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Sample records for rectal sobre los

  1. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  2. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    Diazepam rectal gel is used in emergency situations to stop cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) in people who are ... Diazepam comes as a gel to instill rectally using a prefilled syringe with a special plastic tip. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  3. Tissue effects of glutamine in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Hernando-Martín, Mercedes; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Cordido, Fernando; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: El objetivo fue evaluar los efectos de la administración de glutamina sobre la regresión tumoral y sobre el tejido sano en pacientes con cáncer rectal que recibieron quimiorradioterapia. Material y métodos: Se incluyó 10 pacientes con cáncer rectal operado después de quimiorradioterapia, un subgrupo de un ensayo clínico que comparó glutamina con placebo en la prevención de enteritis aguda. Un patólogo experto analizó las muestras de tumor y tejido sano, buscando datos de regresión tumoral, mucífagos y daño por radiación. Resultados: No hubo diferencias entre placebo y glutamina en el grado de regresión tumoral. Todos los pacientes con glutamina presentaron mucífagos, frente al 28,6% con placebo (p = 0,038). El daño sobre tejido sano fue similar en los pacientes con glutamina y placebo, y entre aquellos con y sin enteritis. Conclusión: La glutamina no ejerce un efecto protector frente a la quimiorradioterapia sobre el tumor o el tejido rectal sano.

  4. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-13

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  5. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  6. Commercial lubricant use among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Los Angeles: implications for the development of rectal microbicides for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    To inform the development and assess potential use of rectal microbicide gels for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined the dynamics and contexts of commercial lubricant use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) within this population. From 2007 to 2010, 168 HIV-negative MSM living in Los Angeles who practice RAI completed computer-assisted self-interviews, which collected information on their last sexual event with ≤3 recent partners, at baseline, three months, and one-year study visits. Logistic generalized linear mixed models were used to identify individual- and sexual event-level characteristics associated with commercial lubricant use during RAI at the last sexual event within 421 partnerships reported by participants over the course of follow-up. During RAI at their last sexual event, 57% of partnerships used a condom and 69% used commercial lubricant. Among partnerships that used commercial lubricant, 56% reported lubricant application by both members of the partnership, 66% first applied lubricant during sex, but before penetration, and 98% applied lubricant at multiple locations. The relationship between substance use and commercial lubricant use varied by condom use (interaction p-value = 0.01). Substance use was positively associated with commercial lubricant use within partnerships that did not use condoms during RAI at their last sexual event (AOR = 4.47, 95% [corrected] [CI]: 1.63-12.28), but no association was observed within partnerships that did use condoms (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.23-1.85). Commercial lubricant use during RAI was also positively associated with reporting more sexual partners (AOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.31), while older age (units = 5 years; AOR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94), homelessness (past year; AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.76), and having sex with an older (>10 years) partner (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) were negatively associated with commercial lubricant use. These factors should be considered

  7. Commercial lubricant use among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Los Angeles: implications for the development of rectal microbicides for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pines, Heather A.; Gorbach, Pamina M.; Reback, Cathy J.; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Mutchler, Matt G.; Mitsuyasu, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    To inform the development and assess potential use of rectal microbicide gels for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined the dynamics and contexts of commercial lubricant use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) within this population. From 2007–2010, 168 HIV-negative MSM living in Los Angeles who practice RAI completed computer-assisted self-interviews, which collected information on their last sexual event with ≤3 recent partners, at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year study visits. Logistic generalized linear mixed models were used to identify individual- and sexual event-level characteristics associated with commercial lubricant use during RAI at the last sexual event within 421 partnerships reported by participants over the course of follow-up. During RAI at their last sexual event, 57% of partnerships used a condom and 69% used commercial lubricant. Among partnerships that used commercial lubricant, 56% reported lubricant application by both members of the partnership, 66% first applied lubricant during sex, but before penetration, and 98% applied lubricant at multiple locations. The relationship between substance use and commercial lubricant use varied by condom use (interaction p-value=0.01). Substance use was positively associated with commercial lubricant use within partnerships that used condoms during RAI at their last sexual event (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–12.28), but no association was observed within partnerships that did not use condoms (AOR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.23–1.85). Commercial lubricant use during RAI was also positively associated with reporting more sexual partners (AOR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.05–1.31), while older age (units= 5 years) (AOR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.61–0.94), homelessness (past year) (AOR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.13–0.76), and having sex with an older (>10 years) partner (AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.14–0.95) were negatively associated with commercial lubricant use. These factors

  8. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  9. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  10. Current concepts in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, James W; Smallwood, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    The history of rectal cancer management informs current therapy and points us in the direction of future improvements. Multidisciplinary team management of rectal cancer will move us to personalized treatment for individuals with rectal cancer in all stages.

  11. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Eren, Eryiğit; Demiralay, Ebru; Işıklar, İclal; Demirağ, Alp; Moray, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction.

  12. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail. PMID:26034724

  13. A rectal neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, Modesto J; Muñoz Agel, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of gastric and rectal carcinoids is increasing. This is probably due to endoscopic screening. The prognosis is primarily dependent upon tumor size, aggressiveness (pathology, Ki-67), metastatic disease and stage. However, neuroendocrine carcinoma usually behaves as an adenocarcinoma.

  14. Rectal imaging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vining, D J

    1998-09-01

    Rectal imaging has evolved substantially during the past 25 years and now offers surgeons exquisite anatomic detail and physiologic information. Dynamic cystoproctography, helical computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging, and immunoscintigraphy have become standards for the diagnosis of rectal disease, staging of neoplasia, and survey of therapeutic results. The indications, limitations, and relative costs of current imaging methods are reviewed, and advances in imaging technology that promise future benefits to colorectal surgeons are introduced.

  15. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  16. Rectal contrast increases rectal dose during vaginal cuff brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Rovirosa, Angeles; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Arenas, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of rectal dose on rectal contrast use during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). A retrospective review of gynecology patients who received some brachytherapy fractions with and without rectal contrast was carried out. Rectal contrast was instilled at the clinician's discretion to increase rectal visibility. Thirty-six pairs of CT scans in preparation for brachytherapy were analyzed. Pairs of CTs were segmented and planned using the same parameters. The rectum was always defined from 1 cm above the cylinder tip up to 1.5 cm below the last activated dwell source position. An individual plan was computed at every VCB fraction. A set of values (Dmax, D(0.1cc), D(1cc), and D(2cc)) derived from dose-volume histograms were extracted and compared according to the rectal status. Rectal volume was 26.7% larger in the fractions with rectal contrast. Such an increase in volume represented a significant increase from 7.7% to 10.4% in all parameters analyzed except Dmax dose-volume histogram. Avoiding rectal contrast is a simple way of decreasing the rectal dose parameters of VCB, which would mean a better therapeutic ratio. Results also suggest that action directed at maintaining the rectum empty might have the same effect. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase I Study of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil for Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  18. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental.

  19. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  20. Surgery for constipation: systematic review and practice recommendations: Results III: Rectal wall excisional procedures (Rectal Excision).

    PubMed

    Mercer-Jones, M; Grossi, U; Pares, D; Vollebregt, P F; Mason, J; Knowles, C H

    2017-09-01

    To assess the outcomes of rectal excisional procedures in adults with chronic constipation. Standardised methods and reporting of benefits and harms were used for all CapaCiTY reviews that closely adhered to PRISMA 2016 guidance. Main conclusions were presented as summary evidence statements with a summative Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (2009) level. Forty-seven studies were identified, providing data on outcomes in 8340 patients. Average length of procedures was 44 min and length of stay (LOS) was 3 days. There was inadequate evidence to determine variations in procedural duration or LOS by type of procedure. Overall morbidity rate was 16.9% (0-61%), with lower rates observed after Contour Transtar procedure (8.9%). No mortality was reported after any procedures in a total of 5896 patients. Although inconsistently reported, good or satisfactory outcome occurred in 73-80% of patients; a reduction of 53-91% in Longo scoring system for obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS) occurred in about 68-76% of patients. The most common long-term adverse outcome is faecal urgency, typically occurring in up to 10% of patients. Recurrent prolapse occurred in 4.3% of patients. Patients with at least 3 ODS symptoms together with a rectocoele with or without an intussusception, who have failed conservative management, may benefit from a rectal excisional procedure. Rectal excisional procedures are safe with little major morbidity. It is not possible to advise which excisional technique is superior from the point of view of efficacy, peri-operative variables, or harms. Future study is required. © 2017 The Authors. Colorectal Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources ASCRS Textbook, 3rd Edition CARSEP® CREST® Case Study Listserv International Colon and Rectal Societies and Organizations ... Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery CARSEP® Members Case Study Listserv CREST® Young Surgeons Listserv Quality Assessment and ...

  2. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. Warren; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

  3. [Quality radiotherapy in rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Capirci, C; Amichetti, M; De Renzis, C

    2001-01-01

    The quality of radiotherapy significantly impacts on the results of treatment, in patients with rectal carcinoma, especially in terms of acute and late toxicity. Based on this assumption, the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) formulated a document aimed to define the standards of radiation treatment for rectal carcinomas. Two different levels of standard were described: a first level, considered as "minimal requirement", and a second level, considered as "optimal treatment". A retrospective evaluation, based on a questionnaire, revealed that in 1996, in most Italian Centers, patients affected by rectal carcinoma received radiation treatment within the first level of proposed standards. A subsequent analysis concerned the evaluation of the level of treatments applied in 2000. In this paper the radiotherapy standards proposed by the AIRO are described in the different phases of the radiation treatment.

  4. Local management of rectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Touzios, John; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of rectal neoplasia, whether benign or malignant, challenges the surgeon. The challenge in treating rectal cancer is selecting the proper approach for the appropriate patient. In a small number of rectal cancer patients local excision may be the best approach. In an attempt to achieve two goals-cure of disease with a low rate of local failure and maintenance of function and quality of life-multiple approaches can be utilized. The key to obtaining a good outcome for any one patient is balancing the competing factors that impact on these goals. Any effective treatment aimed at controlling rectal cancer in the pelvis must take into account the disease in the bowel wall itself and the disease, or potential disease, in the mesorectum. The major downside of local excision techniques is the potential of leaving untreated disease in the mesorectum. Local management techniques avoid the potential morbidity, mortality, and functional consequences of a major abdominal radical resection and are thus quite effective in achieving the maintenance of function and quality of life goal. The issue for the transanal techniques is how they fare in achieving the first goal-cure of the cancer while keeping local recurrence rates to an absolute minimum. Without removing both the rectum and the mesorectum there is no completely accurate way to determine whether a rectal cancer has moved outside the bowel wall, so any decision on local management of a rectal neoplasm is a calculated risk. For benign neoplasia, the challenge is removing the lesion without having to resort to a major abdominal procedure.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  7. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Catherine E; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the anatomy of the anorectum, the MRI protocol parameters required to optimize diagnosis of rectal cancer, and the diagnostic MRI criteria essential to stage rectal cancer accurately, using the TNM staging classification. A brief review of more emerging important aspects of rectal cancer staging, such as the circumferential resection margin, extramural vascular invasion, and the staging of low rectal cancers, will also be provided. Finally, the authors will touch upon the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in the setting of locally advanced rectal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Rectosacropexy in rectal prolapse management].

