each target location. Each subspace describes the affordance of our target to be hit by a tennis ball moving in a projectile motion to the relevant location. The simulated affordance spaces showed how the release parameter combinations required for hits changed with changes in the target location. The experts tracked these changes in their performance and were successful in hitting the targets. We next tested unusual (horizontal) targets that generated correspondingly different affordance subspaces to determine whether the experts would track the affordance to generate successful hits. Do the experts perceive the affordance? They do. In Experiment 2, 5 cricketers threw to hit either vertically or horizontally oriented targets and successfully hit both, exhibiting release parameters located within the requisite affordance subspaces. We advocate a task dynamical approach to the study of affordances as properties of objects and events in the context of tasks as the future of research in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Long-distance transport of cadmium from roots to leaves of Solanum melongena.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Li, Xuemei; Zhuang, Jie; Weng, Liping; Liu, Wan; Tai, Peidong

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake by roots and translocation from roots to leaves of two eggplant species (Solanum melongena and Solanum torvum) under relatively low Cd concentrations were investigated using stable (108)Cd isotope through a number of hydroponic experiments. The uptake and translocation of (108)Cd was compared with those of (70)Zn and (15)N. The results showed more (108)Cd was loaded to the vascular channels and translocated upward to the leaves in S. melongena than in S. torvum, while the (108)Cd concentrations were significantly lower in the roots of S. melongena than in S. torvum. When the phloem and xylem were wounded by grafting treatments, the foliar (108)Cd concentrations were decreased by more than 66% regardless of the rootstock species, whereas the uptake of (108)Cd in the root was not inhibited by grafting. Similar grafting effects were observed for (70)Zn. Hence, wounding phloem and xylem by grafting disturbed the upward transport of (108)Cd and (70)Zn to the eggplant leaves. Similarly, interruption of the phloem by the girdling treatment reduced the concentrations of (108)Cd in the leaves of S. melongena by approximately 51%, though the uptake of (108)Cd by roots was not reduced by the interruption of phloem. In contrast, neither (70)Zn concentrations nor stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values in the roots and leaves of S. melongena were significantly influenced by the interruption of phloem. In conclusion, the phloem played a dominant role in the long-distance transport of Cd from the root to the leaf of S. melongena, whereas the xylem was the main channel for the translocation of Zn and N.

  14. Plasticity of primary microglia on micropatterned geometries and spontaneous long-distance migration in microfluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microglia possess an elevated grade of plasticity, undergoing several structural changes based on their location and state of activation. The first step towards the comprehension of microglia’s biology and functional responses to an extremely mutable extracellular milieu, consists in discriminating the morphological features acquired by cells maintained in vitro under diverse environmental conditions. Previous work described neither primary microglia grown on artificially patterned environments which impose physical cues and constraints, nor long distance migration of microglia in vitro. To this aim, the present work exploits artificial bio-mimetic microstructured substrates with pillar-shaped or line-grating geometries fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) by soft lithography, in addition to microfluidic devices, and highlights some morphological/functional characteristics of microglia which were underestimated or unknown so far. Results We report that primary microglia selectively adapt to diverse microstructured substrates modifying accordingly their morphological features and behavior. On micropatterned pillar-shaped geometries, microglia appear multipolar, extend several protrusions in all directions and form distinct pseudopodia. On both micropatterned line-grating geometries and microfluidic channels, microglia extend the cytoplasm from a roundish to a stretched, flattened morphology and assume a filopodia-bearing bipolar structure. Finally, we show that in the absence of any applied chemical gradient, primary microglia spontaneously moves through microfluidic channels for a distance of up to 500 μm in approximately 12 hours, with an average speed of 0.66 μm/min. Conclusions We demonstrate an elevated grade of microglia plasticity in response to a mutable extracellular environment, thus making these cells an appealing population to be further exploited for lab on chip technologies. The development of microglia-based microstructured

  15. HIV testing preferences among long distance truck drivers in Kenya: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Michael; George, Gavin; Lansdell, Emma; Mantell, Joanne E; Govender, Kaymarlin; Romo, Matthew; Odhiambo, Jacob; Mwai, Eva; Nyaga, Eston N; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    Providing HIV testing services to truck drivers in Africa is crucial but has proven challenging. The introduction of HIV self-testing promises to provide expanded service delivery options for clients, potentially increasing demand for services and expanding coverage - especially important for high-risk and difficult-to-reach populations. This study examines the preferences regarding HIV testing service delivery models, among long distance truck drivers to identify testing services that would appeal to this population. Using a discrete choice experiment, this study examines the drivers of choice regarding HIV counselling and testing among 305 truck drivers recruited from two roadside wellness clinics along major trucking routes in Kenya. Participants made trade-offs between characteristics of HIV testing service delivery models by making hypothetical choices in a series of paired HIV testing scenarios. Conditional logit models were used to identify the HIV testing characteristics driving the selection of preferred scenarios, as well as determine whether preferences interact with individual characteristics - especially HIV testing history. Participants preferred free, provider-administered HIV testing at a roadside clinic, using a finger-prick test, with in-person counselling, undertaken in the shortest possible time. The strongest driver of choice was the cost of the test. Those who had never tested previously preferred oral testing and telephonic counselling, while those who were not regular testers favoured clinic based - over self-testing. The results of this study indicate that for the majority of participants - most of whom had tested before - the existing services offered at roadside clinics were the preferred service delivery model. The introduction of oral self-testing increases the options available to truck drivers and may even improve testing uptake for some, especially among those who have never tested before. However, these findings suggest the impact

