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Sample records for recruitable collateral blood

  1. Collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy provides endogenous protection in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2016-11-15

    Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. This article is protected by

  2. Impact of Slow Blood Filling via Collaterals on Infarct Growth: Comparison of Mismatch and Collateral Status

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Suk Jae; Chung, Jong-Won; Cha, Jihoon; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bang, Oh Young

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. Methods Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch (Tmax>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume≥1.8, ADC volume<70 mL; and Tmax>10 s for ADC volume<100 mL) on infarct growth was compared with MR-based collateral grading on day 7 DWI, using multivariate linear regression analysis. Results Among 73 patients, 55 (75%) showed a target mismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization (P<0.001) and the MR-based collateral grading (P=0.001), but not the presence of a target mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later Tmax time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. Conclusions Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth. PMID:28030891

  3. Characterization of intestinal collateral blood flow in the developing piglet.

    PubMed

    Crissinger, K D; Granger, D N

    1988-10-01

    Interest in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis has prompted study of the intestinal circulation in developing animals. It is conceivable that poorly developed collateral channels may predispose the neonatal intestine to ischemic insults. We therefore characterized intestinal collateral blood flow in anesthetized and ventilated 1-day and 1-month-old piglets. Intestinal blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres (15 micron diameter) before and after either 1) total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or 2) occlusion of a distal (jejunoileal) branch of the SMA. After total SMA occlusion in 1-day and 1-month-old piglets, perfusion of the intestine via collaterals from the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries was not evident. Jejunal, ileal, and colonic (except rectal) blood flows fell to zero 30 min after ligation of the SMA. Ligation of a distal branch of the SMA in 1-month-old animals significantly reduced total wall (by 25%) and mucosal/submucosal (by 25%) blood flows in the occluded segment. Similar experiments in 1-day-old piglets produced significantly greater reduction in total (70%) and mucosa/submucosa (70%) blood flows. Muscle/serosa blood flows in both groups were not significantly different from control values. In conclusion, collateral perfusion of the intestine via the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries is insignificant during acute SMA occlusion in the developing piglet. Although there is significant collateral blood flow within the SMA vascular network, perfusion between adjacent gut segments is less effective in preventing intestinal ischemia after occlusion of a branch of the SMA in neonates than in 1-month-old piglets.

  4. Dynamic change of collateral flow varying with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic rat cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Luo, Weihua; Zhou, Fangyuan; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, there was no obvious significance about the onset time and duration of CCs between rats with and without PID. These results suggest that the initial arising of CCs does not ensure their persistence, and that collateral flow could be varied with distribution of regional blood flow in acute ischemic stroke, which may facilitate the understanding of collateral recruitment and promote the development of collateral therapeutics in the future.

  5. Anatomic study of the collateral blood supply of the sternum.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, R A; Acland, R D

    1995-01-01

    A microdissection study was carried out on ten injected, cleared human sternal specimens. Three types of vessel were identified that have the potential to carry blood to the sternum after mobilization of the internal thoracic artery (ITA): (1) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and the pectoralis major ("sternal/perforating branches"), (2) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and an adjoining intercostal space ("sternal/intercostal branches"), and (3) posterior intercostal arteries that do not anastomose with an ITA branch but continue past the ITA to reach the sternum. All three types of vessel were found more frequently in the proximal than in the distal half of the sternum. For sternal/perforating and sternal/intercostal vessels to function as collaterals after ITA bypass grafting, their short common trunks of origin must remain intact. The data support the recommendation that the branches of the ITA be ligated as close as possible to the ITA itself to preserve collateral blood flow to the sternum.

  6. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  7. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes.

  8. Cyclooxygenase blockade limits blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Klassen, C L; Bache, R J

    1995-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase blockade has been found to cause vasoconstriction of coronary collateral vessels in open-chest animals. This study was carried out to determine whether cyclooxygenase blockade can limit blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium during exercise. Studies were performed in 8 adult mongrel dogs in which intermittent followed by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery produced an area of collateral-dependent myocardium. Myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres at rest and during treadmill exercise to produce heart rates of 215 +/-0 7 beats/min. At rest collateral zone blood flow (1.00 +/- 0.10 ml/min per g) was significantly less than normal zone flow (1.23 +/- 0.14) (P < 0.05). During control exercise blood flow increased 91 +/- 22% in the collateral zone and 102 +/- 28% in the normal zone (each P < 0.05). Thirty minutes after cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) blood flow in the normal zone and the collateral zone was not different from control during resting conditions. Indomethacin did not change heart rate or arterial pressure during exercise, but significantly increased the aortic-to-distal coronary pressure gradient from 33 +/- 3 to 40 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.05). Indomethacin increased transcollateral resistance during exercise by 42 +/- 10% (P < 0.05); this was associated with a 27 +/- 11% decrease in subendocardial flow in the collateral zone (P < 0.05) with no significant change in subepicardial flow, and no change in normal zone blood flow. These findings demonstrate that in the intact awake animal cyclooxygenase blockade causes coronary collateral vasoconstriction which can impair blood flow to the dependent myocardium during exercise.

  9. Effect of cyclooxygenase blockade on blood flow through well-developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Altman, J; Dulas, D; Bache, R J

    1992-06-01

    Collateral vessels that develop after coronary artery occlusion demonstrate perivascular inflammation, subintimal hyperplasia, and endothelial proliferation. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that these abnormalities are associated with evidence for increased production of vasodilator prostaglandins. Eight dogs were studied 4-6 months after occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery had been performed to stimulate collateral vessel growth. At the time of study, the anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated at the site of occlusion to allow measurement of retrograde blood flow as an index of interarterial collateral flow. Injection of radioactive microspheres during the retrograde flow collection allowed determination of continuing tissue flow in the collateral-dependent zone as an index of intramural microvascular collateral flow. Retrograde and tissue flows were measured before and 20 minutes after 5 mg/kg i.v. indomethacin, a dose that caused 95 +/- 3% inhibition of the coronary vasodilation in response to a 500 micrograms intracoronary bolus of arachidonic acid. Heart rate and mean aortic pressure were not significantly altered by indomethacin, and blood flow to the normally perfused myocardial region was not changed by administration of indomethacin. However, indomethacin caused a 40 +/- 7% decrease in retrograde flow (p less than 0.01), and microvascular collateral flow to the dependent myocardium decreased by 20 +/- 10% (p less than 0.05). These data indicate that, unlike the normal coronary circulation, well-developed coronary collateral vessels are under the tonic influence of vasodilator prostaglandins.

  10. Trans-illuminated laser speckle imaging of collateral artery blood flow in ischemic mouse hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Joshua K; Niu, Jacqueline; Sumer, Suna; Price, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    The mouse ischemic hindlimb model is used widely for studying collateral artery growth (i.e., arteriogenesis) in response to increased shear stress. Nonetheless, precise measurements of regional shear stress changes along individual collateral arteries are lacking. Our goal is to develop and verify trans-illumination laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) for this purpose. Studies of defibrinated bovine blood flow through tubes embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms indicate that trans-illumination LSF better maintains sensitivity with an increasing tissue depth when compared to epi-illumination, with an ∼50% reduction in the exponential decay of the speckle velocity signal. Applying trans-illuminated LSF to the gracilis muscle collateral artery network in vivo yields both improved sensitivity and reduced noise when compared to epi-illumination. Trans-illuminated LSF images reveal regional differences in collateral artery blood velocity after femoral artery ligation and are used to measure an ∼2-fold increase in the shear stress at the entrance regions to the muscle. We believe these represent the first direct measurements of regional shear stress changes in individual mouse collateral arteries. The ability to capture deeper vascular signals using a trans-illumination configuration for LSF may expand the current applications for LSF, which could have bearing on determining how shear stress magnitude and direction regulate arteriogenesis.

  11. Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after acute reperfused myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, F; Messner-Pellenc, P; Descours, Q; Daures, J; Pasquie, J; Hager, F; Davy, J; Grolleau-Raoux, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction shortly after successful coronary reperfusion (TIMI 3 patency) by direct angioplasty. Collateral flow was assessed before coronary angioplasty, and contrast reflow was evaluated 15 minutes after reperfusion. The presence of contractile reserve was assessed by low dose dobutamine echocardiography (5 to 15 µg/kg/min) at (mean (SD)) 3 (2) days after myocardial infarction. Recovery of segmental function (myocardial viability) was evaluated by resting echocardiography at a two month follow up. The study was prospective.
PATIENTS—35 consecutive patients referred for acute transmural myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—Contrast reflow was observed in 20 patients (57%) and collateral flow in 14 (40%). Contrast reflow and collateral contrast flow were both correlated with reversible dysfunction on initial dobutamine echocardiography and at follow up (p < 0.05). The presence of reflow or collateral flow on myocardial contrast echocardiography was a highly sensitive (100%) but weakly specific (60%) indicator of segmental dysfunction recovery. Simultaneous presence of contrast reflow and collateral flow was more specific of reversible dysfunction than reflow alone (90% v 60%).
CONCLUSIONS—Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow enhanced the sensitivity of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting myocardial viability after acute, reperfused myocardial infarction. The simultaneous presence of reflow and collateral blood flow was highly specific of recovery of segmental dysfunction.


Keywords: contrast echocardiography; coronary reflow; collateral blood flow; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial dysfunction PMID:10377311

  12. Collateral vessel physiology and functional impact-in vivo assessment of collateral channels.

    PubMed

    Lim, M; Ziaee, A; Kern, Morten J

    2004-11-01

    The existence and recruitment of collateral vessels within the coronary circulation may account for the tremendous variability in presentation, symptoms and outcome in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Multiple episodes of ischemia have been found to produce the stimuli necessary for the growth of new vessels which result in collateral blood flow. Furthermore, there is also a subset of patients with readily recruitable collateral vessels that function to limit myocardial necrosis during an acute ischemic event. Promising early studies have utilized angiogenic growth factors as a means to stimulate collateral growth, bringing a renewal interest in their assessment and significance. We review, in brief, the significance and understanding of the development of coronary collaterals as well as the available means to assess them.

  13. Pathophysiology of coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-02-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation.

  14. Pathophysiology of Coronary Collaterals#

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation. PMID:23701025

  15. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - an interventional perspective.

    PubMed

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-09-09

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  16. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - An Interventional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  17. Intracoronary autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell transplantation improves coronary collateral vessel formation and recruitment capacity in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a combined hemodynamic and scintigraphic approach.

    PubMed

    Tayyareci, Yelda; Sezer, Murat; Umman, Berrin; Besisik, Sevgi; Mudun, Ayse; Sanli, Yasemin; Oncul, Aytac; Gurses, Nuray; Sargin, Deniz; Meric, Mehmet; Nisanci, Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intracoronary autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMC) transplantation on coronary microcirculation. Fifteen patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were treated by intracoronary infusion of BMCs via the patent infarct-related artery. The thermodilution-derived coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance, pressure-derived collateral flow index, and coronary wedge pressure were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Successive balloon inflations during BMC transplantation were performed to observe the recruitment in pressure-derived collateral flow index and coronary wedge pressure, and the percentage changes between baseline and 6 months were calculated. The mean (SD) coronary flow reserve increased from 1.3 (0.4) to 2.1 (0.5), and the mean (SD) index of microvascular resistance decreased from 44.9 (24.4) to 21.2 (14.1) (P = .001 for both). The mean (SD) improvement in pressure-derived collateral flow index (from 0.14 [0.05] to 0.22 [0.08]) was also statistically significant (P = .001). Similarly, the percentage improvements in pressure-derived collateral flow index and coronary wedge pressure were statistically significant (P = .01 for both). The percentage improvement in perfusion assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography strongly correlated with the percentage changes in pressure-derived collateral flow index (r = 0.88, P = .001) and coronary wedge pressure (r = 0.69, P = .01). These results demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) that intracoronary autologous BMC transplantation improves coronary collateral vessel formation and recruitment capacity in human subjects.

  18. The Association between Whole Blood Viscosity and Coronary Collateral Circulation in Patients with Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan Cetin, Elif Hande; Balcı, Kevser Gülcihan; Aydin, Selahattin; Ediboglu, Emek; Bayraktar, Muhammed Fatih; Balcı, Mustafa Mücahit; Maden, Orhan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Coronary collateral circulation (CCC) has been attributed as inborn bypass mechanisms supporting ischemic myocardium. Various factors have been postulated in CCC. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) has been an underappreciated entity despite close relationships between multiple cardiovascular diseases. WBV can be calculated with a validated equation from hematocrit and total plasma protein levels for a low and high shear rate. On the grounds, we aimed to evaluate the association between WBV and CCC in patients with chronic total occlusion. Subjects and Methods A total of 371 patients diagnosed as having at least one major, chronic total occluded coronary artery were included. 197 patients with good CCC (Rentrop 2 and 3) composed the patient group. The poor collateral group consisted of 174 patients (Rentrop grade 0 and 1). Results Patients with poor CCC had higher WBV values for a low-shear rate (LSR) (69.5±8.7 vs. 60.1±9.8, p<0.001) and high-shear rate (HSR) (17.0±2.0 vs. 16.4±1.8, p<0.001) than the good collateral group. Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant negative correlation between the grade of CCC and WBV for LSR (β=0.597, p<0.001) and HSR (β=0.494, p<0.001). WBV for LSR (β=0.476, p<0.001) and HSR (β=0.407, p<0.001) had a significant correlation with the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score. A multivariate analysis showed that the WBV for both shear rates were independent risk factors of poor CCC (WBV at LSR, OR: 1.362 CI 95%: 1.095-1.741 p<0.001 and WBV at HSR, 1.251 CI 95%: 1.180-1.347 p<0.001). Conclusion WBV has been demonstrated as the overlooked predictor of poor coronary collateralization. WBV seemed to be associated with microvascular perfusion and angiogenesis process impairing CCC development. PMID:27826336

  19. Preserved Collateral Blood Flow in the Endovascular M2CAO Model Allows for Clinically Relevant Profiling of Injury Progression in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Little, Philip; Kvist, Ola; Grankvist, Rikard; Jonsson, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Söderman, Michael; Arnberg, Fabian; Holmin, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Short (90 min), Intermediate (180 min) or Extended (600 min) transient M2CAO and examined longitudinally with interleaved diffusion-, T2- and arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before and after reperfusion. We identified a rapid emergence of cytotoxic edema within tissue regions undergoing infarction, progressing in several distinct phases in the form of subsequent moderation and then reversal at 230 min (p < 0.0001). We identified also the early emergence of vasogenic edema, which increased consistently before and after reperfusion (p < 0.0001). The perfusion of the penumbra correlated more strongly to the perfusion of adjacent tissue regions than did the perfusion of regions undergoing infarction (p = 0.0088). This was interpreted as an effect of preserved collateral blood flow during M2CAO. Accordingly, we observed only limited recruitment of penumbra regions to the infarction core. However, a gradual increase in infarction size was still occurring as late as 10 hours after M2CAO. Our results indicate that patients suffering MCA branch occlusion stand to benefit from interventional therapy for an extended time period after the emergence of ischemic injury. PMID:28068417

  20. Perfusion-weighted imaging and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in lacunar infarction.

    PubMed

    Förster, Alex; Mürle, Bettina; Böhme, Johannes; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U; Wenz, Holger; Groden, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    Although lacunar infarction accounts for approximately 25% of ischemic strokes, collateral blood flow through anastomoses is not well evaluated in lacunar infarction. In 111 lacunar infarction patients, we analyzed diffusion-weighted images, perfusion-weighted images, and blood flow on dynamic four-dimensional angiograms generated by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software. Blood flow was classified as absent (type 1), from periphery to center (type 2), from center to periphery (type 3), and combination of type 2 and 3 (type 4). On diffusion-weighted images, lacunar infarction was found in the basal ganglia (11.7%), internal capsule (24.3%), corona radiata (30.6%), thalamus (24.3%), and brainstem (9.0%). In 58 (52.2%) patients, perfusion-weighted image showed a circumscribed hypoperfusion, in one (0.9%) a circumscribed hyperperfusion, whereas the remainder was normal. In 36 (62.1%) patients, a larger perfusion deficit (>7 mm) was observed. In these, blood flow was classified type 1 in four (11.1%), 2 in 17 (47.2%), 3 in 9 (25.0%), and 4 in six (16.7%) patients. Patients with lacunar infarction in the posterior circulation more often demonstrated blood flow type 2 and less often type 3 (p = 0.01). Detailed examination and graduation of blood flow in lacunar infarction by use of dynamic four-dimensional angiograms is feasible and may serve for a better characterization of this stroke subtype.

  1. Coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, R

    1976-01-01

    Coronary collaterals are probably enlargements of pre-existing channels which respond to local vasodilators and which function whenever pressure differences exist across them. Thus, in human coronary atherosclerosis collaterals are only seen when there is a severe intervening arterial obstruction (in excess of 75%). Coronary collaterals follow epicardial and intramycardial pathways, and the intermediary connections may be at vessels of highly varying caliber. The flow potential of most collateral pathways in man is possibly adequate for segmental myocardial function at lower than normal demands but clearly is inadequate for most, if not all, stressful interventions. In the last analysis, coronary collaterals in man are more an indication of severe regional ischemia (present or potential) than a sign of biological "compensation'' for a perfusion deficit.

  2. Optical microangiography reveals collateral blood perfusion dynamics in mouse cerebral cortex after focal stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis's role in regulating blood perfusion through penetrating arterioles during stroke is yet to be discovered. We apply ultra-high sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) and Doppler optical microangiography (DOMAG) techniques to evaluate vessel diameter and red blood cell velocity changes in large number of pial and penetrating arterioles in relation with arteriolo-arteriolar anastomosis (AAA) during and after focal stroke. Thanks to the high sensitivity of UHS-OMAG, we were able to image pial microvasculature up to capillary level through a cranial window (9 mm2), and DOMAG provided clear image of penetrating arterioles up to 500μm depth. Results showed that penetrating arterioles close to a strong AAA connection dilate whereas penetrating arterioles constrict significantly in weaker AAA regions. These results suggest that AAA plays a major role in active regulation of the pial arterioles, and weaker AAA connections lead to poor blood perfusion to penumbra through penetrating arterioles.

  3. [Simple analysis on collateral therapy in Huangdi's Internal Classic].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liang, Fan-rong; Xia, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Zheng-yu

    2005-12-01

    Collateral therapy includes treatment of diseases of collaterals, and treatment of human other diseases with collaterals as treating subjects. In collateral therapy of Huangdi's Internal Classic, collaterals were used as treating subjects, and the treatment was directly given at the collaterals of lesion; for treatment methods, acupuncture and moxibustion were adopted as main method, including pricking blood therapy, moxibustion of collaterals, acupuncture; the diseases and syndromes of treatment included diseases and syndromes of channels and collaterals, and human other diseases and syndromes; the principles of reinforcing and reducing, and the principles of treatment varying from time to time were stressed, and it indicated contraindications for treatment.

  4. Relationship of cerebral blood flow to aortic-to-pulmonary collateral/shunt flow in single ventricles

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Wilson, Felice; Pawlowski, Tom; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Berenstein, Laura Diaz; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Clancy, Robert; Elci, Okan; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with single ventricle can develop aortic-to-pulmonary collaterals (APCs). Along with systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts, these structures represent a direct pathway from systemic to pulmonary circulations, and may limit cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated the relationship between CBF and APC flow on room air and in hypercarbia, which increases CBF in patients with single ventricle. Methods 106 consecutive patients with single ventricle underwent 118 cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in this cross-sectional study; 34 prior to bidirectional Glenn (BDG) (0.50±0.30 years old), 50 prior to Fontan (3.19±1.03 years old) and 34 3–9 months after Fontan (3.98±1.39 years old). Velocity mapping measured flows in the aorta, cavae and jugular veins. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used. Significance was p<0.05. Results A strong inverse correlation was noted between CBF and APC/shunt both on room air and with hypercarbia whether CBF was indexed to aortic flow or body surface area, independent of age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, Po2 and Pco2 (R=−0.67–−0.70 for all patients on room air, p<0.01 and R=−0.49–−0.90 in hypercarbia, p<0.01). Correlations were not different between surgical stages. CBF was lower, and APCs/shunt flow was higher prior to BDG than in other stages. Conclusions There is a strong inverse relationship between CBF and APC/shunt flow in patients with single ventricle throughout surgical reconstruction on room air and in hypercarbia independent of other factors. We speculate that APC/shunt flow may have a negative impact on cerebral development and neurodevelopmental outcome. Interventions on APC may modify CBF, holding out the prospect for improving neurodevelopmental trajectory. Trial Registration Number NCT02135081. PMID:26048877

  5. How temporal evolution of intracranial collaterals in acute stroke affects clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Paliwal, Prakash; Low, Adrian F.; Tay, Edgar L.W.; Gopinathan, Anil; Nadarajah, Mahendran; Ting, Eric; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Seet, Raymond C.S.; Ahmad, Aftab; Chan, Bernard P.L.; Teoh, Hock L.; Soon, Derek; Rathakrishnan, Rahul; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We compared intracranial collaterals on pretreatment and day 2 brain CT angiograms (CTA) to assess their evolution and relationship with functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods: Consecutive AIS patients who underwent pretreatment and day 2 CTA and received IV tPA during 2010–2013 were included. Collaterals were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists using 3 predefined criteria: the Miteff system, the Maas system, and 20-point collateral scale by the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score methodology. We stratified our cohort by baseline pre-tPA state of their collaterals and by recanalization status of the primary vessel for analysis. Good outcomes at 3 months were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–1. Results: This study included 209 patients. Delayed collateral recruitment by any grading system was not associated with good outcomes. All 3 scoring systems showed that collateral recruitment on the follow-up CTA from a baseline poor collateral state was significantly associated with poor outcome and increased bleeding risk. When the primary vessel remained persistently occluded, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with worse outcomes. Interestingly, collateral recruitment was significantly associated with increased mortality in 2 of the 3 grading systems. Conclusions: Not all collateral recruitment is beneficial; delayed collateral recruitment may be different from early recruitment and can result in worse outcomes and higher mortality. Prethrombolysis collateral status and recanalization are determinants of how intracranial collateral evolution affects functional outcomes. PMID:26740681

  6. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm(3) absolute mean difference; p < 0.001) and higher chance of good functional outcome (OR 4.58, p < 0.001). Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p < 0.001) and lateral (+19.2%; p = 0.016) MCA territory compared to pretreatment during MCA occlusion. Safety indicators were treatment-related mortality and cardiorespiratory effects. The highest efficacy and safety profile was observed for HDT. Our findings suggest that acute modulation of cerebral collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  7. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and 4D MR angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in anterior cerebral artery ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Maros, Maté; Lobsien, Donald; Michalski, Dominik; Groden, Christoph; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Förster, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess FLAIR vascular hyperintensities (FVH) and dynamic (4D) angiograms derived from perfusion raw data as proposed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging markers of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in patients with ischemia in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Methods Forty patients from two tertiary care university hospitals were included. Infarct volumes and perfusion deficits were manually measured on DWI images and TTP maps, respectively. FVH and collateral flow on 4D MR angiograms were assessed and graded as previously specified. Results Forty-one hemispheres were affected. Mean DWI lesion volume was 8.2 (± 13.9; range 0–76.9) ml, mean TTP lesion volume was 24.5 (± 17.2, range 0–76.7) ml. FVH were observed in 26/41 (63.4%) hemispheres. Significant correlations were detected between FVH and TTP lesion volume (ρ = 0.4; P<0.01) absolute (ρ = 0.37; P<0.05) and relative mismatch volume (ρ = 0.35; P<0.05). The modified ASITN/SIR score correlated inversely with DWI lesion volume (ρ = -0.58; P<0.01) and positively with relative mismatch (ρ = 0.29; P< 0.05). ANOVA of the ASITN/SIR score revealed significant inter-group differences for DWI (P<0.001) and TTP lesion volumes (P<0.05). No correlation was observed between FVH scores and modified ASITH/SIR scores (ρ = -0.16; P = 0.32). Conclusions FVH and flow patterns on 4D MR angiograms are markers of perfusion deficits and tissue at risk. As both methods did not show a correlation between each other, they seem to provide complimentary instead of redundant information. Previously shown evidence for the meaning of these specific MR signs in internal carotid and middle cerebral artery stroke seems to be transferrable to ischemic stroke in the ACA territory. PMID:28234996

  8. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men.

    PubMed

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C; Johansson, Pär I; Secher, Niels H

    2014-09-01

    The coagulation system is activated by a reduction of the central blood volume during orthostatic stress and lower body negative pressure suggesting that also a blood loss enhances coagulation. During bleeding, however, the central blood volume is supported by fluid recruitment to the circulation and redistribution of the blood volume. In eight supine male volunteers (24 ± 3 years, blood volume of 6.9 ± 0.7 l; mean ± SD), 2 × 450 ml blood was withdrawn over ∼ 30 min while cardiovascular variables were monitored. Coagulation was evaluated by thrombelastography, and fluid recruitment was estimated by red blood cell count. Withdrawing 900 ml blood increased heart rate (62 ± 7 to 69 ± 13 bpm, P < 0.05; mean ± SD) and reduced stroke volume (113 ± 12 to 96 ± 14 ml, P < 0.05) leaving cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance unchanged and, furthermore, reduced red blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation increased after withdrawal of 900 ml blood (α-Angle: 66 ± 4 to 70 ± 3 deg, P < 0.01). Clot strength (maximal amplitude: 57 ± 4 mm), clot lysis 30 min after maximal amplitude (LY30: 0.8% [0-3.5%] (median [range])), and platelet count (218 ± 25 × 10(9) l(-1)) were unaffected. For supine males, ∼ 25% of a moderate blood loss is compensated by fluid recruitment to the circulation, which may explain the minor cardiovascular response. Yet, a blood loss of 450 ml accelerates coagulation, and this is further accentuated when blood loss is 900 ml.

  9. US Public Cord Blood Banking Practices: Recruitment, Donation, and the Timing of Consent

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Sherri; Ponsaran, Roselle; Goldenberg, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. RESULTS 13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. CONCLUSION Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. PMID:22803637

  10. Pioglitazone enhances collateral blood flow in ischemic hindlimb of diabetic mice through an Akt-dependent VEGF-mediated mechanism, regardless of PPARγ stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Straface, Giuseppe; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Pecorini, Giovanni; Rizzo, Paola; De Angelis, Giulia; Iuliano, Luigi; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Flex, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly associated with both microvascular and macrovascular complications and a strong correlation exists between glycaemic control and the incidence and progression of vascular complications. Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) ligand indicated for therapy of type T2DM, induces vascular effects that seem to occur independently of glucose lowering. Methods By using a hindlimb ischemia murine model, in this study we have found that pioglitazone restores the blood flow recovery and capillary density in ischemic muscle of diabetic mice and that this process is associated with increased expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Importantly, these beneficial effects are abrogated when endogenous Akt is inhibited; furthermore, the direct activation of PPARγ, with its selective agonist GW1929, does not restore blood flow recovery and capillary density. Finally, an important collateral vessel growth is obtained with combined treatment with pioglitazone and selective PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. Conclusion These data demonstrate that Akt-VEGF pathway is essential for ischemia-induced angiogenic effect of pioglitazone and that pioglitazone exerts this effect via a PPARγ independent manner. PMID:19737384

  11. Collateral Informant Assessment in Alcohol Use Research Involving College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…

  12. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service?

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Fourné, K

    2007-08-01

    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  13. The March of Extrahepatic Collaterals: Analysis of Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located in the Bare Area of the Liver After Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in vascular supply to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the bare area of the liver in patients who were mainly treated with chemoembolization. Twenty-six patients with HCC showing a mean diameter of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation) were mainly treated with chemoembolization. All patients underwent 2.7 {+-} 2.3 chemoembolization sessions over 40.1 {+-} 25.2 months. Tumor feeding branches demonstrated in each chemoembolization session were retrospectively evaluated. Initially, 18 tumors (59.2%) were supplied by the hepatic artery (H) and 8 (30.8%) by both the hepatic and the extrahepatic arteries (H + C). Fourteen tumors (53.8%) recurred at the posterior aspect of the tumor and were supplied by H (n = 4), H + C (n = 5), and extrahepatic collaterals (C) (n = 5). Several tumors recurred despite repeated chemoembolization, and these were supplied by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 7), and C (n = 2) at the second recurrence, by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 2), and C (n = 3) at the third, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fourth, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fifth, and by H (n = 1) and C (n = 1) at the sixth. One tumor was supplied by H at the seventh and by H + C at the eighth recurrence. As the number of local recurrences increased, the feeding vessel shifted from H to C. Especially, the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and renal capsular artery (RCA) supplied the tumor early, while the small right RCAs, adrenal arteries, and intercostal and lumbar artery supplied late recurrences in turns. In conclusion, HCCs located in the bare area are frequently supplied by extrahepatic vessels initially, while recurrence after chemoembolization is mainly due to extrahepatic blood supply. The right IPA and RCA are common feeding vessels demonstrated early, while other extrahepatic collateral supply from the retroperitoneal circulation occurs in turns during the later course.

  14. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries ... Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About MCL Injuries A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a ...

  15. Intracerebroventricular infusions of TNF-alpha preferentially recruit blood lymphocytes and induce a perivascular leukocyte infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, T J; Hay, J B

    2001-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is important in several central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases, however, its role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and CNS is incompletely understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) and parenchymal infusions of TNF-alpha on the type of leukocyte, the pool and subset of lymphocytes recruited into CSF and brain parenchyma. Parenchymal injections of 500 ng of recombinant human TNF-alpha did not induce inflammation, whereas an icv infusion of TNF-alpha caused CSF leuckocytosis and a perivascular infiltrate. Twenty-four hours after the icv infusion neutrophils predominated, with CD4+ T cells being the major lymphocyte subset in CSF. By 48 h lymphocytes were the dominant cell type with CD8+ cells surpassing CD4+ cells in both the CSF and the perivascular infiltrate. The labeled recirculating lymphocyte pool prevailed in normal CSF, but after the infusion of TNF-alpha, the blood pool of lymphocytes was preferentially recruited. These results have implications for the immune surveillance of the CNS.

  16. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection.

  17. Liver-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) recruits progenitor cells from bone marrow into the blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Haruyama, Takahiro; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2003-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in invasive cell behavior, embryonic development and organ remodeling. In this report, we investigated the role of liver-derived MMP-9 in the in vivo system at liver injury. Liver injury induced MMP-9 expression in the liver 3 to 12 h after intravenous administration of anti-Fas antibody, followed by the expression of the activity and the protein detected by zymography and Western blotting, respectively, in the blood circulation. Interestingly, the MMP-9 expression was accompanied by the recruitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow into the circulation. The recruitment was blocked by a specific MMP-9 inhibitor, R94138, which did not affect the Fas-mediated liver injury or induced expression of MMP-9. Compulsive expression of mutant active MMP-9 in the liver also recruited the progenitor cells into the circulation. In contrast, partial hepatectomy, which treatment does not directly injure hepatocytes, did not recruit progenitor cells despite the increased expression of MMP-9 in the circulation. These results suggest that liver-derived MMP-9 induced by liver injury plays an essential role in the recruitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow into the blood circulation.

  18. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors.

  19. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  20. Endothelial function in well-developed canine coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Altman, J; Dulas, D; Pavek, T; Laxson, D D; Homans, D C; Bache, R J

    1993-02-01

    This study examined responses of coronary collateral blood flow to endothelial-dependent vasodilators. Studies were performed in 13 dogs 4-6 mo after embolic occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Collateral flow was determined as the sum of retrograde flow from the cannulated LAD, and continuing tissue flow was measured with microspheres administered during the retrograde flow collection. Agonists were introduced into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals arising from the left coronary arterial system. The endothelial-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and bradykinin caused 21 +/- 7 and 25 +/- 8% increases of collateral flow, respectively (each P < 0.05). This was not different from the 28 +/- 8% increase in collateral flow produced by nitroglycerin. To determine whether vasodilator prostaglandins contributed to the increased collateral flow, studies were performed after cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg iv). Indomethacin caused a 30 +/- 9% decrease of retrograde flow during basal conditions but did not blunt the maximum collateral flow rates produced by acetylcholine, bradykinin, or nitroglycerin. These data demonstrate intact endothelial-dependent vasodilator mechanisms in the well-developed coronary collateral circulation.