    PubMed

    Titov, A Iu; Biriukov, O M; Fomenko, O Iu; Zarodniuk, I V; Voĭnov, M A

    2016-01-01

    To compare results of rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy in rectal prolapse management. Study included 122 patients operated for rectal prolapse for the period January 2007 to August 2014. Patients' age ranged from 19 to 85 years (mean 47.3±16.1). Main group consisted of 60 (49.2%) patients who underwent rectosacropexy (D'Hoore's procedure). Control group included 62 (50.8%) patients in whom posterior-loop rectopexy was applied (Wells's procedure). Long-term results were followed-up in 94 (77.0%) patients including 48 and 46 from main and control group respectively. Recurrent prolaple incidence after rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy was 2% and 8.7% respectively. Multivariant analysis statistically confirmed that postoperative impaired colon motility was independent risk factor of recurrence. Recurrent disease is observed 5.7 times more often in this case. Rectosacropexy does not significantly impair colon motility because of ileus occurs in 8.3% of operated patients. Impovement of anal continence does not depend on rectopexy method and occurs in all patients with degree 1-2 of anal sphincter failure. Rectosacropexy may be preferred in rectal prolapse. However, further highly significant studies are necessary to optimize rectal prolapse management.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook; Lim, Hyun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Hui Gyeong; Bang, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 300 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We assessed the presence of rectal pain and categorized patients into Group N (no rectal pain) or Group P (rectal pain). Results In total, 288 patients were included. Of these patients, 39 (13.5%) reported rectal pain and 14 (4.9%) had rectal pain that persisted for >3 months. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in Group P had more preoperative chemoradiotherapy, more ileostomies, longer operation times, more anastomotic margins of <2 cm from the anal verge, more anastomotic leakage, and longer hospital stays. Multivariate analysis identified an anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time as risk factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Conclusions In this study, the incidence of rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery was 13.5%. An anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time were risk factors for rectal pain. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Thus, the possibility of postoperative rectal pain should be discussed preoperatively with patients with these risk factors. PMID:28415928

  11. Rectal dose to prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy with or without rectal spacer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heeteak; Polf, Jerimy; Badiyan, Shahed; Biagioli, Matthew; Fernandez, Daniel; Latifi, Kujtim; Wilder, Richard; Mehta, Minesh; Chuong, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a spacer inserted in the prerectal space could reduce modeled rectal dose and toxicity rates for patients with prostate cancer treated in silico with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy. A total of 20 patients were included in this study who received photon therapy (12 with rectal spacer (DuraSeal™ gel) and 8 without). Two PBS treatment plans were retrospectively created for each patient using the following beam arrangements: (1) lateral-opposed (LAT) fields and (2) left and right anterior oblique (LAO/RAO) fields. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were generated for the prostate, rectum, bladder, and right and left femoral heads. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model and compared between patients with and without the rectal spacer. A significantly lower mean rectal DVH was achieved in patients with rectal spacer compared to those without. For LAT plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 4.19 and 13.5%, respectively. For LAO/RAO plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 5.07 and 13.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found in any rectal dosimetric parameters between the LAT and the LAO/RAO plans generated with the rectal spacers. We found that ≥ 9 mm space resulted in a significant decrease in NTCP modeled for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity. Rectal spacers can significantly decrease modeled rectal dose and predicted ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated in silico with PBS. A minimum of 9 mm separation between the prostate and anterior rectal wall yields the largest benefit.

  12. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  13. [Surgical treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Salinas-Aragón, L E; Camacho-Mauries, D; Medina-Franco, H

    2010-01-01

    Rectal affection accounts for 30% of colorectal cancer. The standard of treatment is surgical resection, which often is curative. For superior and middle-rectal involvement, low anterior resection (LAR) is the preferred procedure. For tumors involving the lower portion of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection (APR) or LAR are the options of treatment, depending on sphincter involvement. The main surgical objective is to achieve a R0 resection with an appropriated total mesorrectal excision, greater number of lymph nodes and negative distal and radial margins. These surgical parameters have been used as quality indicators and have prognostic implications in terms of overall and disease-free survival. Total mesorectal excision with preservation of hypogastric nerves has shown a reduction in rates of sexual and bladder dysfunction as well as lower local recurrence. At specialized centers such procedures are performed by minimal invasive surgery; however the number of meta-analysis is scarce.

  14. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-09-26

    Laparoscopic surgery has gained acceptance as a less invasive approach in the treatment of colon cancer. However, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, particularly cancer of the lower rectum, is still challenging because of limited accessibility. Robotic surgery overcomes the limitations of laparoscopy associated with anatomy and offers certain advantages, including 3-D imaging, dexterity and ambidextrous capability, lack of tremors, motion scaling, and a short learning curve. Robotic rectal surgery has been reported to reduce conversion rates, particularly in low anterior resection, but it is associated with longer operative times than the conventional laparoscopic approach. Postoperative morbidities are similar between the robotic and conventional laparoscopic approaches, and oncological outcomes such as the quality of the mesorectum and the status of resection margins are also equivalent. The possible superiority of robotic surgery in terms of the preservation of autonomic function has yet to be established in research based on larger numbers of patients. Although robotic rectal surgery is safe, feasible, and appears to overcome some of the technical limitations associated with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the advantages provided by this technical innovation are currently limited. To justify its expensive cost, robotic surgery is more suitable for select patients, such as obese patients, men, those with cancer of the lower rectum, and those receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Stubborn rectal prolapse in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sven; Tobisch, Alexander; Puhl, Gero; Kötter, Ina; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Anorectal involvement might typically cause fecal incontinence and rarely rectal prolapse. Here we report three female patients, who were admitted with a mean history of 10 years suffering from SSc. All patients presented with the initial symptom of anal incontinence, in all cases this was associated with rectal intussusception or rectal prolapse. The three women faced prolapse recurrence, independent of the initial procedure. After surgical removal of the prolapse, the incontinence remained. In SSc rectal prolapse syndrome might occur at an earlier age, and a primary prolapse of the ventral aspect of the rectal wall seems to be typical for this disease. If patients with prior diagnosis of SSc appear with third degree of fecal incontinence, it is suspected to be associated with rectal prolapse. The prolapse recurrence rate after surgery in SSc patients is high.

  16. Memorias del tercer simposio internacional sobre economía, planificación, y políticas de los incendios forestales: problemas y enfoques comunes

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2009-01-01

    Estas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la proteccion contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual que agencias en la comunidad internacional. Los temas discutidos en el simposio incluyen economía del fuego, teoría y modelos...

  17. Penile metastases of rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Persec, Z; Persec, J; Sovic, T; Rako, D; Savic, I; Marinic, D K

    2014-02-01

    Penile metastases are very rare and arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma are less common and only 50 or so cases have been reported. We present a 43-year-old man with penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma. Two years before admittance to our department, abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum (Miles operation) was performed for a Dukes B (T3N0M0) rectal adenocarcinoma; the surgical resection margins wee negative. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment were administered. One year after initial management, excision of a local recurrence was performed followed by further chemotherapy. The patient subsequently noticed lesions of the penis measuring up to 1.2 cm in diameter. Biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed normal structure of penis with subcutaneous nodular thickening. Soon thereafter, the entire shaft of the penis becomes indurated and the patient developed urinary obstruction. A suprapubic cystostomy was performed. The patient died within 6 months. Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, primarily from the bladder and the prostate gland. Metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma occurs much less commonly. Other reported primary origins of penile metastases include malignancies of the lung, nasopharynx and melanoma. The major symptoms are penile nodular mass, malignant priapism, penile pain and tenderness, difficulty in micturition, and urinary retention. Possible routes of metastasis are arterial, retrograde venous spread, retrograde lymphatic spread, but direct tumor infiltration/extension is also possible. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma usually occur within 2 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. The prognosis is very poor regardless of treatment modality. Treatment is more often palliative than curative. Survival usually varies from 7 months to 2 years. Long-term survival (9 years) has been

  18. Robotic rectal surgery: what are the benefits?

    PubMed

    Kim, C W; Baik, S H

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal surgery is not a rare event for colorectal surgeons any more. Even patients with colorectal diseases obtain information through the mass media and are asking surgeons about robotic surgery. Since laparoscopic rectal surgery has proved to have some benefits compared to open rectal surgery, many surgeons became interested in robotic rectal surgery. Some of them have reported the advantages and disadvantages of robotic rectal surgery over the last decade. This review will report on the outcomes of robotic rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery requires a longer operation time than laparoscopic or open surgery, but many authors reduced the gap as they were accustomed to the robotic system and used various additional techniques. The high cost for purchasing and maintaining the robotic system is still a problem, though. However, except for this reason, robotic rectal surgery shows comparable and even superior results in some parameters than laparoscopic or open surgery. They include pathologic and functional outcomes as well as short-term outcomes such as complication rates, length of hospital stay, time to recover normal bowel function or first flatus, time to start diet, and postoperative pain. Moreover, studies on oncologic outcomes show acceptable results. Robotic rectal surgery is safe and feasible and has a number of benefits. Therefore, it can be an alternative option to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery with strict indications.

  19. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  20. Magnamosis: a novel technique for the management of rectal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Katie W; Rollins, Michael D; Feola, G Peter; Scaife, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of rectal atresia treated using magnets to create a rectal anastomosis. This minimally invasive technique is straightforward and effective for the treatment of rectal atresia in children. PMID:25096648

  1. Multidisciplinary management in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hervás Morón, Asunción; García de Paredes, María Luisa; Lobo Martínez, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer has evolved over the last few decades from surgery alone to treatments with trimodal therapy for high-risk patients. The involvement of a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, radiotherapists and medical oncologists is now fundamental for decision-making and outcomes. The evolution of different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has optimised the therapeutic rate. Future studies will determine the optimal regimen for inducing complete responses in locally advanced disease and whether the intensification of local treatments could enable the use of more conservative treatments, as for other tumour locations. The study of biomarkers will be essential in this respect.

  2. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  3. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Ibn Majdoub, Karim; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100,000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis.

  4. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-11

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  5. [Rectal administration of anesthetic agents].