  16. Evidence for long-distance xylem transport of signal peptide activity from tomato roots.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Several types of small, endogenous signal peptides are now known to induce a wide range of local and systemic responses in plants, but how such signal peptide activity is transported over long distances remains unclear. In particular, the possible occurrence and root-to-shoot transport of signal peptide activity in the xylem does not appear to have been previously investigated. Suspension-cultured cells of wild tomato Lycopersicon peruvanium L. were used in an established bioassay for detecting nanomolar concentrations of signal peptides via the induction of alkalinizing activity. Xylem sap naturally exuded from the cut and washed stem-surfaces of de-topped tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Castlemart) was collected, partially purified, concentrated, and shown by the bioassay consistently to contain significant alkalinizing activity. Plant salinity treatment induced further small increases in activity. Subsidiary experiments indicated that the alkalinizing activity found in the xylem-sap had properties similar to those of known plant signal peptides and was root derived. Thus, it was (i) detectable within minutes, (ii) eluted similarly during HPLC chromatography, (iii) destroyed by incubation with proteases and stable in the presence of protease inhibitor cocktail, and (iv) not found in bioassays of simulated xylem sap placed on the cut stem-surfaces of non-exuding roots in order to detect any significant release of wound peptides from the stem. Further investigations of the signal peptide activity in root xylem sap could provide new insights into its identity, genes, receptors, origins, and possible hormonal roles in regulating shoot growth and development.

  17. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J.; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as “greenbeard” genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one’s own type, resulting in cooperation

  18. Waterfowl endozoochory: An overlooked long-distance dispersal mode for Cuscuta (dodder)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costea, Mihai; Stefanović, Saša; García, Miguel A.; De La Cruz, Susan; Casazza, Michael L.; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    REMISE OF THE STUDY: Dispersal of parasitic Cuscuta species (dodders) worldwide has been assumed to be largely anthropomorphic because their seeds do not match any previously known dispersal syndrome and no natural dispersal vectors have been reliably documented. However, the genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution and recent phylogeographic results have indicated that at least18 historical cases of long-distance dispersal (LDD) have occurred during its evolution. The objective of this study is to report the first LDD biological vector for Cuscuta seeds. METHODS: Twelve northern pintails (Anas acuta) were collected from Suisun Marsh, California and the contents of their lowest part of the large intestine (rectum) were extracted and analyzed. Seed identification was done both morphologically and using a molecular approach. Extracted seeds were tested for germination and compared to seeds not subjected to gut passage to determine the extent of structural changes caused to the seed coat by passing through the digestive tract. KEY RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty dodder seeds were found in the rectum of four northern pintails. From these, 411 seeds were identified as Cuscuta campestris and nine as most likely C. pacifica. The germination rate of C. campestris seeds after gut passage was 55%. Structural changes caused by the gut passage in both species were similar to those caused by an acid scarification. CONCLUSIONS: Endozoochory by waterbirds may explain the historical LDD cases in the evolution of Cuscuta. This also suggests that current border quarantine measures may be insufficient to stopping spreading of dodder pests along migratory flyways.

  19. Pacing pattern and speed skating performance in competitive long-distance events.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Panzer, Stefan; Schindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the pacing pattern adopted by women and men in races performed during a complete World Cup series. Elite skaters competed in long-distance races of different length (3,000, 5,000, and 10,000 m) and location (low/high altitude) where distribution of lap times were analyzed. Regardless of athletes' performance level, gender, or rinks' location, similar pacing patterns were observed in each event, which were characterized by an initial acceleration followed by a progressive delay in lap times-"positive pacing strategy". Differences in lap times were significant in each instance for women's 3,000 m (p < 0.001). For the 5,000 m races, laps 5-12 in women and laps 8-12 in men were slower compared with previous laps (p < 0.001, for both sexes). For men's 10,000 m, skaters performed only the first lap faster than the remaining laps (p < 0.001) with laps 2-7 not different from each other but faster than laps 19-24 (p < 0.05), which also did not differ from each other. Top-ranked compared with bottom-ranked skaters (p < 0.001) and male compared with female skaters (p < 0.001) were significantly faster at each lap, suggesting that technical or physiological or both aspects need to be developed in those. The significantly shorter lap times at high- compared with low-altitude races (p < 0.001) suggest that rinks' location appears to be important for performance outcome, at elite level.