  1. The mechanism of coronary collateral vasoconstriction in response to cyclooxygenase blockade.

    PubMed

    Altman, J D; Bache, R J

    1994-02-01

    The present study was performed to examine the mechanism by which cyclooxygenase blockade produces vasoconstriction in well-developed coronary collateral vessels. Eight dogs were studied 4 to 6 months after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) had been performed to stimulate collateral vessel growth. At the time of study, the LAD was cannulated at the site of occlusion for measurement of retrograde blood flow as an index of collateral blood flow. Levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha were 32 +/- 13% higher in blood diverted from the collateral-dependent LAD than in aortic blood (P < .05); the increase in this stable product of prostacyclin metabolism indicated production of prostacyclin across the coronary collateral system. Administration of arachidonic acid into the left main coronary artery to reach collateral vessels entering the LAD resulted in a 21 +/- 6% increase in retrograde flow (P < .01), demonstrating cyclooxygenase activity with production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg IV) caused a 55 +/- 7% decrease in retrograde flow (P < .03), suggesting that cyclooxygenase blockade inhibited tonic production of vasodilator prostaglandins in the collateral system. In contrast, neither thromboxane synthase inhibition with dazmegrel nor thromboxane receptor blockade with SQ 30741 caused a significant change in collateral flow, thus failing to support thromboxane-induced collateral constriction. After cyclooxygenase blockade, prostacyclin infused into the left main coronary artery was able to restore retrograde flow to the preibuprofen level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries lead to pain and loss of performance in the thrower’s elbow. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a reliable treatment option for the symptomatic, deficient UCL. Injury to the UCL usually occurs because of chronic accumulation of microtrauma, although acute ruptures occur and an acute-on-chronic presentation is also common. Evidence Acquisition: Computerized databases, references from pertinent articles, and research institutions were searched for all studies using the search terms ulnar collateral ligament from 1970 until 2015. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: All studies reporting outcomes for UCLR are level 4. Most modern fixation methodologies appear to be biomechanically and clinically equivalent. Viable graft choices include ipsilateral palmaris longus tendon autograft, gracilis or semitendinosus autograft, and allograft. Clinical studies report excellent outcomes of UCLR for both recreational and elite level athletes with regard to return to sport and postoperative performance. Complications, although rare, include graft rerupture or attenuation, ulnar nerve symptoms, stiffness, pain, and/or weakness leading to decreased performance. Conclusion: Injuries to the UCL have become commonplace among pitchers. Nonoperative treatment should be attempted, but the limited studies have not shown promising results. Operative treatment can be performed with several techniques, with retrospective studies showing promising results. Complications include ulnar neuropathy as well as failure to return to sport. Detailed preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, and a comprehensive rehabilitation program are essential components to achieving a satisfactory result. PMID:26502444

  3. Vasomotor responses of newly developed coronary collateral vessels.

    PubMed

    Kinn, J W; Altman, J D; Chang, M W; Bache, R J

    1996-08-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral vessels contain an abundant muscular media and can undergo active vasomotion. However, early after coronary occlusion, coronary collateral vessels are thin walled with little smooth muscle, suggesting that vasomotor capability might be limited. Consequently, this study determined whether newly developed coronary collateral vessels have active vasomotor activity and whether endothelial function in these newly developed vessels is impaired. Retrograde blood flow was measured as an index of coronary collateral blood flow approximately 2 wk after embolic occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery of dogs. Agonists were administered into the left main coronary artery to reach collaterals originating from the left coronary system. Baseline retrograde blood flow was 25.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min and increased to 36.7 +/- 3.7 ml/min after nitroglycerin (6 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.05). Cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) decreased retrograde collateral blood flow to 16.8 +/- 2.3 ml/min (P < 0.05). Subsequent administration of acetylcholine increased retrograde flow to 29.4 +/- 3.7 ml/min (P < 0.05), indicating intact endothelium-mediated vasodilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine further decreased coronary collateral retrograde flow to 12.0 +/- 2.8 ml/min (P < 0.05) and markedly blunted the response to acetylcholine. These findings demonstrate substantial vasomotor capability even early during coronary collateral development and indicate that both nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-dependent endothelial mechanisms are intact.

  4. [Thinking of literature studies of collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liang, Fan-Rong; Li, Ying

    2006-12-01

    Summarize recent 20 years' achievements in studying literature of channels and collaterals, analyze the problems in literature studies of collaterals and comment on literature studies of collaterals, and hold that systematical summarization and study of traditional theories of collaterals can explore collateral theory and its clinical application value, and summarization of literature should refine and raise theoretical structure and scientific connotation of the collateral theory, and serve for modern studies of collaterals and collateral diseases on the basis of systematical summarization and studies of traditional literature of collaterals.

  5. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Legacy Recruitment for Experimental AIDS Vaccines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kimberly Sessions

    2005-01-01

    For African Americans, medical research often connotes exploitation and cruelty, making recruiting African Americans to participate in HIV vaccine trials particularly daunting. But infusing adult education principles into such efforts is both increasing African American participation and helping heal the legacy of the Tuskegee experiment.

  6. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota, Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations.

  7. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  8. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kolkhorst, Fred W; DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    Our interest was to quantify the role of sweat gland activation on the maintenance of skin temperature during mild exercise in the heat. Seven days of tap-water iontophoresis decreased the number of active sweat glands by 72% which significantly increased forearm skin temperature and blood flow during mild exercise (70 W) in the heat (32 degrees C). Skin temperature of the treated forearm was 0.5 degrees C warmer (P=0.049); skin blood flow in the treated forearm was 13% higher than the control arm (P=0.021). These results illustrate the importance of sweat evaporation on skin temperature and blood flow during exercise.

  9. Attitudes and behaviours of Greeks concerning blood donation: recruitment and retention campaigns should be focused on need rather than altruism

    PubMed Central

    Kalargirou, Aikaterini A.; Beloukas, Apostolos I.; Kosma, Alexandra G.; Nanou, Christina I.; Saridi, Maria I.; Kriebardis, Anastasios G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood supplies in Greece are insufficient to meet the high transfusion needs arising from car accidents and treatment of thalassaemia. This study was designed to determine Greeks’ opinions about blood donation, in order to identify the reasons for the lack of motivation to donate and allow experts to establish better recruitment campaigns for the enrichment of the donor pool, based on our findings. Materials and methods The opinions of randomly selected Greek citizens (n=800) about volunteer blood donation were assessed by means of a standardised, anonymous questionnaire. The results were analysed using the χ2 test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results With regards to attitudes towards intention to donate, only 7.1% were indifferent, while 88.0% of the individuals believed that donating blood was an “offer”. Reasons for not donating mainly involved safety (36.0%) and fear (24.0%), whereas need (77.9%) was the most fundamental positive motivation. Of the people enrolled in the present study, 10.0% were active donors, 31.3% occasional donors, 15.0% rare donors and 36.6% non-donors. Discussion The considerable percentages of occasional and rare donors in comparison with the low proportion of active donors in the Greek donor pool indicates that “need” is a more important motivation for blood donation than altruism in Greece. These results could be useful for establishing advertising campaigns on blood donation and for a more direct approach to the population, aiming for a change in mentality in favour of active blood donation. PMID:24887229

  10. Differential regulation of blood flow‐induced neovascularization and mural cell recruitment by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Oliver A.; Carter, James G.; Lin, P. Charles; Paleolog, Ewa; Machado, Maria J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Combining nitric oxide (NO)‐mediated increased blood flow with angiopoietin‐1–Tie2 receptor signalling induces arteriolargenesis – the formation of arterioles from capillaries – in a model of physiological angiogenesis.This NO–Tie‐mediated arteriolargenesis requires endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling.Inhibition of VEGF signalling increases pericyte coverage in microvessels.Together these findings indicate that generation of functional neovasculature requires close titration of NO–Tie2 signalling and localized VEGF induction, suggesting that the use of exogenous VEGF expression as a therapeutic for neovascularization may not be successful. Abstract Signalling through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and the tyrosine kinase with IgG and EGF domains‐2 (Tie2) receptor by angiopoietins is required in combination with blood flow for the formation of a functional vascular network. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF and angiopoietin‐1 (Ang1) contribute differentially to neovascularization induced by nitric oxide (NO)‐mediated vasodilatation, by comparing the phenotype of new microvessels in the mesentery during induction of vascular remodelling by over‐expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the fat pad of the adult rat mesentery during inhibition of angiopoietin signalling with soluble Tie2 (sTie2) and VEGF signalling with soluble Fms‐like tyrosine kinase receptor‐1 (sFlt1). We found that NO‐mediated angiogenesis was blocked by inhibition of VEGF with sFlt1 (from 881 ± 98% increase in functional vessel area to 279 ± 72%) and by inhibition of angiopoietin with sTie2 (to 337 ± 67%). Exogenous angiopoietin‐1 was required to induce arteriolargenesis (8.6 ± 1.3% of vessels with recruitment of vascular smooth muscle cells; VSMCs) in the presence of enhanced flow. sTie2 and sFlt1 both inhibited VSMC recruitment (both 0%), and VEGF inhibition increased pericyte

  11. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Applications and Operations Military Robotics and Collateral Damage Robert Douglass (Primary POC) SET Associates 3811 N. Fairfax...2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Robotics and Collateral Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract We explore a concept of a combined force of air and ground combat robots

  12. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-1 Selective Agonist Enhances Collateral Growth and Protects against Subsequent Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Li, Fuying; Yui, Daishi; Miki, Kazunori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    increased after CCAO. Administration of the S1PR1 selective agonist significantly increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the diameter of leptomeningeal collateral vessels (42.9 ± 2.6 μm) compared with the controls (27.6 ± 5.7 μm; P < 0.01). S1PR1 inverse agonist administration diminished the effect of the S1PR1 agonist (P < 0.001). After pMCAO, S1PR1 agonist pretreated animals showed significantly smaller infarct volume (17.5% ± 4.0% vs. 7.7% ± 4.0%, P < 0.01) and better functional recovery than vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions These results suggest that S1PR1 is one of the principal regulators of leptomeningeal collateral recruitment at the site of increased shear stress and provide evidence that an S1PR1 selective agonist has a role in promoting collateral growth and preventing of ischemic damage and neurological dysfunction after subsequent stroke in patients with intracranial major artery stenosis or occlusion. PMID:26367258

  13. Altered Peripheral Blood Monocyte Phenotype and Function in Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Hepatic Recruitment and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gadd, Victoria L.; Patel, Preya J.; Jose, Sara; Horsfall, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence. Methods Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1) expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) (n = 39) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 34) (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis) and healthy controls (n = 11) by flow cytometry. Results The selected markers exhibited similar monocyte-subset-specific expression patterns between patients and controls. Monocyte phenotypic signatures differed between NAFLD and HCV patients, with an increased proportion of CD16+ non-classical monocytes in NAFLD, but increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 in HCV. In both cohorts, monocyte CCR2 expression was reduced and CCR4 elevated over controls. CD62L expression was specifically elevated in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and positively correlated with the model-for-end-stage-liver-disease score. Functionally, monocytes from patients with decompensated cirrhosis had equal phagocytic capacity, but displayed features of dysfunction, characterised by lower HLA-DR expression and blunted oxidative responses. Lower monocyte TNF production in response to LPS stimulation correlated with time to death in 7 (46%) of the decompensated patients who died within 8 months of recruitment. Conclusions Chronic HCV and NAFLD differentially affect circulating monocyte phenotype, suggesting specific injury-induced signals may contribute to hepatic monocyte recruitment and systemic activation state. Monocyte function, however, was similarly impaired in patients with both HCV and NAFLD, particularly in advanced disease, which

  14. Reversible Demyelination, Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown, and Pronounced Neutrophil Recruitment Induced by Chronic IL-1 Expression in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Carina C.; Depino, Amaicha M.; Prada, Federico; Muraro, Nara; Campbell, Sandra; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Perry, V. Hugh; Anthony, Daniel C.; Pitossi, Fernando J.

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1) expression is associated with a spectrum of neuroinflammatory processes related to chronic neurodegenerative diseases. The single-bolus microinjection of IL-1 into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma gives rise to delayed and localized neutrophil recruitment, transient blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, but no overt damage to CNS integrity. However, acute microinjections of IL-1 do not mimic the chronic IL-1 expression, which is a feature of many CNS diseases. To investigate the response of the CNS to chronic IL-1 expression, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing IL-1 into the striatum. At the peak of IL-1 expression (days 8 and 14 post-injection), there was a marked recruitment of neutrophils, vasodilatation, and breakdown of the BBB. Microglia and astrocyte activation was evident during the first 14 days post-injection. At days 8 and 14, extensive demyelination was observed but the number of neurons was not affected by any treatment. Finally, at 30 days, signs of inflammation were no longer present, there was evidence of tissue reorganization, the BBB was intact, and the process of remyelination was noticeable. In summary, our data show that chronic expression of IL-1, in contrast to its acute delivery, can reversibly damage CNS integrity and implicates this cytokine or downstream components as major mediators of demyelination in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. PMID:15509551

  15. Migrating monocytes recruited to the spleen play an important role in control of blood stage malaria.

    PubMed

    Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Freitas do Rosario, Ana Paula; Voisine, Cecile; Mastelic, Beatris; Thompson, Joanne; Koernig, Sandra; Jarra, William; Renia, Laurent; Mauduit, Marjorie; Potocnik, Alexandre J; Langhorne, Jean

    2009-12-24

    Host responses controlling blood-stage malaria include both innate and acquired immune effector mechanisms. During Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice, a population of CD11b(high)Ly6C(+) monocytes are generated in bone marrow, most of which depend on the chemokine receptor CCR2 for migration from bone marrow to the spleen. In the absence of this receptor mice harbor higher parasitemias. Most importantly, splenic CD11b(high)Ly6C(+) cells from P chabaudi-infected wild-type mice significantly reduce acute-stage parasitemia in CCR2(-/-) mice. The CD11b(high)Ly6C(+) cells in this malaria infection display effector functions such as production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen intermediates, and phagocytose P chabaudi parasites in vitro, and in a proportion of the cells, in vivo in the spleen, suggesting possible mechanisms of parasite killing. In contrast to monocyte-derived dendritic cells, CD11b(high)Ly6C(+) cells isolated from malaria-infected mice express low levels of major histocompatibility complex II and have limited ability to present the P chabaudi antigen, merozoite surface protein-1, to specific T-cell receptor transgenic CD4 T cells and fail to activate these T cells. We propose that these monocytes, which are rapidly produced in the bone marrow as part of the early defense mechanism against invading pathogens, are important for controlling blood-stage malaria parasites.

  16. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common surgery performed in professional, collegiate, and high school athletes. Purpose: To report patient demographics, surgical techniques, and outcomes of all UCLRs performed at a single institution from 2004 to 2014. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Data were collected prospectively, and patients were contacted via phone calls to obtain the return-to-sport rate, Conway-Jobe score, Andrews-Timmerman score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Continuous variable data were reported as weighted means, and categorical variable data were reported as frequencies with percentages. Results: A total of 187 patients (188 elbows) underwent UCLR during the study period (92% male; mean age, 19.6 ± 4.7 years; 78.2% right elbows). There were 165 baseball players (87.8% of all patients), 155 of whom were pitchers (82.5% of all patients). Ninety-seven (51.6%) were college athletes, 68 (36.2%) high school athletes, and 7 (3.7%) professional athletes at the time of surgery. The docking technique was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while the double-docking technique was used in 78 (41.5%). An ipsilateral palmaris longus graft was used in 110 (58.5%) patients while a hamstring autograft was used in 48 (25.5%) patients. The ulnar nerve was subcutaneously transposed in 79 (42%) patients. Clinical follow-up data were available on 85 patients. Mean follow-up was 60 ± 30.8 months. Overall, 94.1% of patients were able to return to sport and had a Conway-Jobe score of good/excellent while 4.3% had a score of fair. The mean KJOC score was 90.4 ± 6.7 and mean Andrews-Timmerman score was 92.5 ± 7

  17. Coronary collateral circulation: its relevance.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; El Accaoui, Ramzi N; Chatterjee, Kanu

    2013-11-15

    The interest in coronary collateral circulation (CCC) as "natural bypasses" is growing, especially in patients in whom the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is too severe to allow for conventional revascularization. The anatomic foundation of CCC has been recognized for long time. Recently, reliable methods have become available for the assessment of the adequacy of collateral flow. However, the debate regarding the importance of CCC in the different clinical settings continues. In this article, we present the recent progress in the understanding of anatomy and physiology of the CCC and focus on the studies addressing their functional significance in acute, subacute, and chronic coronary artery disease. In addition, we provide a focused update on the essential role of collateral circulation in the management of coronary chronic total occlusions.

  18. Exposure of early pediatric trainees to blood and marrow transplantation leads to higher recruitment to the field.

    PubMed

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-09-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in the United States as 10,000 per year. Although the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by the year 2015, there are several barriers to meeting this goal, including the need to recruit more health care personnel, including BMT physicians. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we examined why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter the field and why others did not. We conducted a Web-based survey among pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to identify the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. Out of 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin), 94 self-identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians, and 53 as PHO trainees. The PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than two-thirds of PHO providers reported providing BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in training was significantly higher among BMT providers compared with PHO providers (51% versus 18% in medical school [P < .0001]; 70% versus 50% during residency [P < .005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ between the 2 groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) by 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers than PHO providers reported current involvement in the education of medical students and residents (76% versus 98%; P < .0001). Of the 53 trainees who responded, 64% reported not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% identified inadequate exposure to BMT before PHO fellowship as the reason behind this decision. Only 26% reported receiving exposure to the BMT field while in medical school, and 43% reported exposure during residency. The 2 most

  19. Exposure of Early Pediatric Trainees to Blood and Marrow Transplantation Leads to Higher Recruitment to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplants (BMT) in the United States is 10,000 per year. While the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by 2015, there are a number of barriers to meeting this need including recruiting additional health care personnel including BMT providers. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we sought to understand why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter BMT, and why others did not. We conducted a web-based survey amongst Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to determine the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. There were 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin); 94 identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians and 53 as PHO trainees. PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than 2/3 of PHO providers stated that they provide BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in their training was significantly higher amongst BMT providers than PHO providers (51% vs. 18% during medical school [p<0.0001] and 70% vs. 50% during residency [p < 0.005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ amongst groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) in 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers reported currently being involved in education of medical students and residents compared to PHO providers (98% vs. 76%, p<0.0001). Of 53 trainees, 64% reported that they were not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% stated that inadequate exposure to BMT prior to PHO fellowship was the reason. Only 26% reported BMT exposure in medical school and 43% during residency. The two most common reasons for the choice of a BMT career were the degree of intellectual and

  20. Embryologicalic collateral venous channel on radionuclide liver/spleen study

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Johnson, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    Obstruction of normal venous portal blood flow generally results in collateral circulation. The obstruction may be intrinsic t the vasculature (e.g., hepatic vein thrombosis, vascular anomalies) or it may be extravascular (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatic masses) and may effect blood flow by deforming and compressing the intrahepatic or splenoportal axis vessels. A technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen study demonstrates what is thought to be a functional paraumbilical or umbilical vein in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension.

  1. Influence of preinfarction angina and coronary collateral blood flow on the efficacy of remote ischaemic conditioning in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pryds, Kasper; Bøttcher, Morten; Sloth, Astrid Drivsholm; Munk, Kim; Rahbek Schmidt, Michael; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) confers cardioprotection in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We investigated whether preinfarction angina and coronary collateral blood flow (CCBF) to the infarct-related artery modify the efficacy of RIC. Design Post hoc subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Participants A total of 139 patients with STEMI randomised to treatment with pPCI or RIC+pPCI. Interventions RIC was performed prior to pPCI as four cycles of 5 min upper arm ischaemia and reperfusion with a blood pressure cuff. Primary outcome measure Myocardial salvage index (MSI) assessed by single-photon emission computerised tomography. We evaluated the efficacy of RIC in subgroups of patients with or without preinfarction angina or CCBF. Results Of 139 patients included in the study, 109 had available data for preinfarction angina status and 54 had preinfarction angina. Among 83 patients with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow 0/1 on arrival, 43 had CCBF. Overall, RIC+pPCI increased median MSI compared with pPCI alone (0.75 vs 0.56, p=0.045). Mean MSI did not differ between patients with and without preinfarction angina in either the pPCI alone (0.58 and 0.57; 95% CI −0.17 to 0.19, p=0.94) or the RIC+pPCI group (0.66 and 0.69; 95% CI −0.18 to 0.10, p=0.58). Mean MSI did not differ between patients with and without CCBF in the pPCI alone group (0.51 and 0.55; 95% CI −0.20 to 0.13, p=0.64), but was increased in patients with CCBF versus without CCBF in the RIC+pPCI group (0.75 vs 0.58; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.31, p=0.02; effect modification from CCBF on the effect of RIC on MSI, p=0.06). Conclusions Preinfarction angina did not modify the efficacy of RIC in patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI. CCBF to the infarct-related artery seems to be of importance for the cardioprotective efficacy of RIC. Trial registration number NCT00435266, Post

  2. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  3. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  4. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  5. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money, a depositary authorized to perform services under § 202.3(b) must pledge collateral security in the...

  6. Influence on collateral flow of recanalising chronic total coronary occlusions: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, T; Hochstrasser, P; Billinger, M; Fleisch, M; Meier, B; Seiler, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of recanalisation on collateral flow in a case-control study in patients with and without chronic total coronary occlusions.
DESIGN—In 54 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (mean (SD) age 61 (6) years), coronary collateral flow was measured by intracoronary pressure or Doppler guide wires at the end of repeated balloon occlusions. Coronary collateral flow index (collateral flow relative to normal antegrade flow) during the first two balloon inflations in 27 patients with a chronic total occlusion (occlusion group) was compared with that of 27 patients matched for age, sex, and collateral flow index at the first occlusion and with a coronary artery diameter stenosis ⩽ 80% (stenosis group).
RESULTS—Following revascularisation, collateral flow index decreased in 17 of the patients in the occlusion group (63%) and in eight of the patients in the stenosis group (30%) (p = 0.03 between groups). The overall change of collateral flow index between the first and the second balloon occlusion was −0.04 (0.01) in the occlusion group (p = 0.07 for paired comparison; from 0.29 (0.17) to 0.25 (0.14)), and +0.02 (0.06) in the stenosis group (p = 0.06 for paired comparison; from 0.27 (0.13) to 0.30 (0.15)). The trend to collateral enhancement in the stenosis group differed significantly from the occlusion group (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—While repeated coronary balloon occlusions induce collateral recruitment in the majority of patients with moderate stenoses, recanalisation of chronic total coronary occlusions is more often associated with collateral flow reduction. A later decrease in collateral flow by involution of collateral channels cannot be excluded by this study but has not been reported so far.


Keywords: coronary collateral circulation; coronary occlusion; revascularisation; collateral damage PMID:11559686

  7. Synergistic effects of high blood cholesterol and hypertension on leukocyte and platelet recruitment in the cerebral microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Almeida-Paula, Lidiana D; Granger, Daniel N

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension or hypercholesterolemia can induce a proinflammatory and prothrombogenic phenotype in the microcirculation of the brain; however, less is known about how the combination of these risk factors affects the vasculature. We recently reported that a moderate (60%) increase in plasma cholesterol blunts the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets in the cerebral microvessels elicited by hypertension. In this study, we examined whether larger increments in blood cholesterol (4-fold) exerts a similar modulating influence on the vasculature in the presence of hypertension. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice with deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension were placed on a high-cholesterol diet and exhibited exaggerated leukocyte and platelet adhesion responses in cerebral microvessels. Intermittent feeding (every fourth day) with high-cholesterol diet yielded similar phenotypic changes in the vasculature. Once the mice were placed on high-cholesterol diet, 4 days on normal diet (ND) were needed to revert to a normal vascular phenotype. Angiotensin II type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species seem to contribute to the vascular responses induced by hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Our findings indicate that the combination of hypertension and large increases in plasma cholesterol concentration results in a severe, but reversible, inflammatory and thrombogenic phenotype in the cerebral microvasculature.

  8. Vascular collateralization along ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Singla, Amit; Lin, Ning; Ho, Allen L; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2013-06-01

    Surgically created openings such as bur holes can serve as avenues for the development of collateral blood supply to the brain in patients with moyamoya disease. When such collateralization occurs through preexisting shunt catheter sites, the potential exists for perioperative stroke if these vessels are damaged during revision of a ventricular catheter for shunt malfunction. In this paper the authors report on a series of patients with a history of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts who later developed moyamoya disease and were found to have spontaneous transdural collateral vessels at ventricular catheter sites readily visualized on diagnostic angiography. A consecutive surgical series of 412 patients with moyamoya disease treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1990 to 2010 were reviewed to identify patients with concomitant moyamoya and a VP shunt. The clinical records and angiograms of these patients were reviewed to determine the extent of bur hole collaterals through the shunt site. Three patients were identified who had VP shunts placed for hydrocephalus and subsequently developed moyamoya disease. All 3 patients demonstrated spontaneous transdural collaterals at the ventricular catheter bur hole, as confirmed by angiography during the workup for moyamoya disease. No patients required subsequent revision of their ventricular catheters following the diagnosis of moyamoya. All patients have remained stroke free and clinically stable following pial synangiosis. Although the association of moyamoya and shunted hydrocephalus is rare, it may present a significant potential problem for the neurosurgeon treating a shunt malfunction in this patient population, because shunt bur holes may become entry sites for the ingrowth of significant cortical transdural collateral blood supply to the underlying brain. Shunt revision might therefore be associated with an increased risk of postoperative stroke or operative-site hemorrhage in this population if this

  9. Corporate Speak and "Collateral Recruitment": Surfing the Student Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Academic practice is scrutinized and regulated with such "Corporate speak" terms as "performance indicators," "benchmarking," "service providers" and "clients." As part of a field where ideological shifts continue to apply marketized frames of reference as neoliberalism tightens its grip, new terms…

  10. Aortopulmonary collateral flow in cystic fibrosis assessed with phase-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Gary; VanDyke, Rhonda; Knowlton, Joshua; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Clancy, John; Amin, Raouf

    2013-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease in Caucasians. Chronic pulmonary disease and progressive destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma are one of the major morbidities, but the relationship between clinical severity of CF and aortopulmonary collateral blood flow has not been assessed. Objective The purpose of this study is to measure changes in aortopulmonary collateral blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with CF across the spectrum of disease severity as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1%). Materials and methods Sixteen patients with CF were prospectively evaluated. Eight were classified as having mild CF lung disease (FEV1 ≥80% predicted) and eight were classified as having moderate to severe CF lung disease (FEV1 <80% predicted). Seventeen age and gender matched non-CF subjects without cardiac or lung disease served as controls. Phase-contrast flow was measured at the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery and both pulmonary arteries. Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow was calculated for each subject. The relationship between collateral flow and FEV1%P was modeled using nonparametric regression. Group differences were assessed by analysis of variance. Results Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow began to increase as FEV1%P in subjects with CF fell below 101.5% with significant further increase in the aortopulmonary collateral blood flow in the subjects with CF with moderate to severe lung disease compared to controls (0.89 vs. 0.20 L/min, (P<0.0001). Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow correlated negatively with FEV1%P (r, 0.70, P=0.0050) confirming its relationship to this established marker of disease severity. There was no statistically significant difference in results obtained from two independent observers. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that phase-contrast MRI can be performed reliably with consistent results and without

  11. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  12. Intracoronary demonstration of adenosine-induced coronary collateral steal.

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, C.; Kaufmann, U.; Meier, B.

    1997-01-01

    A steal phenomenon was detected by intravascular Doppler guidewire in a patient with a well collateralised coronary vascular area supplied by a reopened left circumflex coronary artery. This phenomenon accounted for the fall in blood flow velocity reserve during hyperaemic conditions to 50% of the baseline value. The collaterals must have been the cause of the steal phenomenon because complete revascularisation of the lesion barely reversed it. Images PMID:9038700

  13. Serotonin, atherosclerosis, and collateral vessel spasm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on animal models demonstrate that platelet products contribute to vascular spasm in ischemic syndromes and that this is reversible with administration of ketanserin and thromboxane synthesis inhibitors. Laboratory animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) that had femoral artery ligations exhibited supersensitivity to serotonin within days in their collateral blood vessels. This supersensitivity lasted at least 6 months. The response to serotonin was reversed by ketanserin, but not by 5HT-1 antagonists. Supersensitivity does not extend to norepinephrine, and alpha blockers do not influence the response to serotonin. It appears that platelet activation by endothelial injury contributes to ischemia through blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm. When platelet activation occurs in vivo, blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm are reversible in part by using ketanserin or agents that block thromboxane synthesis or its action. Combining both classes of agents reverses spasm completely. These findings support existing evidence that platelet products contribute to vascular disease, and provide an approach to improved management with currently available pharmacologic agents.

  14. Interrogating the functional correlates of collateralization in patients with intracranial stenosis using multi-modal hemodynamic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Brent A.; Donahue, Manus J.; Davis, L. Taylor; Faraco, Carlos C.; Arteaga, Daniel; Chen, Sheau-Chiann; Ladner, Travis; Scott, Allison O.; Strother, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The importance of collateralization for maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion is increasingly recognized. However, measuring collateral flow noninvasively has proved elusive. The aim of this study was to assess correlations among (1) baseline perfusion and arterial transit time artifact, (2) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), and (3) the presence of collateral vessels on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods The relationship between the presence of collateral vessels on arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) MRI and DSA was compared to blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI measures of hypercapnic cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis (n=18). DSA maps were reviewed by a neuroradiologist and assigned the following scores: 1) collaterals to the periphery of the ischemic site; 2) complete irrigation of the ischemic bed via collateral flow; 3) normal antegrade flow. ASL maps were scored according to 0) low signal; 1) moderate signal with arterial transit artifact (ATA); 2) high signal with ATA; 3) normal signal. Results In regions with normal-to-high signal on ASL, collateral vessel presence on DSA strongly correlated with declines in CVR as measured on BOLD MRI (p<0.001), most notably in patients with non-atherosclerotic disease. There was a trend toward increasing CVR with increases in the degree of collateralization on DSA (p=0.082). Conclusion Collateral vessels may have fundamentally different vasoreactivity properties than healthy vessels, a finding that is observed most prominently in non-atherosclerotic disease and to a lesser extent in atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27056428

  15. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assets to be used in the delivery of the service for which the Loan is guaranteed. Such Assets may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Tangible Assets, including current Assets (such as... Collateral. Collateral required by paragraph (a) of this section shall consist solely of Assets of...

  16. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assets to be used in the delivery of the service for which the Loan is guaranteed. Such Assets may include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Tangible Assets, including current Assets (such as... Collateral. Collateral required by paragraph (a) of this section shall consist solely of Assets of...

  17. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Service's web site at www.publicdebt.treas.gov. (c) Deposits of securities. Unless the Secretary of the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section... GOVERNMENT 1 § 202.6 Collateral security. (a) Requirement. Prior to receiving deposits of public money,...

  18. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of...

  19. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of...

  20. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of...

  1. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of...

  2. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of...

  3. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collateral. 2201.20 Section 2201.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.20 Collateral. (a) Existence...

  4. 7 CFR 2201.20 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collateral. 2201.20 Section 2201.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.20 Collateral. (a) Existence...

  5. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 725.19 Section 725.19 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.19 Collateral requirements. (a)...

  6. 45 CFR 160.532 - Collateral estoppel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 160.532 Section 160.532 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.532 Collateral estoppel. When...

  7. Kinetics of standardized large volume leukapheresis (LVL) in patients do not show a recruitment phenomenon of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC).

    PubMed

    Cassens, U; Momkvist, P H; Zuehlsdorf, M; Mohr, M; Kienast, J; Berdel, W E; Sibrowski, W

    2001-07-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of large volume leukapheresis (LVL) to yield high numbers of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC), the mechanisms of stem cell release into circulation and the postulated phenomenon of PBPC recruitment during apheresis have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, we analyzed the kinetics of stem cell enrichment in a total of 34 standardized LVL for patients with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma, multiple myeloma) and solid tumors (breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma). LVL was started 2 h after administration of G-CSF processing six times the patient's blood volume. Cells were sequentially collected into six bags and the numbers of leukocytes, mononuclear cells (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in each collection bag were analyzed. The numbers of PBPC collected demonstrated a continuous decrease starting after an early maximum during the second processed blood volume (P = 0.001). Interestingly, these kinetics of decreasing stem cell yields during LVL were similar for both entities of patients with hematologic malignancies as well as for both groups of patients with solid tumors. In summary, a recruitment phenomenon, defined as a time-dependent and LVL-induced increase of PBPC, could not be demonstrated in any of the diseases investigated.

  8. The promotion of endothelial progenitor cells recruitment by nerve growth factors in tissue-engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Li, Li; Mi, Jianhong; Xu, Shangcheng; Wen, Can; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Sun, Jiansen; Ying, Dajun; Yang, Mingcan; Li, Xiaosong; Zhu, Chuhong

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization and homing are critical to the development of an anti-thrombosis and anti-stenosis tissue-engineered blood vessel. The growth and activation of blood vessels are supported by nerves. We investigated whether nerve growth factors (NGF) can promote EPCs mobilization and endothelialization of tissue-engineered blood vessels. In vitro, NGF promoted EPCs to form more colonies, stimulated human EPCs to differentiate into endothelial cells, and significantly enhanced EPCs migration. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that NGF treatment increased the number of EPCs in the peripheral circulation of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, the treatment of human EPCs with NGF facilitated their homing into wire-injured carotid arteries after injection into mice. Decellularized rat blood vessel matrix was incubated with EDC cross-linked collagen and bound to NGF protein using the bifunctional coupling agent N-succinmidyl3-(2-pyridyldit-hio) propionate (SPDP). The NGF-bound tissue-engineered blood vessel was implanted into rat carotid artery for 1 week and 1 month. NGF-bound blood vessels possessed significantly higher levels of endothelialization and patency than controls did. These results demonstrated that NGF can markedly increase EPCs mobilization and homing to vascular grafts. Neurotrophic factors such as NGF have a therapeutic potential for the construction of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo.

  9. [The significance of cervical collaterals in the subclavian steal phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Uchiyama, S

    1993-09-01

    The subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is often associated with occlusive disease involving the subclavian or innominate arteries, but an asymptomatic subclavian steal, called the "subclavian steal phenomenon" (SSP), is not uncommon. Though intracranial collaterals had been postulated as one of the etiologies for the SSP's being asymptomatic, little has been accomplished in the investigation of extracranial channels. To study the hemodynamic role of cervical collateral channels, an angiographical study was done in three cases with SSP. The three cases were admitted to the hospital because of carotid ischemic symptoms, such as right hemiplegia or sensory aphasia. Each case had a blood pressure difference between the two arms, but in all of them the past history or the exercise test was negative for vertebrobasilar or arm ischemia. On angiography, occlusions of the unilateral proximal subclavian artery, the left in case 1 and the right in case 2, or a tight stenosis of the innominate artery was found in case 3. In each case, the vertebral artery flow in the affected side was inverted, siphoning off from the opposite vertebral artery into the affected subclavian artery. In addition to the vertebral siphoning; muscular branches of ipsilateral external carotid origin in cases 1 and 2, or the thyrocervical trunk via the inferior thyroid artery in case 3 was also found to function as a collateral channel to the vertebral artery on the affected side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iwasawa, Eri; Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Yokota, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood flow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate without hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  11. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral...) Appraisals. A Bank may require a member to obtain an appraisal of any item of collateral, and to perform...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615... collateral ratio. (a) Each bank shall achieve and at all times maintain a net collateral ratio of at least 103 percent. (b) At a minimum, a bank shall compute its net collateral ratio as of the end of...