    PubMed

    Ceriana, P; Maurelli, M

    1995-05-01

    To collect data in the current literature dealing with the diffusion, the reliability and the effectiveness of the rectal administration of anaesthetic drugs. To evaluate differences with parenteral administration. Pharmacokinetics and clinical studies published in recent years in indexed journals. Based on the study methodology, drugs employed and pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated. Factors involved in absorption of drugs from the rectal mucosa, clinical effect and pharmacokinetic data of the following drugs: diazepam, flunitrazepam, midazolam, ketamin and methohexital, then a brief evaluation of other drugs: thiopental, etomidate, morphine and chloral hydrate. The most widely used drugs are benzodiazepines: they are safe, easy to manage and highly effective; among them midazolam has the best kinetic and dynamic pattern. Ketamin is useful during painful diagnostic procedures; with the use of barbiturates there is a greater risk of respiratory depression and more caution must be employed. Wide intervariability of rate of absorption, achievement of plasma levels and clinical effect is a relevant drawback of this technique, such to make it not preferable to the parenteral route, when both are feasible. It deserves, anyway, more consideration, and maintains its validity for the preparation of the paediatric patient to general anaesthesia.

  6. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  7. Goal-directed fluid therapy in major elective rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Sanket; Taylor, Matthew H G; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; MacCormick, Andrew D; Hill, Andrew G

    2014-12-01

    Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy (GDFT) has been previously shown to decrease complications and hospital length of stay in major colorectal surgery but the data are not specific to rectal surgery and may be potentially outdated. This study investigated whether GDFT provides clinical benefits in patients undergoing major elective rectal surgery. There were 81 consecutive patients in this cohort study. Twenty-seven patients were allotted to GDFT using the Oesophageal Doppler Monitor (ODM) and received boluses of colloid fluid based on corrected flow time and stroke volume. These patients were compared with a historical cohort of the previous 54 patients managed without the ODM. The primary endpoint of the study was 30-day total complications which were defined and graded. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay (LOS) and fluid volumes administered. There were no differences at baseline between the two groups. Patients in the treatment group received a higher volume of colloid fluids (1000 mL vs. 500 mL; p < 0.01) but there were no differences in overall fluid volumes administered intraoperatively (3000 mL vs. 3000 mL; p = 0.41). A non-significant trend (p = 0.06) suggested that patients allotted to GDFT had decreased fluid requirement in the first 24 h after surgery. There were no differences in median total fluid volumes (12700 mL vs. 10407 mL; p = 0.95), total complications (22 [81%] vs. 44 [81%]; p = 1.00) or median hospital LOS (9 days vs. 10 days; p = 0.92) between the two groups. Intraoperative GDFT did not improve clinical outcomes following major elective rectal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

    2014-09-07

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present.

  9. Development of the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) Rectal Cancer Surgery Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Sean C.; Morris, Arden M.; Baxter, Nancy N.; Fleshman, James W.; Alavi, Karim S.; Luchtefeld, Martin A.; Monson, John R. T.; Chang, George J.; Temple, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is excellent evidence that surgical safety checklists contribute to decreased morbidity and mortality. Objective To develop a surgical checklist comprising the key phases of care for rectal cancer patients. Design Consensus-oriented decision-making model involving iterative input from subject matter experts under the auspices of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Results The process generated a 25-item checklist covering the spectrum of care for rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Limitations Lack of prospective validation. Conclusions The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Rectal Cancer Surgery checklist comprises the essential elements of pre-, intra- and postoperative care that must be addressed during the surgical treatment of patients with rectal cancer. PMID:27270511

  10. Future of therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2013-06-01

    Since 2004, the standard of care for patients with cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer has been preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of advances have occurred and are defining the future of rectal cancer therapy. Among these are short course radiation, the impact of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, selective radiation and selective surgery, and new chemoradiation regimens with novel agents. This review will examine these developments and assess their impact on the future therapy of rectal cancer.

  11. Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  12. Paediatric rectal prolapse in Rwanda.

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, E J; Duckett, J; Lewin, J

    1996-01-01

    During the 1994 crisis in Rwanda, a high incidence of full-thickness rectal prolapse was noted among the refugee children in the south-west of the country. The prolapses arose as a result of acute diarrhoeal illness superimposed on malnutrition and worm infestation. We used a modification of the Thiersch wire technique in 40 of these cases during two months working in a refugee camp. A catgut pursestring was tied around the anal margin under local, regional or general anaesthesia. This was effective in achieving short-term control of full-thickness prolapse until the underlying illness was corrected. Under the circumstances, no formal follow-up could be arranged; however, no complications were reported and only one patient presented with recurrence. Images Figure 1 PMID:9014879

  13. Mechanical suture in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Cornel Dragos; Simon, Ioan; Fabian, Ovidiu; Maghiar, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent digestive malignancies, being the third cause of death by cancer, despite early diagnosis and therapeutic progress made over the past years. Standard treatment in these patients is to preserve the anal sphincter with restoration of intestinal function by mechanical colorectal anastomosis or coloanal anastomosis, and to maintain genitourinary function by preservation of hypogastric nerves. In order to emphasize the importance of this surgical technique in the Fourth Surgical Clinic of the CF Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca, we conducted a prospective observational interventional study over a 3-year period (2013-2016) in 165 patients hospitalized for rectal and rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma in various disease stages, who underwent Dixon surgery using the two techniques of manual and mechanical end-to-end anastomosis. For mechanical anastomosis, we used Covidien and Panther circular staplers. The patients were assigned to two groups, group A in which Dixon surgery with manual end-to-end anastomosis was performed (116 patients), and group B in which Dixon surgery with mechanical end-to-end anastomosis was carried out (49 patients). Mechanical anastomosis allowed to restore intestinal continuity following low anterior resection in 21 patients with lower rectal adenocarcinoma compared to 2 patients in whom intestinal continuity was restored by manual anastomosis, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.000001). The double-row mechanical suture technique is associated with a reduced duration of surgery (121.67 minutes for Dixon surgery with mechanical anastomosis, compared to 165.931 minutes for Dixon surgery with manual anastomosis, p<0.0001). The use of circular transanal staplers facilitates end-to-end anastomosis by double-row mechanical suture, allowing to perform low anterior resection in situations when the restoration of intestinal continuity by manual anastomosis is technically not possible, with the aim to

  14. A rare cause of chronic rectal bleeding in children; solitary rectal ulcer: case report.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Barış, Sancar; Arıtürk, Ender

    2011-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema.

  15. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  16. Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor as an incidental finding in a patient with rectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Fan, Ren-Gen; zha, Wen-Zhang; Xu, Yong-Hua; Qing, Cheng-Lin; Jia, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A patient who was diagnosed as rectal polyps in the local hospital went to our hospital for surgical treatment. Abdominal CT demonstrated a large irregular extra-luminal tumor of at least 5 cm cross-section on the ventral side of the lower rectal wall. Intraoperatively, a large irregular extra-luminal tumor (about 5×4.5×4 cm) was found. Anterior resection with end colostomy and rectal stump (Hartmann's procedure) was performed. Postoperative histological examination showed simultaneous development of rectal GIST and polyps.

  17. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  18. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  19. How to Use Rectal Suppositories Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lubricate the suppository tip with a water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly, not petroleum jelly (Vaseline). If you do not have this lubricant, moisten your rectal area with cool tap water. ...

  20. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  1. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kokelaar, RF; Evans, MD; Davies, M; Harris, DA; Beynon, J

    2016-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer). Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0) resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. PMID:27785074

  2. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  3. Surgical management of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Thandinkosi E; Baig, Mirza K; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    The problem of complete rectal prolapse is formidable, with no clear predominant treatment of choice. Surgical management is aimed at restoring physiology by correcting the prolapse and improving continence and constipation with acceptable mortality and recurrence rates. Abdominal procedures are ideal for young fit patients, whereas perineal procedures are reserved for older frail patients with significant comorbidity. Laparoscopic procedures with their advantages of early recovery, less pain, and possibly lower morbidity are recently added options. Regardless of the therapy chosen, matching the surgical selection to the patient is essential. To review the present status of the surgical treatment of rectal prolapse. Literature review using MEDLINE. All articles reporting on rectopexy were included. Articles reporting on prospective and retrospective comparisons were included. Case reports were excluded, as were studies comparing data with historical controls. The results were tabulated to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. Studies that did not report some of the outcomes were noted as "not stated." Abdominal operations offer not only lower recurrence but also greater chance for functional improvements. Suture and mesh rectopexy produce equivalent results. However, the polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) sponge rectopexy is associated with an increased risk of infectious complications and has largely been abandoned. The advantage of adding a resection to the rectopexy seems to be related to less constipation. Laparoscopic rectopexy has similar results to open rectopexy but has all of the advantages related to laparoscopy. Perineal procedures are better suited to frail elderly patients with extensive comorbidity. Abdominal procedures are generally better for young fit patients; the results of all abdominal procedures are comparable. Suture and mesh rectopexy are still popular with many surgeons-the choice depends on the surgeon's experience and preference

  4. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine.

  5. Laparoscopic versus robotic rectal resection for rectal cancer in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ramiro; Anaya, Daniel A; Li, Linda T; Orcutt, Sonia T; Balentine, Courtney J; Awad, Samir A; Berger, David H; Albo, Daniel A; Artinyan, Avo

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal cancer resection remains controversial. We compared the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic vs robotic rectal cancer resection in a high-risk Veterans Health Administration population. Patients who underwent minimally invasive rectal cancer resection were identified from an institutional colorectal cancer database. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between robotic and laparoscopic groups. The robotic group (n = 13) did not differ significantly from the laparoscopic group (n = 59) with respect to baseline characteristics except for a higher rate of previous abdominal surgery. Robotic patients had significantly lower tumors, more advanced disease, a higher rate of preoperative chemoradiation, and were more likely to undergo abdominoperineal resection. Robotic rectal resection was associated with longer operative time. There were no differences in blood loss, conversion rates, postoperative morbidity, lymph nodes harvested, margin positivity, or specimen quality between groups. The robotic approach for rectal cancer resection is safe with similar postoperative and oncologic outcomes compared with laparoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words “rectum”, “rectal”, “cancer”, “laparoscopy”, “robot”. After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients. PMID:27895814

  7. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  8. Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

  9. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  10. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route. PMID:27123404

  11. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben Youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route.

  12. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  13. Transanal Approach to Rectal Polyps and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay; Mishra, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    A transanal approach to rectal polyp and cancer excision is often an appropriate alternative to conventional rectal resection, and has a lower associated morbidity. There has been a steady evolution in the techniques of transanal surgery over the past 30 years. It started with traditional transanal excision and was revolutionized by introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early 1980s. Introduction of transanal minimally invasive surgery made it more accessible to surgeons around the world. Now robotic platforms are being tried in certain institutions. Concerns have been raised about recurrence rates of cancers with transanal approach and success of subsequent salvage operations. PMID:26929754

  14. [Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Mortensen, John Pløen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2013-09-09

    A new Cochrane meta-analysis evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based, not modern combination chemotherapy) in almost 10,000 patients with rectal cancer and showed a 17% reduction in mortality corresponding well to the efficacy observed in recent studies, which reported a reduction in mortality just about 20%. The authors recommend adjuvant chemotherapy which is in accordance with the Danish national guidelines where 5-FU-based chemotherapy is recommended for stage III and high-risk stage II rectal cancer.