  20. Telomere position effect: regulation of gene expression with progressive telomere shortening over long distances

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Ludlow, Andrew T.; Batten, Kimberly; Magdinier, Frédérique; Stadler, Guido; Wagner, Kathyrin R.; Wright, Woodring E.

    2014-01-01

    While global chromatin conformation studies are emerging, very little is known about the chromatin conformation of human telomeres. Most studies have focused on the role of telomeres as a tumor suppressor mechanism. Here we describe how telomere length regulates gene expression long before telomeres become short enough to produce a DNA damage response (senescence). We directly mapped the interactions adjacent to specific telomere ends using a Hi-C (chromosome capture followed by high-throughput sequencing) technique modified to enrich for specific genomic regions. We demonstrate that chromosome looping brings the telomere close to genes up to 10 Mb away from the telomere when telomeres are long and that the same loci become separated when telomeres are short. Furthermore, expression array analysis reveals that many loci, including noncoding RNAs, may be regulated by telomere length. We report three genes (ISG15 [interferon-stimulated gene 15 kd], DSP [Desmoplakin], and C1S [complement component 1s subcomplement]) located at three different subtelomeric ends (1p, 6p, and 12p) whose expressions are altered with telomere length. Additionally, we confirmed by in situ analysis (3D-FISH [three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization]) that chromosomal looping occurs between the loci of those genes and their respective telomere ends. We term this process TPE-OLD for “telomere position effect over long distances.” Our results suggest a potential novel mechanism for how telomere shortening could contribute to aging and disease initiation/progression in human cells long before the induction of a critical DNA damage response. PMID:25403178

  1. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Does long-distance walking improve or deteriorate walking stability of transtibial amputees?

    PubMed

    Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Lam, Wing Kai; Yeung, L F; Lee, Winson C C

    2015-10-01

    Falls are common in transtibial amputees which are linked to their poor stability. While amputees are encouraged to walk more, they are more vulnerable to fatigue which leads to even poorer walking stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic stability of amputees after long-distance walking. Six male unilateral transtibial amputees (age: 53 (SD: 8.8); height: 170cm (SD: 3.4); weight: 75kg (SD: 4.7)) performed two sessions (30minutes each) of treadmill walking, separated by a short period of gait tests. Gait tests were performed before the walking (baseline) and after each session of treadmill walking. Gait parameters and their variability across repeated steps at each of the three conditions were computed. There were no significant differences in walking speed, step length, stance time, time of occurrence, and magnitude of peak angular velocities of the knee and hip joint (P>0.05). However, variability of knee and hip angular velocity after 30-minute walking was significantly higher than the baseline (P<0.05) and after a total of 60-minute walking (P<0.05). The variability of lateral sway velocity after 30-minute walking was significantly higher than the baseline (P<0.05). The significant increase in variability after 30-minute walking could indicate poorer walking stability when fatigue was developed, while the significant reduction after 60-minute walking might indicate the ability of amputees to restore their walking stability after further continuous walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical pathway: helicopter scene STEMI protocol to facilitate long-distance transfer for primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Huang, Robert L; Thomassee, Eric J; Park, Jae Yoon; Scott, Carol; Maron, David J; Fredi, Joseph L

    2012-12-01

    The latest American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients within 90 minutes from presentation to the emergency room. For interhospital transfers, the most recent PCI guidelines recommend first medical contact-to-device times ≤120 minutes. Although PCI-capable hospitals have improved door-to-balloon times, many patients present to non-PCI-capable facilities and have been excluded from national quality measures. In our acute myocardial infarction network, not only do we enable non-PCI hospitals to transfer STEMI patients but empower outside emergency medical services (EMS) to activate the catheterization laboratory team with a burst page and transfer STEMI patients directly from the scene. Data on patient characteristics, outcomes, and time elements were collected for "scene STEMI" patients who circumvented outlying rural non-PCI hospitals and are presented in this case series. From December 2007 to November 2010, 22 STEMI patients with higher than average acuity were transported by helicopter directly to our medical center for primary PCI. Median distance from the scene to our medical center was 47 miles [25th to 75th interquartile range (IQR) = 39-71 miles]. Median EMS-to-balloon time was 120 minutes (IQR = 111-134 minutes). There were no false activations by EMS. In comparison, our median time for interhospital STEMI transfers (N = 335) was 145 minutes (IQR = 121-186 minutes) from 2007 to 2009. In our single-center experience, 22 scene STEMI patients were diagnosed and appropriately triaged by EMS to our center for primary PCI. Our data show feasibility of an EMS-activated STEMI network over long distances with good reperfusion times.