  17. Arterial Spin-Labeling MRI Can Identify the Presence and Intensity of Collateral Perfusion in Patients With Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy M.; Marks, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Moseley, Michael E.; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Determining the presence and adequacy of collateral blood flow is important in cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether a noninvasive imaging modality, arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, could be used to detect the presence and intensity of collateral flow using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and stable xenon CT cerebral blood flow as gold standards for collaterals and cerebral blood flow, respectively. Methods ASL and DSA were obtained within 4 days of each other in 18 patients with Moyamoya disease. Two neurointerventionalists scored DSA images using a collateral grading scale in regions of interest corresponding to ASPECTS methodology. Two neuroradiologists similarly scored ASL images based on the presence of arterial transit artifact. Agreement of ASL and DSA consensus scores was determined, including kappa statistics. In 15 patients, additional quantitative xenon CT cerebral blood flow measurements were performed and compared with collateral grades. Results The agreement between ASL and DSA consensus readings was moderate to strong, with a weighted kappa value of 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.64), but there was better agreement between readers for ASL compared with DSA. Sensitivity and specificity for identifying collaterals with ASL were 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.88) and 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.87), respectively. Xenon CT cerebral blood flow increased with increasing DSA and ASL collateral grade (P<0.05). Conclusions ASL can noninvasively predict the presence and intensity of collateral flow in patients with Moyamoya disease using DSA as a gold standard. Further study of other cerebrovascular diseases, including acute ischemic stroke, is warranted. PMID:21799169

  18. 7 CFR 1779.48 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.48 Collateral. (a) Lender... and ability of project management, soundness of the project, and the borrower's prospective earnings..., water rights, buildings, machinery, equipment, accounts receivable, contracts, cash, or other...

  19. FGF-4 gene therapy GENERX--Collateral Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Collateral Therapeutics and Schering AG in Germany are developing a gene therapy product, GENERX for coronary artery disease. Based on the terms of the agreement, Schering or its affliates will be responsible for conducting and financing phase II/III clinical trials which are currently underway in the US and Europe. In particular, Berlex Labs (the US subsidiary of Schering AG), is involved in developing the gene therapy in the US. GENERX is an angiogenic gene therapy which triggers the production of a protein that stimulates new blood vessel growth providing an alternative route for blood to bypass clogged and blocked arteries in the heart. GENERX involves a one-time, non-surgical delivery of an adenovirus vector containing the human fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) into coronary arteries via a standard catheter. The FGF-4 gene was licensed from New York University. Collateral Therapeutics has been granted a US patent for "gene transfer-mediated angiogenesis therapy" for the nonsurgical administration of angiogenic genes for coronary and peripheral vascular disease. The patented technology has been licensed from the University of California. Collateral and Berlex have initiated pivotal phase IIb/III trials with GENERX in the US and Europe. The US-based study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of GENERX in patients with stable exertional angina due to coronary artery disease. The European-based study will evaluate patients with advanced coronary artery disease who are not considered candidates for interventions such as angioplasty and bypass surgery and/or patients who are unlikely to have positive outcomes from such interventions. Both studies, of a multicentre, randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, will evaluate 2 dose levels of GENERX which will be non-surgically administered to the heart via intracoronary infusion through a standard cardiac catheter. Collateral also plans to develop a non-surgical gene therapy product using the FGF-4 gene

  20. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  1. Erythropoietin-enhanced endothelial progenitor cell recruitment in peripheral blood and renal vessels during experimental acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Figen; Enders-Comberg, Sora Maria; Pagel, Horst; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Lehnert, Hendrik; Kramer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been reported in acute kidney injury (AKI) when administered prior to induction of AKI. We studied the effects of EPO administration on renal function shortly after ischemic AKI. For this purpose, rats were subjected to renal ischemia for 30 min and EPO was administered at a concentration of 500 U/kg either i.v. as a single shot directly after ischemia or with an additional i.p. dose until 3 days after surgery. The results were compared with AKI rats without EPO application and a sham-operated group. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum biochemical markers, histological grading, and using an isolated perfused kidney (IPK) model. Furthermore, we performed flow cytometry to analyze the concentration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and renal vessels. Following EPO application, there was only a statistically non-significant tendency of serum creatinine and urea to improve, particularly after daily EPO application. Renal vascular resistance and the renal perfusion rate were not significantly altered. In the histological analysis, acute tubular necrosis was only marginally ameliorated following EPO administration. In summary, we could not demonstrate a significant improvement in renal function when EPO was applied after AKI. Interestingly, however, EPO treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in CD133- and CD34-positive EPC both in the peripheral blood and renal vessels.

  2. Ligation of the left hepatic vein for dilated intrahepatic collaterals late after fontan operation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun Soo; Park, Jeong-Jun; Park, In-Sook; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2014-07-01

    A 17-year-old male presented with two episodes of syncope, cyanosis, and exercise intolerance 13 years after the Fontan operation. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging showed dilated intrahepatic collaterals, which drained into the atrium through the left hepatic vein, and 24-hour Holter monitoring revealed sinus node dysfunction. We performed ligation of the left hepatic vein using intrahepatic collaterals as channels draining hepatic venous blood into the Fontan pathway, and implanted an epicardial dual chamber pacemaker. At one-year follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic and his cardiac performance was much improved.

  3. [Original relations of acupoints with channels-collaterals and acupuncture therapy].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xing-hua

    2008-03-01

    With analysis and systematization of ancient medical books being unearthed Mazoangdui tomb and other literatures, it is found that ancient names and meanings of moxibustion and acupuncture parts passed the courses from Mai to Maikou, the place and region above Mai, then to acupoints on the body surface showing channels, gi and blood. This change trace reveals original relationship acupoints with channels-collaterals, and acupuncture therapy. The acupoint is a point and channels-collaterals are lines, except a less acupoints which located by obvious anatomic markers, most of are special parts on the channels and collaterals, are not a isolated point. The acupoint is the gate of needle inserting the human body, proposal of this concept and increase of the number of acopoints are closely related with invention, popularity and spreading of acupuncture therapy.

  4. The Effect of Placing Flow-Diverting Stents in Intracranial Collateral Arteries of Miniature Pig

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiwei; Ding, Yanan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yanan; Mu, Shiqing; Bi, Lixin; Li, Youxiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Flow-diverting stent (FDS) has been suggested as an effective intracranial aneurysm treatment. However, the effects of FDS on collateral branches of an aneurysm parent artery still remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of placing a FDS in the intracranial collateral artery, using a miniature pig animal model. Material/Methods Ten healthy miniature pigs were included in the study: one pig was reserved as a control and the remaining nine pigs were placed in three experimental groups: FDS (i.e., Pipeline), LVIS, and Solitaier-AB stent groups. Pigs in the experimental groups were examined by cerebral angiography immediately after stent placement, followed by hemodynamic analyses. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain of pigs in the experimental groups was performed to inspect the brain for obstruction and blood flow. Stents were examined for the growth of neointimas. Results The results showed that neointimas, consisting of smooth muscle cells, collagenous fibers, and macrophages, were 0.67 mm thick on average and partially covered the stent wires. The thickness of neointimas in the FDS group was significantly higher than in the two conventional intracranial stent groups. There was no obvious obstruction identified in collateral arteries where the FDS was placed. Conclusions These results indicated that neointimas in collateral arteries of a miniature pig would be slightly thickened after one month of FDS placement; and FDS was shown to be safe for collateral arteries. PMID:28333907

  5. Increased circulating monocyte count is related to good collateral development in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Arslan, Uğur; Tavil, Yusuf; Okuyan, Hizir; Abaci, Adnan; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-04-01

    Monocytes have been shown to take an important role in collateral growth in animal studies. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation of circulating monocyte count with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic CAD. Patients who had > or =95% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery were included in the study. Coronary angiograms of 210 eligible patients from our database were analyzed again and 103 of them had good and 107 had poor collateral development according to Cohen-Rentrop method. Only the monocyte count was found to be significantly different between two groups (671+/-218 mm(-3) versus 522+/-195 mm(-3), p<0.001) when multivariate analysis was performed and an increased monocyte count was observed in the good collateral group (Odds ration [OR], 2.918; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.281-6.648, p=0.011). This study in which the relationship between monocyte count in blood and collateral development was disclosed has a potential importance in clinical and basic cardiovascular medicine.

  6. Mechanical buckling of arterioles in collateral development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-01-07

    Collateral arterioles enlarge in both diameter and length, and develop corkscrew-like tortuous patterns during remodeling. Recent studies showed that artery buckling could lead to tortuosity. The objective of this study was to determine arteriole critical buckling pressure and buckling pattern during arteriole remodeling. Arterioles were modeled as elastic cylindrical vessels with an elastic matrix support and underwent axial and radial growth. Our results demonstrated that arteriole critical buckling pressure decreased with increasing axial growth ratio and radius growth ratio, but increased with increasing wall thickness. Arteriole buckling mode number increased (wavelength decreased) with increasing axial growth ratio, but decreased with increasing radius growth ratio and wall thickness. Our study suggests that axial growth in arterioles makes them prone to buckling and that buckling leads to tortuous collaterals. These results shed light on the mechanism of collateral arteriole tortuosity.

  7. Mechanical Buckling of Arterioles in Collateral Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Collateral arterioles enlarge in both diameter and length, and develop corkscrew-like tortuous patterns during remodeling. Recent studies showed that artery buckling could lead to tortuosity. The objective of this study was to determine arteriole critical buckling pressure and buckling pattern during arteriole remodeling. Arterioles were modeled as elastic cylindrical vessels with an elastic matrix support and underwent axial and radial growth. Our results demonstrated that arteriole critical buckling pressure decreased with increasing axial growth ratio and radius growth ratio, but increased with increasing wall thickness. Arteriole buckling mode number increased (wave length decreased) with increasing axial growth ratio, but decreased with increasing radius growth ratio and wall thickness. Our study suggests that axial growth in arterioles makes them prone to buckling and that buckling leads to tortuous collaterals. These results shed light on the mechanism of collateral arteriole tortuosity. PMID:23034307

  8. Gene therapy during cardiac surgery: role of surgical technique to minimize collateral organ gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Swain, JaBaris D.; Fargnoli, Anthony S.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Effective gene therapy for heart failure has not yet been achieved clinically. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the cardiac isolation efficiency of the molecular cardiac surgery with recirculating delivery (MCARD™) and to evaluate its efficacy as a means to limit collateral organ gene expression. 1014 genome copies (GC) of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector 6 encoding green fluorescent protein under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter was delivered to the nine arrested sheep hearts. Blood samples were assessed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT QPCR). Collateral organ gene expression was assessed at four-weeks using immunohistochemical staining. The blood vector GC concentration in the cardiac circuit during complete isolation trended from 9.59±0.73 to 9.05±0.65 (log GC/cm3), and no GC were detectable in the systemic circuit (P<0.001). The washing procedure performed prior to relinquishing the cardiac circuit decreased the systemic blood vector GC concentration >800-fold (P<0.001), consistent with >99% isolation efficiency. Conversely, incomplete isolation resulted in equalization of vector GC concentration in the circuits, leading to robust collateral organ gene expression. MCARD™ is an efficient, clinically translatable myocardial delivery platform for cardiac specific gene therapy. The cardiac surgical techniques utilized are critically important to limit collateral organ gene expression. PMID:20861057

  9. Vestibular recruitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsemakhov, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular recruitment is defined through the analysis of several references. It is concluded that vestibular recruitment is an objective phenomenon which manifests itself during the affection of the vestibular receptor and thus serves as a diagnostic tool during affection of the vestibular system.

  10. Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amy R.

    A practical process for developing or improving student recruitment programs for Catholic schools is presented in this handbook. Planning for and preparing the recruitment program is discussed in the first half of the document. The booklet reviews the process of assessing the school, its program, and its image; identifying the financial, material,…

  11. 75 FR 64710 - Public Roundtable on Individual Customer Collateral Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... collateral protection in the context of the CFTC's rulemaking efforts pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... addressed at the discussion, or on any other topics related to customer collateral protection in the...

  12. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  13. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  14. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  15. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  16. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral...

  17. Collateral Learning and Mathematical Education of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first "n" counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of "the more knowledgeable other" as a pedagogical method of making…

  18. 13 CFR 120.934 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 120.934 Section 120.934 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company... must be insured against such hazards and risks as SBA may require, with provisions for notice to...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4240 - Collateral definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... satisfied the requirements for and has been certified as a real estate appraiser by a State or territory... income and/or other collateral, absent the real estate, and the decision to extend credit was, in fact.... (o) Real estate means an identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements, if any. (p)...

  20. 12 CFR 614.4240 - Collateral definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... satisfied the requirements for and has been certified as a real estate appraiser by a State or territory... income and/or other collateral, absent the real estate, and the decision to extend credit was, in fact.... (o) Real estate means an identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements, if any. (p)...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4240 - Collateral definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... satisfied the requirements for and has been certified as a real estate appraiser by a State or territory... income and/or other collateral, absent the real estate, and the decision to extend credit was, in fact.... (o) Real estate means an identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements, if any. (p)...

  2. Using Collateral Material To Improve Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which the provision of selected collateral material can enhance students' enjoyment of their writing tasks, and their performance in a context where although English is the official language, it is little used and much resisted by students for whom the language of choice for social interaction is the local Creole.…

  3. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation, including life insurance, pension funds, death benefits programs, and payments by Federal, State... determining the appropriate collateral source offset for future benefit payments, the Special Master may employ an appropriate methodology for determining the present value of such future benefits....

  4. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collateral sources. 104.47 Section 104.47 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001..., or local governments related to the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001....

  5. 12 CFR 950.7 - Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... securities as the Finance Board in its discretion may determine. (2) Agency securities. Securities issued...: (i) Mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, Ginnie Mae, or any... collateral has a readily ascertainable value, can be reliably discounted to account for liquidation and...

  6. The association between prolongation in QRS duration and presence of coronary collateral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Altıntaş, Bernas; Uğurlu, Murat; Kaya, İlyas; Uçaman, Berzal; Uluğ, Ali Veysel; Altındağ, Rojhat; Altaş, Yakup; Adıyaman, Mehmet Şahin; Öztürk, Önder

    2016-01-01

    Background It is known that QRS duration is related to prognosis in acute myocardial infarction. The relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation is uncertain. In the present study, we aimed to determine the relation between QRS duration and coronary collateral circulation in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. Methods The present study was composed of 109 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. All patients had total occlusion in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Electrocardiographic recordings on admission were obtained for the assessment of QRS duration. The Rentrop classification was used to define coronary collateral circulation on coronary angiography. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 with poor coronary collateral circulation (Rentrop 0–1) and Group 2 with good coronary collateral circulation (Rentrop 2–3). Results Of all patients, 62 patients were included in group 1 and 47 patients in group 2, respectively. In the present study, patients in the group 1 had longer QRS duration than patients in the group 2 (p < 0.005). Additionally, we found that Rentrop grading had negative correlation with both QRS duration and white blood cell count (r: −0.28; p < 0.005 and r: −0.35; p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study showed that there was an inverse relationship between QRS duration on admission and presence of coronary collateral circulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27570619

  7. Collateral response to activation of potassium channels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G

    1998-04-01

    Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is involved in the coronary vascular response to decreases in perfusion pressure and ischemia. Since activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in collateral vessels may be important in determining flow to collateral-dependent myocardium, the ability of collaterals to respond to activation of the channel was tested. In the beating heart of dogs, we compared responses of non-collaterals less than 100 microns in diameter to collaterals of similar size using computer-controlled stroboscopic epi-illumination of the left ventricle coupled to a microscope-video system. Aprikalim, a selective activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (0.1-10 microM) produced similar dose-dependent dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals. Relaxation was decreased by inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels with glibenclamide, but not by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with nitro-L-arginine. Bradykinin (10-100 microM) produced similar dilation of non-collaterals and collaterals which was decreased by nitro-L-arginine but not glibenclamide. Thus, in microvascular collaterals, relaxation to both nitric oxide and activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is similar to non-collaterals.

  8. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  9. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-03-14

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management.

  10. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management. PMID:28348478

  11. Dynamics of collateral circulation in progressive asymptomatic carotid disease.

    PubMed

    Moll, F L; Eikelboom, B C; Vermeulen, F E; van Lier, H J; Schulte, B P

    1986-03-01

    Inadequacy of collateral arterial flow is the major risk factor for hemispheric infarction in association with spontaneous occlusion of the ipsilateral carotid artery. This prospective study was designed to measure the adaptation of collateral cerebral circulation through the circle of Willis in patients in whom a unilateral carotid stenosis of hemodynamic consequence develops asymptomatically. The collateral cerebral potential is assessed by ocular pneumoplethysmography (OPG) during proximal common carotid artery compression, measuring the collateral ophthalmic artery pressure (COAP). During an average follow-up of almost 3 years (maximum more than 7 years), 45 patients showed asymptomatic development of a unilateral hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis according to OPG evidence. In these patients the mean index COAP/brachial artery pressure did not change on the side of stenosis progression (p greater than 0.05). The developed carotid stenosis had only reduced collateral circulation to the contralateral hemisphere. The risk of inadequate collateral cerebral circulation remained during progression of asymptomatic extracranial arterial obstructive disease.

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  13. Pial Collateral Reactivity During Hypertension and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu-Lung; Sweet, Julie G.; Bishop, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— We investigated vasoactive properties of leptomeningeal arterioles (LMAs) under normotensive conditions and during hypertension and aging that are known to have poor collateral flow and little salvageable tissue. Methods— LMAs, identified as distal anastomotic arterioles connecting middle and anterior cerebral arteries, were studied isolated and pressurized from young (18 weeks) or aged (48 weeks) normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY18, n=14; WKY48, n=6) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR18, n=16; SHR48, n=6). Myogenic tone and vasoactive responses to pressure as well as endothelial function and ion channel activity were measured. Results— LMAs from WKY18 had little myogenic tone at 40 mm Hg (8±3%) that increased in aged WKY48 (30±6%). However, LMAs from both WKY groups dilated to increased pressure and demonstrated little myogenic reactivity, a response that would be conducive to collateral flow. In contrast, LMAs from both SHR18 and SHR48 displayed considerable myogenic tone (56±8% and 43±7%; P<0.01 versus WKY) and constricted to increased pressure. LMAs from both WKY and SHR groups had similar basal endothelial nitric oxide and IK channel activity that opposed tone. However, dilation to sodium nitroprusside, diltiazem and 15 mmol/L KCl was impaired in LMAs from SHR18. Conclusions— This study shows for the first time that LMAs from young and aged SHR are vasoconstricted and have impaired vasodilatory responses that may contribute to greater perfusion deficit and little penumbral tissue. These results also suggest that therapeutic opening of pial collaterals is possible during middle cerebral artery occlusion to create penumbral tissue and prevent infarct expansion. PMID:27103017

  14. Volunteer Bias in Recruitment, Retention, and Blood Sample Donation in a Randomised Controlled Trial Involving Mothers and Their Children at Six Months and Two Years: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Sue; Watkins, Alan; Storey, Mel; Allen, Steven J.; Brooks, Caroline J.; Garaiova, Iveta; Heaven, Martin L.; Jones, Ruth; Plummer, Sue F.; Russell, Ian T.; Thornton, Catherine A.; Morgan, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Background The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not. Methods and Results This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1) differences between a) trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b) participants and non-participants as the trial progressed 2) impact on trial findings of weighting data according to deprivation (Townsend) fifths in the sample and target populations. 1) a) Recruits (n = 454) were less deprived than the target population, matched for area of residence and delivery dates (n = 6,893) (mean [SD] deprivation scores 0.09[4.21] and 0.79[4.08], t = 3.44, df = 511, p<0.001). b) i)As the trial progressed, representation of the most deprived decreased. These participants and smokers were less likely to be retained at 6 months (n = 430[95%]) (OR 0.29,0.13–0.67 and 0.20,0.09–0.46), and 2 years (n = 380[84%]) (aOR 0.68,0.50–0.93 and 0.55,0.28–1.09), and consent to infant blood sample donation (n = 220[48%]) (aOR 0.72,0.57–0.92 and 0.43,0.22–0.83). ii)Mothers interested in probiotics or research or reporting infants’ adverse events or rashes were more likely to attend research clinics and consent to skin-prick testing. Mothers participating to help children were more likely to consent to infant blood sample donation. 2) In one trial outcome, atopic eczema, the intervention had a positive effect only in the over-represented, least deprived group. Here, data weighting attenuated risk reduction from 6.9%(0.9–13.1%) to 4.6%(−1.4–+10.5%), and OR from 0.40(0.18–0.91) to 0.56(0.26–1.21). Other findings were unchanged. Conclusions Potential for volunteer bias intensified during the trial, due to non

  15. Collateral sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant microbes.

    PubMed

    Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs; Lázár, Viktória

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how evolution of microbial resistance towards a given antibiotic influences susceptibility to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining laboratory evolution, genome sequencing, and functional analyses, recent works have charted the map of evolutionary trade-offs between antibiotics and have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, mutations that caused multidrug resistance in bacteria simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to many other unrelated drugs (collateral sensitivity). Here, we explore how this emerging research sheds new light on resistance mechanisms and the way it could be exploited for the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies.

  16. α-Adrenergic and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor control of collateral circuit conductance: influence of exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jessica C; Yang, H T; Laughlin, M Harold; Terjung, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of α-adrenergic receptor- and neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the collateral circuit of the hind limb. Animals were evaluated either the same day (Acute) or 3 weeks following occlusion of the femoral artery; the 3-week animals were in turn limited to cage activity (Sed) or given daily exercise (Trained). Collateral-dependent blood flows (BFs) were measured during exercise with microspheres before and after α-receptor inhibition (phentolamine) and then NPY Y1 receptor inhibition (BIBP 3226) at the same running speed. Blood pressures (BPs) were measured above (caudal artery) and below (distal femoral artery) the collateral circuit. Arterial BPs were reduced by α-inhibition (50–60 mmHg) to ∼75 mmHg, but not further by NPY Y1 receptor inhibition. Effective experimental sympatholysis was verified by 50–100% increases (P < 0.001) in conductance of active muscles not affected by femoral occlusion with receptor inhibition. In the absence of receptor inhibition, vascular conductance of the collateral circuit was minimal in the Acute group (0.13 ± 0.02), increased over time in the Sed group (0.41 ± 0.03; P < 0.001), and increased further in the Trained group (0.53 ± 0.03; P < 0.02). Combined receptor inhibition increased collateral circuit conductances (P < 0.005), most in the Acute group (116 ± 37%; P < 0.02), as compared to the Sed (41 ± 6.6%; P < 0.001) and Trained (31 ± 5.6%; P < 0.001) groups. Thus, while the sympathetic influence of the collateral circuit remained in the Sed and Trained animals, it became less influential with time post-occlusion. Collateral conductances were collectively greater (P < 0.01) in the Trained as compared to Sed group, irrespective of the presence or absence of receptor inhibition. Conductances of the active ischaemic calf muscle, with combined receptor inhibition, were suboptimal in the Acute group, but increased in Sed and Trained animals to exceptionally high

  17. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  18. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  19. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  20. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  1. 12 CFR 614.4250 - Collateral evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and procedures. Such a collateral evaluation shall be identified as either a collateral valuation or a...) Potential liabilities, including those associated with any hazardous waste or other environmental concerns... requested minimum valuation or specific valuation or approval of a loan. (b) For purposes of...

  2. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  5. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 48.104-3 Section 48.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  7. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  8. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings. 2448.104-3 Section 2448.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority...

  9. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  10. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  11. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  12. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund....

  13. Chronic Stress Impairs Collateral Blood Flow Recovery in Aged Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-15

    factor associated with atherosclerosis [19, 20]. Chronic stress, mental disorders, and non-pathological psychological stress states are associat- ed...Grahame-Clarke, C., Shanks, N., et al. (2003). Chronic stress accelerates atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E deficient mouse. Stress, 6(4), 297–299. 4...of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis . American of Journal in Cardiology, 91, 7A–11A. 11. Balkaya, M., Prinz, V., Custodis, F., et al. (2011

  14. Assessment of collateral flow in patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Joseph; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max

    2014-10-01

    The ability to maintain cerebral parenchymal perfusion during states of acute or chronic ischemic insult depends largely on the capacity of the cerebral collateral circulation. Perfusion techniques, including perfusion-CT and arterial spin labeling, may not only describe the overall status of the collateral network, but can also quantify the pathophysiologic collateral reserve, which is occult to conventional imaging techniques. The following review details advanced imaging modalities capable of resolving pathophysiologic collateral circulation in a functional and dynamic manner, with regards to the evaluation of both acute ischemic penumbra and chronic cerebral vascular reserve. Specifically, the applications of perfusion-CT, arterial spin labeling MRI techniques, and transcranial Doppler are reviewed in the context of collateral circulation with emphasis on perfusion techniques and proposed clinical utility.

  15. Collateral learning and mathematical education of teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first n counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of 'the more knowledgeable other' as a pedagogical method of making one's mathematics learning experience educative. This includes learning about the efficacy of generalizing by induction and the perils of overgeneralization. Recourse to geometry and computing as support system in understanding concepts of algebra is emphasized towards the end of promoting an experiential approach to mathematics. This article stems from the author's work with prospective teachers of secondary mathematics in a capstone course. Their reflections on the course are shared and analysed.

  16. Use of collateral information to improve LANDSAT classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Methods to improve LANDSAT classification accuracies were investigated including: (1) the use of prior probabilities in maximum likelihood classification as a methodology to integrate discrete collateral data with continuously measured image density variables; (2) the use of the logit classifier as an alternative to multivariate normal classification that permits mixing both continuous and categorical variables in a single model and fits empirical distributions of observations more closely than the multivariate normal density function; and (3) the use of collateral data in a geographic information system as exercised to model a desired output information layer as a function of input layers of raster format collateral and image data base layers.

  17. Pulmonary artery agenesis associated with coronary collaterals among adults.

    PubMed

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Alhaddad, Imad A

    2016-07-16

    Unilateral agenesis of the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly, which commonly involves the right side. Cases are associated with systemic collaterals, that may also rarely arise from the coronary arteries.Two adult patients are presented with a right pulmonary artery agenesis associated with collaterals from the right coronary artery. The implications of such an anomaly on pulmonary artery pressure and lung pathology differs among both cases. The association of coronary collaterals is rare and its implication is variable among various patients.

  18. A common variant of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Glu298Asp) is associated with collateral development in patients with chronic coronary occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Lamblin, Nicolas; Cuilleret, François J; Helbecque, Nicole; Dallongeville, Jean; Lablanche, Jean-Marc; Amouyel, Philippe; Bauters, Christophe; Van Belle, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Background Experimental studies support an important role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the regulation of angiogenesis. In humans, a common polymorphism exists in the eNOS gene that results in the conversion of glutamate to aspartate for codon 298. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a decreased NOS activity in patients with the Asp298 variant. We hypothesized that a genetic-mediated decreased eNOS activity may limit collateral development in patients with chronic coronary occlusions. Methods We selected 291 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and who had at least one chronic (>15 days) total coronary occlusion. Collateral development was graded angiographically using two different methods: the collateral flow grade and the recipient filling grade. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells and genotyping was performed using previously published techniques. Results Collateral development was lower in patients carrying the Asp298 variant than in Glu-Glu homozygotes (collateral flow grade: 2.64 ± 0.08 and 2.89 ± 0.08, respectively, p = 0.04; recipient filling grade: 3.00 ± 0.08 and 3.24 ± 0.07, respectively, p = 0.04). By multivariable analysis, three variables were independently associated with the collateral flow grade: female gender, smoking, and the Asp298 variant (p = 0.03) while the Asp298 variant was the sole variable independently associated with the recipient filling grade (p = 0.03). Conclusion Collateral development is lower in patients with the Asp298 variant. This may be explained by the decreased NOS activity in patients with the Asp298 variant. Further studies will have to determine whether increasing eNOS activity in humans is associated with coronary collateral development. PMID:16164743

  19. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be...

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion. PMID:27621802

  1. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N = 2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05). Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops. PMID:22909128

  2. 7 CFR 4287.113 - Release of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used to reduce the guaranteed loan or to buy replacement collateral must be requested in writing by the lender and concurred in by the Agency in writing in advance of the release. A written evaluation will...

  3. USAR Recruiting Success Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    recruiters. Conventional multi. * variate statistical techniques have not prov ed-adequate in identifying successful recruiters, largely because of the...statistical techniques to the problem of identifying the relative importance of factors affecting recruiter success. Me t hod This study applies a...recruiters; background characteristics, suggestions about recruiter training, the value of various prospecting and selling techniques , workload, attitudes

  4. Shear induced collateral artery growth modulated by endoglin but not by ALK1

    PubMed Central

    Seghers, Leonard; de Vries, Margreet R; Pardali, Evangelia; Hoefer, Imo E; Hierck, Beerend P; ten Dijke, Peter ten; Goumans, Marie Jose; Quax, Paul HA

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) stimulates both ischaemia induced angiogenesis and shear stress induced arteriogenesis by signalling through different receptors. How these receptors are involved in both these processes of blood flow recovery is not entirely clear. In this study the role of TGF-β receptors 1 and endoglin is assessed in neovascularization in mice. Unilateral femoral artery ligation was performed in mice heterozygous for either endoglin or ALK1 and in littermate controls. Compared with littermate controls, blood flow recovery, monitored by laser Doppler perfusion imaging, was significantly hampered by maximal 40% in endoglin heterozygous mice and by maximal 49% in ALK1 heterozygous mice. Collateral artery size was significantly reduced in endoglin heterozygous mice compared with controls but not in ALK1 heterozygous mice. Capillary density in ischaemic calf muscles was unaffected, but capillaries from endoglin and ALK1 heterozygous mice were significantly larger when compared with controls. To provide mechanistic evidence for the differential role of endoglin and ALK1 in shear induced or ischaemia induced neovascularization, murine endothelial cells were exposed to shear stress in vitro. This induced increased levels of endoglin mRNA but not ALK1. In this study it is demonstrated that both endoglin and ALK1 facilitate blood flow recovery. Importantly, endoglin contributes to both shear induced collateral artery growth and to ischaemia induced angiogenesis, whereas ALK1 is only involved in ischaemia induced angiogenesis. PMID:22436015

  5. Elevated 20-HETE impairs coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome via endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Gregory; Soler, Amanda; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Hunter, Ian; Bradford, Chastity; Hutcheson, Brenda; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Proctor, Spencer; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado; Rocic, Petra

    2017-03-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of MetS (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which, in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI). RI-induced cardiac CYP4F (neutrophil-specific 20-HETE synthase) expression and 20-HETE levels were increased (4-fold) in JCR vs. normal rats. miR-145-Adv and 20-HETE antagonists abolished and neutrophil depletion (blocking antibodies) reduced (~60%) RI-induced increases in CYP4F expression and 20-HETE production in JCR rats. Impaired CCG in JCR rats (collateral-dependent blood flow using microspheres) was completely restored by 20-HETE antagonists [collateral-dependent zone (CZ)/normal zone (NZ) flow ratio was 0.76 ± 0.07 in JCR + 20-SOLA, 0.84 ± 0.05 in JCR + 20-HEDGE vs. 0.11 ± 0.02 in JCR vs. 0.84 ± 0.03 in normal rats]. In JCR rats, elevated 20-HETE was associated with excessive expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration, which were reversed by miR-145-Adv. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of coronary arteries, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Ser1179 phosphorylation, eNOS-dependent NO(·-) production and endothelial cell survival were compromised in JCR rats. These parameters of endothelial dysfunction were completely reversed by 20-HETE antagonism or miR-145-Adv delivery, whereas neutrophil depletion resulted in partial reversal (~70%). We conclude that low miR-145 in MetS allows for increased 20-HETE, mainly from neutrophils, which compromises endothelial cell survival and function leading to impaired CCG. 20-HETE antagonists could provide viable therapy for restoration of CCG in MetS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY

  6. Hemodynamic contribution of transdural collateral flow in adult patients with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Man; Hong, Yoon Hee; Lee, Seong-Joon; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jin Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic contributions of collateral flow in adult patients with moyamoya disease, neurological deterioration or fluctuation during admission, Suzuki grade, various collateral routes, lesion volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and their associations were analyzed. Thirty patients (60 cerebral hemispheres, mean age 45 ± 25 years, and 73.3 % female) who were diagnosed with moyamoya disease or syndrome were enrolled over 3 years. Moyamoya stages from each hemisphere were stratified according to the Suzuki's criteria through six-vessel angiography into internal carotid arteries (ICAs), external carotid arteries (ECAs), and vertebral arteries (VAs). Collateral routes were categorized into the circle of Willis, leptomeningeal, and transdural. The volume of ipsilateral infarction was analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. CBF volume was measured using color-coded duplex sonography. Suzuki's grade was inversely correlated with flow volume of the ICAs (p < 0.001), whereas no association was found with that of the ECAs (p = 0.445) or VAs (p = 0.096). Among hemispheres with ≥ grade 3 (n = 36), patients with transdural ECA collateral flow had less neurological deterioration or fluctuation (0.0 vs. 30.8 %, p = 0.047), smaller lesion volume (2.4 ± 3.6 vs. 27.6 ± 59.3 mL, p = 0.041), lower ICA flow (88.4 ± 45.9 vs. 146.2 ± 121.7 mL/min, p = 0.022), higher ECA flow (205.7 ± 77.7 vs. 135.9 ± 52.7 mL/min, p = 0.046), and a higher ECA/ICA flow volume ratio (31.8 ± 92.8 vs. 1.7 ± 1.9, p = 0.024). Our results suggest that ICA flow volume is inversely correlated with Suzuki grade, and that transdural ECA collaterals appear to be an important detour in adult patients with advanced stage moyamoya disease, suggesting a protector against an impending ischemic attack.