  15. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  16. Study between axillary and rectal temperature measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, R B; Shamo'on, H I

    2007-01-01

    We compared axillary and rectal temperatures in 216 patients to assess the reliability of axillary temperature for determining fever in children under 14 years of age. Beyond the neonatal period, the mean rectal temperature was significantly higher than the axillary temperature. The sensitivity of axillary temperature in detecting fever was 87.5% among neonates but only 46% among older children. Axillary temperature correlated well with rectal temperature in neonates but not older children. There was no direct mathematical relationship between axillary and rectal temperature. Axillary temperature should be taken in neonates as it is less hazardous; rectal temperature should be used beyond this age.

  17. Distribution of fibronectin in the rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scott, D L; Morris, C J; Blake, A E; Low-Beer, T S; Walton, K W

    1981-07-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight present in tissues, plasma, and tissue fluids. Its distribution in the rectal mucosa was studied by immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques using a monospecific antiserum. Immunofluorescent reactivity for fibronectin was present in the normal rectal mucosa of control subjects in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and as a loose cribriform network of extracellular reactivity in the lamina propria that codistributed with histochemically demonstrable reticulin. Fibronectin was demonstrated immunoelectromicroscopically on collagen fibres, on smooth muscle cells and within and between columnar epithelial cells. In the rectal mucosa of patients with colitis with marked inflammatory changes, fibronectin appeared thickened and more prominent when present on basement membranes and as sparse strands between inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria. In patients with longstanding colitis and less inflammatory cell infiltration there was a diffuse increase in fibronectin which was densely and uniformly present throughout the lamina propria. Fibronectin is a structural component of the rectal mucosa and changes in its distribution may form an important part of the local reaction to inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Rectal bezoars due to pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohammad Salman; Al-Wahibi, Khalifa; Baloch, Shafiq; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2009-01-01

    Rectal bezoars commonly occur due to seeds, especially in children living in countries south of the Mediterranean and in the Middle-East. Dried seeds are considered a delicacy and consumed widely. Inadequate chewing or hastily eating without removing the hull may lead to their impaction as bezoars, which may require manual removal under general anaesthesia.

  19. Combined radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection.

    PubMed

    Klee, L W; Grmoljez, P

    1999-10-01

    To present our experience with a small series of men who underwent simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection. Three men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were found to have concurrent rectal tumors requiring resection. All three men underwent non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum at the same operation. In the 2 patients undergoing APR, the levators were approximated posterior to the urethra, and the bladder was secured to the pubis. The patient undergoing LAR had urinary diversion stents placed and a diverting transverse loop colostomy. All 3 patients had excellent return of urinary continence. One patient required reoperation in the early postoperative period for small bowel adhesiolysis and stoma revision. Another patient had a mild rectal anastomotic stricture and a bladder neck stricture; both were successfully treated with a single dilation. No other significant complications occurred in these patients. Radical retropubic prostatectomy can safely be performed with partial or complete rectal resection in a single operation. A few minor modifications of the standard radical retropubic prostatectomy in this setting are suggested.

  20. [Rectal cancer: diagnosis, screening and treatment].

    PubMed

    Decanini-Terán, César Oscar; González-Acosta, Jorge; Obregón-Méndez, Jorge; Vega-de Jesús, Martín

    2011-01-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the primary malignant neoplasms occurring in Mexican patients of reproductive age. Unfortunately, randomized studies in rectal cancer do not exist as they do with well-recognized colon cancer. We must individualize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, staging and treatment because management is different in rectal cancers affecting the mid- and lower third of the rectum than in the upper third and in colon cancers. Histological staging is the primary prognostic factor. TNM staging (tumor, node, and metastasis) is used internationally by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Staging is done with the assistance of endorectal ultrasound, which is best used in early-stage cancer; however, there are certain disadvantages in detecting node involvement. Magnetic resonance, on the other hand, allows for the evaluation of stenotic tumors and node involvement. Once the correct diagnosis and staging have been made, the next step is correct treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment has demonstrated to be better than adjuvant treatment. Abdominoperineal resection is rarely practiced currently, with sphincter preservation being the preferred procedure. Laparoscopic approach has conferred the advantages of the approach itself when performed by experts in the procedure but there is insufficient evidence to make it the "gold standard." Rectal cancer is a complex pathology that must be considered totally different from colon cancer for diagnosis and treatment. The patient must be staged completely and appropriately for individualizing correct treatment. More long-term studies are needed for optimizing treatment modalities.

  1. [Electronic rectal temperature measurement. A clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Ottesen, S; Nielsen, F T; Lund, H

    1993-05-24

    Rectal measurement of body temperature with an electronic device (Ivac) was compared to measurement with mercury thermometers in 157 adult patients on a medical ward. The electronic thermometers were less accurate, giving 3.6 times as many febrile patients. This was reduced to 1.6 after thermometer calibration. It is necessary to make regular calibrations of Ivac thermometers.

  2. Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  3. Psychiatric Illness is a Disparity in the Surgical Management of Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wieghard, Nicole E; Hart, Kyle D; Herzig, Daniel O; Lu, Kim C; Tsikitis, V Liana

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in the US and represent a major health disparity but little is known about their impact on surgical management and outcomes in cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether rectal cancer patients with psychiatric diagnoses have fewer sphincter-preserving procedures and higher postoperative complications. Overall, 23,914 patients from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) who underwent surgery for rectal cancer from 2004 to 2011 were identified. Patients with comorbid common psychiatric diagnoses were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Main outcomes were measured by operation performed, length of stay (LOS), postoperative complications, and discharge disposition. Twenty percent of patients had a psychiatric diagnosis, with substance use being the most common psychiatric disorder (63 %). Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were more likely to be younger, White, have lower income, and have Medicaid insurance (p < 0.001) than those without. In a logistic regression model, patients with any psychiatric diagnosis were less likely to have sphincter-sparing surgery, controlling for patient sociodemographics, Charlson score, hospital procedure volume, and year (odds ratio 0.77; 95 % CI 0.72-0.83). LOS and postoperative complications were similar among the cohorts. Patients with psychiatric disorders were more likely to have home health care at discharge (p < 0.001). Fewer sphincter-sparing procedures were performed on rectal cancer patients with psychiatric diagnoses. However, no significant differences in postoperative complications were observed.

  4. Do Older Americans Undergo Stoma Reversal Following Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Hu, Yue-Yung; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective For low-lying rectal cancers, proximal diversion can reduce anastomotic leak after sphincter preserving surgery; however, evidence suggests that such temporary diversions are often not reversed. We aimed to evaluate non-reversal and delayed stoma reversal in elderly patients undergoing low anterior resection (LAR). Design SEER-Medicare linked analysis from 1991-2007. Settings and Participants 1,179 primary stage I-III rectal cancer patients over age 66 who underwent LAR with synchronous diverting stoma. Main Outcome Measures 1) Stoma creation and reversal rates. 2) Time to reversal. 3) Characteristics associated with reversal and shorter time to reversal. Results Within 18 months of LAR, 51% (603/1179) of patients underwent stoma reversal. Stoma reversal was associated with age < 80 years (p<0.0001), male gender (p=0.018), less comorbidities (p=0.017), higher income [quartile 4 vs. 1, (p=0.002)], early tumor stage [1 vs. 3; (p<0.001)], neoadjuvant radiation (p<0.0001), rectal tumor location [vs. rectosigmoid, (p=0.001)], more recent diagnosis (p=0.021), and shorter length of stay on LAR admission (p=0.021). Median time to reversal was 126 days (IQR: 79-249). Longer time to reversal was associated with older age (p=0.031), presence of comorbidities (p=0.014), more advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), positive lymph nodes (p=0.009), receipt of adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.008), more recent diagnosis (p=0.004) and longer LOS on LAR admission (p <0.0001). Conclusions Half of elderly rectal cancer patients who undergo LAR with temporary stoma have not undergone stoma reversal by 18 months. Identifiable risk factors predict both non-reversal and longer time to reversal. These results help inform pre-operative discussions and promote realistic expectations for elderly rectal cancer patients. PMID:23298948

  5. Bladder urothelial carcinoma extending to rectal mucosa and presenting with rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Aneese, Andrew M; Manuballa, Vinayata; Amin, Mitual; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-01-01

    An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL (iron saturation = 8.4%, indicating iron-deficiency-anemia). Abdominopelvic-CT-angiography revealed focal wall thickening at the bladder neck; a mass containing an air cavity replacing the normal prostate; and adjacent rectal invasion. Colonoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated, oozing, multinodular, friable, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass in anterior rectal wall, at the usual prostate location. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of colonoscopic biopsies of the mass revealed poorly-differentiated-carcinoma of urothelial origin. At visceral angiography, the right-superior-rectal-artery was embolized to achieve hemostasis. The patient subsequently developed multiple new metastases and expired 13 mo post-embolization. Comprehensive literature review revealed 16 previously reported cases of rectal involvement from bladder urothelial carcinoma, including 11 cases from direct extension and 5 cases from metastases. Patient age averaged 63.7 ± 9.6 years (all patients male). Rectal involvement was diagnosed on average 13.5 ± 11.8 mo after initial diagnosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Symptoms included constipation/gastrointestinal obstruction-6, weight loss-5, diarrhea-3, anorexia-3, pencil thin stools-3, tenesmus-2, anorectal pain-2, and other-5. Rectal examination in 9 patients revealed annular rectal constriction-6, and rectal mass-3. The current patient had the novel presentation of daily bright red blood per rectum coating the stools simulating

  6. Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Nucci, Daniel J; Liptak, Julius M; Selmic, Laura E; Culp, William T N; Durant, April M; Worley, Deanna; Maritato, Karl C; Thomson, Maurine; Annoni, Maurizio; Singh, Ameet; Matz, Brad; Benson, John; Buracco, Paolo

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors. Retrospective case series. 74 dogs with rectal masses. Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time. 58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively. Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.

  7. Transanal local excision of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Read, D R; Sokil, S; Ruiz-Salas, G

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with invasive rectal cancer treated by transanal excision between 1978-1989 are presented. Two patients had poorly differentiated tumours and were converted to abdominoperineal resection and one patient had extensive liver metastases documented preoperatively. The remaining twenty-two, mean age 64 years, fulfilled the criteria for local treatment. Eighty-two percent of tumours were T1 or T2 stage. There was no operative mortality. Six complications in five patients occurred, none requiring surgical intervention. Five patients died of unrelated causes without evidence of recurrence at 4, 4, 14, 26 and 58 months. The length of follow-up for the surviving group (17 patients) was 16 to 115 months (mean 63 months). Two patients developed local recurrence at 32 and 60 months. Transanal excision can be curative for selected rectal cancers.