  4. Weather conditions promote route flexibility during open ocean crossing in a long-distance migratory raptor.

    PubMed

    Mellone, Ugo; López-López, Pascual; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Weather conditions are paramount in shaping birds' migratory routes, promoting the evolution of behavioural plasticity and allowing for adaptive decisions on when to depart or stop during migration. Here, we describe and analyze the influence of weather conditions in shaping the sea-crossing stage of the pre-breeding journey made by a long-distance migratory bird, the Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae), tracked by satellite telemetry from the wintering grounds in the Southern Hemisphere to the breeding sites in the Northern Hemisphere. As far as we know, the data presented here are the first report of repeated oceanic journeys of the same individuals in consecutive years. Our results show inter-annual variability in the routes followed by Eleonora's falcons when crossing the Strait of Mozambique, between Madagascar and eastern continental Africa. Interestingly, our observations illustrate that individuals show high behavioural plasticity and are able to change their migration route from one year to another in response to weather conditions, thus minimising the risk of long ocean crossing by selecting winds blowing towards Africa for departure and changing the routes to avoid low pressure areas en route. Our results suggest that weather conditions can really act as obstacles during migration, and thus, besides ecological barriers, the migratory behaviour of birds could also be shaped by "meteorological barriers". We briefly discuss orientation mechanisms used for navigation. Since environmental conditions during migration could cause carry-over effects, we consider that forecasting how global changes of weather patterns will shape the behaviour of migratory birds is of the utmost importance.

  5. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices. PMID:24558073

  6. Long-distance dispersal of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) in Minnesota (USA) and Ontario (Canada) via the atmospheric pathway

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Gary L. Achtemeier; Joseph J. Charney; Dean P. Anderson; Barry J. Cooke; Phillip A. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal can play an important role in the population dynamics of forest insects, but the role of long-distance immigration and emigration remains unclear due to the difficulty of quantifying dispersal distance and direction. We designed an agent-based spruce budworm flight behavior model that, when interfaced with temperature, wind speed, and precipitation output...

  7. Long-distance dispersal of a subadult male cougar from South Dakota to Connecticut documented with DNA evidence

    Treesearch

    Jason E. Hawley; Paul W. Rego; Adrian P. Wydeven; Michael K. Schwartz; Tabitha C. Viner; Roland Kays; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Jonathan A. Jenks

    2016-01-01

    We report the long-distance dispersal of a subadult male cougar (Puma concolor) from South Dakota to Milford, Connecticut, where it was struck and killed by a vehicle. Genetic samples suggest this animal originated from the Black Hills of South Dakota while isotope analysis and physical inspection revealed no evidence that the animal had been held in captivity...

  8. Landscape epidemiology and control of pathogens with cryptic and long-distance dispersal: Sudden oak death in northern Californian forests

    Treesearch

    Joao A. N. Filipe; Richard C. Cobb; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Lee; Yana S. Valachovic; Alex R. Cook; David M. Rizzo; Christopher A. Gilligan

    2012-01-01

    Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also...

  9. When Distance Is Problematic: Communication, Coping, and Relational Satisfaction in Female College Students' Long-Distance Dating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Katheryn C.; Kinney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to gain an in-depth understanding of the situations in which long-distance dating relationships (LDDRs) are distressing for female college students, and to examine the associations between the perceived helpfulness of various communication coping strategies and relational satisfaction in both high and low distress…

  10. Sports-related dermatoses among road runners in Southern Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Road running is a growing sport. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sports-related dermatoses among road runners. METHODS Cross-sectional study of 76 road runners. Assessment was performed by means of a questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination. The chi-square and linear trend tests were used for analysis. RESULTS Most athletes were men (61%), aged 38±11 years, who ran mid- or long-distance courses (60.5%) for 45 to 60 minutes (79%), for a total of 25-64 km (42.1% ) or more than 65 km (18.4%) per week. The most prevalent injuries were blisters (50%), chafing (42.1%), calluses (34.2%), onychomadesis (31.5%), tinea pedis (18.4%), onychocryptosis (14.5%), and cheilitis simplex (14.5%). Among athletes running >64 km weekly, several conditions were significantly more frequent: calluses (p<0.04), jogger's nipple (p<0.004), cheilitis simplex (p<0.05), and tinea pedis (p<0.004). There was a significant association between the weekly running distance and the probability of skin lesions. Of the athletes in our sample, 57% trained before 10 a.m., 86% wore clothing and accessories for sun protection, 62% wore sunscreen, and 19.7% experienced sunburn. Traumatic and environmental dermatoses are common in practitioners of this outdoor sport, and are influenced by the weekly running distance. CONCLUSION In this group of athletes, rashes, blisters, sunburn, and nail disorders were recurrent complaints regardless of running distance. Calluses, athlete's foot, chapped lips, and jogger's nipple predominated in individuals who ran longer routes. PMID:25054745