  7. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  8. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure in both professional and high-level athletes. Purpose: To determine the effect of technique and level of play with UCLR on return to sport (RTS). Hypothesis: When comparing different surgical techniques or preoperative level of sports participation, there is no difference in rate of RTS after UCLR. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting UCLR outcomes with level of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and 2-proportion 2-sample z-test calculators with α = .05 were used to compare RTS between level of play and technique. Results: Twenty studies (2019 patients/elbows; mean age, 22.13 ± 4 years; 97% male; mean follow-up, 39.9 ± 16.2 months) were included. The majority of patients were baseball players (94.5%), specifically pitchers (80%). The most common level of play was collegiate (44.6%). Palmaris longus (71.2%) and the American Sports Medicine Institute (ASMI) technique (65.6%) were the most common graft choice and surgical technique, respectively. There was a pooled 86.2% RTS rate, and 90% of players scored excellent/good on the Conway-Jobe scale. RTS rates were higher among collegiate athletes (95.5%) than either high school (89.4%, P = .023) or professional athletes (86.4%, P < .0001). RTS rates were higher for the docking technique (97.0%, P = .001) and the ASMI technique (93.3%, P = .0034) than the Jobe technique (66.7%). Conclusion: UCLR is performed most commonly in collegiate athletes. Collegiate athletes have the highest RTS rate

  9. Collateral branching of long-distance cortical projections in monkey.

    PubMed

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2013-12-15

    Collateralization of individual cortical axons is well documented for rodents but less so for monkeys, where double retrograde tracer experiments have tended to find only small numbers of neurons projecting to two different injection sites. Evidence from both double label and single axon studies, however, suggests that in specific projection systems the number of neurons with collateralized axons can be 10% or greater. These include feedback projections from temporal areas (but less so those from V4 and MT/V5). Single-axon analyses show that many parietal neurons branch to multiple targets. Except for giant Meynert cells in area V1, feedforward projections from early visual areas have only a small number of neurons with branching axons. Why only some neurons collateralize, what determines branch points and projection foci, and how this impacts network organization are largely unknown. Deciphering the branching code might offer new perspectives on space-time organization at the network level.

  10. [On structure characteristics and mechanisms of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-De

    2009-04-01

    Recognition of traditional Chinese medicine for the structures of channels and collaterals is possibly related with the tactics of human early general medical study, characterized by "inner", sub-micro, entirety, etc. The mechanisms are possibly involved in direct communication pathway of the cell junction (specially keeping the relevant cellular direct communication relation in individual development), the extra-cellular matrix stress network system and its biophysical message transmission--force--meridian signs transformation--inter-cellular massage integration, and "generalization" of the structures and activities of channels and collaterals in acupuncture serum phenomenon, etc. Thus, the hypothesis of multi-factors about channel structures-mechanisms is proposed.

  11. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Brown, J Rodney; Hoffer, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels. PMID:26635490

  12. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  13. Imbalance in recruitment of IgG (Gm) allotype-producing B-cell subsets from blood to brain in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Salier, J P

    1984-10-15

    In Gm3/Gm3 homozygous multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in vitro production of the G1m(3) allotype of IgG1 induced by the T-independent polyclonal B-cell activator Salmonella paratyphi B (SPB) was lower than that of normal individuals of the same Gm phenotype. In contrast, lymphocytes from Gm1/Gm3 heterozygous MS patients responded to the same stimulus with a significantly increased G1m(3) allotype synthesis not observed in normal individuals of the same phenotype. The high level of intrathecal IgG1 production observed in MS patients might be achieved by a selection at the blood-brain barrier of some peripheral T-independent B-cell clones which in Gm3/Gm3 homozygous would bear the G1m(3) allotype, hence a peripheral depletion of this subset, whereas in Gm1/Gm3 heterozygous a preferential admission of the G1m(1)-producing B-cells would lead to a preferential synthesis of this allotype in the central nervous system and to a relative increase of G1m(3) production by the remaining peripheral B cells.

  14. Endothelial cell laminin isoforms, laminins 8 and 10, play decisive roles in T cell recruitment across the blood-brain barrier in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sixt, M; Engelhardt, B; Pausch, F; Hallmann, R; Wendler, O; Sorokin, L M

    2001-05-28

    An active involvement of blood-brain barrier endothelial cell basement membranes in development of inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been considered to date. Here we investigated the molecular composition and possible function of the extracellular matrix encountered by extravasating T lymphocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Endothelial basement membranes contained laminin 8 (alpha4beta1gamma1) and/or 10 (alpha5beta1gamma1) and their expression was influenced by proinflammatory cytokines or angiostatic agents. T cells emigrating into the CNS during EAE encountered two biochemically distinct basement membranes, the endothelial (containing laminins 8 and 10) and the parenchymal (containing laminins 1 and 2) basement membranes. However, inflammatory cuffs occurred exclusively around endothelial basement membranes containing laminin 8, whereas in the presence of laminin 10 no infiltration was detectable. In vitro assays using encephalitogenic T cell lines revealed adhesion to laminins 8 and 10, whereas binding to laminins 1 and 2 could not be induced. Downregulation of integrin alpha6 on cerebral endothelium at sites of T cell infiltration, plus a high turnover of laminin 8 at these sites, suggested two possible roles for laminin 8 in the endothelial basement membrane: one at the level of the endothelial cells resulting in reduced adhesion and, thereby, increased penetrability of the monolayer; and secondly at the level of the T cells providing direct signals to the transmigrating cells.

  15. VCAM-1 expression on dystrophic muscle vessels has a critical role in the recruitment of human blood-derived CD133+ stem cells after intra-arterial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Manuela; Belicchi, Marzia; Rossi, Barbara; Ottoboni, Linda; Colombo, Fabio; Meregalli, Mirella; Battistelli, Maurizio; Forzenigo, Laura; Biondetti, Piero; Pisati, Federica; Parolini, Daniele; Farini, Andrea; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bresolin, Nereo; Rustichelli, Franco; Constantin, Gabriela; Torrente, Yvan

    2006-10-15

    Recently our group demonstrated the myogenic capacity of human CD133(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood when delivered in vivo through the arterial circulation into the muscle of dystrophic scid/mdx mice. CD133(+) stem cells express the adhesion molecules CD44, LFA-1, PSGL-1, alpha4-integrins, L-selectin, and chemokine receptor CCR7. Moreover these cells adhere in vitro to VCAM-1 spontaneously and after stimulation with CCL19. Importantly, after muscle exercise, we found that the expression of VCAM-1 is strongly up-regulated in dystrophic muscle vessels, whereas the number of rolling and firmly adhered CD133(+) stem cells significantly increased. Moreover, human dystrophin expression was significantly increased when muscle exercise was performed 24 hours before the intra-arterial injection of human CD133(+) cells. Finally, treatment of exercised dystrophic mice with anti-VCAM-1 antibodies led to a dramatic blockade of CD133(+) stem cell migration into the dystrophic muscle. Our results show for the first time that the expression of VCAM-1 on dystrophic muscle vessels induced by exercise controls muscle homing of human CD133(+) stem cells, opening new perspectives for a potential therapy of muscular dystrophy based on the intra-arterial delivery of CD133(+) stem cells.

  16. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2013-01-15

    During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII-IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research.

  17. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization-blood-testis barrier axis via its effects on protein recruitment and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2013-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the cell-cell interface since developing germ cells migrate progressively from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium. Since germ cells per se are not motile cells, their movement relies almost exclusively on the Sertoli cell. Nonetheless, extensive exchanges in signaling take place between these cells in the seminiferous epithelium. c-Yes, a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases (SFKs) and a crucial signaling protein, was recently shown to be upregulated at the Sertoli cell-cell interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stages VIII–IX of the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. It was also highly expressed at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known as apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at stage V to early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during spermiogenesis. Herein, it was shown that the knockdown of c-Yes by RNAi in vitro and in vivo affected both Sertoli cell adhesion at the BTB and spermatid adhesion at the apical ES, causing a disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier function, germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium, and also a loss of spermatid polarity. These effects were shown to be mediated by changes in distribution and/or localization of adhesion proteins at the BTB (e.g., occludin, N-cadherin) and at the apical ES (e.g., nectin-3) and possibly the result of changes in the underlying actin filaments at the BTB and the apical ES. These findings implicate that c-Yes is a likely target of male contraceptive research. PMID:23169788

  18. Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Coronary collateral circulation and atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro

    2005-01-01

    This review article is aimed at comparing the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess coronary collateral circulation in humans. The role of collaterals, as emerging from morphological studies in both normal and atherosclerotic coronary vessels, is described; in addition, present role and future perpectives of echocardiographic techniques in assessing collateral circulation are briefly summarized. PMID:15740620

  19. 45 CFR 1336.67 - Security and collateral: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) As a Credit Factor. The availability of collateral security normally is considered an important factor in making loans. The types and amount of collateral security required should be governed by the relative strengths and weaknesses of other credit factors. The taking of collateral as security should...

  20. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  1. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.106 Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral. (a) A commodity may be pledged as collateral for a warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan in the...

  3. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  4. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...

  5. 76 FR 31518 - Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 22 and 190 Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral... related to the protection of cleared swaps customer collateral described in the CFTC's notice of proposed rulemaking regarding the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral and...

  6. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  7. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of…

  8. Recruitment Guide for Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshihara, Shoko, Comp.

    This book is intended to provide U.S. university recruiters with information on higher education and student recruitment opportunities in Thailand. Section A describes recruitment strategies that are professionally and culturally appropriate to Thailand; contact information concerning related institutions is also included. A subsection called…

  9. 7 CFR 762.142 - Servicing related to collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Servicing related to collateral. 762.142 Section 762.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.142 Servicing related to...

  10. Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis; Betes, Maria Teresa; Elizalde, Arlette Maria

    1997-03-15

    Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  12. Collateral effects of antibiotics on mammalian gut microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are an essential component of the modern lifestyle. They improve our lives by treating disease, preventing disease, and in the case of agricultural animals by improving feed efficiency. However, antibiotic usage is not without collateral effects. The development and spread of antibiot...

  13. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  14. 7 CFR 3.15 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 3.15 Section 3.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection.... (b) When an agency learns that a bankruptcy petition has been filed with respect to a debtor,...

  15. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  16. 7 CFR 3.15 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 3.15 Section 3.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards for the Administrative Collection.... (b) When an agency learns that a bankruptcy petition has been filed with respect to a debtor,...

  17. 22 CFR 213.17 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 213.17 Section 213.17 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.17... circumstances require judicial foreclosure. However, collection from other businesses, including liquidation...

  18. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation.

    PubMed

    Lucitti, Jennifer L; Tarte, Natalie J; Faber, James E

    2015-10-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent "arteriolar" angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4(-/-) mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling.

  19. Chloride intracellular channel 4 is required for maturation of the cerebral collateral circulation

    PubMed Central

    Lucitti, Jennifer L.; Tarte, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and diameter of native collaterals in tissues of healthy mice vary widely, resulting in large differences in tissue injury in occlusive diseases. Recent studies suggest similar variation may exist in humans. Collateral variation in mice is determined by genetic background-dependent differences in embryonic collateral formation, by variation in maturation of the nascent collaterals, and by environmental factors such as aging that cause collateral rarefaction in the adult. Recently, formation of the collateral circulation in the brain was found to involve a unique VEGF-A-dependent “arteriolar” angiogenic sprouting-like mechanism. Elsewhere, chloride intracellular protein 4 (CLIC4) was implicated but not investigated directly, prompting the present study. Deletion of Clic4 had no effect on embryonic collaterogenesis. However, during collateral maturation from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 7, reduced mural cell investment was observed and excessive pruning of collaterals occurred. Growth in collateral diameter was reduced. This resulted in 50% fewer collaterals of smaller diameter in the adult and thus larger infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion. During collateral maturation, CLIC4 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of Vegfr2, Vegfr1, Vegfc, and mural cell markers, but not notch-pathway genes. Overexpression of VEGF-A in Clic4−/− mice had no effect on collaterogenesis, but rescued the above defects in collateral maturation by preventing mural cell loss and collateral pruning, thus restoring collateral number and diameter and reducing stroke severity in the adult. CLIC4 is not required for collaterogenesis but is essential for perinatal maturation of nascent collaterals through a mechanism that supports VEGF signaling. PMID:26276819

  20. Collateral Lethality: A new therapeutic strategy in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Florian L.; Aquilanti, Elisa A.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic deletion of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is a rite of passage for virtually all human cancers. The synthetic lethal paradigm has provided a framework for the development of molecular targeted therapeutics that are functionally linked to the loss of specific TSG functions. In the course of genomic events that delete TSGs, a large number of genes with no apparent direct role in tumor promotion also sustain deletion as a result of chromosomal proximity to the target TSG. In this perspective, we review the novel concept of “collateral lethality”, which has served to identify cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities resulting from co-deletion of passenger genes neighboring TSG. The large number of collaterally deleted genes, playing diverse functions in cell homeostasis, offers a rich repertoire of pharmacologically targetable vulnerabilities presenting novel opportunities for the development of personalized anti-neoplastic therapies. PMID:26870836

  1. Collateral Damage and the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    when a resource rich coalition conducts an air campaign against an inferior adversary, that coalition can discriminate in its application of...resource rich coalition conducts an air campaign against an inferior adversary, that coalition can discriminate in its application of airpower by... campaign .8 For that reason, it is logical for the strategist to possess a thorough awareness of the effects of potential and actual collateral

  2. Hyperintense ipsilateral cortical sulci on FLAIR imaging in carotid stenosis: ivy sign equivalent from enlarged leptomeningeal collaterals.

    PubMed

    Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mukundan, Govind; Shahi, Kavian; Chan, Hung; Tajlil, Ali T

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging provides high contrast between hyperintense lesions and normal tissue. Hyperintense structures in convexity sulci are commonly linked to abnormal cerebrospinal fluid composition, whether blood, protein, or infection. A patient with hemispheric transient ischemic attacks from severe carotid stenosis had hyperintense convexity sulci on FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging, interpreted as possible prior hemorrhage, making the patient ineligible for carotid stent reconstruction. Retrospective analysis revealed that hyperintense sulci were dilated leptomeningeal collaterals. In severe arterial disease causing cerebral hypoperfusion, dilated leptomeningeal vessels should be considered a cause for serpiginous hyperintense structures on FLAIR imaging, similar to the "ivy sign" described in moya-moya patients.

  3. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Drive Process Overview Coordinator Tools Current Programs & Promotions Recruitment Resources Running a Successful Blood Drive Multiple ... today! Enter your zip code to find: Regional Promotions Local News Blood Drives & More! Or find the ...

  4. Regulation of native collateral vessel dilation after coronary occlusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lamping, K G; Bloom, E N; Harrison, D G

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms involved in the response of native collaterals to coronary occlusion. In anesthetized dogs native collaterals were identified as vessels coursing between the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries using fluorescence angiography. After a left anterior descending occlusion in 12 dogs, collaterals < 100 microns in diameter progressively dilated by 21 +/- 4% (n = 12) 1 min after occlusion and by 39 +/- 6% 15 min after occlusion. Collaterals > 100 microns in diameter did not dilate after coronary occlusion. NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mg/min intracoronary) caused constriction under basal conditions in collaterals < 100 microns but did not prevent the dilation of collaterals after occlusion. In contrast, glibenclamide (10(-5) M), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, had no effect on baseline diameter of collaterals < 100 microns diameter but completely prevented dilation of collaterals after occlusion. We conclude that collaterals are not maximally dilated immediately after a coronary occlusion but rather progressively dilate for at least 15 min after an occlusion. This dilation of native collaterals after an occlusion is not mediated by release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor derived from L-arginine but is mediated by activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.

  5. Effect of nitroglycerin on coronary collateral function during exercise evaluated by quantitative analysis of thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, M.; Sakai, K.; Koyanagi, S.; Takeshita, A.; Nakamura, M. )

    1991-05-01

    A noninfarcted, entirely collateral-dependent myocardial region provides an opportunity to assess the effect of nitroglycerin on coronary collateral function during exercise. Stress thallium-201 computed tomography was performed in seven patients with effort angina and no history of myocardial infarction, both before and after nitroglycerin (0.3 mg). All patients had single-vessel disease with total or subtotal (99% with delay) occlusion of proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and well-developed collaterals. The pressure-rate product, mean blood pressure, and heart rate at peak exercise did not differ before and after nitroglycerin. The size of the perfusion defect and the severity of ischemia during exercise estimated by quantitative analysis of thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were significantly less after nitroglycerin administration (extent score: 23 +/- 17 vs 7 +/- 9, p less than 0.01; severity score: 20 +/- 22 vs 3 +/- 4, p less than 0.05). The pressure-rate products at peak exercise did not differ before and after nitroglycerin, which suggested that the reduction in perfusion defect size was unlikely to be the result of decreased myocardial oxygen consumption. These results suggest that nitroglycerin improved coronary collateral function during exercise and thus prevented exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.

  6. Spatial variation in sympathetic influences on the vasculature of the synovium and medial collateral ligament of the rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    McDougall, J J; Ferrell, W R; Bray, R C

    1997-09-01

    1. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging was used to assess the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the control of blood flow to the medial collateral ligament and capsule (synovium and overlying fibrous tissues) of the rabbit knee joint. 2. Electrical stimulation of the saphenous nerve (width 1 ms; amplitude 20V; 1-30 Hz) produced a frequency-dependent vasoconstriction of knee joint vasculature. The response was maximal at 30 Hz and gave the greatest fall in perfusion at the femoral insertion of the ligament (by 33.8 +/- 7.4%, mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 5-6) and the smallest decrease at the tibial insertion of the ligament (by 10.6 +/- 2.9%). 3. Topical application of phentolamine (10(-6) mol) had no significant effect on basal knee joint blood flow. However, it abolished the nerve-mediated constrictor responses in all regions of the medial collateral ligament and synovium at all frequencies. 4. Topical administration of adrenaline (10(-14) to 10(-7) mol) caused a dose-dependent decrease in knee joint blood flow with the highest dose producing > 75% reduction in perfusion at all areas. 5. There was no evidence of a reactive hyperaemia in the 5 min following a 5 min period of femoral artery occlusion. Artificial manipulation of arterial blood pressure by intravenous infusion or withdrawal of blood caused a proportional change in ligament and synovial blood flow. These observations may indicate a lack of autoregulation in the joint and its exclusion from baroreflex modulation. 6. These results suggest a potential role for the sympathetic nervous system in the control of knee joint blood flow. Neuromodulation of ligament perfusion appears to predominate at the femoral insertion and this could prove to have functional significance.

  7. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability.

  8. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  9. Resources for Recruiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angelo, Diane; And Others

    Recruitment of participants is a long-standing practice for many programs serving children and families, although the way in which it is approached varies greatly. This volume is presented as a practical tool for practitioners to use in systematizing their recruitment efforts. Section 1, "Reaching Diverse Families," contains an interactive…

  10. Broadening the Recruiting Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central All-Volunteer Force Task Force, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the study is to broaden the enlisted recruiting market, especially for high school graduates and describe measures to complete or expedite actions initiated by ASD (M and RA) (Assistant Secretary of Defense Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the military services and to take additional actions to enhance recruiting. (Author)

  11. Development of a NO biosensor and its application in research on channels and collaterals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yikai; Ren, Shu

    2001-09-01

    There are three parts in this paper. In the part 1 nitric oxide chemistry and the measurements of nitric oxide in biological models have been reviewed. In the part 2 the channels and collateral sand modern studies of the channels and collaterals have also ben reviewed and in part 3 a NO biosensor has been developed and it has been applied in the research of the channels and collaterals. Research results have confirmed that NO plays an important role in channel transmission.

  12. The Strategic and Political Impacts of Collateral Damage from Strike Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    guided munitions. As the effects of collateral damage became much more visible because of mass media during the latter part of the twentieth century...Vietnamese’s ability to exploit collateral damage incidents in the media . Air commanders were not afforded the same freedoms they were in Korea because of...industrial capacity and population centers. With the growth of mass media after the Korean War, the effects of collateral damage started to become more

  13. Fate of coronary collateral circulation after aorto-coronary saphenous vein bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Di Luzio, V; Roy, P R; Sowton, E; Dow, J

    1975-01-01

    The pre- and postoperative patterns of coronary artery collateral circulation have been studied in 34 patients who had saphenous vein bypass grafting. When the graft remained patent homocoronary collaterals could not be visualized after operation, but new intercoronary anastomoses frequently developed to other diseased arteries. When the graft and the bypassed artery were both obstructed there was a high incidence (5 out of 11) of myocardial infarction despite good preoperative collaterals. Images PMID:1079134

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems. PMID:28074159

  15. Effect of the Interaction between Recanalization and Collateral Circulation on Functional Outcome in Acute Ischaemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, Salvatore; Saia, Valentina; Nencini, Patrizia; Romani, Ilaria; Palumbo, Vanessa; Pracucci, Giovanni; Consoli, Arturo; Rosi, Andrea; Renieri, Leonardo; Nappini, Sergio; Limbucci, Nicola; Inzitari, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Identification of patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could most benefit from arterial recanalization after endovascular treatment remains an unsettled issue. Although several classifications of collateral circulation have been proposed, the clinical role of collaterals is still debated. We evaluated the effect of the collateral circulation in relation to recanalization as a predictor of clinical outcome. Data were prospectively collected from 102 patients consecutively treated for proximal middle cerebral or internal carotid artery occlusion. The collateral circulation was evaluated with a novel semiquantitative-qualitative score, the Careggi collateral score (CCS), in six grades. Both CCS and recanalization grades (TICI) were analysed in relation to clinical outcome. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of interaction between recanalization and collateral circulation on clinical outcome. Out of the 102 patients, 37 (36.3%) had poor collaterals, and 65 (63.7%) had good collaterals. Patients with good collaterals had lower basal National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), more distal occlusion, smaller lesions at 24h CT scan and better functional outcome. After multivariate analysis, the interaction between recanalization and collateral grades was significantly stronger as a predictor of good outcome (OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.11 – 22.31) or death (OR 4.66, 95%CI 1.48 – 14.73) compared to the effect of the single variables. Collaterals showed an effect of interaction with the recanalization grade in determining a favourable clinical outcome. Assessment of the collateral circulation might help predict clinical results after recanalization in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. PMID:25496680

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Arora, Ankur; Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems.

  17. Infarction Distribution Pattern in Acute Stroke May Predict the Extent of Leptomeningeal Collaterals

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajeev Kumar; Gralla, Jan; Klinger-Gratz, Pascal Pedro; Schankath, Adrian; Jung, Simon; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Arnold, Marcel; Buehlmann, Monika; Lang, Matthias F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the distribution pattern of early ischemic changes in the initial MRI allows a practical method for estimating leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods Seventy-four patients with AIS underwent MRI followed by conventional angiogram and mechanical thrombectomy. Diffusion restriction in Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and correlated T2-hyperintensity of the infarct were retrospectively analyzed and subdivided in accordance with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS). Patients were angiographically graded in collateralization groups according to the method of Higashida, and dichotomized in 2 groups: 29 subjects with collateralization grade 3 or 4 (well-collateralized group) and 45 subjects with grade 1 or 2 (poorly-collateralized group). Individual ASPECTS areas were compared among the groups. Results Means for overall DWI-ASPECTS were 6.34 vs. 4.51 (well vs. poorly collateralized groups respectively), and for T2-ASPECTS 9.34 vs 8.96. A significant difference between groups was found for DWI-ASPECTS (p<0.001), but not for T2-ASPECTS (p = 0.088). Regarding the individual areas, only insula, M1-M4 and M6 showed significantly fewer infarctions in the well-collateralized group (p-values <0.001 to 0.015). 89% of patients in the well-collateralized group showed 0–2 infarctions in these six areas (44.8% with 0 infarctions), while 59.9% patients of the poor-collateralized group showed 3–6 infarctions. Conclusion Patients with poor leptomeningeal collateralization show more infarcts on the initial MRI, particularly in the ASPECTS areas M1 to M4, M6 and insula. Therefore DWI abnormalities in these areas may be a surrogate marker for poor leptomeningeal collaterals and may be useful for estimation of the collateral status in routine clinical evaluation. PMID:26327519

  18. Redox-sensitive Akt and Src regulate coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reed, Ryan; Potter, Barry; Smith, Erika; Jadhav, Rashmi; Villalta, Patricia; Jo, Hanjoong; Rocic, Petra

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown that the inability of repetitive ischemia (RI) to activate p38 MAPK (p38) and Akt in metabolic syndrome [JCR:LA-cp (JCR)] rats was associated with impaired coronary collateral growth (CCG). Furthermore, Akt and p38 activation correlated with optimal O(2)(-). levels and were altered in JCR rats, and redox-sensitive p38 activation was required for CCG. Here, we determined whether the activation of Src, a possible upstream regulator, was altered in JCR rats and whether redox-dependent Src and Akt activation were required for CCG. CCG was assessed by myocardial blood flow (microspheres) and kinase activation was assessed by Western blot analysis in the normal zone and collateral-dependent zone (CZ). RI induced Src activation (approximately 3-fold) in healthy [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] animals but not in JCR animals. Akt inhibition decreased (approximately 50%), and Src inhibition blocked RI-induced CCG in WKY rats. Src inhibition decreased p38 and Akt activation. Myocardial oxidative stress (O(2)(-). and oxidized/reduced thiols) was measured quantitatively (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance). An antioxidant, apocynin, reduced RI-induced oxidative stress in JCR rats to levels induced by RI in WKY rats versus the reduction in WKY rats to very low levels. This resulted in a significant restoration of p38 (approximately 80%), Akt (approximately 65%), and Src (approximately 90%) activation in JCR rats but decreased the activation in WKY rats (p38: approximately 45%, Akt: approximately 65%, and Src: approximately 100%), correlating with reduced CZ flow in WKY rats (approximately 70%), but significantly restored CZ flow in JCR rats (approximately 75%). We conclude that 1) Akt and Src are required for CCG, 2) Src is a redox-sensitive upstream regulator of RI-induced p38 and Akt activation, and 3) optimal oxidative stress levels are required for RI-induced p38, Akt, and Src activation and CCG.

  19. Collateral circulation in ferrets (Mustela putorius) during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava.

    PubMed

    Calicchio, Kristina W; Bennett, R Avery; Laraio, Leonard C; Weisse, Chick; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Rosenthal, Karen L; Johnston, Matthew S; Campbell, Vicki L; Solomon, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes. ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females). PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later. RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

  20. Excimer laser debridement of necrotic erosions of skin without collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James J.; Felsenstein, Jerome M.; Trzcinski, Robert; Zupanski-Nielsen, Donna; Connors, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Pulsed ArF excimer laser radiation at 6.4 eV, at fluence exceeding the ablation threshold, will debride burn eschar and other dry necrotic erosions of the skin. Debridement will cease when sufficiently moist viable tissue is exposed, due to absorption by aqueous chloride ions (Cl-) through the non-thermal process of electron photodetachment, thereby inhibiting collateral damage to the viable tissue. ArF excimer laser radiation debrides/ablates ~1 micron of tissue with each pulse. While this provides great precision in controlling the depth of debridement, the process is relatively time-consuming. In contrast, XeCl excimer laser radiation debrides ~8 microns of tissue with each pulse. However the 4.0 eV photon energy of the XeCl excimer laser is insufficient to photodetach an electron from a Cl- ion, so blood or saline will not inhibit debridement. Consequently, a practical laser debridement system should incorporate both lasers, used in sequence. First, the XeCl excimer laser would be used for accelerated debridement. When the necrotic tissue is thinned to a predetermined thickness, the ArF excimer laser would be used for very precise and well-controlled debridement, removing ultra-thin layers of material with each pulse. Clearly, the use of the ArF laser is very desirable when debriding very close to the interface between necrotic tissue and viable tissue, where the overall speed of debridement need not be so rapid and collateral damage to viable tissue is undesirable. Such tissue will be sterile and ready for further treatment, such as a wound dressing and/or a skin graft.

  1. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W. )

    1990-04-15

    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making.

  2. [A hypothesis about component model of substances of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liu-Sha

    2008-10-01

    The theory of channels and collaterals is a very important "substance" prop for the basic theories of TCM. After component model of substances of channels and collaterals is raised, according to the principle, structure and function are dialectical unity, the author finds in deeply research on a great number of completed experimental investigations of corresponding anatomic position of channels and collaterals and similar physiology at home and abroad that the difficult to understand TCM concepts such as "interdependence between yin and yang", "defensive energy" all could be displayed by the substance of body liquid showing liquid crystalline state during living of channels and collaterals.

  3. Sprouting of axonal collaterals after spinal cord injury is prevented by delayed axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Collyer, E; Catenaccio, A; Lemaitre, D; Diaz, P; Valenzuela, V; Bronfman, F; Court, F A

    2014-11-01

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals triggering collateral sprouting have not been identified. Here, we investigated whether axonal degeneration after SCI contributes to the sprouting of collaterals from axons spared after injury. To this end, we evaluated collateral sprouting from BDA-labeled uninjured corticospinal axons after spinal cord hemisection (SCI(H)) in wild type (WT) mouse and Wld(S) mouse strains, which shows a significant delay in Wallerian degeneration after injury. After SCI(H), spared fibers of WT mice extend collateral sprouts to both intact and denervated sides of the spinal cord distant from the injury site. On the contrary, in the Wld(S) mice collateral sprouting from spared fibers was greatly reduced after SCI(H). Consistent with a role for collateral sprouting in functional recovery after SCI, locomotor recovery after SCI(H) was impaired in Wld(S) mice compared to WT animals. In conclusion, our results identify axonal degeneration as one of the triggers for collateral sprouting from the contralesional uninjured fibers after an SCI(H). These results open the path for identifying molecular signals associated with tissular changes after SCI that promotes collateral sprouting and functional recovery.

  4. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  5. Investigation of cerebral hemodynamics and collateralization in asymptomatic carotid stenoses.

    PubMed

    AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Kowalewski, Gregory; Beach, Kirk W; Lal, Brajesh K; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, and one of the major causes of disability. Approximately 30% of ischemic strokes are due to plaque rupture in the carotid arteries. The most popular diagnostic method uses Doppler ultrasound to find the percent stenosis. However, other factors, such as the hemodynamics around the plaque may play a larger role in identifying the risk of plaque rupture. It has been shown previously in simulations that non-collateral flow in the circle of Willis (COW) could cause an increase of the intraluminal velocity around carotid plaque. This added strain may increase the vulnerability of the plaque to rupture. We investigated asymmetries in flow waveforms in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. We compared clinical results of velocity waveforms in the MCA, acquired using transcranial Doppler (TCD), with a simple linear simulation model of the intra- and extracranial arterial network to investigate the relationship between contralateral and ipsilateral flow profiles in the MCA for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. In 17 out of 23 patients we found waveforms consistent with those predicted for a collateralized COW, with minimal differences in delay, velocity magnitude and resistivity index. In 6 cases, some unexpected findings were noted, such as large delays for 2 patients ≤ 50% stenosis, and a large velocity difference with low delay for 4 patients. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of incomplete intracranial collateralization on the hemodynamics around carotid plaque and to use imaging of the COW to corroborate our results.

  6. Nox2 and p47(phox) modulate compensatory growth of primary collateral arteries.

    PubMed

    DiStasi, Matthew R; Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J

    2014-05-15

    The role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in both the promotion and impairment of compensatory collateral growth remains controversial because the specific Nox and reactive oxygen species involved are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the primary Nox and reactive oxygen species associated with early stage compensatory collateral growth in young, healthy animals. Ligation of the feed arteries that form primary collateral pathways in rat mesentery and mouse hindlimb was used to assess the role of Nox during collateral growth. Changes in mesenteric collateral artery Nox mRNA expression determined by real-time PCR at 1, 3, and 7 days relative to same-animal control arteries suggested a role for Nox subunits Nox2 and p47(phox). Administration of apocynin or Nox2ds-tat suppressed collateral growth in both rat and mouse models, suggesting the Nox2/p47(phox) interaction was involved. Functional significance of p47(phox) expression was assessed by evaluation of collateral growth in rats administered p47(phox) small interfering RNA and in p47(phox-/-) mice. Diameter measurements of collateral mesenteric and gracilis arteries at 7 and 14 days, respectively, indicated no significant collateral growth compared with control rats or C57BL/6 mice. Chronic polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase administration significantly suppressed collateral development in rats and mice, implying a requirement for H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that Nox2, modulated at least in part by p47(phox), mediates early stage compensatory collateral development via a process dependent upon peroxide generation. These results have important implications for the use of antioxidants and the development of therapies for peripheral arterial disease.

  7. Plasma Catestatin: A Useful Biomarker for Coronary Collateral Development with Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weixian; Yu, Haiyi; Li, Weihong; Gao, Wei; Guo, Lijun; Wang, Guisong

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Catestatin is an endogenous multifunctional neuroendocrinepeptide. Recently, catestatin was discovered as a novel angiogenic cytokine. The study was to investigate the associations between endogenous catestatin and coronary collateral development among the patients with chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods Thirty-eight patients with coronary artery chronic total occlusions (CTO) (CTO group) and 38 patients with normal coronary arteries (normal group) were enrolled in the series. Among the patients with CTO, coronary collateral development was graded according to the Rentrop score method. Rentrop score 0–1 collateral development was regarded as poor collateral group and 2–3 collateral development was regarded as good collateral group. Plasma catestatin level and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by ELISA kits. Results The plasma catestatin levels in CTO group were significantly higher than that in normal group (1.97±1.01 vs 1.36±0.97ng/ml, p = 0.009). In the CTO group, the patients with good collateral development had significantly higher catestatin and VEGF levels than those with poor collateral development (2.36±0.73 vs 1.61±1.12 ng/ml, p = 0.018; 425.23±140.10 vs 238.48±101.00pg/mL, p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between plasma catestatin levels and Rentrop scores (r = 0.40, p = 0.013) among the patients with CTO. However, there is no correlations between plasma catestatin levels and VEGF (r = -0.06, p = 0.744). In the multiple linear regression models, plasma catestatin level was one of the independent factors of coronary collateral development after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Plasma catestatin was associated with coronary collateral developments. It may be a useful biomarker for coronary collateral development and potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with CTO. PMID:27304618

  8. Splenorenal Collaterals as Hallmark for a Twisted Wandering Spleen in a 14-Year-Old Girl with Abdominal Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark. PMID:25755964

  9. Splenorenal collaterals as hallmark for a twisted wandering spleen in a 14-year-old girl with abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rellum, Rashidi; Risseeuw, Gerard; Blaauw, Ivo de; Lequin, Maarten

    2014-06-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare cause of acute or chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a risk of splenic torsion and infarction. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with chronic recurrent abdominal pain with a palpable spleen in normal position on the initial physical examination. Laboratory findings were normal. A normal blood flow was seen on the initial (color Doppler) sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enlarged spleen in the pelvic region with torsion of hilar pedicle and splenorenal collaterals. Semielective, a laparoscopic splenopexy was performed without complications. A twisted wandering spleen should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain despite possible normal positioning of the spleen. The presence of splenorenal collaterals on imaging techniques can be used as a diagnostic hallmark.