  8. [Fatal intoxication following rectal instillation of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D; Werp, J

    1990-01-01

    A 62-year old man who had been living on a remote farm was found dead in his bed. Inserted in his rectum was a synthetic flexible tube filled with brandy (43 vol. %) and connected to a bicycle pump. Samples taken during autopsy from 3 different parts of the body showed ethanol concentrations from 4.87% to 5.35% in the blood and 6.73% in the urine. The ethanol concentrations in the small and large intestine were considerably higher (more than 29%) than in the stomach (9%). The decreased had a tumor as large as a tennis ball on the base of his tongue, almost completely filling the oropharynx, making swallowing very difficult, which probably was the reason of the rectal instillation of alcohol. The report deals with this unusual case of rectal alcohol instillation, and with the different ethanol and congener alcohol concentrations in the body fluids.

  9. Management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Liboria; Cecinato, Paolo; Guido, Alessandra; Mussetto, Alessandro; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic radiation disease is one of the major complication after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. The most commonly reported symptom is rectal bleeding which affects patients' quality of life. Therapeutic strategies for rectal bleeding are generally ignored and include medical, endoscopic, and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Most cases of radiation-induced bleeding are mild and self-limiting, and treatment is normally not indicated. In cases of clinically significant bleeding (i.e. anaemia), medical therapies, including stool softeners, sucralfate enemas, and metronidazole, should be considered as first-line treatment options. In cases of failure, endoscopic therapy, mainly represented by argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen treatments, are valid and complementary second-line treatment strategies. Although current treatment options are not always supported by high-quality studies, patients should be reassured that treatment options exist and success is achieved in most cases if the patient is referred to a dedicated centre.

  10. Altemeier operation for gangrenous rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Abdelhedi, Cherif; Frikha, F; Bardaa, S; Kchaw, A; Mzali, R

    2014-08-08

    A stranguled rectal prolapse is a rare cause of intestinal occlusion. It requires emergency surgery. A patient who underwent emergency perineal proctectomy, the Altemeier operation, combined with diverting loop sigmoid colostomy is described. The postoperative course was uneventful, with an excellent final result after colostomy closure. The successful treatment of this patient illustrates the value of the Altemeier procedure in the difficult and unusual scenario of bowel incarceration.

  11. Rectal balloon use limits vaginal displacement, rectal dose, and rectal toxicity in patients receiving IMRT for postoperative gynecological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Yanagihara, Theodore; Jani, Ashish; Xanthopoulos, Eric P; Tiwari, Akhil; Wright, Jason D; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Tergas, Ana I; Deutsch, Israel

    2017-09-01

    Pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies traditionally used a 4-field box technique. Later trials have shown the feasibility of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) instead. But vaginal movement between fractions is concerning when using IMRT due to greater conformality of the isodose curves to the target and the resulting possibility of missing the target while the vagina is displaced. In this study, we showed that the use of a rectal balloon during treatment can decrease vaginal displacement, limit rectal dose, and limit acute and late toxicities. Little is known regarding the use of a rectal balloon (RB) in treating patients with IMRT in the posthysterectomy setting. We hypothesize that the use of an RB during treatment can limit rectal dose and acute and long-term toxicities, as well as decrease vaginal cuff displacement between fractions. We performed a retrospective review of patients with gynecological malignancies who received postoperative IMRT with the use of an RB from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Rectal dose constraint was examined as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1203 and 0418. Daily cone beam computed tomography (CT) was performed, and the average (avg) displacement, avg magnitude, and avg magnitude of vector were calculated. Toxicity was reported according to RTOG acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Acute toxicity was defined as less than 90 days from the end of radiation treatment. Late toxicity was defined as at least 90 days after completing radiation. Twenty-eight patients with postoperative IMRT with the use of an RB were examined and 23 treatment plans were reviewed. The avg rectal V40 was 39.3% ± 9.0%. V30 was65.1% ± 10.0%. V50 was 0%. Separate cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images (n = 663) were reviewed. The avg displacement was as follows: superior 0.4 + 2.99 mm, left 0.23 ± 4.97 mm, and anterior 0.16 ± 5.18 mm. The avg magnitude of displacement was superior

  12. Increasing trend in retained rectal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Ayantunde, Abraham A; Unluer, Zynep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To highlight the rising trend in hospital presentation of foreign bodies retained in the rectum over a 5-year period. METHODS Retrospective review of the cases of retained rectal foreign bodies between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients’ clinical data and yearly case presentation with data relating to hospital episodes were collected. Data analysis was by SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, United States. RESULTS Twenty-five patients presented over a 5-year period with a mean age of 39 (17-62) years and M: F ratio of 2:1. A progressive rise in cases was noted from 2008 to 2012 with 3, 4, 4, 6, 8 recorded patients per year respectively. The majority of the impacted rectal objects were used for self-/partner-eroticism. The commonest retained foreign bodies were sex vibrators and dildos. Ninty-six percent of the patients required extraction while one passed spontaneously. Two and three patients had retrieval in the Emergency Department and on the ward respectively while 19 patients needed examination under anaesthesia for extraction. The mean hospital stay was 19 (2-38) h. Associated psychosocial issues included depression, deliberate self-harm, illicit drug abuse, anxiety and alcoholism. There were no psychosocial problems identified in 15 patients. CONCLUSION There is a progressive rise in hospital presentation of impacted rectal foreign bodies with increasing use of different objects for sexual arousal. PMID:27830039

  13. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  14. Giant rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alder, L.S.; Elver, G.; Foo, F.J.; Dobson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST are the most common mesenchymal tumours; however, rectal GISTs account for <5%. In the pelvis they represent a diagnostic challenge with giant GISTs likely to be malignant. They may present with urological, gynaecological or rectal symptoms. Sphincter-preserving surgery can be aided by neoadjuvant therapy. We present an uncommon case of giant rectal GIST masquerading as acute urinary retention. PMID:24968434

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Management of Bleeding Rectal Varices.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Augustine, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Rectal variceal bleeding, though rare, can pose significant morbidity and mortality in the wake of treatment failure. Conventional treatment utilizing endoscopic glue injection might not be feasible in all cases due to poor visualization and inadvertent missing of variceal source of bleed. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided rectal variceal management is a promising and effective modality. We provide real-time images and a video of EUS-guided precision management of rectal variceal bleed using coiling and glue in a cirrhotic.

  16. Rectal Diclofenac Versus Rectal Paracetamol: Comparison of Antipyretic Effectiveness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sarami, Golbahareh; Rangraz, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is the most common complaint in pediatric medicine and its treatment is recommended in some situations. Paracetamol is the most common antipyretic drug, which has serious side effects such as toxicity along with its positive effects. Diclofenac is one of the strongest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, which has received little attention as an antipyretic drug. Objectives This study was designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of the rectal form of Paracetamol and Diclofenac. Patients and Methods This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 children aged six months to six years old. One group was treated with rectal Paracetamol suppositories at 15 mg/kg dose and the other group received Diclofenac at 1 mg/kg by rectal administration (n = 40). Rectal temperature was measured before and one hour after the intervention. Temperature changes in the two groups were compared. Results The average rectal temperature in the Paracetamol group was 39.6 ± 1.13°C, and 39.82 ± 1.07°C in the Diclofenac group (P = 0.37). The average rectal temperature, one hour after the intervention, in the Paracetamol and the Diclofenac group was 38.39 ± 0.89°C and 38.95 ± 1.09°C, respectively (P = 0.02). Average temperature changes were 0.65 ± 0.17°C in the Paracetamol group and 1.73 ± 0.69°C in the Diclofenac group (P < 0.001). Conclusions In the first one hour, Diclofenac suppository is able to control the fever more efficient than Paracetamol suppositories. PMID:26889398

  17. [Ventral rectal sacropexy (colpo-perineal) in the treatment of rectal and rectogenital prolapse].

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Elósegui, José L; Apeztegui, Francisco J; Placer, Carlos; Borda, Nerea; Irazusta, Martín; Múgica, José A; Murgoitio, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Ventral sacral-rectopexy with mesh corrects rectal prolapse and minimises rectal dissection. Subsequent colpopexy corrects apical and posterior prolapses of the vagina. The combination of both procedures can lead to the simultaneous correction of pelvic organ prolapses (POP). To present the results of a patient series with several types of POP treated using the same approach and operation. A total of 57 patients diagnosed with any type of POP were operated on between January 2005 and August 2008 using ventral rectal-colpo-sacropexy, who were grouped into three types: A, total rectal prolapse isolated or combined with a hysterocele or colpocele (11 patients); B, rectoenterocele with internal rectal invagination and/or descending perineum (4 patients); and C, middle and posterior genital compartment prolapse (42 patients). The laparoscopic approach was used in the 15 patients of groups A and B and 11 from group C. A biological mesh was used in 41 patients and a macroporous synthetic one in the rest. The mean age of the patients in the series was 66 (19-81) years, with 55 females and 2 males. The median follow up was 25 (4-48) months. There were no major post-surgical complications. A recurrence of prolapse was recorded in one patient in group A (1/11); the 7 patients who suffered from incontinence improved after the surgery, no case of de novo constipation being recorded and an improvement in 8 of the 9 patients from groups A and B with obstructive defaecation. There were 9 (21%) recurrences detected in group C, but only 4 (9%) required reintervention. In all the recurrences a biological mesh had been used. Laparoscopic ventral rectal-colpo-pexy is an effective technique to correct POP. Although safe and innocuous, the results with biological meshes did not last as long.

  18. Comparison of the preventive analgesic effect of rectal ketamine and rectal acetaminophen after pediatric tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Heidari, S Morteza; Mirlohi, S Zahra; Hashemi, S Jalal

    2012-03-01

    There is a little data about rectal administration of Ketamine as a postoperative analgesic, so we compared the efficacy of rectal ketamine with rectal acetaminophen, which is applied routinely for analgesia after painful surgeries like tonsillectomy. In this single-blinded comparative trial, we enrolled 70 children undergoing elective tonsillectomy, and divided them randomly in two groups. Patients received rectal ketamine (2 mg / kg) or rectal acetaminophen (20 mg / kg) at the end of surgery. The children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain scale was used to estimate pain in children. Also the vital signs, Wilson sedation scale, and side effects in each group were noted and compared for 24 hours. The ketamine group had a lower pain score at 15 minutes and 60 minutes after surgery in Recovery (6.4 ± 0.8, 7.4 ± 1 vs. 7.1 ± 1.2, 7.8 ± 1.2 in the acetaminophen group, P < 0.05) and one hour and two hours in the ward (7.2 ± 0.7, 7 ± 0.5 vs. 7.9 ± 1.2, 7.5 ± 1.2 in the acetaminophen group, P < 0.05), with no significant differences till 24 hours. Dreams and hallucinations were not reported in the ketamine group. Systolic blood pressure was seen to be higher in the ketamine group (104.4 ± 7.9 vs. 99.8 ± 7.7 in the acetaminophen group) and nystagmus was reported only in the ketamine group (14.2%). Other side effects were equivalent in both the groups. With low complications, rectal ketamine has analgesic effects, especially in the first hours after surgery in comparison with acetaminophen, and it can be an alternative analgesic with easy administration in children after tonsillectomy.