  11. Predictive Variables of Half-Marathon Performance for Male Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Camara, Jesus; Stickley, Christoper; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A.; García-López, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to establish and validate various predictive equations of half-marathon performance. Seventy-eight half-marathon male runners participated in two different phases. Phase 1 (n = 48) was used to establish the equations for estimating half-marathon performance, and Phase 2 (n = 30) to validate these equations. Apart from half-marathon performance, training-related and anthropometric variables were recorded, and an incremental test on a treadmill was performed, in which physiological (VO2max, speed at the anaerobic threshold, peak speed) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step length and step rate) were registered. In Phase 1, half-marathon performance could be predicted to 90.3% by variables related to training and anthropometry (Equation 1), 94.9% by physiological variables (Equation 2), 93.7% by biomechanical parameters (Equation 3) and 96.2% by a general equation (Equation 4). Using these equations, in Phase 2 the predicted time was significantly correlated with performance (r = 0.78, 0.92, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively). The proposed equations and their validation showed a high prediction of half-marathon performance in long distance male runners, considered from different approaches. Furthermore, they improved the prediction performance of previous studies, which makes them a highly practical application in the field of training and performance. Key points The present study obtained four equations involving anthropometric, training, physiological and biomechanical variables to estimate half-marathon performance. These equations were validated in a different population, demonstrating narrows ranges of prediction than previous studies and also their consistency. As a novelty, some biomechanical variables (i.e. step length and step rate at RCT, and maximal step length) have been related to half-marathon performance. PMID:28630571

  12. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long distance truck drivers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Abiodun Musbau; Olley, Benjamin Oladapo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) have been identified as one of the groups at higher risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Understanding how certain social and psychological variables that have a strong theoretical basis contribute to sexual risk behaviour will guide in the implementation process of HIV risk-reduction intervention in the trucking population. In line with the conceptualisation of Information, Motivation and Behavioural skills model, we examined the extent that HIV knowledge, attitude towards condom use, peer support to condom use, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and condom use self-efficacy will independently and jointly explain sexual risk behaviours of LDTDs in a haulage company in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey design was used and 154 drivers with ages ranging from 27 to 68 years (M = 44.03, SD = 8.82) completed copies of a questionnaire comprising demographics and measures of psychological variables. Psychological factors that included HIV knowledge, attitude towards condom use, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, peer support to condom use, and condom use self-efficacy significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviours (R 2 = .59, F(5, 148) = 42.63; p < .05), by accounting for about 59% of the explained variance in sexual risk behaviours. Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R 2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for about 15% of the explained variance in sexual risk behaviour among the drivers. It is concluded that all the psychological and social factors examined as predictor variables could jointly play important roles in prevention intervention programmes for reducing sexual risk behaviours of LDTDs. Stakeholders

  13. [Time zone shifts and jet lag after long-distance flights].

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Jung, D; Parera, D; Konietzko, J

    1999-10-01

    Long distance flights with rapid time zone shifts of more than 3 hours lead to a dissociation of the inner circadian clock to the outer pacer. Additionally, the different endogenous circadian rhythms will not longer be synchronized by the endogenous pacer melatonin. This leads to complaints like sleepiness, sleep-disturbances and others. These symptoms are called jet-lag. The subject's performance is disturbed, as well. Different studies showed smaller problems with jet lag when travelling to the west. Since the inner circadian rhythm tends to be 24 up to 26 hours, travelling to the west with a prolongation of the daylight will be tolerated better than flights to the east with a shortening of the day length. Rapid time zone shifts with more than 8 hours to the east lead to individual different ways of resynchronization. Subject either try to adapt to the new time zone by shortening the day (backward adaptation) or they resynchronize forward with a longer duration of adaptation time. Elder subjects with already diminished circadian hormonal rhythm often get more problems concerning symptoms of the jet-lag and in time to recover from the disturbance of the inner clock. No differences can be found between business travelers, tourists and high-performance sportsmen. After flights to the west within 3 to 7 days, most of our inner circadian rhythm will be re-synchronized. After flights to the east, resynchronization can take 5 to 14 days. A symptomatic therapy of jet lag symptoms with a short-acting benzodiazepine like triazolam in a dosage of 12.5 mg or less is well tolerated. A therapy with oral melatonin in a dosage of 0.5 to 5 mg/day given in the evening 1 to 2 hours prior to the desired sleeping-time may be helpful for a group of subjects. Another group of subjects will not have any benefit of a therapy with melatonin, but cannot be defined in advance. A recommendation for a therapy with melatonin to treat jet lag symptoms cannot be given at the moment, since