  10. 10 CFR 609.16 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 609.16 Section 609.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.16 Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral....

  11. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609.15 Section 609.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral...

  12. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  13. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  14. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  15. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  16. 12 CFR 723.7 - What are the collateral and security requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the collateral and security requirements? 723.7 Section 723.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.7 What are the collateral and security requirements? (a)...

  17. Comparison of Alcoholics' Self-Reports of Drinking Behavior with Reports of Collateral Informants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Posthospitalization follow-up data were collected from 52 alcoholic subjects and their collateral informants. Findings suggest that alcoholics who have been hospitalized for detoxification generally provide reliable self-reports of their posttreatment drinking behavior, and that gathering data from collateral informants is an effective method for…

  18. 7 CFR 1980.334 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.334... Appraisal of property serving as collateral. An appraisal of all property serving as security for the... Lender may pass the cost of the appraisal on to the borrower. The appraisal must have been...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by... the appraisal to be made by a qualified appraiser on the lender's staff with experience appraising...

  20. 10 CFR 611.108 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 611.108 Section 611.108 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY... determines are required to preserve the collateral. The cost of such contracts may be charged to the Borrower....

  1. Noninvasive assessment of coronary collaterals in man by PET perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Demer, L.L.; Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L. )

    1990-03-01

    At present, coronary collateralization cannot be identified or assessed noninvasively in patients. In animal studies, coronary collaterals are associated with coronary steal, defined as a regional fall in perfusion during coronary arteriolar vasodilation. To determine the effect of coronary arteriolar vasodilation on collateral bed perfusion in man, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed before and after pharmacologic coronary vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Regional myocardial activity of {sup 82}Rb or {sup 13}N ammonia was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and with intravenous dipyridamole/handgrip stress in 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in 25 control patients with similar CAD severity by quantitative arteriography. Regional myocardial activity decreased after dipyridamole, indicating coronary steal, in 25 of 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in only 4 of 25 control patients without angiographic collaterals. These findings suggest that developed collaterals are associated with myocardial steal in patients with CAD, allowing potential use of PET for non-invasive identification of coronary collateralization.

  2. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lotze, Ullrich; Lauer, Bernward

    2011-01-01

    Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe here the use of excimer laser coronary atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature. PMID:22355487

  3. Factors associated with client-collateral agreement in substance abuse post-treatment self-reports.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Perry, Stephanie W

    2005-07-01

    This study examined levels of agreement and directionality of disagreement between the post-treatment self-reports of substance abuse clients and their collaterals. The study population comprised 1252 clients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence whose treatment was publicly funded in Tennessee. Client and collateral responses to 13 questions were analyzed for levels of agreement, revealing the following: (a) levels of client-collateral agreement were high, at least 75% agreement on all 13 questions and at least 88% agreement on 10 variables; (b) a Simple Kappa Test confirmed that 11 out of 13 items had moderate to excellent nonchance agreement; (c) there was no consistent trend in directionality, that is, clients neither reported information more positively nor more negatively than their collaterals did; (d) on average, those collaterals who were spouses, parents, and children agreed more with clients compared to other types of collaterals; and (e) those collaterals who saw the clients more frequently and more recently had higher agreement than those who saw the clients less frequently. This research reaffirms that collaterals are a valuable source for verifying the accuracy of clients' self-reports and that this approach continues to hold considerable promise for substance abuse post-treatment assessment.

  4. Clinicopathologic correlation of retinal to choroidal venous collaterals of the optic nerve head.

    PubMed

    Schatz, H; Green, W R; Talamo, J H; Hoyt, W F; Johnson, R N; McDonald, H R

    1991-08-01

    An optic nerve meningioma developed in an elderly woman and was followed for 13 years until her death. The optic nerve was initially normal. Over time it became swollen and then atrophic and developed retinal venous to choroidal venous collaterals. Five hundred serial sections were prepared through the optic nerve and for approximately 1.5 mm superiorly and inferiorly to the optic nerve to trace the course of the collaterals that were seen ophthalmoscopically and angiographically in the optic nerve head. This clinicopathologic study shows clearly that the abnormal channels are, in fact, retinal venous to choroidal venous collaterals (bypass channels). Four collaterals extended around the end of Bruch's membrane at the optic nerve head. Two more collaterals extended through the retinal pigment epithelium to become continuous with a subretinal pigment epithelial neovascular membrane, the vessels of which connected with the choroidal vessels through a defect in Bruch's membrane.

  5. Chloride intracellular channel-4 is a determinant of native collateral formation in skeletal muscle and brain.

    PubMed

    Chalothorn, Dan; Zhang, Hua; Smith, Jennifer E; Edwards, John C; Faber, James E

    2009-07-02

    The capacity of the collateral circulation to lessen injury in occlusive vascular disease depends on the density and caliber of native (preexisting) collaterals, as well as their ability to outwardly remodel in ischemia. Native collateral conductance varies widely among healthy individuals, yet little is known about what specifies collateral formation. Chloride intracellular channel (CLIC)4 protein is required for endothelial cell hollowing, a process necessary for vessel formation during embryogenesis and ischemia. Whether CLIC4 has other physiological roles in vascular biology is uncertain. We studied collateral formation and remodeling in mice deficient in CLIC1 and CLIC4. Vascular responses to femoral artery ligation were similar in Clic1(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, immediately after ligation perfusion dropped more in Clic4(-/-) than wild-type mice, suggesting fewer preexisting collaterals, a finding confirmed by angiography, greater ischemia, and worse recovery of perfusion; however, collateral remodeling was unaffected. Likewise, native cerebral collateral density in Clic4(-/-) (but not Clic1(-/-)) mice was reduced, resulting in severe infarctions. This was associated with impaired perinatal formation and stabilization of nascent collaterals. Clic4 hemizygous mice had intermediate deficits in the above parameters, suggesting a gene-dose effect. Ischemia augmented CLIC1 and CLIC4 expression similarly in wild-type mice. However, CLIC1 increased 3-fold more in Clic4(-/-) mice, suggesting compensation. Despite greater ischemia in Clic4(-/-) mice, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 increased less compared to wild-type, suggesting CLIC4 exerts influences upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha-VEGF signaling. Hence, CLIC4 represents the second gene that, along with VEGF shown by us previously, specifies native collateral formation.

  6. Collateral vessel number, plaque burden, and functional decline in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Carr, James; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Christopher M; Yuan, Chun; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zhao, Lihui; Xu, Dongxiang; Kibbe, Melina; Berry, Jarett; Carroll, Timothy J

    2014-08-01

    Associations of collateral vessels and lower extremity plaque with functional decline are unknown. Among people with peripheral artery disease (PAD), we determined whether greater superficial femoral artery (SFA) plaque burden combined with fewer lower extremity collateral vessels was associated with faster functional decline, compared to less plaque and/or more numerous collateral vessels. A total of 226 participants with ankle-brachial index (ABI) <1.00 underwent magnetic resonance imaging of lower extremity collateral vessels and cross-sectional imaging of the proximal SFA. Participants were categorized as follows: Group 1 (best), maximum plaque area < median and collateral vessel number ≥6 (median); Group 2, maximum plaque area < median and collateral vessel number <6; Group 3, maximum plaque area > median and collateral vessel number ≥6; Group 4 (worst), maximum plaque area > median and collateral vessel number <6. Functional measures were performed at baseline and annually for 2 years. Analyses adjust for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other confounders. Annual changes in usual-paced walking velocity were: Group 1, +0.01 m/s; Group 2, -0.02 m/s; Group 3, -0.01 m/s; Group 4, -0.05 m/s (p-trend=0.008). Group 4 had greater decline than Group 1 (p<0.001), Group 2 (p=0.029), and Group 3 (p=0.010). Similar trends were observed for fastest-paced 4-meter walking velocity (p-trend=0.018). Results were not substantially changed when analyses were repeated with additional adjustment for ABI. However, there were no associations of SFA plaque burden and collateral vessel number with decline in 6-minute walk. In summary, a larger SFA plaque burden combined with fewer collateral vessels is associated with a faster decline in usual and fastest-paced walking velocity in PAD.

  7. The association of circulating monocyte count with coronary collateral growth in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Akyel, Ahmet; Timurkaynak, Timur; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    The status of inflammation may affect the collateral development in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Monocytes were found to have an important role in collateral growth in animal studies. We aimed to investigate the possible association of circulating monocyte count with collateral development in patients with DM and severe coronary artery disease (CAD). We enrolled 134 consecutive patients with DM who had > or =95 stenosis in at least one major coronary artery and investigated the relationship between circulating monocyte count and collateral growth. When we analyzed the coronary angiograms of eligible patients, we found that 64 of them had good collateral growth and 70 had poor collateral growth according to the Cohen-Rentrop method. The monocyte count was significantly different between good and poor collateral growth groups (643 +/- 184 vs. 479 +/- 143 per mm(3), P < 0.001). In the analysis comparing the Rentrop score with the Gensini score and circulating monocyte count, we found significant correlations (r = 0.293, P = 0.001 and r = 0.455, P < 0.001, respectively). The duration of ischemic symptoms tended to be longer in the good collateral group (1.9 +/- 4.1 vs. 0.8 +/- 1.3 years, P = 0.079). The Gensini score was also correlated with the duration of myocardial ischemic symptoms (r = 0.299, P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis revealed an increased monocyte count in the good collateral group [odds ratio (OR), 5.726; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.817-18.040, P = 0.003, the cut-off value for monocyte was defined as 550 cell/mm(3)]. The increased circulating monocyte count in diabetic patients was evidently related to good coronary collateral growth. This finding may be potentially important in clinical and basic cardiovascular medicine.

  8. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  9. Recruiting Blacks into Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leonard; And Others

    Despite significant progress in the recruitment of black journalists, adequate representation of blacks in newsrooms remains an acute concern. The results of (1) statistical monitoring by organizations such as the Newspaper Fund, (2) searching of trade press and academic journal articles for insights into the problem, (3) an open-ended…

  10. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  11. Recruiting New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This special theme issue includes: "How Can We Solve the Teacher Shortage?" (Camp); "A Student's Perspective" (Swafford); "Recruitment" (Dyer, Andreasen); "Top 10 Reasons to Become an Agriculture Teacher and FFA Advisor" (Bembardt, McMaben); "Supply and Demand of Agriculture Teachers since 1965"…

  12. Recruitment. Hello, goodbye.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2008-07-10

    The UK is "moving to a policy of self-sufficiency" according to the Department of Health. The numbers of new overseas entrants into healthcare, including doctors, nurses and midwives has slumped. Several other countries, including Canada, the US and Australia, are aggressively recruiting from overseas, including from the UK. There is an increasing perception the UK does not want overseas staff.

  13. 12 CFR 223.41 - What covered transactions are exempt from the quantitative limits and collateral requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantitative limits and collateral requirements? 223.41 Section 223.41 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... are exempt from the quantitative limits and collateral requirements? The following transactions are not subject to the quantitative limits of §§ 223.11 and 223.12 or the collateral requirements of §...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6049-7 - Returns of information with respect to REMIC regular interests and collateralized debt obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regular interests and collateralized debt obligations. 1.6049-7 Section 1.6049-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... collateralized debt obligations. (a) Definition of interest—(1) In general. For purposes of section 6049(a), for... with respect to a collateralized debt obligation (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section),...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6049-7 - Returns of information with respect to REMIC regular interests and collateralized debt obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regular interests and collateralized debt obligations. 1.6049-7 Section 1.6049-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... collateralized debt obligations. (a) Definition of interest—(1) In general. For purposes of section 6049(a), for... with respect to a collateralized debt obligation (as defined in paragraph (d)(2) of this section),...

  16. Early restenosis following biodegradable stent implantation in an aortopulmonary collateral of a patient with pulmonary atresia and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Colin J; Oslizlok, Paul; Walsh, Kevin P

    2007-04-01

    Traditionally, the implantation of stents in young children with small blood vessels has been avoided as the presence of a metallic or fixed stent structure limits the ability to further dilate the stent with vessel growth. Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries represents one such cohort where the placement of fixed nondegradable stents has been difficult. We report a 2-month-old girl with pulmonary atresia, VSD, and multiple aorto-pulmonary collaterals with severely hypoplastic pulmonary arteries who underwent placement of a biodegradable magnesium stent within a stenotic aorto-pulmonary collateral. Although there was an initial significant increase in vessel diameter, significant restenosis occurred 4 months after stent placement. This to our knowledge represents the first case of the use of biodegradable stents in a child with severely hypoplastic pulmonary arteries. Although further refinements in stent technology are required, this development will hopefully usher in a new era of potential intervention in children previously deemed unsuitable for stent placement.

  17. Unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery with associated aortopulmonary collaterals and bullous lung lesions in a dog.

    PubMed

    Birch, S; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Fonfara, S; Chanoit, G; Warren-Smith, C

    2016-12-01

    This case report describes a combination of congenital cardiopulmonary abnormalities found in a 1-year-old Labrador Retriever. To the authors' knowledge this combination of cardiopulmonary abnormalities has not been previously reported in veterinary medicine. Unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery associated with unilateral right-sided aortopulmonary collaterals was observed. These aortopulmonary collaterals preserved the blood supply to the right lung lobes but led to left ventricular volume overload. There was also evidence of severe bullous lung disease in the right lung, which was suspected to be secondary to pulmonary sequestration as a result of the anomalous hemi-pulmonary circulation. The diagnosis of left-sided volume overload was achieved by radiography and echocardiography while the remainder of the findings was diagnosed on computed tomography angiography. The owner refused surgery for occlusion of the shunting vessels and therapy at standard doses of benazepril, spironolactone and pimobendan was initiated. In spite of the severe volume overload, the dog remained stable with static non-progressive clinical signs and stable echocardiographic findings at 1-year follow-up. The case report also acts as a reminder of the possible occurrence of unusual extra-cardiac shunts in the presence of an unexplained left ventricular volume overload.

  18. Predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment weaken with recruit density.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Molis, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) of predatory dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on intertidal barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment through field experiments on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast and the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We studied the recruitment seasons (May-June) of 2011 and 2013. In 2011, the Gulf coast had five times more nearshore phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae and recruits) during the recruitment season and yielded a 58% higher barnacle recruit density than the Atlantic coast at the end of the recruitment season. In 2013, phytoplankton levels and barnacle recruit density were similar on both coasts and also lower than for the Gulf coast in 2011. Using the comparative-experimental method, the manipulation of dogwhelk presence (without allowing physical contact with prey) revealed that dogwhelk cues limited barnacle recruitment under moderate recruit densities (Atlantic 2011/2013 and Gulf 2013) but had no effect under a high recruit density (Gulf 2011). Barnacle recruits attract settling larvae through chemical cues. Thus, the highest recruit density appears to have neutralized dogwhelk effects. This study suggests that the predation risk perceived by settling larvae may decrease with increasing recruit density and that prey food supply may indirectly influence predator NCEs on prey recruitment.

  19. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Hopper, Dale E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C60.

  20. Current Concepts in Rehabilitation Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Wilk, Kevin E.; Altchek, David W.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in throwing athletes frequently occurs from the repetitive valgus loading of the elbow during the throwing motion, which often results in surgical reconstruction of the UCL requiring a structured postoperative rehabilitation program. Several methods are currently used and recommended for UCL reconstruction using autogenous grafts in an attempt to reproduce the stabilizing function of the native UCL. Rehabilitation following surgical reconstruction of the UCL begins with range of motion and initial protection of the surgical reconstruction, along with resistive exercise for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain. Progressions for resistive exercise are followed that attempt to fully restore strength and local muscular endurance in the rotator cuff and scapular stabilizers, in addition to the distal upper extremity musculature, to allow for a return to throwing and overhead functional activities. Rehabilitation following UCL reconstruction has produced favorable outcomes, allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. PMID:23015887

  1. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    PubMed

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  2. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-03

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C{sub 60}.

  3. Modeling and simulation for collateral damage estimation in combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.; Martin, Douglas D.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) is increasingly used for decision support during combat operations: M&S is going to war! One of the key operational uses of M&S in combat is collateral damage estimation (CDE). Reducing undesired collateral damage (CD) in war and in operations other than war is important to the United States of America. Injuries to noncombatants and damage to protected sites are uniformly avoided by our forces whenever possible in planning and executing combat operations. This desire to limit unwanted CD presents unique challenges to command and control (C2), especially for time-sensitive targeting (TST). The challenges begin the moment a target is identified because CD estimates must meet specified criteria before target approval is granted. Therefore, CDE tools must be accurate, responsive, and human-factored, with graphics that aid C2 decisions. This paper will describe how CDE tools are used to build three-dimensional models of potential target areas and select appropriate munitions, fusing, and delivery in order to minimize predicted CD. The paper will cover the evolution of CDE from using only range rings around the target to improvements through Operation Allied Force, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Positive CDE feedback from various sources, including the Secretary of Defense, lessons learned, and warfighters will be presented. Current CDE tools in the field and CDE tools used in reachback are being improved, and short-term and long-term improvements in those tools and in the CDE methodology will be described in this paper.

  4. The fissure: interlobar collateral ventilation and implications for endoscopic therapy in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Koster, Theodoor David; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way valves is a promising therapeutic option to improve lung function and quality of life. The goal of this treatment is to achieve a complete lobar atelectasis. In a significant proportion of patients, this atelectasis cannot be achieved due to interlobar collateral ventilation. This collateral ventilation is generated through incomplete lobar fissures. Therefore, only patients with complete fissures and no collateral ventilation can be selected for endobronchial therapy with one-way valves. Incomplete fissures are very common and exhibit a great variation in anatomy. The reported prevalence is 17%-85% for the right major fissure, 19%-74% for the left major fissure, and 20%-90% for the minor fissure. There are several methods of measuring or predicting the presence of collateral ventilation, with computed tomography (CT)-fissure analysis and the Chartis measurement being the most important. CT-fissure analysis is an indirect method to measure the completeness of fissures as a surrogate for collateral ventilation. The Chartis system is an endobronchial method to directly measure the presence of collateral ventilation. Both methods have unique value, and the combination of both can accurately predict the treatment response to the bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial valves. This review provides an in-depth view of lung fissure and collateral ventilation to help understand its importance in selecting the appropriate patients for new emphysema treatments and thus avoid useless treatment in unsuitable patients.

  5. MBA Recruitment Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-05

    talented, recent MBA graduates from top-tier U.S. business schools . These graduates bring new ideas, energy and private sector management...sets and school performance may be different, all Fellows are expected to be recent graduates of top-tier business schools who will be performing in...the “CEO/Ambassador” to one of the target business schools where DoD is establishing a physical recruiting presence. The person’s role would be to

  6. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-07

    challenge is further exacerbated by a new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , now coming into the workplace. The Millennials have...these growing recruitment and retention challenges along with the many generational differences of the Millennials in an attempt to provide some...is further exacerbated by a new generation now coming into the workplace. This new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , has different

  7. [Scanning electron microscopy analysis of peroperative injury at the junctions of the vasa vasorum and the collateral veins of venous autografts prepared for myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Jelić, I; Leskovar, T; Mijić, A; Bulajić, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine the peroperative changes in affluences of collateral veins and vasa vasorum of venous autografts prepared for a coronary bypass by standard and proposed methods. The investigations were carried out on dogs. In control group, the veins were prepared by the standard method where the vein is presented by several minor incisions with "skin bridges" planted in between. In the second group, the veins were prepared by the method developed by the authors, where the vein is presented by a long incision, maintaining perfusion with its own blood throughout surgery. The scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that the standard method of vein preparation causes significant damage in collateral veins and vasa vasorum affluences which are actually part of an internal surface of future venous autograft prepared for myocardium revascularization. The proposed surgical method considerably reduces possible peroperative damage of the vasa vasorum and collateral vein affluence sites forming a portion of the internal surface of the venous autograft. Therefore, based on the obtained results, this method is recommended for clinical application.

  8. Navy Enlisted Recruiting: Alternatives for Improving Recruiter Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Instruction CR Chief Recruiter CRF Career Recruiting Force CS Culinary Specialist CT Command Trainer CTI Cryptologic Technician...8, Aviation Machinist Mates (AD), Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Culinary Specialists (CS), and Fire Controlman (FC) had the highest average

  9. The Collateral Consequences of Sex Offender Management Policies: Views From Professionals.

    PubMed

    Call, Corey

    2016-06-13

    In this study, the perceptions of community corrections professionals and clinical specialists toward the collateral consequences of current sex offender management policies were explored and contrasted. In addition, potential influencing factors of these perceptions were examined. Results indicate high levels of belief that sex offenders experience a variety of collateral consequences upon reentry; however, community corrections professionals are significantly less likely to believe that sex offenders experience collateral consequences than clinical specialists. Furthermore, few demographic variables were found to significantly influence the perceptions of the sample. Implications for the management of sex offenders are discussed.

  10. Potential role of bile duct collaterals in the recovery of the biliary obstruction: experimental study in rats using microcholangiography, histology, serology and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ni, Y; Lukito, G; Marchal, G; Cresens, E; Yu, J; Petré, C; Baert, A L; Fevery, J

    1994-12-01

    Obstructive cholestasis induced in animals at the level of the lobar and common bile ducts is known to be reversible with time. This study was conducted not only to test the hypothesis that formation of bile duct collaterals is responsible for the recovery of biliary obstruction but also to assess the potential of hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for visualizing cholestasis. A total of 52 rats were divided into three groups with selective biliary obstruction, total biliary obstruction and sham surgery. We studied the evolution of cholestasis by correlating microcholangiographic, histological findings with the results of liver tests and hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Lobar cholestasis undetected by liver tests but seen on magnetic resonance imaging as a difference between ligated and unligated lobes, occurred in 15 out of 20 rats subjected to selective biliary obstruction within 48 hr after ligation, and recovered later on as a result of the development of bile duct collaterals. Five rats failed to show local cholestasis as a result of the existence of interlobar accessory bile channels. All 18 total biliary obstruction-treated rats were cholestatic soon after ligation, as confirmed by high serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels and as documented by poor liver enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Cholestasis recovered within 4 wk with normalization of liver enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging as a result of the formation of bile duct collaterals (as demonstrated by microcholangiographic and histological study). Bile duct collateral formation is responsible for the recovery from obstructive cholestasis in rats. A similar mechanism might be present in conditions of bile duct obstruction without cholestasis. Hepatobiliary agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive than blood tests in detecting local cholestasis and can be used to monitor noninvasively the evolution of biliary

  11. Generational Recruiting: Applying Generational Theory to Tactical Level Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-24

    theory at the tactical level of recruiting, recruiters must be mindful of the socio-economic environment and influences that shaped the peer personality......Command to apply generational theory at the ’tactical level’ of canvassing recruiters, just as MCRC applies generational theory in its expertly informed

  12. The Students-Recruiting-Students Undergraduate Engineering Recruiting Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Carol; Nachtmann, Heather; Youngblood, Alisha D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Students-Recruiting-Students (SRS) program developed to recruit high school students into the Industrial Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas. Presents four phases of the program along with seven years of program results. Encourages successful development of similar recruiting programs. (KHR)

  13. Army Recruiting Resourcing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Sheridan, Illinois 60037-6090 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMO No. 070虨 I.& Mrw ung U btOfl tOf thti (CM .; 9 Of nOMToMt,0* Mt e,,tiSO w &rIK" 1 OUr...are those of the author and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army policy or position, unless so designated by other...changes in policies , regulations, or statutes that affect recruiting. Those interviewed within the DA staff (DCSPER, PA&E, and DAB personnel) believe there

  14. Preparing Alumni for Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Brian

    As recruitment budgets continue to tighten and with fewer colleges reporting application increases for their freshmen classes, enrollment managers must continue to explore all potential sources of recruitment talent. Alumni are often an underutilized or sometimes poorly utilized resource in recruitment efforts. Younger alumni, for example, may…

  15. Spectrum of hepatofugal collateral pathways in portal hypertension: an illustrated radiological review.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Meenakshi, Yamini S; Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the various portosystemic collateral pathways pertinent to portal hypertension on multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and their clinical relevance, with special emphasis on the uncommon ones. The knowledge and understanding of the various patterns of portosystemic collateral channels has important implications both for the clinician and the interventionist. MDCT with its advanced post processing capabilities can exquisitely demonstrate these vascular pathways to help in therapeutic decision making. Teaching points • Portosystemic collaterals are an important cause of bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. • Radiologists should be familiar with the imaging findings to effectively identify them. • Pre-operative knowledge of portosystemic collaterals is essential to avoid inadvertent vascular injury.

  16. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  17. 13 CFR 123.513 - Does SBA require collateral on its Military Reservist EIDL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.513 Does SBA require... provide available collateral such as a lien on business property, a security interest in personal...

  18. Fatal derecruitment of occluded left anterior descending collaterals after left circumflex revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore D.; Galassi, Alfredo R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary arteries are not definitely functionally terminal arteries, as previously thought; indeed, they are linked and interconnected by a rich network of collaterals. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a subset of frequent lesions encountered in everyday catheterization laboratory practice, generally associated with a developed system of collateral connections. These latter have the capacity to prevent myocardial necrosis and may even uphold metabolic supply to the ischemic territory to maintain its contractile capacity. Authors have reported a rapid and progressive reduction of collateral function and their decline after antegrade flow restoration, resulting in higher myocardial susceptibility to ischemia in the CTO territory. Here, we report the case of a fatal derecruitment of collaterals for a left anterior descending CTO not reopened, after left circumflex subocclusion revascularization. PMID:26778906

  19. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... loan is reasonably assured when considered with the integrity and ability of project management... to the following: Land, buildings, machinery, equipment, furniture, fixtures, inventory, accounts receivable, cash or special cash collateral accounts, marketable securities and cash surrender value of...

  20. Resolution of bilateral moyamoya associated collateral vessel aneurysms: Rationale for endovascular versus surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Goodin, Sean; Charbel, Fady T.; Alaraj, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of aneurysms associated with deep collateral vessels in moyamoya disease is challenging both from an endovascular and a surgical standpoint. Difficulties with access or localization, and compromise of the collateral circulation with subsequent ischemia are the primary concerns, making direct obliteration potentially unfeasible or risky. Alternatively, superficial temporal artery–middle cerebral artery bypass is another potential strategy for resolution of these aneurysms. Case Description: Presented are the findings and management for a patient with moyamoya disease and bilateral deep collateral vessel aneurysms, successfully treated with endovascular obliteration following a right-sided hemorrhage and subsequently with bypass for an unruptured but growing contralateral aneurysm. Conclusions: A rationale and approach to management is outlined, as derived from review of the current literature and the illustrative case with bilateral collateral vessel aneurysms. PMID:25071939

  1. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  2. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  3. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.522... use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  4. Incidentally detected right pulmonary artery agenesis with right coronary artery collateralization.

    PubMed

    Mikaberidze, Nino; Goldberg, Ythan; Khosraviani, Khashayar; Taub, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis (UPAA) with pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare congenital anomaly. We describe a 71-year old male who was incidentally diagnosed with the right UPAA and a hypoplastic right lung supplied by collateralized right coronary.

  5. Arterial supply, venous drainage and collateral circulation in the nose of the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1987-10-01

    1. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized dogs, nasal blood flows were measured with electromagnetic flow sensors. 2. The terminal internal maxillary artery was found to supply 22 +/- 2.2 ml min-1 (one side) to the nasal mucosa via the sphenopalatine and major palatine branches; the artery was found to receive multiple supply routes from common carotid, vertebral and subclavian arteries. 3. Nasal mucosa was found to receive collateral flow from contralateral terminal internal maxillary artery (about 5 to 10% of normal flow) and branches of subclavian arteries (about 36% of normal flow). 4. Nasal mucosa was found to have two venous systems: the low-flow (12 +/- 1.0 ml min-1; both sides) and low-pressure (7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) sphenopalatine veins draining the posterior nasal cavity and the high-flow (30 +/- 1.4 ml min-1; both sides) and high-pressure (17 +/- 1.0 mmHg) dorsal nasal veins draining the anterior nasal cavity. 5. PO2 of nasal venous blood was found to range from 62 +/- 2.9 mmHg to 65 +/- 3.4 mmHg. During nitrogen challenge to the nose, the sphenopalatine venous PO2 dropped to 35 +/- 3.0 mmHg while the dorsal nasal venous PO2 remained unchanged, suggesting that the sphenopalatine veins were responsible for draining capillary flow and dorsal nasal veins arteriovenous anastomotic flow as well. 6. Microscopic examination of the vascular casts confirmed that arteriovenous anastomoses were located only in the anterior nasal cavity.

  6. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-03-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery.

  7. Isolated lateral collateral ligament complex injury in rock climbing and Brazilian Jiu-jitsu.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryan A; Hiller, Lucas P; Imbesi, Steven G; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-08-01

    We report two occurrences of high-grade tears of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), consisting of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and fibular collateral ligament (FCL). One injury occurred in a rock climber and the other in a martial artist. Increasing awareness of isolated injuries of the LCLC will allow for appropriate diagnosis and management. We review and discuss the anatomy of the LCLC, the unique mechanism of isolated injury, as well as physical and imaging examination findings.

  8. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  9. "One-stop" Hybrid approach for tetralogy of fallot with aortopulmonary collateral arteries in adults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yiyao; Zhang, Wei; Pei, Yu; Yang, Li; Xue, Langang; Liu, Xiaocheng

    2013-04-01

    We report a 45 year-old Chinese woman with tetralogy of fallot that had two aortopulmonary collateral arteries and tricuspid regurgitation. Collateral circulation was blocked and total correction was successfully performed in our "one-stop" hybrid operation room. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass after 97 minutes and was transferred to the intensive care unit for about 36 hours. Without any complications, the patient was discharged home in the following eight days.

  10. Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Actress Nichelle Nichols was born in Robbins, Illinois on December 29, 1936. She played Lieutenant Uhura the Communications Officer on the U.S.S. Enterprise in the original series, Star Trek. Nichols stayed with the show and has appeared in six Star Trek movies. Her portrayal of Uhura on Star Trek marked one of the first non-stereotypical roles assigned to an African-American actress. She also provided the voice for Lt. Uhura on the Star Trek animated series in 1974-75. Before joining the crew on Star Trek, she sang and danced with Duke Ellington's band. Nichols was always interested in space travel. She flew aboard the C-141 Astronomy Observatory, which analyzed the atmospheres of Mars and Saturn on an eight hour, high altitude mission. From the late 1970's until the late 1980's, NASA employed Nichelle Nichols to recruit new astronaut candidates. Many of her new recruits were women or members of racial and ethnic minorities, including Guion Bluford (the first African-American astronaut), Sally Ride (the first female American astronaut), Judith Resnik (one of the original set of female astronauts, who perished during the launch of the Challenger on January 28, 1986), and Ronald McNair (the second African-American astronaut, and another victim of the Challenger accident). Currently Nichelle Nichols is actively involved in movies and special appearances. She is also a spokesperson for her favorite charity, 'The Kwanzaa Foundation.'

  11. [Approach to the road of vigorously developing Chinese medicine by scientific location of channels and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Ding-zhong; Fu, Song-tao; Mi, He-yin; Li, Xiu-zhang; Zhang, Chang-lin; Zhang, Wei-bo

    2008-12-01

    Through researches of channels and collaterals and clinical practice of many years, the authors understand that Chinese medicine, which considers the human body as an interrelated, mutual constraints, whole, dynamic living system, has gradually become an important part of modern medicine. Channels and collaterals are a closed loop system which is communicated and linked by energy and information in the form of electromagnetic oscillation, reflecting many characteristics similar to quantum. Channels and collaterals are not a fixed organizational structure. Studies on channel and collaterals find that the track of the propagated sensation along channels (PSC) have the phenomenon drifting about. This exactly reflects the law of channels dynamically running. By information triggering and living resonance, channels and collaterals bring into play entirely regulative action. The innovative treatment of channels and collaterals followed by characteristics and laws of quantum can get a better curative effect. Theory of channels in the position of quantum information medical science provides an important breach for modernization of Chinese medicine.

  12. Direct Cortical Inputs Erase LTP at Schaffer Collateral Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), a synaptic mechanism thought to underlie memory formation, has been studied extensively at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses. The SC pathway transmits information to area CA1 that originates in entorhinal cortex and is processed by the dentate gyrus and area CA3. CA1 also receives direct excitatory input from entorhinal cortex via the perforant path (PP), but the role of this cortical input is less certain. Here we report that low frequency stimulation of PP inputs to CA1 has no lasting effect on basal SC transmission, but effectively depotentiates SC synapses that have undergone LTP in a fashion that can be reversed by subsequent high frequency stimulation of SC inputs. This depotentiation does not require N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors or L-type calcium channels, but involves adenosine acting at A1 receptors. Given the limited storage capacity of the hippocampus, these observations provide a mechanism by which input from cortex can help to reset synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and facilitate further information processing. PMID:18799687

  13. Collateral pathways from the ventromedial hypothalamus mediate defensive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Irene Z.; Lin, Dayu

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was thought to be essential for coping with threat, although its circuit mechanism remains unclear. To investigate this, we optogenetically activated steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial and central part of VMH (VMHdm/c), and observed a range of context dependent somatomotor and autonomic responses resembling animals' natural defensive behaviors. By activating independent pathways emanating from VMHdm/c, we demonstrated that VMHdm/c projection to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) induces inflexible immobility, while the VMHdm/c to anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) pathway promotes avoidance. Furthermore, consistent with the behavior changes induced by VMH to AHN pathway activation, direct activation of the AHN elicited avoidance and escape jumping but not immobility. Finally, retrograde tracing studies revealed that nearly 50% of PAG- projecting VMHdm/c neurons send collateral projection to the AHN and vice versa. Thus, VMHdm/c neurons employ a one-to-many wiring configuration to orchestrate multiple aspects of defensive behaviors. PMID:25754823

  14. Targeting pathogen metabolism without collateral damage to the host

    PubMed Central

    Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Gerding, Albert; Dolga, Amalia M.; Sorgdrager, Freek J. H.; Buist-Homan, Manon; du Toit, François; Faber, Klaas Nico; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Szöör, Balázs; Matthews, Keith R.; Snoep, Jacky L.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of drugs that can inactivate disease-causing cells (e.g. cancer cells or parasites) without causing collateral damage to healthy or to host cells is complicated by the fact that many proteins are very similar between organisms. Nevertheless, due to subtle, quantitative differences between the biochemical reaction networks of target cell and host, a drug can limit the flux of the same essential process in one organism more than in another. We identified precise criteria for this ‘network-based’ drug selectivity, which can serve as an alternative or additive to structural differences. We combined computational and experimental approaches to compare energy metabolism in the causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, with that of human erythrocytes, and identified glucose transport and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the most selective antiparasitic targets. Computational predictions were validated experimentally in a novel parasite-erythrocytes co-culture system. Glucose-transport inhibitors killed trypanosomes without killing erythrocytes, neurons or liver cells. PMID:28084422

  15. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  16. Collateral circulation from the conus coronary artery to the anterior descending coronary artery: assessment using multislice coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Enrique; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2010-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease largely depends on the presence of a collateral circulation. The location and extent of the collateral circulation is highly variable and these parameters determine whether or not ischemic symptoms occur and whether left ventricular contractility is abnormal. The collateral circulation is generally established through small-caliber distal vessels, although many different forms have been described. We report on three patients with severe left coronary artery disease and collateral circulation through a large conus coronary artery that joined a proximal or medial segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all three cases, left ventricular function was preserved.