  19. Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sang Woo; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hyeong Rok

    2011-12-01

    Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is helpful in the management of patients with low rectal cancer. With the advent of this technique, the need for performance of abdominoperineal resection seems to have decreased in patients with very low rectal tumors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility, the functional outcome, and the short-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic ISR for low rectal adenocarcinoma at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 111 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ISR for low rectal adenocarcinoma between July 2005 and December 2009. Demographic status, surgical outcomes, functional outcome data, and oncologic outcome data were collected. The mean distance of the tumor from the anal verge was 3.4 cm (range: 1-5 cm). The mean operative time was 214.7 min (range, 150-450 min). The mean distal resection margin was 1.3 ± 1.1 cm. Morbidity occurred in 24 patients (21.6%), including anastomotic leakage in 2 patients (1.8%). The mean Wexner continence score after stoma repair was 7.5 ± 2.7 (range: 2 ~ 19), and 9.8 in total ISR, 7.3 in partial ISR (P = 0.071). The 3-year overall survival rate was 92.8%, and the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 73.0%. Local recurrence was noted in 6 of the 111 patients with TNM stage I to III (5.4%). The patients with lesions at 2 cm to the dentate line had a 7.07-fold greater risk of local recurrence, including a 13.42-fold greater risk of lateral pelvic wall recurrence and perineal recurrence (95% Confidence interval [CI], 1.141-158.006; P = 0.009) than in those who had lesions more than 2 cm from the anal verge (95% CI, 1.290-38.832; P = 0.011). Laparoscopic ISR after neoadjuvant chemoradiation can be recommended as a technically feasible, minimally invasive, and a sphincter-saving procedure with acceptable functional and short-term oncologic outcomes in patients with very low rectal cancer.

  20. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was

  1. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for the treatment of uncommon rectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Rubio-Gil, Francisco; Ortega-Ruiz, Sofía; Blesa-Sierra, Isabel; Álvarez-García, Antonio; Jorge-Cerrudo, Jaime; Vidaña-Márquez, Elisabet; Belda-Lozano, Ricardo; Reina-Duarte, Ángel

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was developed as a less aggressive alternative treatment for rectal lesions (mainly adenomas and adenocarcinomas). However, its use for other rectal lesions has become more frequent, trying to reduce the morbidity associated with more invasive techniques. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in the use of TEM in other rectal lesions. Retrospective and descriptive study including patients operated with TEM (from June 2008 to December 2016) for the treatment of rectal lesions different from adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Among the 138 patients treated by TEM in our department, 10 patients were operated on for rectal lesions other than adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Rectal lesions were 3neuroendocrine tumours, a neuroendocrine tumour metastasis, a rectal stenosis, a cloacogenic polyp, an endometrioma, a retrorrectal tumour, a presacral abscess and a lesion in the rectovaginal septum. Mean operative time was 72min and postoperative stay was 4.2 days. Only one patient needed a reoperation, due to rectal bleeding. TEM could be a useful tool for the treatment of rectal lesions different from adenomas or adenocarcinomas, potentially decreasing the morbidity associated with more aggressive surgical techniques. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, E T; Levine, J F; Coggins, L

    1987-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was transmitted by rectal inoculation of BLV-infective whole blood into cattle and sheep. Two cows and 2 sheep each were given 500 ml and 50 ml of blood, respectively, by rectal infusion. Two sheep which served as positive controls each were given 1 ml of the same blood, IV. All animals became seropositive to BLV by postinoculation week 5. Although relatively large volumes of blood were used for rectal inoculation, a base line for infectivity was established for the rectal route.

  3. Case report: Sigmoid strangulation from evisceration through a perforated rectal prolapse ulcer – An unusual complication of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer Z.; Kittmer, Tiffaney; Forbes, Shawn; Ruo, Leyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal prolapse occurs particularly in elder females and presentation can sometimes lead to complications such as strangulation and evisceration of other organs through the necrotic mucosa. Presentation of case This is a case of a 61 year-old female with rectal prolapse complicated by rectal perforation through which a segment of sigmoid colon eviscerated and became strangulated. This patient initially presented with sepsis requiring ICU admission, but fully recovered following a Hartmann’s procedure with a sacral rectopexy. Discussion Complications of rectal prolapse include incarceration, strangulation, and rarely, perforation with evisceration of other viscera requiring urgent operation. This report provides a brief overview of complications associated with rectal prolapse, reviews similar cases of transrectal evisceration, and discusses the management of chronic rectal prolapse. Conclusion Prompt surgical consult is warranted if any signs or symptoms suggestive of complications from prolapse are present. PMID:25680532

  4. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-13

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  5. Rectal sensation test helps avoid pain of apical prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stephen; Zippe, Craig D

    2003-12-01

    Apical cores obtained during transrectal prostate biopsy are associated with greater pain than cores obtained from the remainder of the gland. We present a method to minimize this pain. During 30 consecutive apical biopsies the needle was purposefully placed above all rectal pain fibers, which are anatomically present only below the dentate line. All patients received a periprostatic nerve block prior to biopsy. The patient was asked if he felt the sharp sensation of the needle as it was placed lightly against the rectal mucosa when the needle was aimed at apex (the rectal sensation test). If so, the needle was advanced cranially 2 to 3 mm or until he could no longer detect its light touch. The probe handle was then rotated dorsally, pulling the rectal mucosa downward until the needle was again aimed at the apex. Patients were asked to report a visual analog pain score for each biopsy. These results were compared to those obtained when doing 30 consecutive apical biopsies without the rectal sensation test. The average visual analog pain score for apical biopsy was 1.25 (range 0 to 2.2) for patients in whom the rectal sensation test was used to bypass rectal pain sensory fibers. The average score in control patients in whom the rectal sensation test was not used was higher at 2.28 (range 0.3-6.2). These results were statistically significant (p > 0.0005). Increased sensitivity to apical prostate biopsy is due to rectal pain fibers located below the dentate line. These fibers and the associated pain may be safely avoided by passing through the rectal wall above the dentate line. The rectal sensation test easily identifies the sensate area below the dentate line. Painless apical biopsy can then be achieved by rotating the ultrasound probe to aim the biopsy needle in the desired path.

  6. Lubricant Provides Poor Rectal Mucosal HIV Coverage.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Eugenie C; Weld, Ethel D; Fuchs, Edward J; Hiruy, Hiwot; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W; Breakey, Jennifer; Hendrix, Craig W

    2017-08-01

    Given the rising HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) despite repeatedly proven effectiveness of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, behaviorally congruent periodic dosing strategies, such as dosing microbicides as lubricants, are now in demand. Rectal microbicide gel studies largely administer gels using vaginal applicators, which have not been well received and do not mimic lubricant use. We compared rectal gel manually dosed as lubricant with applicator dosing in five healthy, HIV-negative MSM who received 10 or 3.5 ml of (99m)Tc-DTPA-radiolabeled hydroxyethyl cellulose universal placebo gel intrarectally. After washout, participants received 10 ml of radiolabeled Wet(®) Original(®) lubricant to apply to the anus with fingers and/or a phallus in a manner typical of sexual lubricant use with a partner, followed by simulated receptive anal intercourse. Single-photon emission computed tomography with transmission computed tomography was performed 4 h after each gel administration. Manual dosing was associated with more variable rectosigmoid distribution, 4.4-15.3 cm from the anorectal junction, compared with more uniform distribution, 5.9-7.4 and 5.3-7.6 cm after 10 and 3.5 ml applicator dosing, respectively. A significantly smaller fraction of the initial 10 ml dose was retained within the colon after manual dosing, 3.4%, compared with 94.9% and 88.4% after 10 and 3.5 ml applicator dosing, respectively (both p < .001). Manual dosing of a sexual lubricant delivered a small, variable fraction of the dose with variable rectosigmoid distribution compared with applicator dosing. These results raise concern that dosing a rectal microbicide gel as a sexual lubricant may not provide adequate or predictable mucosal coverage for HIV protection.

  7. Abdominosacral resection for locally recurring rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Filiberto; Gronchi, Alessandro; Corbellini, Carlo; Milione, Massimo; Leo, Ermanno

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate feasibility and outcome of abdominal-sacral resection for treatment of locally recurrent rectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS A population of patients who underwent an abdominal-sacral resection for posterior recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum at the National Cancer Institute of Milano, between 2005 and 2013, is considered. Retrospectively collected data includes patient characteristics, treatment and pathology details regarding the primary and the recurrent rectal tumor surgical resection. A clinical and instrumental follow-up was performed. Surgical and oncological outcome were investigated. Furthermore an analytical review of literature was conducted in order to compare our case series with other reported experiences. RESULTS At the time of abdomino-sacral resection, the mean age of patients was 55 (range, 38-64). The median operating time was 380 min (range, 270-480). Sacral resection was performed at S2/S3 level in 3 patients, S3/S4 in 3 patients and S4/S5 in 4 patients. The median operating time was 380 ± 58 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1750 mL (range, 200-680). The median hospital stay was 22 d. Overall morbidity was 80%, mainly type II complication according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Microscopically negative margins (R0) is obtained in all patients. Overall 5-year survival after first surgical procedure is 60%, with a median survival from the first surgery of 88 ± 56 mo. The most common site of re-recurrence was intrapelvic. CONCLUSION Sacral resection represents a feasible approach to posterior rectal cancer recurrence without evidence of distant spreading. An accurate staging is essential for planning the best therapy. PMID:28070232

  8. [Robotic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo; Alvarez, Fernando A; Mentz, Ricardo; Vaccaro, Carlos A; Im, Víctor; Quintana, Guillermo Ojea

    2013-06-01

    Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) has proven to be feasible and safe. However, it represents a major technical challenge, since it involves the dissection of the rectum in a confined space such as the bony pelvis using un-ergonomic surgical devices. This difficulty is accentuated in patients with distal tumors and high body mass index (BMI), in which the surgical margins and the hypogastric nerves may be affected. Therefore, robotic surgery aims to overcome these limitations that conspire against the mininvasive surgical approach of rectal cancer. We present an obese (BMI = 32 kg/m2) 82-year-old man with a history of smoking and prostate cancer that was recently diagnosed with a middle rectal adenocarcinoma at 9 cm from the anal verge. Rectal examination evidenced a mobile lesion. Computed tomography scan ruled out metastases and at the local staging by MRI, the tumor was considered as T3-N0 with free circumferential margins. Surgical treatment was decided and a hybrid technique was used combining an initial laparoscopic approach followed by the robotic TME. The patient had a full recovery and was discharged three days after surgery without complications. Pathological examination revealed a low-grade adenocarcinoma with mesorectal invasion, free circumferential and distal margins, and 24 negative lymph nodes (pT3-pN0-pM0/Stage II). Robotic TME was performed safely in an obese patient. It facilitated dissection maneuvers in a confined space with proper identification and preservation of the hypogastric nerves, allowing retrieving an intact mesorectum. Prospective randomized trials will define the role of this new technology.