  14. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long distance truck drivers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abiodun Musbau; Olley, Benjamin Oladapo

    2017-12-01

    Long distance truck drivers (LDTDs) have been identified as one of the groups at higher risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Understanding how certain social and psychological variables that have a strong theoretical basis contribute to sexual risk behaviour will guide in the implementation process of HIV risk-reduction intervention in the trucking population. In line with the conceptualisation of Information, Motivation and Behavioural skills model, we examined the extent that HIV knowledge, attitude towards condom use, peer support to condom use, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and condom use self-efficacy will independently and jointly explain sexual risk behaviours of LDTDs in a haulage company in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey design was used and 154 drivers with ages ranging from 27 to 68 years (M = 44.03, SD = 8.82) completed copies of a questionnaire comprising demographics and measures of psychological variables. Psychological factors that included HIV knowledge, attitude towards condom use, perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, peer support to condom use, and condom use self-efficacy significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviours (R2 = .59, F(5, 148) = 42.63; p < .05), by accounting for about 59% of the explained variance in sexual risk behaviours. Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for about 15% of the explained variance in sexual risk behaviour among the drivers. It is concluded that all the psychological and social factors examined as predictor variables could jointly play important roles in prevention intervention programmes for reducing sexual risk behaviours of LDTDs. Stakeholders should

  15. Long-distance longitudinal prostate MRI quality assurance: from startup to 12 months.

    PubMed

    Curci, Nicole E; Gartland, Patrick; Shankar, Prasad R; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Miller, David C; George, Arvin K; Davenport, Matthew S

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate a 12-month long-distance prostate MRI quality assurance (QA) program. The need for IRB approval was waived for this prospective longitudinal QA effort. One academic institution experienced with prostate MRI [~ 1000 examinations/year (Site 2)] partnered with a private institution 240 miles away that was starting a new prostate MRI program (Site 1). Site 1 performed all examinations (N = 249). Four radiologists at Site 1 created finalized reports, then sent images and reports to Site 2 for review on a rolling basis. One radiologist at Site 2 reviewed findings and exam quality and discussed results by phone (~ 2-10 minutes/MRI). In months 1-6 all examinations were reviewed. In months 7-12 only PI-RADS ≤ 2 and 'difficult' cases were reviewed. Repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC). 'Clinically significant cancer' was Gleason ≥ 7. Image quality significantly (p < 0.001) improved after the first three months. Inter-rater agreement also improved in months 3-4 [ICC: 0.849 (95% CI 0.744-0.913)] and 5-6 [ICC: 0.768 (95% CI 0.619-0.864)] compared to months 1-2 [ICC: 0.621 (95% CI 0.436-0.756)]. PI-RADS ≤ 2 examinations were reclassified PI-RADS ≥ 3 in 19% (30/162); of these, 23 had post-MRI histology and 57% (13/23) had clinically significant cancer (5.2% of 249). False-negative examinations [N = 18 (PI-RADS ≤ 2 and Gleason ≥ 7)] were more common at Site 1 during months 1-6 [9% (14/160) vs. 4% (4/89)]. Positive predictive values for PI-RADS ≥ 3 were similar. Remote quality assurance of prostate MRI is feasible and useful, enabling new programs to gain durable skills with minimal risk to patients.

  16. The Localization of Long-Distance Dependency Components: Integrating the Focal-lesion and Neuroimaging Record

    PubMed Central

    Piñango, Maria M.; Finn, Emily; Lacadie, Cheryl; Constable, R. Todd

    2016-01-01

    In the sentence “The captain who the sailor greeted is tall,” the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of “the captain” as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia. We test the hypothesis that this localization incongruence emerges from an interaction of memory and linguistic constraints involved in the real-time implementation of these dependencies and which had not been previously isolated. Capitalizing on a long-standing psycholinguistic understanding of LDDs as the workings of an active filler, we distinguish two linguistically defined mechanisms: GAP-search, triggered by the retrieval of the relative pronoun, and GAP-completion, triggered by the retrieval of the embedded verb. Each mechanism is hypothesized to have distinct memory demands and given their distinct linguistic import, potentially distinct brain correlates. Using fMRI, we isolate the two mechanisms by analyzing their relevant sentential segments as separate events. We manipulate LDD-presence/absence and GAP-search type (direct/indirect) reflecting the absence/presence of intervening islands. Results show a direct GAP-search—LIF cortex correlation that crucially excludes the LPST cortex. Notably, indirect GAP-search recruitment is confined to supplementary-motor and lower-parietal cortex indicating that GAP presence alone is not enough to engage predictive functions in the LIF cortex. Finally, GAP-completion shows recruitment implicating the dorsal pathway including: the supplementary motor cortex, left supramarginal cortex, precuneus

  17. Space allowance during commercial long distance transport of cattle in North America.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    ), compartment of the trailer (greater density in belly and deck), and number of axles on the vehicle (greater density with more axles). The present study provides a framework to assess and understand factors affecting SA during commercial long distance transport of cattle. This information is vital in assessing the consequences of changing industry standards, guidelines, recommended values, laws and regulations on animal welfare, the industry, and economics.