  17. Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2003-11-15

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.

  18. Self-, collateral- and clinician assessment of depression in persons with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Mohit P.; Sullivan, Jan R.; Feldman, Zachary; Landes, Reid D.; Beck, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This investigation examined the associations between self-reports, collateral-source reports and a clinician’s diagnosis of depression in persons with cognitive impairment. Method Responses on the Geriatric Depression Scale – 15 (GDS-15) from 162 participants with a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (n = 78) or Alzheimer’s Dementia and a Mini-Mental State score ≥15 (n = 84) were compared with both their collateral sources’ report on either the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (n = 93) and/or the collateral-source GDS-15 (n = 67), or a clinician’s diagnosis of Major Depression (MD). Results Significant differences were seen between self- versus collateral-source reports of depression in these participants. Participants’ reports of loss of interest (anhedonia) significantly increased the odds of disagreement with their collateral sources (OR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.3–11.2) while reports of negative cognitions significantly decreased the odds of such a disagreement (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). The symptom of anhedonia also showed the strongest association with the clinician’s diagnosis of MD. Conclusion A motivational symptom like loss of interest was seen to play an important role in depression experienced by those with cognitive impairment. PMID:19023719

  19. Biomechanics of a less invasive procedure for reconstruction of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, K S; Tjin-A-Tsoi, E W; Zvijac, J E; Uribe, J W; Latta, L L

    1998-01-01

    A reconstruction of the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow using bone anchors was compared regarding strain and valgus load strength with the intact ulnar collateral ligament and the reconstructed ulnar collateral ligament using bone tunnels. In both normal and reconstructed elbows, the anterior band and posterior band were tight during only a portion of the range of motion. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the anterior band was tight for the normal and bone anchor groups, but lax in the bone tunnel group. Toward extension, the mean peak strain in the posterior band was lax in all elbows. Toward flexion, the strain in the anterior band was lax in the normal and bone anchor groups, but tight in the bone tunnel group. The mean of the peak strains for the posterior band toward flexion was tight for all elbows. Mean valgus load strength of normal elbows was 22.7 +/- 9.0 N.m. The bone tunnel and bone anchor mean strengths were 76.3% and 63.5%, respectively, of normal elbow strength. We concluded that the bone anchor reproduced the normal anatomy and mechanical function of the ulnar collateral ligament more closely than the bone tunnel, and that both reconstruction methods were significantly weaker than the normal ulnar collateral ligament. However, we found no significant difference in reconstruction strength between bone anchor and bone tunnel.

  20. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  1. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  2. Recruiting Migrant Students Reference Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leon, Ed.

    This document reports on a study evaluating the practices of identification and recruitment of migrant students. Guided by a 14-state advisory council, data were collected by ethnographic research of practice in migrant recruitment and focus-group studies of migrant families. The document consists of five sections each written by a different…

  3. Nutrition Knowledge among Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-27

    Nutrition Knovledge among Navy Recruits DTIC AELEOI7E flS SEP 2 8 1987 Terry L. Conway Linda K. Hervig D Ross R. Vickers, Jr. Health Psychology Department...5 Participants ............................................................. 5 Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire...Students ............................... 6 Recruits’ Nutrition Knowledge .................................... ...... 8 Correlates of Nutrition Knowledge

  4. Three Keys to Better Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazington, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment is an expensive business: In 2010-2011, the median cost to recruit an undergraduate was $2,185 among private colleges and universities, according to Noel-Levitz, an enrollment management consultancy. In these tough fiscal times, admissions departments are under pressure to keep those costs down even as they pursue higher enrollment and…

  5. Changing Attitudes toward Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald

    The identification, encouragement, and recruitment of teachers is a professional responsibility that must be faced today. The field of industrial arts holds no external attractors; the job of teacher recruitment rests on the shoulders of teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. Teachers have attitudes that fail to support any process that…

  6. Treatment of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tears of the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears have become common, and UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is currently the preferred surgical treatment method for treating UCL tears. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to review the literature surrounding UCL repair and determine the viability of new repair techniques for treatment of UCL tears. We hypothesized that UCL repair techniques will provide comparable results to UCLR for treatment of UCL tears. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed with PRISMA guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Biomechanical and clinical outcome investigations reporting on UCL repair with levels of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive statistics were calculated for each study and parameter/variable analyzed. Results: Of the 46 studies eligible, 4 studies (3 clinical and 1 biomechanical) were included. There were 92 patients (n = 92 elbows; 61 males [62.3%]; mean age, 21.9 ± 4.7 years) included in the clinical studies, with a mean follow-up of 49 ± 14.4 months. Eighty-six percent of repairs performed were on the dominant elbow, and 38% were in college athletes. Most UCL repairs (66.3%) were performed via suture anchors. After UCL repair, 87.0% of patients were able to return to sport. Overall, 94.9% of patients scored excellent/good on the Andrews-Carson score. Patients who were able to return to sport after UCL repair did so within 6 months after surgery. Biomechanically, when UCL repair was compared with the modified Jobe technique, the repair group showed significantly less gap formation than the reconstruction group. Conclusion: In patients for whom repair is properly indicated, UCL repair provides similar return-to-sport rates and clinical outcomes with shorter return-to-sport timing after repair compared with UCL reconstruction. Future outcome studies evaluating UCL repair

  7. Systematic and differential myelination of axon collaterals in the mammalian auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    A brainstem circuit for encoding the spatial location of sounds involves neurons in the cochlear nucleus that project to medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons on both sides of the brain via a single bifurcating axon. Neurons in MSO act as coincidence detectors, responding optimally when signals from the two ears arrive within a few microseconds. To achieve this, transmission of signals along the contralateral collateral must be faster than transmission of the same signals along the ipsilateral collateral. We demonstrate that this is achieved by differential regulation of myelination and axon caliber along the ipsilateral and contralateral branches of single axons; ipsilateral axon branches have shorter internode lengths and smaller caliber than contralateral branches. The myelination difference is established prior to the onset of hearing. We conclude that this differential myelination and axon caliber requires local interactions between axon collaterals and surrounding oligodendrocytes on the two sides of the brainstem. PMID:26556176

  8. Indocyanine Green Lymphographic Signs of Lymphatic Collateral Formation in Lower Extremity Lymphedema After Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Shibata, Takashi; Mito, Daisuke; Ishiura, Ryohei; Kato, Motoi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level to the axillary lymph nodes. All 3 cases had similarity in lower abdominal edema, so excessive lymphatic fluid in the lower abdomen was assumed to be the cause. Lymphatic collateral ways from abdomen to axillary lymph nodes in this study was likely to be designed to prevent the progress of lymphedema.

  9. Comparing main and collateral effects of extinction and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior.

    PubMed

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be outweighed by the reported negative side effects that result. However, these collateral effects have rarely been measured or reported. DRA produced the most rapid reductions in behavior for 4 of the 5 participants. Other behaviors were measured for changes and showed that the desirable collateral effect of academic engagement tended to be higher during EXT than DRA. No evidence of EXT bursts was present with any participant, although EXT-induced aggression occurred with 1 participant.

  10. Genetic lineage tracing discloses arteriogenesis as the main mechanism for collateral growth in the mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    He, Lingjuan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xueying; Yan, Yan; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu; Miquerol, Lucile; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Capillary and arterial endothelial cells share many common molecular markers in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Herein, we aim to establish a genetic tool that distinguishes these two types of vessels in order to determine the cellular mechanism underlying collateral artery formation. Methods and results Using Apln-GFP and Apln-LacZ reporter mice, we demonstrate that APLN expression is enriched in coronary vascular endothelial cells. However, APLN expression is reduced in coronary arterial endothelial cells. Genetic lineage tracing, using an Apln-CreER mouse line, robustly labelled capillary endothelial cells, but not arterial endothelial cells. We leveraged this differential activity of Apln-CreER to study collateral artery formation following myocardial infarction (MI). In a neonatal heart MI model, we found that Apln-CreER-labelled capillary endothelial cells do not contribute to the large collateral arteries. Instead, these large collateral arteries mainly arise from pre-existing, infrequently labelled coronary arteries, indicative of arteriogenesis. Furthermore, in an adult heart MI model, Apln-CreER activity also distinguishes large and small diameter arteries from capillaries. Lineage tracing in this setting demonstrated that most large and small coronary arteries in the infarcted myocardium and border region are derived not from capillaries, but from pre-existing arteries. Conclusion Apln-CreER-mediated lineage tracing distinguishes capillaries from large arteries, in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Through genetic fate mapping, we demonstrate that pre-existing arteries, but not capillaries, extensively contribute to collateral artery formation following myocardial injury. These results suggest that arteriogenesis is the major mechanism underlying collateral vessel formation. PMID:26768261

  11. Giant aorto-pulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect: long-term survival in unoperated adults.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, Gaia; Favilli, Silvia; Fonda, Claudio; Chiappa, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    The association of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA/VSD) can be considered the most severe form of tetralogy of Fallot. The main feature of this congenital heart disease is represented by discontinuity between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk or its branches; the anatomy of central pulmonary arteries is often abnormal, consequently the type and the amount of sources of pulmonary blood flow are variable. Due to evolution in surgical techniques, definitive correction is now also considered in more complex cases. A small rate of unoperated patients with PA/VSD can survive until adulthood and the arterial blood supply to the lungs, provided by major aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), is one of the main determinants of survival. We report two unoperated cases of PA/VSD and MAPCAs with long-term survival. Giant MAPCAs can occasionally be found by chest radiography in adults with unrepaired PA/VSD. Moreover, non-invasive assessment of the pulmonary arterial bed with computer tomography or MRI is helpful in these patients during follow-up. Finally, we discuss the use of oral anticoagulants and/or 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors in these patients.

  12. Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Ellebrecht, D.; Danicke, V.; Wurster, L.; Kleemann, M.; Birngruber, R.

    2013-06-01

    To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9μm) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.

  13. Who died? The murder of collaterals related to intimate partner conflict.

    PubMed

    Dobash, Russell P; Dobash, R Emerson

    2012-06-01

    Using data from the Murder in Britain Study, the authors focus on murders that are related to intimate partner conflict but involve the killing of a person other than the intimate partner. Intimate partner collateral murders (IPCM) include children, allies, and new partners. The findings expand the number and types of murder associated with intimate partner conflict, characterize the three main types of collaterals, compare the childhood and adulthood of the perpetrators of intimate partner murder [IPM] (n = 104) and IPCM (n = 62), and reflect similarities and differences. Various disciplinary approaches are reflected in the research design, data collection, findings, and conclusions.

  14. Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ragge, N K; Hoyt, W F

    1992-01-01

    In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelaminar obstruction of the central retinal artery. Images PMID:1540571

  15. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  16. [Destruction of residual varicose collaterals by subcutaneous dilaceration with a needle].

    PubMed

    Lengua, F; Pajot, A; Buffet, J M; Kassem, S; Fernandez, R

    1980-01-01

    The persistence of collaterals after a properly conducted surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs often presents a problem which is difficult to resolve. The authors put forward a simple and original method, in which a long and slightly curved triangular needle is used, without incisions, to destroy by dilaceration the collaterals whatever their degree of dilatation and their location. This technique has also been used as a first stage preceding stripping, and over a 5 year period has given results in 70 patients which are very satisfactory both from the point of view of efficacy as well as from the aesthetic point of view.

  17. Selective cortical control of information flow through different intraspinal collaterals of the same muscle afferent fiber.

    PubMed

    Eguibar, J R; Quevedo, J; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1994-04-18

    We have analyzed in the anesthetized cat the effects of electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex on the intraspinal threshold of two collaterals belonging to the same muscle spindle or tendon organ afferent fiber. The results obtained provide, for the first time, direct evidence showing that the motor cortex is able to modify, in a highly selective manner, the synaptic effectiveness of individual collaterals of the same primary afferent fiber. This presynaptic control could function as a mechanism that allows funneling of information to specific groups of spinal neurons in the presence of extensive intraspinal branching of the afferent fibers.

  18. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  19. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the margin stock as collateral,” contained in paragraph (2)(iv) of the definition of indirectly... because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  20. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Interviews with Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and

  1. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  2. Relationship between thrombospondin-1, endostatin, angiopoietin-2, and coronary collateral development in patients with chronic total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qing; Qian, Juying; Ma, Jianying; Ge, Lei; Ge, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study is aimed to investigate whether serum angiostatic factors (thrombospondin-1 [TSP-1] and endostatin) or angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2]) are related to coronary collateral vessel development in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 149 patients were enrolled in the study, and 39 patients with coronary artery disease but without significant stenosis were included in control group. In 110 patients with CTO lesion, 79 with Rentrop grades 2 to 3 collaterals were grouped as good collateral, while 31 with Rentrop grades 0 to 1 collaterals were grouped as poor collateral. Serum TSP-1, endostatin, and Ang-2 levels were studied. Serum endostatin level was significantly higher in poor collateral group compared with control group and good collateral group, respectively (96.2 ± 30.4 vs 77.8 ± 16.5 ng/mL, P = 0.007; 96.2 ± 30.4 vs 81.2 ± 30.4 ng/mL, P = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, decreased serum endostatin level was independently related to good coronary collateral development. Serum TSP-1 level was lower in patients with CTO compared with control group. However, no difference in TSP-1 level was detected between poor and good collateral group. The serum Ang-2 level did not show a significant difference among 3 groups. Circulatory endostatin may be a useful biomarker for coronary collateral development and potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with CTO. PMID:27537575

  3. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  4. Serotonin-induced blood flow changes in the rat hindlegs after unilateral ligation of the femoral artery. Inhibition by the S2 receptor antagonist ketanserin.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, A; Vlaminckx, E; Lauwers, F; Van Den Broeck, C; Wouters, L

    1984-08-01

    Collateral arteries can clearly be visualized in corrosion cast material after ligation of the femoral artery in rats. To characterize the influence of serotonin on the blood circulation under the experimental condition of unilateral ligation, we performed intermuscular thermoflow measurements. The data showed that intraperitoneal serotonin (8.7 and 20 mg.kg-1) injection markedly reduced the muscle temperature in both hindlegs. However, the effect was significantly more pronounced on the ligated side, where the blood was supplied through a collateral circulation, than on the non-ligated side with its normal arterial vasculature. Almost identical changes were obtained in rats with an early as well as in animals with a more advanced stage of collateral development (challenge with 8.7 mg.kg-1 serotonin). Evans blue dye experiments and angiographic data further revealed that, after challenge with 20 mg.kg-1 serotonin, the severe temperature decrease at the ligated side probably reflected a nearly complete blockage of blood supply. Pretreatment with the S2 receptor antagonist ketanserin (2.5 mg.kg-1) resulted in a significant reduction in the extent and duration of the serotonin-induced temperature decrease as revealed by the temperature measurements; such a treatment inhibited also the blockage in blood flow as seen with the other techniques. This study shows that serotonin, through its vasoconstrictive properties, can restrict the blood flow to the lower extremities of the rat, particularly when the blood is supplied through collateral circulation. This probably results in moderate to severe skeletal muscle ischaemia. It also suggests that the vasoconstriction is not only important in the inhibition of collateral blood flow in recently established collaterals but also in collateral vessels in a more advanced stage of development. The in vivo vasoconstriction and subsequent reduction of the blood supply caused by serotonin can be effectively counteracted by

  5. Collateral Damage Related to Rape and Interpersonal Violence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Collegiate communities are often faced with difficult situations from sexual assault, rape, and other forms of interpersonal violence. These events are not only tragic or traumatic for the individuals involved but also have ripple effects and create collateral damage within the campus community. Many universities are instituting bystander training…

  6. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation... to such effect (without the need for consent or other action on the part of the Holders of the... Agreement, to become immediately due and payable by giving the Borrower written notice to such...

  7. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption. PMID:27733998

  8. CUDA-based acceleration of collateral filtering in brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Herng-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Image denoising is one of the fundamental and essential tasks within image processing. In medical imaging, finding an effective algorithm that can remove random noise in MR images is important. This paper proposes an effective noise reduction method for brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Our approach is based on the collateral filter which is a more powerful method than the bilateral filter in many cases. However, the computation of the collateral filter algorithm is quite time-consuming. To solve this problem, we improved the collateral filter algorithm with parallel computing using GPU. We adopted CUDA, an application programming interface for GPU by NVIDIA, to accelerate the computation. Our experimental evaluation on an Intel Xeon CPU E5-2620 v3 2.40GHz with a NVIDIA Tesla K40c GPU indicated that the proposed implementation runs dramatically faster than the traditional collateral filter. We believe that the proposed framework has established a general blueprint for achieving fast and robust filtering in a wide variety of medical image denoising applications.

  9. 12 CFR 150.320 - What is acceptable collateral for uninsured deposits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... collateral for self deposits or affiliate deposits under § 150.310: (a) Direct obligations of the United States, or other obligations fully guaranteed by the United States as to principal and interest. (b... to invest fiduciary funds under applicable state law. (c) Other readily marketable securities as...

  10. Hemodynamic role of ophthalmic artery collateral in internal carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, T K; Chamorro, A; Petty, G W; Khandji, A; Oropeza, L A; Duterte, D I; Mohr, J P

    1990-03-01

    We performed duplex and transcranial Doppler studies in 36 patients with angiographically documented internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) to determine the effect of ophthalmic artery collateral (OAC) on measures of vascular resistivity both proximal and distal to the occlusion. Resistance in the common carotid artery, measured by the resistivity index, was significantly lower in the group with OAC than in those without OAC, indicating a shunt to the low resistance intracranial circuit. The pulsatility index (PI) of the Doppler signal in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery, a measure of both inflow pressure and distal vascular resistance, did not differ between those with and without OAC. However, the presence of circle of Willis collateral pathways (anterior communicating and/or posterior communicating artery) did appear to have a significant effect on pulsatility. When both were present angiographically, PI was higher than in the group with only 1 Willisian collateral. These findings suggest that OAC has a marginal effect on vascular resistance in arterial bed distal to an ICAO, while Willisian collaterals appear to have a more important role in cerebral perfusion, as measured indirectly by Doppler methods.

  11. The Collateral Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Applied Implications from JEAB, January 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.; Fuqua, R. Wayne

    1993-01-01

    A review of the January 1993 issue of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior" concludes that behavioral interventions produce collateral effects, but predicting those effects in applied work is complicated because of verbal and instructional influences and because of interactions among reinforcer types. (JDD)

  12. Comparing Main and Collateral Effects of Extinction and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Erin Seligson; Bailey, Jon S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects and collateral effects of extinction (EXT) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) interventions with inappropriate vocalizations and work refusal. Both interventions have been used frequently to reduce problem behaviors. The benefits of these interventions have been established yet may be…

  13. Supplemental Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Through a Collateral Omental Artery: Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Jong Yun Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Sung Il; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Sang-Hyun; Park, Sang Joon

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of supplemental transcatheter arterialchemoembolization (TACE) through the extrahepatic collateral omentalartery (OA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: We studied 21 patients with extrahepatic collaterals of the OA, among 1,512 patients with HCC who had undergone angiography. HCCs supplied by collateral OAs were located at: segment IV in seven, segment V in five, segment III in three, segment VI in three and segment VIII in three patients (Couinaud classification of segments). On preoperative CT scans, every HCC was abutting the liver surface. Adjacent omental infiltration or engorgement was noted in 11 patients. Celiac and hepatic arteriograms showed hypertrophy of the feeding OA in all patients. TACE of the OA was performed in 19 patients with an emulsion of iodized oil and doxorubicin hydrochloride.Embolization with gelatin sponge particles was added in five patients. Results: Collaterals of the OA to the HCC were found on the first to seventeenth sessions of TACE. On follow-up CT scans, five patients showed complete uptake of iodized oil in the tumor. Partial uptake of iodized oil was noted in 13 patients and no uptake in one patient. There was no serious complication that related to the omental embolization, such as omental or bowel ischemia. The cumulative survival rates from the time of the TACE of the OA were 81% at 6 months and 68% at 12 months. Conclusion: TACE of the OA is safe and has a potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of HCC.

  14. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivatives clearing... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CLEARED SWAPS § 22.3 Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral. (a) General. A derivatives clearing organization shall...

  15. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivatives clearing... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CLEARED SWAPS § 22.3 Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of cleared swaps customer collateral. (a) General. A derivatives clearing organization shall...

  16. 17 CFR 22.3 - Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivatives clearing... Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CLEARED SWAPS (Eff. 4-9-2012) § 22.3 Derivatives clearing organizations: Treatment of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral. (a) General. A derivatives clearing...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral... county office. Any such approval shall not constitute a release of CCC's security interest in the... and security agreement shall not be released until all loan liability has been satisfied in full....

  18. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commodities, or marketing assistance loan proceeds, after execution of the note and security agreement by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodities, or marketing assistance loan proceeds, after execution of the note and security agreement by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH...

  20. 45 CFR 1336.67 - Security and collateral: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) As a Credit Factor. The availability of collateral security normally is considered an important... interests which may be taken by the lender include, but are not limited to, liens on real or personal... the replacement value of the property secured (whichever is less) must be taken naming the lender...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insurance. Collateral may also include assignments of leases or leasehold interest, revenues, patents, and... flow to service its debts and meets key industry standards such as those of Robert Morris Associates... when the security instruments are filed. (2) Hazard insurance with a standard mortgage clause...

  2. 7 CFR 1902.7 - Pledging collateral for deposit of funds in supervised bank accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Analysis Division, that collateral has been pledged, contact should be made with the financial institution... financial institution, deposited for borrowers in supervised bank accounts, must be secured by pledging... applicant has selected or tentatively selected a financial institution for the supervised bank account,...

  3. 7 CFR 1902.7 - Pledging collateral for deposit of funds in supervised bank accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Analysis Division, that collateral has been pledged, contact should be made with the financial institution... financial institution, deposited for borrowers in supervised bank accounts, must be secured by pledging... applicant has selected or tentatively selected a financial institution for the supervised bank account,...

  4. Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Resulting from Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Superselective Arteriographic Embolization via the Collateral Route

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Oztuerk, M. Halil; Guergen, Fatma; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2007-04-15

    We present a patient with intractable postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine artery pseudoaneurysm despite bilateral hypogastric artery ligation who was successfully treated by an endovascular approach via the collateral route. Although there is a good argument for postponing surgery until transcatheter embolization has been attempted, this case shows that embolization can still be successful even if the iliac vessels have been ligated.

  5. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. 308.522 Section 308.522 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  6. The morphology of hair follicle afferent fibre collaterals in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1977-11-01

    1. The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into single axons that innervated hair follicle receptors to study the morphology of their collaterals in the dorsal horn of the cord. The axons were impaled near the dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats and HRP injected by passing current through the intra-axonal micro-electrode. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry.2. Thirteen hair-follicle afferent fibres were stained including six that innervated tylotrichs (type T hair follicle afferent units) and one that innervated guard hairs (type G unit). The remaining six axons were not classified according to hair type, but, on the basis of their axonal conduction velocities, would have been either type G or T.3. Eleven axons could be traced back into the dorsal roots. Eight of these, upon entering the cord, turned and ran towards the brain. They did not divide into rostral and caudal branches. Three of the eleven did divide and gave rise to both rostral and caudal branches.4. Sixty-three collaterals were given off the thirteen stained axons. All well-filled collaterals had a strikingly similar morphology. They descended through laminae I-III of the dorsal horn into the deeper parts of lamina IV or into lamina V, before turning and ascending back into superficial lamina IV and lamina III where they branched profusely to give rise to their terminal arborizations. Terminal boutons, most commonly of the ;en passant' type, were numerous in lamina III, but were also seen in the dorsal part of lamina IV and in ventral lamina II. None were observed in dorsal lamina II or near the junction of the grey and white matter (lamina I) or in lamina V.5. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from a single hair follicle afferent fibre were in line with one another in the longitudinal axis of the cord. In the better-stained preparations the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals from a single axon formed a

  7. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Requirements of a recruitment report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a written recruitment report... job opportunity up to the date of the preparation of the recruitment report, and the disposition...

  8. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  10. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context.

  11. Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin; Grover, Lawrence M

    2015-06-01

    Axon conduction fidelity is important for signal transmission and has been studied in various axons, including the Schaffer collateral axons of the hippocampus. Previously, we reported that high-frequency stimulation (HFS) depresses Schaffer collateral excitability when assessed by whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal cells but induces biphasic excitability changes (increase followed by decrease) in extracellular recordings of CA1 fiber volleys. Here, we examined responses from proximal (whole-cell or field-potential recordings from CA3 pyramidal cell somata) and distal (field-potential recordings from CA1 stratum radiatum) portions of the Schaffer collaterals during HFS and burst stimulation in hippocampal slices. Whole-cell and dual-field-potential recordings using 10-100-Hz HFS revealed frequency-dependent changes like those previously described, with higher frequencies producing more drastic changes. Dual-field-potential recordings revealed substantial differences in the response to HFS between proximal and distal regions of the Schaffer collaterals, with proximal axons depressing more strongly and only distal axons showing an initial excitability increase. Because CA3 pyramidal neurons normally fire in short bursts rather than long high-frequency trains, we repeated the dual recordings using 100-1,000-ms interval burst stimulation. Burst stimulation produced changes similar to those during HFS, with shorter intervals causing more drastic changes and substantial differences observed between proximal and distal axons. We suggest that functional differences between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals may allow selective filtering of nonphysiological activity while maximizing successful conduction of physiological activity throughout an extensive axonal arbor.

  12. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  13. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keith H K; Sandlin, Rebecca D; Carey, Thomas R; Miller, Kathleen L; Shank, Aaron T; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-02-15

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase--a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics.

  14. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carey, Thomas R.; Miller, Kathleen L.; Shank, Aaron T.; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase—a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics. PMID:26876805

  15. Therapeutic Approaches in the Stimulation of the Coronary Collateral Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Achim; Millenaar, Dominic; Schirmer, Stephan H.

    2014-01-01

    Arteriogenesis as a way to restore blood flow after arterial occlusion has been under investigation for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Therapeutic approaches so far have included delivery of cytokines and growth factors as well as mechanical stimulation such as external counterpulsation. As knowledge on the mechanisms of arteriogenesis expanded, new therapeutic approaches have emerged. This review summarizes recent attempts to stimulate the growth of the coronary vasculature and discusses their potential in clinical application. This article also delivers an overview of current studies and trials on coronary arteriogenesis. PMID:23721076

  16. Facilitating Alzheimer disease research recruitment.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Galvin, James E

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research faces challenges to successful enrollment, especially to clinical trials and biomarker studies. Failure to recruit the planned number of participants in a timely manner threatens the internal validity and success of clinical research, raising concerns about external validity and generalizability of results, and possibly leading to disparities in disease treatment. Methods to improve recruitment exist, but require varying levels of staff effort and financial resources, and evidence of effectiveness is often lacking or inconsistent. In this review, we summarize some of the available methods to improve AD research recruitment, the available literature to support or refute these strategies, and some of the experiences at the authors' AD Research Centers. We discuss the use of community-based participatory research principles and participant registries as a means to enhance research enrollment and increase diversity of research samples.

  17. Rare combination and transcatheter treatment during single session in an infant: Patent ductus arteriosus and major aortopulmonary collateral artery concordance.

    PubMed

    Güvenç, Osman; Ödemiş, Ender; Saygı, Murat; Demir, İbrahim Halil

    2016-10-01

    Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are abnormal vascular structures that may be seen in cyanotic diseases that progress with reduced pulmonary flow. They occur rather rarely in the absence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Presently described is the case of an infant who underwent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and major aortopulmonary collateral artery occlusion in a single session, without presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of congenital aortopulmonary collateral artery to be reported in a symptomatic infant with PDA.

  18. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  19. International Student Recruitment: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, Santa

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current trends in international student recruitment. Focusing specifically on recruitment of Chinese students, important aspects of China's educational system relevant to recruitment are presented. Barriers to Chinese student recruitment are then discussed. Successful, employed, international graduates validate…

  20. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  1. Ethical Issues in Recruiting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of deceptive recruitment are highlighted in a review of questionable practices used to attract students both from within the United States and abroad. Major issues for action are identified as sacrificing quality for numbers, the hiring of marketing consultants, professional training of admissions directors, and federal regulation.…

  2. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  3. Building a Winning Recruiting Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2002-01-01

    Building a winning recruiting team is essential to the well being of virtually every organization. Putting together a great mix of people to represent an organization and bring in new talent can serve an organization well when competition is fierce or demand is down. (GCP)

  4. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in…

  5. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  6. Three Recruitment and Retention Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    This three-part report summarizes methodology and findings of three recruitment and retention studies conducted by the Bronx Community College (BCC) during 1979-1980. Part I examines a survey of enrolled students conducted to determine student attitudes toward BCC, the services that were most in demand, the reasons for attending BCC, and student…

  7. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (pro)].

    PubMed

    Suárez Sipmann, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years lung recruitment maneuvers (RM) have awakened an increasing interest due to their potential beneficial effects in lung protection so that they have been progressively introduced into clinical practice. Many clinical and experimental studies have described the physiological benefits obtained after lung re-expansion although these benefits are not uniform, partly because of the wide heterogeneity of the RMs applied and lack of criteria defining their goal. Therefore, to date it has been difficult to establish the role of recruitment in the ventilatory management of ARDS patients. However, the information obtained from recent studies has improved our understanding regarding the mechanisms governing lung recruitment, interpretation of its response and its side effects and this has strongly contributed to its improved practical application. Lung recruitment must be applied in a protocolized and individualized way, establishing the pressure necessary to obtain the reasonably possible maximum lung re-expansion in each patient. Post RM PEEP adjustment is an essential aspect which, if ignored, renders RM useless and possibly without indication. Taking these essential aspects into account we are getting closer to, as the author believes, finally demonstrating the benefit of RM in lung protection and ARDS patients' outcome.

  8. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  9. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  10. Marketer's forgotten challenge: physician recruitment.

    PubMed

    Plank, D

    1997-01-01

    As marketing department missions continue to expand, more and more people are finding themselves not just recruiting customers, but doctors. The good news: May of the tips and tricks of direct marketing can be used to reach out to in-demand physicians.

  11. Recruiting and Retaining Summer Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossen, Brian; Yerkes, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Recruiting of camp staff is challenged by economic and workplace restructuring, including business downsizing, part-time and temporary employment patterns, and generational attitude changes. Strategies for hiring and retaining staff include knowing what college-age workers want, marketing benefits, adopting new business strategies, and empowering…

  12. A recruiting failure turned success

    PubMed Central

    Hure, Alexis J; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes an attempt that was made to recruit child-bearing women into a nutrition-based research study and the knowledge that was gained when this approach was unsuccessful. The Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was a cross-sectional survey which planned to follow-up women and children who had previously been, or were currently enrolled in the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study. Methods Ethics approval was sought and obtained over an eight month period. After just six weeks it was obvious that our research objectives were not achievable because of an inadequate response rate (10%). This led to a review of the recruiting methodology as well as all written materials provided to potential participants. Advice was sought from those with expertise in the design of large public health campaigns and literature was consulted to refine our recruitment strategy. Results In subsequent redevelopment, the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was merged with the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study to become what is now known as the Women and Their Children's Health Study. Consent rates improved from 10% and 35% in the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity and Mathematical Model of Pregnancy studies respectively, to 61% in the Women and Their Children's Health Study (chi square test, p < 0.001). Successful recruitment for this research continues. The significant improvement in the participation rate is attributed to numerous factors including changes to the study name, recruiting method and information materials. Conclusion By sharing our experience we aim to assist other researcher in avoiding the same pitfalls and offer effective strategies for improving response rates. PMID:18366805

  13. Placement of a port catheter through collateral veins in a patient with central venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Ulf Karl-Martin; Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  14. [Chinese translation of "nerve" and its influences on research of meridians and collaterals].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2011-05-01

    Authors investigated the whole introduction and translation course of the word "nerve" into China during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Qing dynasty(1644-1911) and the Republic of China (1912-1949), when western medicine was introduced into the East, as well as its influences on the cognition and researches of meridians and collaterals. The result shows that "nerve" was once translated into "Xijin" and "Naoqijin" in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Only until the period of the late Qing dynasty and the early stage of the Republic of China, the word "Shenjing", which is known as the unique Chinese translation of nerve nowadays, was introduced from Japan. From that time on, the Chinese physicians started to explore the relation between nerves and meridians, which led to the transform of the academic methodology on essence of meridian. Thus, profound as well as prolong influences were made on study of meridians and collaterals until nowadays.

  15. [Practice on the case-based teaching innovation of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen-Jin; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Yan, Yuan-Jie; Bao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Bei-Bei

    2012-12-01

    The case-based teaching method which is applied to the teaching of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints is discussed in this paper, in which the typical cases such as the growth of the acupuncture-moxibustion eminent physicians, the application of acupoints by the eminent physicians and the experiences in the acupoint combination are integrated. The students are instructed to launch the clinical practical activity through establishing the clinical base of Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints, in association with the true cases. It is proved that the case-based teaching method can promote the training of the manipulation techniques of the students and the inheritance of the experiences of eminent physicians in higher education.