  9. A new 'enterocompressor' to facilitate rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Barraza, R P

    1990-02-01

    A newly devised enterocompressor facilitates low rectal anastomosis in children with Hirschsprung's disease. This simple surgical instrument, composed of two semicylindrical valves, a hinge, and a regulating screw, maintains intestinal anastomoses properly placed and produces spur crushing. In addition, it is inexpensive and reusable. The enterocompressor, used in 33 primary and 15 secondary Duhamel operations, and applied to normalize intestinal transit in 10 colectomies, provided adequate anastomosis and prevented leakage of intestinal contents. This enterocompressor can be used safely in children as young as six months of age.

  10. Combined modality therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D; Röedel, Claus; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The standard adjuvant treatment for cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiation. However, there are many controversies regarding this approach. These include the role of short course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for all patients and whether the type of surgery after chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? These questions and others remain active areas of clinical investigation.

  11. Adjuvant therapy of resectable rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2002-08-01

    The two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer are surgery followed by postoperative combined modality therapy and preoperative combined modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Preoperative therapy (most commonly combined modality therapy) has gained acceptance as a standard adjuvant therapy. The potential advantages of the preoperative approach include decreased tumor seeding, less acute toxicity, increased radiosensitivity due to more oxygenated cells, and enhanced sphincter preservation. There are a number of new chemotherapeutic agents that have been developed for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Phase I/II trials examining the use of new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with pelvic radiation therapy are in progress.

  12. Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin.

  13. A tertiary care hospital's 10 years' experience with rectal ultrasound in early rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ahmed; Walker, Andrew; Heise, Charles P; Kennedy, Gregory D; Benson, Mark E; Pfau, Patrick R; Johnson, Eric A; Frick, Terrence J; Gopal, Deepak V

    2017-08-24

    Rectal endoscopic ultrasound (RUS) has become an essential tool in the management of rectal adenocarcinoma because of the ability to accurately stage lesions. The aim of this study was to identify the staging agreement of early RUS-staged rectal adenocarcinoma with surgical resected pathology and ultimately determine how this impacts the management of early rectal cancer (T1-T2). Retrospective chart review was performed from November 2002 to November 2013 to identify procedure indication, RUS staging data, surgical management, and postoperative surgical pathology data. There were a total of 693 RUS examinations available for review and 282 of these were performed for a new diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma. There was staging agreement between RUS and surgical pathology in 19 out of 20 (95%) RUS-staged T1 cases. There was staging agreement between RUS and surgical pathology in 3 out of 9 (33%) RUS-staged T2 cases. There was significantly better staging agreement for RUS-staged T1 lesions compared to RUS staged T2 lesions (P = 0.002). Nearly 60% of T1N0 cancers were referred for transanal excisions (TAEs), and 78% of T2N0 cancers underwent low anterior resection. This study identified only a small number of T1-T2 adenocarcinomas. There was good staging agreement between RUS and surgical pathology among RUS-staged T1 lesions whereas poor staging agreement among RUS-staged T2 lesions. Although TAE is largely indicated by the staging of a T1 lesion, this approach may be less appropriate for T2 lesions due to high reported local recurrence.

  14. Locally advanced rectal cancer: Preliminary results of rectal preservation after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Carlos Alberto; Yazyi, Federico Julio; Ojra Quintana, Guillermo; Santino, Juan Pablo; Sardi, Mabel Edith; Beder, Damián; Tognelli, Joaquin; Bonadeo, Fernando; Lastiri, José María; Rossi, Gustavo Leandro

    2016-05-01

    The standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision. However, organ preservation has been proposed for tumors with good response to neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic results of this strategy. This is a retrospective cohort study (2005-2014) including a consecutive series of patients with rectal adenocarcinoma with complete or almost complete clinical response after preoperative chemo-radiotherapy, that were treated according to a strategy of preservation of the rectum. A total of 204 patients with rectal cancer received neoadjuvant therapy. Thirty (14.7%) had a good response and were treated with rectal preservation (23 «Watch and Wait» and 7 local resections). Median follow-up was 46 months (interquartile range: 30-68). In the group of «Watch & Wait», 4 patients had local recurrence before 12 months (actuarial local recurrence rate=18.5%). All of them underwent salvage surgery (2 with radical surgery and 2 local resections) without any further recurrence. Disease-free survival actuarial rate at 3 years follow-up was 94.1% (95% CI 82.9-100). None of the 7 patients that were treated by local excision had local recurrence. The organ preservation rate for the whole group was 93%. The strategy of organ preservation in locally advanced rectal cancer is feasible in cases with good response to neoadjuvant therapy. When implemented in a highly selected group of patients this strategy is associated with satisfactory oncologic results. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Is rectal MRI beneficial for determining the location of rectal cancer with respect to the peritoneal reflection?

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Joo; Ryu, Chun Geun; Kim, Gangmi; Kim, Su Ran; Nam, Sang Eun; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Young Jun; Hwang, Dae-Yong

    2012-12-01

    An objective method for determining the location of the cancer with respect to peritoneal reflection would be helpful to decide the treatment modality for rectal cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of rectal MRI to determine spatial relations between the peritoneal reflection and rectal cancer and to compare these with operative findings. Patients that underwent a rectal cancer operation after a rectal MRI check between November 2008 and June 2010 were considered for the study. The patients that received preoperative concurrent chemoradiation or trans-anal local excision were excluded. Fifty-four patients constituted the study cohort. By comparing surgical and radiologic findings, the accuracy for predicting tumour location in relation to the peritoneal reflection by rectal MRI in all patients was 90.7%. In terms of tumour location in relation to peritoneal reflection, the accuracy of rectal MRI was 93.5% in patients with a tumour located above the peritoneal reflection, 90.0% in patients with a tumour located on the peritoneal reflection, and 84.6% in patients with a tumour located below the peritoneal reflection (p=0.061). When the cohort was subdivided by gender, body mass index (BMI), operative findings, or tumour size, no significant difference was observed among subgroups. Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the relation between rectal cancer and peritoneal reflection especially when tumour size is less than 8cm. Rectal MRI can provide information regarding the location of rectal cancer in relation to the peritoneal reflection for treatment planning purposes.

  16. Rectal gonorrhoea in male homosexuals. Presentation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fluker, J L; Deherogoda, P; Platt, D J; Gerken, A

    1980-12-01

    In a review of rectal gonorrhoea 73 episodes were studied in 65 homosexual men. The presenting signs and symptoms were carefully noted. Treatment with a single injection of spectinomycin hydrochloride 2 g resulted in a cure rate of 94.5%. The relatively high treatment failure rate associated with rectal gonorrhoea may possibly be due to microbial mechanisms.

  17. Rectal chlamydia - should screening be recommended in women?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Nirina; Boman, Jens; Nylander, Elisabet

    2017-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe and has large impacts on patients' physical and emotional health. Unidentified asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis could be a partial explanation for the high Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence. In this study, we evaluated rectal Chlamydia trachomatis testing in relation to symptoms and sexual habits in women and men who have sex with men. Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was 9.1% in women and 0.9% in men who have sex with men. None of the patients reported any rectal symptoms; 59.0% of the women with a rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection denied anal intercourse and 18.8% did not have a urogenital infection; 9.4% did neither have a urogenital infection nor reported anal sex. We suggest that rectal sampling should be considered in women visiting sexually transmitted infection clinics regardless of rectal symptoms and irrespective of anal intercourse, since our data suggest that several cases of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis otherwise would be missed, thus enabling further disease transmission.

  18. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Cuadros, Marta; Zambudio, Natalia; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Cano, Carlos; Palma, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40–60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile's ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. PMID:26504848

  19. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Cuadros, Marta; Zambudio, Natalia; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Cano, Carlos; Palma, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40-60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile's ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.

  20. Immunological Landscape and Clinical Management of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elísabeth; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of rectal cancer and colon cancer differs due to increased local relapses in rectal cancer. However, the current molecular classification does not differentiate rectal cancer and colon cancer as two different entities. In recent years, the impact of the specific immune microenvironment in cancer has attracted renewed interest and is currently recognized as one of the major determinants of clinical progression in a wide range of tumors. In colorectal cancer, the density of lymphocytic infiltration is associated with better overall survival. Due to the need for biomarkers of response to conventional treatment with chemoradiotherapy in rectal tumors, the immune status of rectal cancer emerges as a useful tool to improve the management of patients. PMID:26941741

  1. MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Tapan, Ümit; Özbayrak, Mustafa; Tatlı, Servet

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

  2. Rectal prolapse as initial clinical manifestation of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-W; Hsiao, C-W; Wu, C-C; Jao, S-W

    2008-04-01

    Rectal prolapse as the initial clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer is uncommon. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon after presenting with complete rectal prolapse. The tumor caused rectosigmoid intussusception and then it prolapsed out through the anus. She underwent rectosigmoidectomy and rectopexy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The relationship between colorectal cancer and rectal prolapse has not been clearly established. This case report describes an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer. It suggests that rectal prolapse can present as the initial symptom of colorectal cancer and may also be a presenting feature of the occult intra-abdominal pathology. The importance of adequate investigation such as colonoscopy should be emphasized in patients who develop a new onset of rectal prolapse.

  3. [Local diagnostics for rectal cancer. What is realistic?].

    PubMed

    Ptok, H; Gastinger, I; Lippert, H

    2012-05-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic staging of rectal cancer is crucial for further therapeutic management and important for prognosis. The most accurate diagnostic tools in the assessment of T and N categories of rectal cancer are endorectal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, MRI can accurately predict the distance of the tumor to the colorectal membrane (CRM) and computed tomography (CT) is more suitable for detecting distant metastases. In the routine care of rectal cancer EUS is the most frequently used diagnostic tool for local staging. The achieved accuracy for determining T category by EUS in routine clinical staging is lower than results reported in the literature. Furthermore, the accuracy of EUS depends on the experience of the examiner. Currently the frequency of using MRI for routine clinical staging of rectal cancer is low and in one out of five cases the local staging of rectal cancer is exclusively carried out by CT.