  18. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  19. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    PubMed Central

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  20. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Ondrak, Ales; Skoda, Jan; Zitka, Zdenek; Cernei, Natalia; Masarik, Michal; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. PMID:26999116

  1. Elite Distance Runners and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Giles, Audrey R; Phillipps, Breanna; Darroch, Francine E; McGettigan-Dumas, Roisin

    2016-11-01

    Elite female distance runners lack guidelines regarding breastfeeding while training at a high intensity. The purpose of this research was to understand how elite female distance runners manage breastfeeding. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 women who had had at least one pregnancy within the past 5 years and had achieved a minimum of the USA Track and Field 2012 Olympic Trials "B" entry standard for running for the marathon or equivalent performance for 1,500 m or longer. Using thematic analysis, we identified the following themes: breastfeeding as a barrier to training and competition, limited access to relevant breastfeeding information, and concerns for the baby's health. Our findings show that despite the considerable barriers with which these women contend, they breastfed at higher rates and for longer duration than members of the general public. Based on our findings, we argue that elite female distance runners' experiences of breastfeeding would be enhanced if more research were conducted on breastfeeding practices while training and competing at an elite level.

  2. Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; Denys Yemshanov; Robert A. Haack; Roger D. Magarey

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal pathways, which frequently relate to human activities, facilitate the spread of alien species. One pathway of concern in North America is the possible spread of forest pests in firewood carried by visitors to campgrounds or recreational facilities. We present a network model depicting the movement of campers and, by extension, potentially...

  3. Recreation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown. Dept. of Youth Activities.

    Suggestions for recreational activities are outlined in this manual. Instructions are given for games to play in small places, home or party games, paper and pencil games, children's singing games, and dances. Ideas for crafts and special parties are also included. (SW)

  4. Outdoor recreation

    Treesearch

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  5. Flagellin peptide flg22 gains access to long-distance trafficking in Arabidopsis via its receptor, FLS2

    SciTech Connect

    Jelenska, Joanna; Davern, Sandra M.; Standaert, Robert F.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2017-03-01

    Diverse pathogen-derived molecules, such as bacterial flagellin and its conserved peptide flg22, are recognized in plants via plasma membrane receptors and induce both local and systemic immune responses. The fate of such ligands was unknown: whether and by what mechanism(s) they enter plant cells and whether they are transported to distal tissues. We used biologically active fluorophore and radiolabeled peptides to establish that flg22 moves to distal organs with the closest vascular connections. Remarkably, entry into the plant cell via endocytosis together with the FLS2 receptor is needed for delivery to vascular tissue and long-distance transport of flg22. This contrasts with known routes of long distance transport of other non-cell-permeant molecules in plants, which require membrane-localized transporters for entry to vascular tissue. Thus, a plasma membrane receptor acts as a transporter to enable access of its ligand to distal trafficking routes.

  6. Patchy Invasion of Stage-Structured Alien Species with Short-Distance and Long-Distance Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Luiz Alberto Díaz; Mistro, Diomar Cristina; Cara, Elisa Regina; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-08-01

    Understanding of spatiotemporal patterns arising in invasive species spread is necessary for successful management and control of harmful species, and mathematical modeling is widely recognized as a powerful research tool to achieve this goal. The conventional view of the typical invasion pattern as a continuous population traveling front has been recently challenged by both empirical and theoretical results revealing more complicated, alternative scenarios. In particular, the so-called patchy invasion has been a focus of considerable interest; however, its theoretical study was restricted to the case where the invasive species spreads by predominantly short-distance dispersal. Meanwhile, there is considerable evidence that the long-distance dispersal is not an exotic phenomenon but a strategy that is used by many species. In this paper, we consider how the patchy invasion can be modified by the effect of the long-distance dispersal and the effect of the fat tails of the dispersal kernels.

  7. Flagellin peptide flg22 gains access to long-distance trafficking in Arabidopsis via its receptor, FLS2

    DOE PAGES

    Jelenska, Joanna; Davern, Sandra M.; Standaert, Robert F.; ...