  16. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  17. Outcome review on the percutaneous release of the proximal interphalangeal joint accessory collateral ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Cerovac, Sonja; Stanley, John

    2009-01-01

    The percutaneous release of accessory collateral ligaments was introduced in 1986 as a safe and quick procedure to be attempted before open, more extensive joint release in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. Our study analyzed the long-term results and patient satisfaction following a percutaneous release in 30 joints after a mean follow-up period of 34 months. In one half of cases the preoperative joint flexion deformity was reduced from 78° to 34°. The best results were observed in patients with osteoarthritis and stiff, immobilized joints. In patients with inflammatory arthritides, marked intraoperative correction was maintained rarely, joint contractures recurred early, and patients were unsatisfied. There were no intraoperative complications. Percutaneous release of the accessory collateral ligaments can produce a long lasting correction of the joint contracture, but careful patient selection and strict postoperative rehabilitation are essential for favorable outcome. PMID:21808681

  18. Evidence of primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias left at serial murder and sex offender crime scenes.

    PubMed

    White, John H

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a descriptive review of the phenomenon of paraphilias, the relationship of possessing multiple paraphilias with the commission of sexual crimes and serial murder and the recognition of evidence related to sexual crimes committed by offenders with paraphilias. Several case studies are presented and the manifestations of multiple paraphilias, such as those experienced by Jeffrey Dahmer, Albert Fish, and others, are conceptualized and divided into three types: (i) replacement--no overlap; (ii) replacement with overlap; and (iii) cumulative. The categories are further divided into primary, secondary, and collateral paraphilias. Primary and secondary paraphilias are mutually exclusive and one does not build upon the other. Collateral paraphilias may serve to enhance the overall sexual experience of the primary and secondary paraphilias, including the sexualization of props or weapons. Implications for criminalists and criminal investigators are explained, particularly the value in discerning hidden as well as salient evidence of paraphilic behaviors left at crime scenes.

  19. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  20. Management of medial-sided knee injuries, part 1: medial collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Milford H; Tibor, Lisa M; Sekiya, Jon K; Hardaker, William T; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C

    2011-05-01

    The medial collateral ligament complex is a primary stabilizer that combines static and dynamic resistance to direct valgus stress while contributing significant restraints to rotatory motion and anterior-posterior translation. Varying opinions exist among investigators regarding injury classification and treatment algorithms. Whereas most agree that the majority of isolated medial collateral ligament complex injuries can be treated nonoperatively, isolated injuries with chronic instability and multiligament injuries may require operative intervention. Substantial confounding factors are present within published reports, making comparative analyses and systematic review challenging. This review focuses on the anatomy and biomechanics of the medial structures of the knee; it discusses the clinical evaluation of complex injuries; and it reviews nonoperative and operative treatment methods.

  1. Patient recruitment workflow with and without a patient recruitment system.

    PubMed

    Trinczek, Benjamin; Schulte, Britta; Breil, Bernhard; Dugas, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials (CTs), the process of patient recruitment (PR) is one of the main risk factors, as almost half of all trial delays are caused by problems in PR. To our knowledge, no publication in this field describes the process of PR. Therefore, weak spots and potential benefits cannot be identified. By interviewing six domain experts and modeling the workflow in a standardized way, we describe the actors, tasks and tools within PR. We compare the current workflow with Patient Recruitment System (PRS)-supported PR. The identification of eligible participants is the most complex part, but adding a PRS simplifies it by automating repetitive tasks and taking work off the Investigators' hands. This work contributes to a common understanding of the PR process.

  2. The receptor for advanced glycation end products impairs collateral formation in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura M; Gupta, Divya; Joseph, Giji; Weiss, Daiana; Taylor, W Robert

    2017-01-01

    Diabetics often have poor perfusion in their limbs as a result of peripheral artery disease and an impaired ability to generate collateral vessels. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is one protein that is thought to play a detrimental role in collateral development in diabetics due to increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGE), one of its ligands, in diabetes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAGE in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings in a model of collateral formation in mice. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in both wild type and RAGE knockout mice. Increased levels of the AGE, N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), were confirmed via an ELISA. A hindlimb ischemia model, in which the femoral artery is ligated, was used to drive collateral growth and reperfusion was assessed using laser Doppler perfusion imaging and histological analysis of vessels in the muscle. Both of these measurements showed impaired collateral growth in diabetic compared with wild-type mice as well as improved collateral growth in both diabetic and non-diabetic RAGE knockout mice when compared their wild-type counterparts. Distance on a freely accessed running wheel, used as a measure of perfusion recovery, showed that wild-type diabetic mice had functionally impaired recovery compared with their wild-type counterparts. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed that HMGB-1 (high-mobility group box 1), another RAGE ligand, was increased in the ischemic leg compared with the non-ischemic leg in all mice. This increase in HMGB-1 may explain improvement in animals lacking RAGE and its subsequent signaling. In conclusion, this study shows that RAGE impairs collateral growth in a diabetic setting and also in a non-diabetic setting. This demonstrates the importance of RAGE and alternate RAGE ligands in the setting of collateral vessel growth.

  3. Combat Stress: A Collateral Effect in the Operational Effectiveness Loss Multiplier (OELM) Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    5202, Draft Final (Alexandria, VA: IDA, April 2015), 10-4. 14 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agency ( NSA ), NATO Glossary of...Belgium: NSA , 2012), 2-C-2. 15 Disraelly et al., “A New Methodology for CBRN Casualty Estimation,” 228. 16 Disraelly et al., A Methodology for...20 NATO NSA , AAP-06, 2-K-1. 21 Ibid., 2-D-6. 22 Disraelly et al., A Methodology for Examining Collateral Effects on Military Operations during

  4. Combat Stress: A Collateral Effect in the Operational Effectiveness Loss Multiplier (OELM) Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Organization (NATO) Standardization Agency ( NSA ), NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions (English and French), Allied Administration Publication (AAP)-06...Edition 2012 Version 2 (hereafter referred to as AAP-06) (Belgium: NSA , 2012), 2-C-2. 15 Disraelly et al., “A New Methodology for CBRN Casualty...20 NATO NSA , AAP-06, 2-K-1. 21 Ibid., 2-D-6. 22 Disraelly et al., A Methodology for Examining Collateral Effects on Military Operations during

  5. Post traumatic osteoma of tibial insertion of medial collateral ligament of knee joint.

    PubMed

    Shanker, V S; Gadikoppula, S; Loeffler, M D

    1998-03-01

    Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint.

  6. [Does ST-elevation in stress ECG depend on the extent of collateral circulation?].

    PubMed

    Bettinger, R; Wendt, T; Klepzig, H; Kaltenbach, M

    1993-01-01

    As a possible cause of exercise-induced ST-elevation in patients without myocardial infarction, a poor or absent coronary circulation to the poststenotic coronary segment was postulated. To check this thesis, we examined 10 patients (pts.) with ST-elevation, respectively, ST-depression and comparable coronary status (coronary score 12 vs. 12; mean stenosis diameter 86 vs. 85%) and exercise parameters (work load 150 vs. 137.5 Watts; exercise duration 2.8 vs 3.5 min) with regard to their collateral circulation. In the group with ST-elevation there were nine pts. with severe proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and one pt. with a stenosis in the middle third of the right coronary artery. The 10 patients with ST-depression had a proximal stenosis in the LAD. The extent of the angiographically seen collaterals was equal in both groups. As a result, this study demonstrates that the size of the collateral circulation has no influence on the exercise-induced ST-elevation. The most plausible cause of exercise-induced ST-elevation is a functional decrease of the lumen of a severe stenosis.

  7. Local control of information flow in segmental and ascending collaterals of single afferents.

    PubMed

    Lomelí, J; Quevedo, J; Linares, P; Rudomin, P

    1998-10-08

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, the activation of GABA(gamma-amino-butyric acid)-releasing interneurons that synapse with intraspinal terminals of sensory fibres leading into the central nervous system (afferent fibres) produces primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. It is not known to what extent these presynaptic mechanisms allow a selective control of information transmitted through specific sets of intraspinal branches of individual afferents. Here we study the local nature of the presynaptic control by measuring primary afferent depolarization simultaneously in two intraspinal collaterals of the same muscle spindle afferent. One of these collaterals ends at the L6-L7 segmental level in the intermediate nucleus, and the other ascends to segment L3 within Clarke's column, the site of origin of spinocerebellar neurons. Our results indicate that there are central mechanisms that are able to affect independently the synaptic effectiveness of segmental and ascending collaterals of individual muscle spindle afferents. Focal control of presynaptic inhibition thus allows the intraspinal branches of afferent fibres to function as a dynamic assembly that can be fractionated to convey information to selected neuronal targets. This may be a mechanism by which different spinal postsynaptic targets that are coupled by sensory input from a common source could be uncoupled.

  8. Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Results From a Survey of Treatment Providers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andrew J; Walfield, Scott M; Shields, Ryan T; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-12-01

    Among many in the research, policy, and practice communities, the application of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) to juveniles who sexually offend (JSO) has raised ongoing concerns regarding the potential collateral impacts on youths' social, mental health, and academic adjustment. To date, however, no published research has systematically examined these types of collateral consequences of juvenile SORN. Based on a survey of a national sample of treatment providers in the United States, this study investigates the perceived impact of registration and notification on JSO across five key domains: mental health, harassment and unfair treatment, school problems, living instability, and risk of reoffending. Results indicate that treatment providers overwhelmingly perceive negative consequences associated with registration with an incremental effect of notification indicating even greater concern across all five domains. Providers' demographics, treatment modalities, and client profile did not influence their perceptions of the collateral consequences suggesting that provider concern about the potential harm of SORN applied to juveniles is robust. Policy implications are discussed.

  9. Comparison of gradient echo with spin echo magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography in the evaluation of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries.

    PubMed

    Vick, G W; Wendt, R E; Rokey, R

    1994-05-01

    This study compared gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and echocardiography with x-ray cineangiography in the evaluation of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Twelve patients (ages 9 months to 35 years, mean 11 +/- 11 years) with known or suspected major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were studied. The aortic insertion and proximal course of 29 major aortopulmonary collateral arteries demonstrated by x-ray contrast angiography were shown in all 29 cases by gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging but in only 23 of the 29 cases by spin echo magnetic resonance imaging. Color Doppler-echocardiography detected aortopulmonary collateral arteries in four patients but did not define the proximal course or distal anatomy. Gradient echo images of distal aortopulmonary collateral anatomy were qualitatively superior to spin echo images. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the vessel lumen and adjacent lung was greater for gradient echo (6.06 +/- 2.91) than for spin echo (1.45 +/- 1.13)(p < 0.05). Gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging is a useful method for identification and characterization of aortopulmonary collateral arteries in patients of all ages and is superior to spin echo magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography.

  10. Collateral circulation as a marker of the presence of viable myocardium in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Ohno, A.; Wada, O.; Miwa, K.; Nozawa, T.; Yamanishi, K.; Sasayama, S. )

    1991-08-01

    The relationship between the presence of viable myocardium and the extent of coronary collateral circulation to the infarct area was evaluated in 20 patients with a recent anterior myocardial infarction who had complete obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The viability of myocardial tissue was assessed by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the collateral circulation was angiographically evaluated by means of a collateral index ranging from 0 to 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group 1, n = 10) or absence (group 2, n = 10) of viable myocardium in the perfusion territory of the infarct-related artery. The collateral index in group 1 was 2.5 {plus minus} 0.5 (SD), which was significantly higher than the 0.7 {plus minus} 0.8 in group 2. These findings indicate that the presence of ischemic but viable myocardium is intimately related to the development of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction, and the existence of well-developed collateral channels predicts the presence of viable myocardium in the infarct area.

  11. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  12. Characterization of the fatigue behavior of the medial collateral ligament utilizing traditional and novel mechanical variables for the assessment of damage accumulation.

    PubMed

    Zec, Michelle L; Thistlethwaite, Paul; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2010-01-01

    Ligaments are regularly subjected to repetitive loading in vivo. Typically, mechanical studies focus on repetitive loading protocols of short duration, while those characterizing damage accumulation over a longer duration (i.e., fatigue studies) are lacking. The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to demonstrate that damage does accumulate in ligament tissue subjected to repetitive loading and (b) to evaluate existing and new methods for characterizing fatigue damage accumulation. It was hypothesized that ligaments would accumulate damage with repetitive loading as evidenced by failure at stresses well below ultimate tensile strength, creep curve discontinuities, and by reductions in stiffness during loading. Eight normal medial collateral ligaments from female New Zealand white rabbits were cycled in tension, between 0 MPa and 28 MPa, to failure or until 259,200 cycles, whichever came first. Medial collateral ligaments that did not fail were subsequently loaded to failure. Displacement rates (dl(max)/dt) as well as primary, secondary, and tertiary creeps were monitored as indices of damage accumulation and impending mechanical failure. Additionally, the relative utilities of tangent, secant, and chord stiffness parameters were critically evaluated. Finally, new uses for the second derivative of force-displacement data were explored. Three out of eight ligaments failed during testing, demonstrating that ligaments can fail in fatigue under moderate tensile stress in vitro. The evaluation of displacement rates (dl(max)/dt), as well as primary through tertiary creep patterns, were not well suited to predicting failure in normal ligaments until rupture was all but imminent. Tangent stiffness, which was calculated from a mathematically defined start of the "linear region," was surprisingly constant throughout testing. Secant stiffness dropped in a predictable fashion, providing a global indicator of tissue stiffness, but did not provide any insight into fiber

  13. Making medical recruitment practices fair.

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, S.

    1996-01-01

    The fact that in the past each medical student was assured of a post when qualified has led many in medicine to believe that selection for recruitment is merely a formality based on qualification and accreditation. Consequently little thought has gone into developing detailed person or post selection criteria. As a result most recruitment panel members are unclear on what basis to discriminate between equally qualified candidates and invariably plump for 'the face that fits'. This practice discriminates against women, black doctors and those white men not quite acceptable in manner, dress or attitudes. In this article, advice is offered on the development of equality strategies for public sector organisations and on the implementation of fair practices. PMID:8731704

  14. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III...RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. CU) MAR So L GOLDBERG UNCLASSIFIED CNA-PP-275 N ROFESSIONAL PAPE 75March 1980 6,) . ..... - R

  15. Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

  16. Effects of BRL 38227, sodium nitroprusside and verapamil on collateral perfusion following acute arterial occlusion in the rabbit isolated ear.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, M. D.; Griffith, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have used an isolated, buffer-perfused, rabbit ear model of acute arterial occlusion to investigate the effects of the nitrovasodilator sodium nitroprusside, the potassium channel activator BRL 38227 (the active (-)-enantiomer of cromakalim) and the calcium antagonist, verapamil, on collateral perfusion in the absence of pharmacological tone. 2. Verapamil was the most potent vasodilator (EC50 = 72.6 +/- 32.0 nM) of 5-hydroxytryptamine/histamine-induced tone in the rabbit isolated perfused ear. Sodium nitroprusside and BRL 38227 were less potent with respective EC50 values of 488 +/- 75 nM and 296 +/- 40 nM. Following inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) synthesis, the potency of BRL 38227 was significantly (P less than 0.001) increased with an EC50 of 55.6 +/- 5.0 nM. 3. BRL 38227 at 500 nM and 3 microM induced substantial increases in collateral perfusion following arterial ligation in the absence of pharmacological tone compared to control. Furthermore 3 microM BRL 38227 completely reversed the attenuation of collateral perfusion which followed inhibition of EDRF synthesis with 100 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 4. Sodium nitroprusside (500 nM and 3 microM) induced modest improvements in collateral perfusion in the early stages after arterial occlusion. 5. Verapamil did not influence collateral perfusion at either of the concentrations used (50 nM and 3 microM), even though it was a potent vasodilator. 6. The results of this study indicate that BRL 38227, and to a much lesser extent sodium nitroprusside, selectively improve collateral perfusion following arterial occlusion, even in the presence of effects of EDRF on acute collateralization, while verapamil has no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1393264

  17. Navy Recruitment Potential in Junior Colleges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    could be employed in recruitment advertising directed to this target market segment. ~~iZ Uncla ssifie d SECURITY CLAUIPIC~f(ATION OFf THIS PA09(Wh•l...Alexandria, Virginia, CR-ED-74-1, July 1974. Grey Advertising . Market Target Recruitmen~t Incentive Study for Enlisted Personnel (draft report, internal NRC...the recruiter or the various advertising media. Survey findings document the importance of the recruiter, and suggestpromising media and appeals which

  18. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    product markets have concluded that advertising increases demand in current and future periods, but its effects decline over time (see reference 2). A study...Apr 1979 2. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Nov 1976, pp. 345...7AD-AOA6201 CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA INST OF NAVAL--ETC F/6 5/9 I RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. (U) IOCT 79 L

  19. Study of Navy Recruiting Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    recruiters never use NRST; further, four out five feel that NRST has no positive impact on their confidence, sales skills, productivity, or time ... management . Additionally, fewer than one in four Navy recruiters rated NRST favorably on its usability. The responses of recruiting supervisors were very

  20. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  1. Recruitment and Strategies for Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Edward H.

    The guide is designed to assist the small school administrator in the successful recruitment of teachers. It provides a recruitment design, which encompasses community and school assets, and a list of "ideal characteristics" of teachers who are congruent with the needs of small schools. Fifteen strategies for effective recruitment include…

  2. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  3. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  4. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  5. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  6. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  7. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  8. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  9. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  10. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  11. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  12. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each of its training programs, make comparable efforts to recruit members of each sex in the geographic area from which such entity attracts its students. A federally supported entity shall not recruit for... on the basis of sex in selection for a training program. (b) Recruitment practices. A...

  13. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  14. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment. (a... basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to...

  15. Calpain Inhibition Improves Collateral Dependent Perfusion in a Hypercholesterolemic Swine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sabe, Ashraf A.; Potz, Brittany A.; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y.; Liu, Yuhong; Feng, Jun; Abid, M. Ruhul; Abbott, Jinnette D; Senger, Donald R; Sellke, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calpain over-expression is implicated in aberrant angiogenesis. We hypothesized that calpain inhibition (CI, MDL28170) would improve collateral perfusion in a swine model with hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Yorkshire swine fed a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks underwent surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to their left circumflex coronary artery. Three weeks later, animals received either: no drug, high cholesterol control group (HCC; n= 8); low dose CI (0.12 mg/kg; LCI, n= 9); or high dose CI (0.25 mg/kg; HCI, n= 8). The heart was harvested after 5 weeks. There was a trend toward increased right to left collateral vessels on angiography with HCI. Myocardial perfusion in ischemic myocardium significantly improved with HCI at rest and with demand pacing (p = 0.016 and 0.011). Endothelium-dependent microvessel relaxation was significantly improved with LCI (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase in capillary density, with LCI and HCI (p= 0.01 and 0.01), and arteriolar density with LCI (p= 0.001). CI significantly increased several proangiogenic proteins including VEGF (p= 0.02), VEGFR1 (p= 0.003), VEGFR2 (p= 0.003) and talin, a microvascular structural protein (p= 0.0002). There was a slight increase in proteins implicated in endothelial-dependent (NO Mediated) relaxation including ERK, p-ERK and iNOS with CI. Conclusions In the setting of hypercholesterolemia, CI improved perfusion, with a trend toward increased collateralization on angiography and increased capillary and arteriolar densities in ischemic myocardium. CI also improved endothelium-dependent microvessel relaxation and increased expression of proteins implicated in angiogenesis and vasodilatation. PMID:26478238

  16. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  17. Lateral collateral ligament reconstruction for chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    Chronic varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint is a rare injury, and only a few reports of this injury have been published. In some studies, this injury has been related to taekwondo. Taekwondo is an essential martial art in the Korean military. We have described a case of varus instability of the hallux interphalangeal joint in a professional soldier who had practiced taekwondo for 5 years and the surgical outcome after reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament with the fourth toe extensor tendon.

  18. Post traumatic osteoma of tibial insertion of medial collateral ligament of knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, V. S.; Gadikoppula, S.; Loeffler, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases are presented of post traumatic para-articular osteoma developing at the site of tibial attachment of the medial collateral ligament of knee joint. These occurred after injuries sustained while playing football and in one case the ossified mass was treated with surgical excision for unresolved symptoms after conservative measures. A comparison is made with Pellegrini Stieda disease, which is a similar affection of the femoral insertion of the medial ligament of the knee joint. 




 PMID:9562171

  19. Collateral damage-free debridement using 193nm ArF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James J.; Felsenstein, Jerome M.; Trzcinski, Robert; Zupanski-Nielsen, Donna; Connors, Daniel P.

    2011-03-01

    Burn eschar and other necrotic areas of the skin and soft tissue are anhydrous compared to the underlying viable tissue. A 193 nm ArF excimer laser, emitting electromagnetic radiation at 6.4 eV at fluence exceeding the ablation threshold, will debride such necrotic areas. Because such radiation is strongly absorbed by aqueous chloride ions through the nonthermal process of electron photodetachment, debridement will cease when hydrated (with chloride ions) viable tissue is exposed, avoiding collateral damage to this tissue. Such tissue will be sterile and ready for further treatment, such as a wound dressing and/or a skin graft.

  20. Science from Kepler Collateral Data: 50 Kilosecond per Year from 13 Million Star?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Caldwell, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    As each Kepler frame is read out, light from each star in a CCD column accumulates in successive pixels as they wait for the next row to be read out. This accumulation is the same in the masked rows at the start of the readout and virtual rows at the end of the readout as it is in the science data. A range of these "smear" rows are added together for each long cadence and sent to the ground for calibration purposes. We will introduce and describe this smear collateral data, discuss and demonstrate its potential use for scientific studies exclusive of Kepler calibration,.

  1. The fundamental theorem of asset pricing under default and collateral in finite discrete time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Samaniego, Borys; Orrillo, Jaime

    2006-08-01

    We consider a financial market where time and uncertainty are modeled by a finite event-tree. The event-tree has a length of N, a unique initial node at the initial date, and a continuum of branches at each node of the tree. Prices and returns of J assets are modeled, respectively, by a R2JxR2J-valued stochastic process . In this framework we prove a version of the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing which applies to defaultable securities backed by exogenous collateral suffering a contingent linear depreciation.

  2. A Technique of Superficial Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Using an Adjustable-Loop Suspensory Fixation Device.

    PubMed

    Deo, Shaneel; Getgood, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This report describes superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction of the knee using a novel method of graft fixation with the ACL Tightrope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL). After tibial fixation with either a standard interference screw or staple, femoral fixation of the semitendinosus tendon is performed with the adjustable-loop suspensory fixation device, which allows for both initial graft tensioning and re-tensioning after cyclical knee range of motion. This provides the ability for the graft to accommodate for resultant soft-tissue creep and stress relaxation, thereby allowing for optimal soft-tissue tension and reduction in laxity at the end of the procedure.

  3. Rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb – a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skier’s thumb is a partial or complete rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. It is an often-encountered injury and can lead to chronic pain and instability when diagnosed incorrectly. Knowledge of the anatomy and accurate physical examination are essential in the evaluation of a patient with skier’s thumb. This article provides a review of the relevant anatomy, the correct method of physical examination and the options for additional imaging and treatment with attention to possible pitfalls. PMID:23938194

  4. Rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb - a review.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Mandhkani; Rhemrev, Steven J

    2013-08-12

    Skier's thumb is a partial or complete rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. It is an often-encountered injury and can lead to chronic pain and instability when diagnosed incorrectly. Knowledge of the anatomy and accurate physical examination are essential in the evaluation of a patient with skier's thumb. This article provides a review of the relevant anatomy, the correct method of physical examination and the options for additional imaging and treatment with attention to possible pitfalls.

  5. Elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries in athletes: Can we improve our outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Lauren H; Degen, Ryan M; McDonald, Lucas S; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) most commonly occurs in the overhead throwing athlete. Knowledge surrounding UCL injury pathomechanics continues to improve, leading to better preventative treatment strategies and rehabilitation programs. Conservative treatment strategies for partial injuries, improved operative techniques for reconstruction in complete tears, adjunctive treatments, as well as structured sport specific rehabilitation programs including resistive exercises for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain are all important factors in allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. In this review, we explore each of these factors and provide recommendations based on the available literature to improve outcomes in UCL injuries in athletes. PMID:27114930

  6. Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect with aortopulmonary collaterals in an adult dog.

    PubMed

    Tou, Sandra P; Keene, Bruce W; Barker, Piers C A

    2011-12-01

    Pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) was diagnosed in a 2-year-old castrated male Terrier mix. Transthoracic echocardiography identified a large ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta and severe right ventricular hypertrophy. A main pulmonary artery could not be identified, consistent with pulmonary atresia or persistent truncus arteriosus. Transesophageal echocardiography and angiography confirmed PA-VSD with aortopulmonary collateral circulation arising from the descending thoracic aorta. This case report describes the antemortem diagnosis of the rare congenital defect PA-VSD in an adult dog.

  7. Special Forces Recruiting: The Operational Need for Targeted Recruitment of First and Second Generation Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Prospecting......................................................28 2. Recruiting Trips (Temporary Duty) within the Market Areas .....29 3. Conducting...31 5. SFAS Requirements...........................................................................32 IV. RECRUITABLE MARKETS AND RECRUITERS...whether or not the market is penetrable, whether the candidates are useful to SF, whether or not such recruits are trainable, and finally, can

  8. Collateral Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    prev-ntion of burns (except while swimming, at nudist camps, etc.). Large-area burns which con- tribute directly to letha’ity must be produced under...0 0)V -44-4 0 to *9: j ej 0 r 0 =4-) I I I I--a C - C"O -• -. tot Aanf0 0 30 (atjjqvqoi. 7-37 " •,•; o t " • 0 0. .. 4IU(W4co 0.0 0 -60~ 2~. .) 041

  9. Formation of Collateral Veins in a Graft Pancreas After a Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, B H; Lee, H Y; Park, Y M; Yang, K H; Ryu, J H; Chu, C W

    2015-09-01

    A graft vein thrombosis is the main cause of early graft failure after pancreas transplantation. We report a case of formation of collateral veins in a graft pancreas after transplant. A 30-year-old woman underwent simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. She was discharged 16 days after the operation with good pancreas and kidney function. A total occlusion of the portal vein was discovered on computed tomography (CT) performed at an outpatient clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of hyperglycemia. Venography was attempted for vein thrombectomy but failed. After 2 weeks of heparinization therapy, the edema disappeared and perfusion of the graft pancreas improved. However, the thrombotic occlusion was not resolved on CT. Arteriography of the Y-graft revealed collateral veins. She was discharged with warfarin. She is currently doing well without any symptoms or signs. This is the first reported case of collateral vein formation in a grafted pancreas after pancreas transplantation.

  10. Neutrophil recruitment to the brain in mouse and human ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Perez-de-Puig, Isabel; Miró-Mur, Francesc; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Gelpi, Ellen; Pedragosa, Jordi; Justicia, Carles; Urra, Xabier; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophils are rapidly recruited in response to local tissue infection or inflammation. Stroke triggers a strong inflammatory reaction but the relevance of neutrophils in the ischemic brain is not fully understood, particularly in the absence of reperfusion. We investigated brain neutrophil recruitment in two murine models of permanent ischemia induced by either cauterization of the distal portion of the middle cerebral artery (c-MCAo) or intraluminal MCA occlusion (il-MCAo), and three fatal cases of human ischemic stroke. Flow cytometry analyses revealed progressive neutrophil recruitment after c-MCAo, lesser neutrophil recruitment following il-MCAo, and absence of neutrophils after sham operation. Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils in the leptomeninges from 6 h after the occlusion, in the cortical basal lamina and cortical Virchow-Robin spaces from 15 h, and also in the cortical brain parenchyma at 24 h. Neutrophils showed signs of activation including histone-3 citrullination, chromatin decondensation, and extracellular projection of DNA and histones suggestive of extracellular trap formation. Perivascular neutrophils were identified within the entire cortical infarction following c-MCAo. After il-MCAo, neutrophils prevailed in the margins but not the center of the cortical infarct, and were intraluminal and less abundant in the striatum. The lack of collaterals to the striatum and a collapsed pial anastomotic network due to brain edema in large hemispheric infarctions could impair neutrophil trafficking in this model. Neutrophil extravasation at the leptomeninges was also detected in the human tissue. We concluded that neutrophils extravasate from the leptomeningeal vessels and can eventually reach the brain in experimental animal models and humans with prolonged arterial occlusion.

  11. Inhibition of collateral artery growth by mibefradil: possible role of volume-regulated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ziegelhoeffer, Tibor; Scholz, Dimitri; Friedrich, Christian; Helisch, Armin; Wagner, Shawn; Fernandez, Borja; Schaper, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cell swelling is one of the earliest hallmarks of arteriogenesis, the growth and maturation of collaterals. Mibefradil was found to block endothelial Cl(-) channels that control the volume of endothelial cells. Thus the authors investigated whether the blockade of volume-controlling endothelial cell channels would translate into an inhibition of arteriogenesis. In BALB/c mice, the right femoral artery was ligated and the animals received either mibefradil or solvent (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) via osmotic minipumps. Laser Doppler perfusion ratio (R/L) of ligated versus nonligated distal hindlimb increased from 0.06 +/- 0.01 (immediately after ligation) to 0.25 +/- 0.02 (day 7) in the PBS group and only from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.13 +/- 0.02 in the mibefradil group (p <.01). Collateral artery diameters were significantly smaller in the mibefradil group (61 +/- 4.7 microm) versus controls (77.3 +/- 0.9 microm) (p <.05). Relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation measurements confirmed these findings (p <.02). The inhibition of arteriogenesis in the mibefradil group suggests that endothelial Cl(-) channels are involved in the initiation of arteriogenesis.

  12. Traversing and dilating venous collaterals: a useful adjunct in left ventricular electrode placement.

    PubMed

    Abben, Richard P; Chaisson, Gary; Nair, Vinod

    2010-06-01

    In patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the left ventricular electrode cannot always be positioned in the preferred lateral or posterolateral locations due to technical factors and anatomic variations in the coronary sinus. Recent reports also suggest that CRT outcomes are improved by pacing the site of latest dyssynchrony and accessing these regions is not always possible. We report the utility of applying a technique described in the interventional literature over the past 3 years, effectively traversing and dilating collateral channels. Our patients demonstrated either no venous targets in the optimal location, or problems accessing this location using a antegrade approach. Subsequently, collaterals supplying this region were traversed with a guidewire using a retrograde approach and dilated with a balloon catheter. In the first case, the pacing electrode was then advanced in similar fashion and successfully positioned in an ideal lateral location. In the second case, the retrograde guidewire was captured with a vascular snare and pulled into a second guiding catheter, allowing appropriate dilatation and stenting of a problematic proximal venous stenosis with resultant facile placement of the pacing electrode. This technique offers a potential alternative to patients with challenging venous anatomy as a method to facilitate optimal CRT outcomes.

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of axon collaterals interconnecting spiny neurons of the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Jaime N; Hernández, Adán; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Laville, Antonio; Vergara, Ramiro; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2003-10-01

    Dopamine is a critical modulator of striatal function; its absence produces Parkinson's disease. Most cellular actions of dopamine are still unknown. This work describes the presynaptic actions of dopaminergic receptor agonists on GABAergic transmission between neostriatal projection neurons. Axon collaterals interconnect projection neurons, the main axons of which project to other basal ganglia nuclei. Most if not all of these projecting axons pass through the globus pallidus. Thus, we lesioned the intrinsic neurons of the globus pallidus and stimulated neostriatal efferent axons antidromically with a bipolar electrode located in this nucleus. This maneuver revealed a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current while recording in spiny cells. D1 receptor agonists facilitated whereas D2 receptor agonists depressed this synaptic current. In contrast, a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current evoked by field stimulation inside the neostriatum was not consistently modulated, in agreement with previous studies. The data are discussed in light of the most recent experimental and modeling results. The conclusion was that inhibition of spiny cells by axon collaterals of other spiny cells is quantitatively important; however, to be functionally important, this inhibition might be conditioned to the synchronized firing of spiny neurons. Finally, dopamine exerts a potentially important role regulating the extent of lateral inhibition.

  14. Rotational stability test for the diagnosis of radial collateral ligament rupture in the fingers: Anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, P; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Prunières, G; Pire, E; Taleb, C; Honecker, S; Bellemère, P; Fontaine, C; Liverneaux, P A

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosing rupture of the radial collateral ligament (RCL) of the finger metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints is difficult. The aim of this cadaver study was to validate a rotational test for the MCP after RCL transection. With the MCP and proximal interphalangeal joints in flexion, rotation along the axis of the proximal phalanx was applied through an extended distal interphalangeal joint to 36 cadaver fingers. Each finger's pulp described an arc of pronation and supination that was noted on the palm. The test was repeated three times: before transection, after transection of the proper collateral ligament (CL) and after transection of both the proper and accessory CLs. Rotational arcs were measured in pronation and supination. Mean length of the pronation arc after transection of the main RCL was 17.53mm, while it was only 12.41mm before transection for the supination arc. Mean length of the pronation arc after transection of both CLs was 22.83mm compared to only 11.93mm before transection. Our results show a significant difference in pronation stability of the MCP joint after transection of the RCL proper. We can conclude that this rotational stability test is a valid test for diagnosing RCL rupture in MCP joints.