    2017-03-01

    Diverse pathogen-derived molecules, such as bacterial flagellin and its conserved peptide flg22, are recognized in plants via plasma membrane receptors and induce both local and systemic immune responses. The fate of such ligands was unknown: whether and by what mechanism(s) they enter plant cells and whether they are transported to distal tissues. We used biologically active fluorophore and radiolabeled peptides to establish that flg22 moves to distal organs with the closest vascular connections. Remarkably, entry into the plant cell via endocytosis together with the FLS2 receptor is needed for delivery to vascular tissue and long-distance transport of flg22. This contrastsmore » with known routes of long distance transport of other non-cell-permeant molecules in plants, which require membrane-localized transporters for entry to vascular tissue. Thus, a plasma membrane receptor acts as a transporter to enable access of its ligand to distal trafficking routes.« less

  8. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the {{B} ^+} → {{{K}} ^+} {μ ^+μ ^-} decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevens, H.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-03-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the {{B} ^+} → {{{K}} ^+} {μ ^+μ ^-} decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb^{-1} collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the {{B} ^+} → {{{K}} ^+} {μ ^+μ ^-} decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the {{J}/ψ } and ψ {(2S)} resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, C9 and C_{10}, and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  9. A Coherent Free Space Optical Link for Long Distance Clock Comparison, Navigation, and Communication: The Mini-Doll Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djerroud, K.

    2010-10-01

    We describe the realization of a 5 km free space coherent optical link thro ugh the turbulent atmosphere between a telescope and a ground target. We present the phase noise of the link, limited mainly by atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibrations of the telescope and the target. We discuss the implications of our results for applications, with particular emphasis on optical Doppler ranging to satellites and long distance frequency transfer.

  10. A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: The Mini-Doll project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djerroud, K.; Samain, E.; Clairon, A.; Acef, O.; Man, N.; Lemonde, P.; Wolf, P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the realization of a 5 km free space coherent optical link through the turbulent atmosphere between a telescope and a ground target. We present the phase noise of the link, limited mainly by atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibrations of the telescope and the target. We discuss the implications of our results for applications, with particular emphasis on optical Doppler ranging to satellites and long distance frequency transfer.

  11. Renal and cardiovascular responses to water immersion in trained runners and swimmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Tatro, D. L.; Rogan, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if fluid-electrolyte, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular responses during and after multi-hour water immersion were associated with aerobic training. Additionally, we compared these responses in those who trained in a hypogravic versus a 1-g environment. Seventeen men comprised three similarly aged groups: six long-distance runners, five competitive swimmers, and six untrained control subjects. Each subject underwent 5 h of immersion in water [mean (SE)] 36.0 (0.5) degrees C to the neck. Immediately before and at each hour of immersion, blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed for sodium (Na), potassium, osmolality, and creatinine (Cr). Plasma antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone were also measured. Hematocrits were used to calculate relative changes in plasma volume (% delta Vpl). Heart rate response to submaximal cycle ergometer exercise (35% peak oxygen uptake) was measured before and after water immersion. Water immersion induced significant increases in urine flow, Na clearance (CNa), and a 3-5% decrease in Vpl. Urine flow during immersion was greater (P < 0.05) in runners [2.4 (0.4) ml.min-1] compared to controls [1.3 (0.1) ml.min-1]. However, % delta Vpl, CCr, CNa and CH2O during immersion were not different (P > 0.05) between runners, swimmers, and controls. After 5 h of immersion, there was an increase (P < 0.05) in submaximal exercise heart rate of 9 (3) and 10 (3) beats.min-1 in both runners and controls, respectively, but no change (P > 0.05) was observed in swimmers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Relationship between rearfoot, tibia and femur kinematics in runners with and without patellofemoral pain.

    PubMed

    Luz, Bruna Calazans; Dos Santos, Ana Flávia; de Souza, Mariana Carvalho; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2018-02-12

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common running overuse injury. Excessive rearfoot eversion is commonly considered as a PFP risk factor and the relationship between ankle-foot complex movement and lower limb may be involved with this dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between rearfoot eversion with tibia and femur kinematics in frontal and transverse planes during running in individuals with and without PFP. The secondary purpose was to compare the lower limb kinematics between runners with and without PFP. Fifty-four recreational runners were divided into 2 groups: healthy runners (CG, n = 27) and runners with patellofemoral pain (PFPG, n = 27). Kinematics during running were assessed using three-dimensional motion analysis system. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to establish the correlation of rearfoot eversion with tibial and femur movements. Greater peak rearfoot eversion was correlated with greater peak femur adduction in PFP runners. Greater peak rearfoot eversion was correlated with greater peak tibial internal rotation and tibial adduction in the PFPG and CG. Additionally, greater peak rearfoot eversion was correlated with greater tibial internal rotation range of motion in the PFPG and CG. No significant differences were found between the PFPG and CG for all kinematics variables. Correlation between greater rearfoot eversion and greater peak hip adduction in the PFPG might be related to PFP persistence in runners with excessive rearfoot eversion, and indicates that treatment strategies aimed at controlling the movement of the rearfoot could help modify t