  15. Synergistic, collaterally sensitive β-lactam combinations suppress resistance in MRSA

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Patrick R.; Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Bouley, Renee; Ballard, Anna; Biddy, Brent A.; Suckow, Mark A.; Wolter, William R.; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland; Dantas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most prevalent multidrug-resistant pathogens worldwide, exhibiting increasing resistance to the latest antibiotic therapies. Here we show that the triple β-lactam combination meropenem/piperacillin/tazobactam (ME/PI/TZ) acts synergistically and is bactericidal against MRSA N315 and 72 clinical MRSA isolates in vitro, and clears MRSA N315 infection in a mouse model. ME/PI/TZ suppresses evolution of resistance in MRSA via reciprocal collateral sensitivity of its constituents. We demonstrate that these activities also extend to other carbapenem/penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. ME/PI/TZ circumvents the tight regulation of the mec and bla operons in MRSA, the basis for inducible resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Furthermore, ME/PI/TZ subverts the function of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) action via allostery, which we propose as the mechanism for both synergy and collateral sensitivity. Showing similar in vivo activity to linezolid, ME/PI/TZ demonstrates that combinations of older β-lactam antibiotics could be effective against MRSA infections in humans. PMID:26368589

  16. Myeloperoxidase targets oxidative host attacks to Salmonella and prevents collateral tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Nura; Forrer, Pascal; Casse, Olivier; Li, Jiagui; Felmy, Boas; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Ehrenfeuchter, Nikolaus; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Recher, Mike; Hess, Christoph; Tschan-Plessl, Astrid; Khanna, Nina; Bumann, Dirk

    2017-01-23

    Host control of infections crucially depends on the capability to kill pathogens with reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, these toxic molecules can also readily damage host components and cause severe immunopathology. Here, we show that neutrophils use their most abundant granule protein, myeloperoxidase, to target ROS specifically to pathogens while minimizing collateral tissue damage. A computational model predicted that myeloperoxidase efficiently scavenges diffusible H2O2 at the surface of phagosomal Salmonella and converts it into highly reactive HOCl (bleach), which rapidly damages biomolecules within a radius of less than 0.1 μm. Myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils were predicted to accumulate large quantities of H2O2 that still effectively kill Salmonella, but most H2O2 would leak from the phagosome. Salmonella stimulation of neutrophils from normal and myeloperoxidase-deficient human donors experimentally confirmed an inverse relationship between myeloperoxidase activity and extracellular H2O2 release. Myeloperoxidase-deficient mice infected with Salmonella had elevated hydrogen peroxide tissue levels and exacerbated oxidative damage of host lipids and DNA, despite almost normal Salmonella control. These data show that myeloperoxidase has a major function in mitigating collateral tissue damage during antimicrobial oxidative bursts, by converting diffusible long-lived H2O2 into highly reactive, microbicidal and locally confined HOCl at pathogen surfaces.

  17. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  18. Hybrid Coronary Artery Revascularization for Takayasu Arteritis with Major Visceral Collateral Circulation from the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Jae Suk; Cho, Kwang Ree

    2017-01-01

    Coronary arterial involvement in Takayasu arteritis (TA) is not uncommon. Herein, we describe a case of TA with celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery occlusion combined with coronary artery disease. Bilateral huge internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) and the inferior mesenteric artery provided the major visceral collateral circulation. After percutaneous intervention to the right coronary artery, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for the left coronary territory was done using a right ITA graft and its large side branch because of its relatively minor contribution to the visceral collateral circulation. PMID:28382269

  19. Dental care needs of Army recruits.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W A; Mangelsdorff, A D; Brunner, D G

    1983-01-01

    To determine the prevalence amng current U.S. Army recruits of dental conditions requiring treatment, an assessment was done of the dental care needs of a 3 percent sample (N = 5,613) of incoming recruits at all seven U.S. Army reception stations that operate under a dental treatment planning concept. Both the treatment needs of the total sample and of each Army component--that is, Regular, Reserve, and National Guard forces--were quantified. The results indicated that the requirement for dental care among Army recruits currently being processed for training is approximately the same as it was for such recruits at the time that the Selective Service System draft was in effect, although the types of care needed have changed. Like the draft-based recruits, current Army recruits enter active-duty status with a substantial backlog of unmet dental care needs. PMID:6867262

  20. An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    SOUTH CAROLINA COULUMBIOIA, SOJUT II A \\ II~4AI 290 ANNAYSI . ..,". - AN ANALYSIS OF fEMALE MARINE RECRUIT ATTRITION I William H./Mobley Stuart...PERIOD COVERED An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition Technical Report S- PERFOMIWo ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 2. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUMer...number) Attrition Leadership Behavioral -Intentions Age Attitudes Group Cl imate Roles Recruit Training Expectations Job Conteuit Values Race Females

  1. Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATIONAL THEORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR RECRUITING THE MILLENNIALS by Colonel James P. Drago United States Army...by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel James P. Drago TITLE: Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials FORMAT: Strategy...and attitudes of Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Millennial generation , the target audience of the Army’s current recruiting efforts

  2. Understanding Millennials to Improve Recruiting Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    ABSTRACT The Millennial generation , born between 1982 and 2003, has been influenced by numerous events in their developmental years such as the 9/11...characteristics of the Millennial generation and the interrelationship with other generations in an effort to improve U.S. Army recruiting efficiencies... Millennials . Recruiting is a “people” business and the more USAREC leaders and recruiters understand generational interrelationships, influences, and

  3. BPC 157 and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Seiwerth, Sven; Brcic, Luka; Vuletic, Lovorka Batelja; Kolenc, Danijela; Aralica, Gorana; Misic, Marija; Zenko, Anita; Drmic, Domagoj; Rucman, Rudolf; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the described effects of BPC 157 on blood vessels after different types of damage, and elucidate by investigating different aspects of vascular response to injury (endothelium damage, clotting, thrombosis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, vasculoneogenesis and edema formation) especially in connection to the healing processes. In this respect, BPC 157 was concluded to be the most potent angiomodulatory agent, acting through different vasoactive pathways and systems (e.g. NO, VEGF, FAK) and leading to optimization of the vascular response followed, as it has to be expected, by optimization of the healing process. Formation of new blood vessels involves two main, partly overlapping mechanisms, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The additional mechanism of arteriogenesis is involved in the formation of collaterals. In conjunction with blood vessel function, we at least have to consider leakage of fluid/proteins/plasma, resulting in edema/exudate formation as well as thrombogenesis. Blood vessels are also strongly involved in tumor biology. In this aspect, we have neoangiogenesis resulting in pathological vascularization, vascular invasion resulting in release of metastatic cells and the phenomenon of homing resulting in formation of secondary tumors--metastases.

  4. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  5. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  6. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    PubMed

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  7. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  8. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  9. Interactions between Multiple Recruitment Drivers: Post-Settlement Predation Mortality and Flow-Mediated Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Antony M.; Firth, Louise B.; Walters, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Dispersal is a primary driver in shaping the future distribution of species in both terrestrial and marine systems. Physical transport by advection can regulate the distance travelled and rate of propagule supply to a habitat but post-settlement processes such as predation can decouple supply from recruitment. The effect of flow-mediated recruitment and predation on the recruitment success of an intertidal species, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was evaluated in two-replicated field experiments. Two key crab species were manipulated to test predator identity effects on oyster mortality. Findings Recruitment was ∼58% higher in high flow compared to low flow, but predation masked those differences. Predation mortality was primarily attributed to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, whilst the mud crab Panopeus herbstii had no effect on recruit mortality. Recruit mortality from predation was high when recruit densities were high, but when recruit density was low, predation effects were not seen. Under high recruitment (supply), predation determined maximum population size and in low flow environments, recruitment success is likely determined by a combination of recruitment and resource limitation but not predation. Conclusions Four processes are demonstrated: (1) Increases in flow rate positively affect recruitment success; (2) In high flow (recruitment) environments, resource availability is less important than predation; (3) predation is an important source of recruit mortality, but is dependent upon recruit density; and (4) recruitment and/or resource limitation is likely a major driver of population structure and functioning, modifying the interaction between predators and prey. Simultaneous testing of flow-mediated recruitment and predation was required to differentiate between the role of each process in determining population size. Our results reinforce the importance of propagule pressure, predation and post-settlement mortality as

  10. Incidence and predictors for the development of significant supradiaphragmatic decompressing venous collateral channels following creation of Fontan physiology.

    PubMed

    Weber, H S

    2001-05-01

    The occurrence of supradiaphragmatic decompressing venous collateral channels following construction of a bidirectional cavopulmonary connection or completion of the Fontan operation resulting in abnormal systemic hypoxemia has been infrequently described. In addition, the incidence and predictors of these channels have not been well delineated, especially in those patients without formation of such structures preoperatively. I evaluated, retrospectively, 40 patients who had undergone either construction of a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt or completion of the Fontan operation, and who had complete pre and postoperative hemodynamic and angiographic data. Of the patients, 17 (43%) had developed a total of 21 decompressing venous collateral channels, of which 7 (18%) were considered to be hemodynamically significant requiring transcatheter coil occlusion. Of all variables examined, seven patients with significant decompressing collaterals had a greater transpulmonary gradient at follow-up catheterization (8 +/- 2 vs 5 +/- 2 mmHg, p=.01) and lower systemic saturations at routine clinical follow-up visits (82 +/- 5 vs 89 +/- 5 mmHg, p =.007) in comparison to the 33 others. When not evident preoperatively, decompressing venous collateral channels develop in a significant number of patients following conversion to Fontan physiology. If sufficiently large, they may produce lower than expected systemic saturations for the observed cardiac physiology. The larger decompressing channels are more likely to occur when a greater transpulmonary gradient exists postoperatively, which may require cardiac catheterization and transcatheter coil occlusion.

  11. Somatic membrane potential and Kv1 channels control spike repolarization in cortical axon collaterals and presynaptic boutons.

    PubMed

    Foust, Amanda J; Yu, Yuguo; Popovic, Marko; Zecevic, Dejan; McCormick, David A

    2011-10-26

    The shape of action potentials invading presynaptic terminals, which can vary significantly from spike waveforms recorded at the soma, may critically influence the probability of synaptic neurotransmitter release. Revealing the conductances that determine spike shape in presynaptic boutons is important for understanding how changes in the electrochemical context in which a spike is generated, such as subthreshold depolarization spreading from the soma, can modulate synaptic strength. Utilizing recent improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio of voltage-sensitive dye imaging in mouse brain slices, we demonstrate that intracortical axon collaterals and en passant presynaptic terminals of layer 5 pyramidal cells exhibit a high density of Kv1 subunit-containing ion channels, which generate a slowly inactivating K(+) current critically important for spike repolarization in these compartments. Blockade of the current by low doses of 4-aminopyridine or α-dendrotoxin dramatically slows the falling phase of action potentials in axon collaterals and presynaptic boutons. Furthermore, subthreshold depolarization of the soma broadened action potentials in collaterals bearing presynaptic boutons, an effect abolished by blocking Kv1 channels with α-dendrotoxin. These results indicate that action potential-induced synaptic transmission may operate through a mix of analog-digital transmission owing to the properties of Kv1 channels in axon collaterals and presynaptic boutons.

  12. Editorial Commentary: Chondrocytes Trump Ligaments! Partial Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament During Knee Arthroscopy Protects Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leland, J Martin

    2016-10-01

    With knee arthroscopy being the most common orthopaedic procedure performed in the United States, it is crucial to be able to access the entire knee without iatrogenic injury. Frequently orthopaedic surgeons encounter tight medial compartments, creating difficulty in accessing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus without damaging the articular cartilage. Partial release of the medial collateral ligament during knee arthroscopy protects chondrocytes.

  13. Investigating the Effectiveness of Collateral Information on Small-Sample Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-08-52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Linvingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical evaluation of a Bayesian procedure for equating scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees, using collateral information from the equating of other test forms. In this procedure, a separate Bayesian estimate is derived for the equated score at each raw-score level, making it unnecessary to specify a…

  14. Trauma resulting in hemarthrosis and long medial collateral ligament desmitis of the tarsocrural joint in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Tokateloff, Nathalie; Carmalt, James; Manning, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A horse was initially diagnosed with hemarthrosis and desmitis of the long medial collateral ligament of the right tarsus and later developed prominent enthesiophytosis at the site of insertion of the ligament’s deep portion. Hemarthrosis due to intra- or peri-articular pathology can cause recurrent lameness, even without evident external trauma. PMID:22043073

  15. Endothelial-Specific EphA4 Negatively Regulates Native Pial Collateral Formation and Re-Perfusion following Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Okyere, Benjamin; Giridhar, Kaavya; Hazy, Amanda; Chen, Miao; Keimig, David; Bielitz, Robert C.; Xie, Hehuang; He, Jia-Qiang; Huckle, William R.; Theus, Michelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal anastomoses play a critical role in regulating vascular re-perfusion following obstruction, however, the mechanisms regulating their development remains under investingation. Our current findings indicate that EphA4 receptor is a novel negative regulator of collaterogenesis. We demonstrate that EphA4 is highly expressed on pial arteriole collaterals at post-natal day (P) 1 and 7, then significantly reduced by P21. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific loss of EphA4, EphA4f/f/Tie2::Cre (KO), resulted in an increase in the density but not diameter of pial collaterals compared to WT mice. ECs isolated from KO mice displayed a 3-fold increase in proliferation, enhanced migration, tube formation and elevated levels of phospho(p)-Akt compared to WT ECs. Attenuating p-Akt, using LY294002, reduced the proliferative and migration effects in the KO ECs. RNAseq analysis also revealed altered expression patterns for genes that regulate cell proliferation, vascular development, extracellular matrix and immune-mediate responses, namely MCP-1, MMP2 and angiopoietin-1. Lastly, we show that induction of hindlimb ischemia resulted in accelerated re-perfusion, collateral remodeling and reduced tissue necrosis in the absence of EC-specific EphA4 compared to WT mice. These findings demonstrate a novel role for EphA4 in the early development of the pial collateral network and suggests a role in regulating vascular remodeling after obstruction. PMID:27467069

  16. A Report on Using General-Case Programming to Teach Collateral Academic Skills to a Student in a Postsecondary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this report is to examine the application of general-case programming to teach collateral academic skills to a student with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and with a mild intellectual disability who was attending college. The authors use data drawn from their work with Tom to explain and…

  17. Surgical strategy to minimize ischemia during trapping/resection of giant extracranial carotid artery aneurysm stratified by collateral evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Hiroki; Inoue, Tomohiro; Tamura, Akira; Saito, Isamu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA) is a rare clinical entity, and no standard treatment strategy has been established for this condition. Methods: Data from three patients who underwent surgical treatment of enlarging giant ECAAs were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the collateral status, as evaluated by preoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA), surgical strategy was stratified into (1) high flow bypass followed by cervical ICA (internal carotid artery) ligation, when the collateral status was judged as poor/fair or (2) direct cervical repair with patch application after aneurysmal wall resection when the collateral status was judged as robust. Postoperative results were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Postoperative follow-up (day 0 to 1, as well as midterm at approximately 6 months) confirmed completely trapped aneurysm with successful robust bypass and robust anterograde flow of the reconstructed cervical carotid artery on magnetic resonance angiography with no additional ischemic lesions on diffusion weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging when compared with preoperative imaging in all three patients. Postoperatively, there was no stroke event during the midterm follow-up at 6 months. Conclusions: Clinical results of ECAAs treated by a surgical strategy stratified based on collateral status, as evaluated by preoperative DSA, were favorable, without postoperative ischemic event, and with satisfactory mid-term MRI results. PMID:28303208

  18. 13 CFR 120.545 - What are SBA's policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are SBA's policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans and physical disaster assistance loans, physical disaster business loans and economic injury disaster loans? 120.545 Section 120.545...

  19. 46 CFR 308.525 - Application for decrease in amount of cash collateral fund, Form MA-305.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for decrease in amount of cash collateral fund, Form MA-305. 308.525 Section 308.525 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk...

  20. 46 CFR 308.526 - Certificate for repayment of decrease of collateral deposit fund, Form MA-306.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Certificate for repayment of decrease of collateral deposit fund, Form MA-306. 308.526 Section 308.526 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk...

  1. Improvement in Myocardial Function and Coronary Blood Flow in Ischemic Myocardium after Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, James T.; Powell, Wm. John; Guiney, Timothy E.; Stark, James J.; Sanders, Charles A.; Leaf, Alexander

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperosmolality on the performance of, and the collateral blood flow to, ischemic myocardium. The myocardial response to mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent which remains extracellular, was evaluated in anesthetized dogs. Mannitol was infused into the aortic roots of 31 isovolumic hearts and of 15 dogs on right heart bypass, before and during ischemia. Myocardial ischemia was produced by temporary ligation of either the proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery. Mannitol significantly improved the depressed ventricular function curves which occurred with left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Mannitol also significantly lessened the S-T segment elevation (epicardial electrocardiogram) occurring during myocardial ischemia in the isovolumic hearts and this reduction was associated with significant increases in total coronary blood flow (P < 0.005) and with increased collateral coronary blood flow to the ischemia area (P < 0.005). Thus, increases in serum osmolality produced by mannitol result in the following beneficial changes during myocardial ischemia: (a) improved myocardial function, (b) reduced S-T segment elevation, (c) increased total coronary blood flow, and (d) increased collateral coronary blood flow. PMID:4640943

  2. University Relations: An Aid to Recruiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehocky, George J. And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that placement and recruitment practitioners should market their professions to each other to assure assertive programing and dynamic programs. The six articles address survival in the face of increased accountability, emphasizing the marketing aspect of career planning, placement, and recruitment through a planned, organized effort. (JAC)

  3. Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris I.; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Social isolation, extreme weather conditions, inadequate housing, and low salaries often characterizing rural areas cause problems in recruiting and retaining special education personnel. Successful interviewers for rural districts must include four components in their recruitment strategies: the use of intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators,…

  4. Triton College Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's (Illinois) Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP) provides a detailed guide to hiring new faculty, focusing on the desired characteristics of new faculty; marketing and recruitment strategies; employment incentives; the application, interviewing, and selection process; new faculty orientation; a timeline for implementation; cost…

  5. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  6. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  7. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  9. Evaluating and Selecting Schools for Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachhuber, Thomas; Paight, Laura

    2003-01-01

    To improve their campus recruiting outcomes, some companies have developed their own methods for evaluating and selecting tools for recruitment. This article highlights the methods of Pfizer Global Research & Development, which uses a scientific approach to ensure its success on campus. (GCP)

  10. Turf Wars: School Administrators and Military Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagotte, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Although a decade has passed since passage, few have noticed that section 9528 in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandates schools to assist military recruiting. This article focuses on administrators' responsibility to inform parents of their privacy rights and the struggle to manage recruiting in schools. I highlight two conclusions with policy…

  11. Policies That Support Effective Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This School Board Policy kit, one of a series, covers the subject of Policies that Support Effective Teacher Recruitment. It requests all district boards to "incorporate into written policy form their refusal to consider race, religion, sex, or national origin as a basis for employment," and stresses the importance of teacher recruitment as a…

  12. A Community-Based Recruitment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard D.; Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    1979-01-01

    Analyses community-based recruitment techniques initiated by Moraine Valley Community College, Illinois, to stabilize enrollment, expand participation of the under-served, and increase the pool of college attendees. Delineates the eight goals of recruitment and the plan implemented at Moraine Valley. Discusses major activities and results. (CAM)

  13. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  14. Al-Qaida: Terrorist Selection and Recruitment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    like them, not alien outsiders. 9. Surrounding potential recruits with peers who are already established recruits. 10. E. Goffman , Behavior in Public...Cultic Studies Journal 1:2 (1984): 167–177. 88 SECTION 1 Al-Qaida and Global Jihad Goffman , E., Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social

  15. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  16. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  17. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  18. 32 CFR 240.7 - Recruitment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in participating in the DoD IASP. Graduate students and rising junior or senior undergraduates... Students. (d) Recruitment students are provided scholarships, covering the full cost of tuition and...) MISCELLANEOUS DOD INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.7 Recruitment program. (a) Annually,...

  19. Considering the Audience: Air Force Recruiting Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Darek L.

    2012-01-01

    Each Air Force recruiter is formally trained in public speaking and the art of salesmanship or persuasion. These recruiters communicate to thousands of high school students each year through presentations in classrooms, auditoriums and other venues as part of their assigned duties. Persuasive presentations are public speaking events specifically…

  20. 44 CFR 19.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section 19.310 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... shall not recruit primarily or exclusively at educational institutions, schools, or entities that...

  1. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  2. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  3. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  4. 20 CFR 655.48 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a recruitment report. The recruitment report must...

  5. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  6. [Explanation of essence and substance basis of channels and collaterals with fasciology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Chun-lei; Shen, Bao-lin; Yang, Lin-lin; Yuan, Lin

    2007-08-01

    In our research of digital human body, construct of image structures close to the recorder of human channels and collaterals, and trace back to development biology of connective tissue and process of organic evolution, and it is concluded that connective tissue bracket in human body may constitute a new functional system--human self-supervision and control system, meanwhile, we propose a new study field, fasciology. The significance is that it introduces a new functional system in human body and develops new field of scientific research; and it annotate biological foundation and therapeutic mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine therapy, which provides medical biological foundation for modern channel research of traditional Chinese medicine; it proposes a suggestion for development strategy of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. The ulnar collateral ligament of the human elbow joint. Anatomy, function and biomechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, F K

    1991-01-01

    The posterior portion of the ulnar collateral ligament, which arises from the posterior surface of the medial epicondyle, is taut in maximal flexion. The anterior portion, which takes its origin from the anterior and inferior surfaces of the epicondyle, contains three functional fibre bundles. One of these is taut in maximal extension, another in intermediate positions between middle position and full flexion while the third bundle is always taut and serves as a guiding bundle. Movements of the elbow joint are checked by the ligaments well before the bony processes forming the jaws of the trochlear notch lock into the corresponding fossae on the humerus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2050566

  8. [Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints--Exploration on teaching method of meridian syndromes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinping; Zhang, Zongquan; Wang, Wenlin; Yuan, Limin

    2015-04-01

    Meridian syndromes are the required basic knowledge for mastering Science of Meridians, Collaterals and Acupoints but have not brought the adequate attention on the teaching program. The writers discovered' that the content of this section occupied a decisive role for developing the students' clinical thinking ability and, stimulating their interests to learn classical TCM theories. It's necessary to enhance the importance on meridian syndromes during teaching program. The teaching program was discussed in three aspects, named workshop pattern, competitive pattern and multimedia pattern. This teaching method may improve students' interests in the study on classical TCM theories, deepen the understanding on knowledge and motivate students' learning autonomy so that the teaching quality can be improved.

  9. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  10. Retention of retinal axon collateral is responsible for induced ipsilateral retinotectal projections in adult goldfish.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Tsai, C

    1991-01-01

    In normal goldfish, optic axons innervate only the contralateral optic tectum. When one eye was enucleated and the optic nerve of the other eye crushed, the regenerating optic axons innervated both optic tecta. We studied the presence of bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells by double retrograde cell labeling methods using Nuclear Yellow and True Blue dyes. About 10% of the retinal ganglion cells were double labeled and these cells were found throughout the retina. In addition, HRP application to the ipsilateral tectum revealed retrogradely-labeled retinal ganglion cells of all morphological types. These results suggest that induced ipsilateral projections are formed by regenerating axon collaterals and that all cell types are involved in the generation of normal mirror image typography.

  11. Failure of cast immobilization for thumb ulnar collateral ligament avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Dinowitz, M; Trumble, T; Hanel, D; Vedder, N B; Gilbert, M

    1997-11-01

    To determine if small avulsion fractures of the thumb ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) with minimal (< or = 2.0 mm) displacement can successfully be treated by cast immobilization, the authors reviewed 9 patients with minimally displaced fractures initially treated by casting. Despite immobilization within an average of 2 days of the initial injury (range, 0-6 days), a minimum of 6 weeks of immobilization in a cast, and adequate rehabilitation, all 9 patients had persistent thumb pain, especially with activities requiring strong pinch. After undergoing open reduction and internal fixation, the patients had relief of thumb pain and pinch strength improved from 36% of the contralateral side to 89% (p < .01). Grip strength increased from 77% to 93% (p < .05), but the ranges of motion of the thumb metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were not significantly altered. Minimally displaced UCL avulsion fractures frequently have significant rotation that prevents successful fracture healing even with prompt cast immobilization.

  12. Science from Kepler Collateral Data: 50 Kilosecond per Year from 13 Million Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Caldwell, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    As each Kepler frame is read out, light from each star in a CCD column accumulates in successive pixels as they wait for the next row to be read out. This accumulation is the same in the masked rows at the start of the readout and virtual rows at the end of the readout as it is in the science data. A range of these "smear" rows are added together for each long cadence and sent to the ground for calibration purposes. We will introduce and describe this smear collateral data, discuss and demonstrate its potential use for scientific studies exclusive of Kepler calibration,[1,2] including global characteristics of stellar variability, which are influenced by parameters of galactic evolution.

  13. A new surgical technique for medial collateral ligament balancing: multiple needle puncturing.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Victor, Jan

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we present our experience with a new technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the medial collateral ligament (MCL) using a 19-gauge needle, to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Ligament status was evaluated both before and after the procedure using computer navigation and mediolateral stress testing. The procedure was considered successful when 2 to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 34 of 35 cases, a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above described criteria. One case was considered overreleased in extension. Needle puncturing is a new, effective, and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness in the varus knee.

  14. On the collateral sesamoidean (suspensory navicular) ligament of equines: topographic relations and sensitive innervation.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Sanna, L; Asole, A; Farina, V; Bo Minelli, L

    1990-01-01

    The origin and course of the collateral sesamoidean (suspensory navicular) ligament of the horse and ass and its attachment to the distal sesamoid bone were studied by means of dissection. Particular attention was given to the topographic relations between this ligament and the deep digital flexor tendon. Numerous sensitive nerve endings are present in this anatomical district. The free and encapsulated nerve endings, displayed by impregnating techniques, are mostly concentrated in the ligament tract connected to the above-named tendon and close to its attachment to the distal sesamoid angle. The nerve endings are identified as typical Pacini, Pacini-like and Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles on account of their morphological features and are found isolated, grouped to form flower-sprays, lined up along the course of a single nerve fibre or grouped to originate poikilomorphous fibres.

  15. Ovarian Artery Embolization in Patients With Collateral Supply to Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomata

    SciTech Connect

    Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Poellinger, A. Wagner, M. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and outcome of ovarian artery embolization (OAE) in patients with collateral supply to symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with relevant leiomyoma perfusion by way of enlarged ovarian arteries underwent additional OAE during the same (N = 10) or a second procedure (N = 3). Uterine artery embolization (UAE) was performed bilaterally in 10 and unilaterally in 2 patients with a single artery. One patient had no typical uterine arteries but bilaterally enlarged ovarian arteries, prompting bilateral OAE. OAE was accomplished with coil embolization in one and particle embolization in 12 patients. Symptoms before therapy and clinical outcome were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after embolization was available in 11 of 13 patients and was used to determine the percentage of fibroid infarction. Results: UAE and OAE were technically successful in all patients. One patient experienced prolonged irritation at the puncture site. Median clinical follow-up time was 16 months (range 4-37). Ten of 13 patients showed improvement or complete resolution of clinical symptoms. One patient reported only slight improvement of her symptoms. These women presented with regular menses. Two patients (15%), 47 and 48 years, both with unilateral OAE, reported permanent amenorrhea directly after embolization. Their symptoms completely resolved. Seven patients showed complete and 4 showed >90% fibroid infarction after embolization therapy. Conclusions: OAE is technically safe and effective in patients with ovarian artery collateral supply to symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. The risk of permanent amenorrhea observed in this study is similar to the reported incidence after UAE.

  16. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Reorganization of the Axonal Microtubule Array at Sites of Axon Collateral Branching

    PubMed Central

    Ketschek, Andrea; Jones, Steven; Spillane, Mirela; Korobova, Farida; Svitkina, Tatyana; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The localized debundling of the axonal microtubule array and the entry of microtubules into axonal filopodia are two defining features of collateral branching. We report that nerve growth factor (NGF), a branch inducing signal, increases the frequency of microtubule debundling along the axon shaft of chicken embryonic sensory neurons. Sites of debundling correlate strongly with the localized targeting of microtubules into filopodia. Platinum replica electron microscopy suggests physical interactions between debundled microtubules and axonal actin filaments. However, as evidenced by depolymerization of actin filaments and inhibition of myosin II, actomyosin force generation does not promote debundling. In contrast, loss of actin filaments or inhibition of myosin II activity promotes debundling, indicating that axonal actomyosin forces suppress debundling. MAP1B is a microtubule associated protein that represses axon branching. Following treatment with NGF, microtubules penetrating filopodia during the early stages of branching exhibited lower levels of associated MAP1B. NGF increased and decreased the levels of MAP1B phosphorylated at a GSK-3β site (pMAP1B) along the axon shaft and within axonal filopodia, respectively. The levels of MAP1B and pMAP1B were not altered at sites of debundling, relative to the rest of the axon. Unlike the previously determined effects of NGF on the axonal actin cytoskeleton, the effects of NGF on microtubule debundling were not affected by inhibition of protein synthesis. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF promotes localized axonal microtubule debundling, that actomyosin forces antagonize microtubule debundling and that NGF regulates pMAP1B in axonal filopodia during the early stages of collateral branch formation. PMID:25846486

  17. Genomic deletion of malic enzyme 2 confers collateral lethality in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasenjit; Baddour, Joelle; Muller, Florian; Wu, Chia Chin; Wang, Huamin; Liao, Wen-Ting; Lan, Zangdao; Chen, Alina; Gutschner, Tony; Kang, Yaan; Fleming, Jason; Satani, Nikunj; Zhao, Di; Achreja, Abhinav; Yang, Lifeng; Lee, Jiyoon; Chang, Edward; Genovese, Giannicola; Viale, Andrea; Ying, Haoqiang; Draetta, Giulio; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Y Alan; Nagrath, Deepak; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-02-02

    The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. Here we show that ME3 depletion selectively kills ME2-null PDAC cells in a manner consistent with an essential function for ME3 in ME2-null cancer cells. Mechanistically, integrated metabolomic and molecular investigation of cells deficient in mitochondrial malic enzymes revealed diminished NADPH production and consequent high levels of reactive oxygen species. These changes activate AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn directly suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1)-directed transcription of its direct targets including the BCAT2 branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2) gene. BCAT2 catalyses the transfer of the amino group from branched-chain amino acids to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) thereby regenerating glutamate, which functions in part to support de novo nucleotide synthesis. Thus, mitochondrial malic enzyme deficiency, which results in impaired NADPH production, provides a prime 'collateral lethality' therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a substantial fraction of patients diagnosed with this intractable disease.

  18. Ethical responsibilities toward indirect and collateral participants in pragmatic clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Jaye Bea; Merritt, Maria W; Al-Khatib, Sana M; McCall, Debbe; Staman, Karen L; Stepnowsky, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials are designed to inform decision makers about the benefits, burdens, and risks of health interventions in real-world settings. Pragmatic clinical trials often use for research purposes data collected in the course of clinical practice. The distinctive features of pragmatic clinical trials demand fresh thinking about what is required to act properly toward people affected by their conduct, in ways that go beyond ensuring the protection of rights and welfare for "human research subjects" under conventional research ethics regulations. To stimulate such work, we propose to distinguish among categories of research participants in pragmatic clinical trials as follows: Direct participants: (1) individuals being directly intervened upon and/or (2) individuals from whom personal identifiable data are being collected for the purposes of the pragmatic clinical trial. Indirect participants: individuals who are (1) not identified as direct participants and (2) whose rights and welfare may be affected by the intervention through their routine exposure to the environment in which the intervention is being deployed. Collateral participants: patient groups and other stakeholder communities who may be otherwise affected by the occurrence and findings of the pragmatic clinical trial. We illustrate these distinctions with case examples and discuss the distinctive responsibilities of researchers and pragmatic clinical trial leadership toward each type of participant. We suggest that pragmatic clinical trial investigators, institutional review boards, health systems leaders, and others engaged in the research enterprise work together to identify these participants. For indirect participants, risks and benefits to which they are exposed should be weighed to ensure that their rights and welfare are protected accordingly, and communication strategies should be considered to help them make well-informed decisions. Collateral participants could provide input on the

  19. Unstable Simple Elbow Dislocation Treated with the Repair of Lateral Collateral Ligament Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Bum; Lee, Dae Hee; Park, Won Keun; Kim, Sun Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background Unstable simple elbow dislocation (USED) repair is challenged by the maintenance of joint reduction; hence, primary repair or reconstruction of disrupted ligaments is required to maintain the congruency and allow early motion of the elbow. We evaluated the effectiveness and the outcome of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex repair with additional medial collateral ligament (MCL) repair in cases of USED. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 21 cases of diagnosed USED without fractures around the elbow that were treated with primary ligament repair. In all cases, anatomical repair of LCL complex with or without common extensor origin was performed using suture anchor and the bone tunnel method. Next, the instability and congruency of elbow for a full range of motion were evaluated under the image intensifier. MCL was repaired only if unstable or incongruent elbow was observed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) and radiographic outcomes on last follow-up images. Results All cases achieved a stable elbow on radiographic and clinical results. LCL complex repair alone was sufficient to obtain the stable elbow in 17 of 21 cases. Four cases required additional MCL repair after restoration of the LCL complex. The overall mean MEPS was 91 (range, 70 to 100): excellent in 12 cases, good in 7 cases, and fair in 2 cases. All 17 cases with LCL complex repair only and 2 of 4 cases with additional MCL repair had excellent or good results by MEPS. Conclusions USED requires surgical treatment to achieve a congruent and stable joint. If the repair of lateral stabilizer such as LCL complex acquires enough joint stability to maintain a full range of motion, it may not be necessary to repair the medial stabilizer in all cases of USED. PMID:26217472

  20. Contralateral needling at unblocked collaterals for hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huanmin; Li, Xugang; Gao, Xia; Ma, Benxu

    2013-01-01

    Hemiplegia caused by stroke indicates dysfunction of the network between the brain and limbs, namely collateral shock in the brain. Contralateral needling is the insertion of needles into acupoints on the relative healthy side of the body to treat diseases such as apoplexy. However, there is little well-designed and controlled clinical evidence for this practice. This study investigated whether contralateral needling could treat hemiplegia after acute ischemic stroke in 106 randomly selected patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups: 45 in the contralateral needling group, receiving acupuncture on the unaffected limbs; 45 in the tional acupuncture group, receiving acupuncture on the hemiplegic limbs; and 16 in the control group, receiving routine treatments without acupuncture. Acupuncture at acupoints Chize (LU5) in the upper limb and Jianliao (TE14) in the lower limb was performed for 45 minutes daily for 30 consecutive days. The therapeutic effective rate, Neurological Deficit Score, Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were evaluated. The therapeutic effective rate of contralateral needling was higher than that of conventional acupuncture (46.67% vs. 31.11%, P < 0.05). The neurological deficit score of contralateral needling was significantly decreased compared with conventional acupuncture (P < 0.01). The Modified Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer Assessment score of contralateral needling increased more significantly than those of conventional acupuncture (both P < 0.01). The present findings suggest that contralateral needling unblocks collaterals and might be more effective than conventional acupuncture in the treatment of hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25206612