  4. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  5. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadatomo, Ai; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan K; Sata, Naohiro

    2016-02-01

    Isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature, and the characteristics of such cases of metastasis remain relatively unknown. We present a case of isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer in a 78-year-old female patient. The patient had no symptoms related to vaginal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening of the middle rectum and a vaginal tumor. Biopsy from the vaginal tumor showed adenocarcinoma, similar to the rectal lesion. Low anterior resection with ileostomy, hystero-oophorectomy, and transvaginal tumor resection was performed. After nineteen months, computed tomography scan revealed multiple lung metastases and recurrent tumor in the pelvis. The patient refused chemotherapy and is alive three months after developing recurrent disease. Most cases of primary vaginal carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma. Other histologic types such as adenocarcinoma are usually metastatic lesions. Primary lesions associated with metastatic vaginal adenocarcinoma are most often the uterus, and are very rarely from the colon or rectum. We review previous case reports of isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer and discuss their symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  6. [Radiotherapy in pelvic recurrences of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Morganti, A G; Santoni, R; Osti, M F

    2001-01-01

    Patients with locally recurrent rectal carcinoma have an unfavourable prognosis for the high incidence of distant metastases, the infrequent feasibility of radical surgical resection, and, in these last cases, the high incidence of re-recurrences. Based on the low resectability rate of pelvic recurrences, the clear impact of tumor diameter on resectability and outcome, and the documented possibility to achieve a significant tumor downstaging and downsizing with the use of concurrent chemoradiation, it is evident that the most promising treatment several authors have considered concurrent chemoradiation followed, if feasible, by radical resection. Furthermore, based on the high local and distant failure rate after surgery, the utilization of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and adjuvant chemotherapy seems justified. Some published comparisons between patients treated with and without IORT seems to suggest the possible improvement in both local control and survival in these patients. Particularly interesting issues in this field are: 1) the definition of the most effective treatment modality (both in terms of radiation dose, fractionation and techniques, and drugs to be used concurrently to radiotherapy); 2) the analysis of the prognostic impact of several factors, with the aim of designing and validating staging systems of local rectal recurrences; 3) the possibility to treat with relatively high doses also patients previously irradiated on the pelvis.

  7. Focusing the management of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dbeis, Rachel; Smart, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer treatment has undergone major changes over the last 15 years with a focus on individualized care based around MRI assessment of the relationship of the tumour to the mesorectal fascia, improved surgical techniques and targeted use of pre-operative oncological therapies in patients with locally advanced disease. The recognition that some tumours responded completely to pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, and the selective use of a non-operative policy has led to a quest to further identify those patients and their tumour in whom this approach could be used, irrespective of MRI stage. With no clear patient factors identified, the tumour and its gene expression has become a target for research to identify individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which may indicate a response to specific treatment, or not. To date some agents have been identified and trialed, such as cetuximab, with individual tumours being assessed for response allowing directed treatment. The reviewed paper by Sebio and colleagues report a study that links polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 with response to neoadjuvant 5-Fluorouracil treatment in rectal cancer patients. However, genetic heterogeneity alone may not explain the variations of drug response and environmental factors may lead to epigenetic effects and therefore alter responses. Therefore whilst this study demonstrates the impact of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it is only one step forward, but perhaps a step in the right direction. PMID:28149883

  8. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-02-20

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  9. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  10. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.

    PubMed

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P

    2015-09-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  12. Microscopy detection of rectal gonorrhoea in asymptomatic men.

    PubMed

    Forni, J; Miles, K; Hamill, M

    2009-11-01

    This audit aimed to determine the usefulness of microscopy to detect presumptive rectal gonorrhoea (GC) infection in asymptomatic men. We retrospectively audited more than 400 male patients attending a London genitourinary medicine clinic from January 2005 to March 2007 who tested rectal culture positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and compared this with the microscopy detection rate. In total, 123/423 (29%) of culture positive samples were microscopy positive. Of those that tested microscopy negative (300/423), 64 (21%) were symptomatic and 236 (79%) asymptomatic. In addition, a time and motion study examined 81 rectal slides over a two-week period to identify microscopy reading time required to make a presumptive diagnosis of GC. Three slides were positive, resulting in six hours and 45 minutes to detect one positive sample. Given the low sensitivity for rectal microscopy coupled with the length of time required to obtain a presumptive positive rectal GC result, we believe rectal microscopy is no longer a cost-effective tool screening for asymptomatic men, and this report supports the BASHH guideline that it is not recommended in the management of asymptomatic rectal infection.

  13. Postembryonic development of rectal pads in bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Gonçalves; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    The morphology and development of the digestive tract of insects has been extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the development of the rectal pads. These organs are responsible for absorption of water and salts. In insects where they occur, there are usually six ovoid rectal pads located in the medial-anterior portion of the rectum. The rectal pad has three types of cells: principal, basal, and junctional. The arrangement of these three cell types delimits an intrapapillary lumen. The aim of the current study is to describe the development of the rectal pads during postembryonic development of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Melipona scutellaris. Specimens were analyzed at the following developmental stages: white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae, and adult workers. The development of the rectal pad begins as a thickening of the epithelium in white-eyed pupae at 54 hr. At this stage, there is neither a basal cell layer nor intrapapillary lumen. The basal layers begin to form in the pink-eyed pupa and are completely formed at the end of the development of the brown-eyed pupa. In the brown-eyed pupal stage, the intrapapillary lumen is formed and the junctional cells are positioned and completely differentiated. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death were detected along with cell proliferation in the whole rectum during pupal development, suggesting that the development of the rectal pads involves cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. The rectal pads originate only from the ectoderm.

  14. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Increases Rectal Activity in Children.

    PubMed

    Moeller Joensson, Iben; Hagstroem, Soren; Siggaard, Charlotte; Bower, Wendy; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Neurostimulation is increasingly used in treating bladder and bowel dysfunction, but its effect on rectal motility is obscure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on rectal motility in children with overactive bladder (OAB). In this double-blind placebo-controlled study in 20 children with OAB (mean age 8.6 ± 1.8 years; 7 girls), 48-hour urodynamic monitoring including rectal manometry was performed. After 24-hours of baseline investigation without stimulation the children were randomised to either active TENS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). Surface electrodes were placed over the sacral bone. The exterior of active and placebo stimulators was identical. Starting in the morning, the children received either continuous TENS stimulation or placebo until bedtime. Rectal contractions were defined as pressure runs exceeding 5 cm H2O and lasting ≥3 minutes. At baseline there was no significant difference in proportion of time with rectal contractions in the 2 groups (TENS group median 31% [range 12%-66%] vs placebo group median 31% [range 10%-66%]; P = 0.75); however, on the day of stimulation there was more time with rectal contractions in the group receiving TENS (median 51% [range 25%-78%]) compared with placebo (median 32% [range 4%-68%]; P = 0.02). Also, there was an increase in time with rectal contractions in the TENS group (P = 0.007) but not in the placebo group (P = 0.39). The night after the TENS was disabled, rectal activity in both groups returned to baseline level. TENS acutely increases time with rectal contractions in children undergoing urodynamic investigation. The effect disappears when the stimulator is turned off.

  15. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J.; Pajak, Jacek T.; Pawelczyk, Iwona; Lange, Dariusz; Golka, Dariusz . E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika; Lorenc, Zbigniew

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  16. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  17. Death by Disimpaction: A Bradycardic Arrest Secondary to Rectal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Cory M.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal examination and fecal disimpaction are common procedures performed in the Emergency Department on a daily basis. Here, we report a rare case of a patient suffering a cardiac arrest and ultimately death likely due to rectal manipulation. A 66-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a complaint of abdominal distention and constipation. A rectal exam was performed. During the examination the patient became apneic. On the cardiac monitor the patient was found to be in pulseless electrical activity with a bradycardic rate. Our recommendation would be to provide adequate analgesia and close patient monitoring of those undergoing this procedure especially patients with significant stool burdens. PMID:28116179

  18. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Management of Bleeding Rectal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Rectal variceal bleeding, though rare, can pose significant morbidity and mortality in the wake of treatment failure. Conventional treatment utilizing endoscopic glue injection might not be feasible in all cases due to poor visualization and inadvertent missing of variceal source of bleed. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided rectal variceal management is a promising and effective modality. We provide real-time images and a video of EUS-guided precision management of rectal variceal bleed using coiling and glue in a cirrhotic. PMID:28879206

  19. Perineal Rectosigmoidectomy (Altemeier Procedure) as Treatment of Strangulated Rectal Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Cernuda, Ricardo Baldonedo; Ángel, Janet Pagnozzi; Fernández, Nuria Truan; Sánchez-Farpón, José Herminio; Pérez, Jose Antonio Álvarez

    2016-12-01

    Incarceration of a rectal prolapse is an unusual entity that represents a surgical emergency. Even more rarely, it becomes strangulated, requiring emergency surgery. When surgery becomes inevitable, the choice of procedure varies. A 57-year-old man who presented with strangulated rectal prolapse is described. The patient underwent emergency perineal proctosigmoidectomy, the Altemeier operation, combined with diverting loop sigmoid colostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. After a 6-month follow-up, there was no recurrence, but the patient continued with fecal incontinence. This case underlines the importance of the Altemeier procedure as treatment in the patient with a strangulated prolapsed rectal segment.

  20. Fournier gangrene: first manifestation of occult rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tovar, J; Córdoba, L; Devesa, J M

    2011-01-01

    Fournier gangrene is a necrotizing fasciitis of the genital and perineal region. Diverse factors predispose to Fournier gangrene, such as diabetes mellitus, ethylism, liver dysfunction, haematological disorders, obesity or recent regional instrumentation. Rectal tumours can also predispose to Fournier gangrene; most of the reported cases are perforated or unresectable colorectal tumours, but some cases of anorectal cancer diagnosed after recovery from Fournier gangrene have also been reported. In these cases, the presence of a rectal tumour at the time of, or prior to, diagnosis of Fournier gangrene could not be ruled out. We present three cases of rectal cancer whose first manifestation was as Fournier gangrene.

  1. Proforma-based reporting in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F; Mangat, N; Swift, I R; Brown, G

    2010-10-04

    The improvements in outcomes associate with the use of preoperative therapy rather than postoperative treatment means that clinical teams are increasingly reliant on imaging to identify high-risk features of disease to determine treatment plans. For many solid tumours, including rectal cancer, validated techniques have emerged in identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively. In the MERCURY study, a standardised scanning technique and the use of reporting proformas enabled consistently accurate assessment and documentation of the prognostic factors. This is now an essential tool to enable our clinical colleagues to make treatment decisions. In this review, we describe the proforma-based reporting tool that enables a systematic approach to the interpretation of the magnetic resonance images, thereby enabling all the clinically relevant features to be adequately assessed.

  2. Rectal versus non-rectal primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum: a retrospective survival analysis controlled for confounders.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocchi, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the outcomes of rectal and non-rectal primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the colorectum. A retrospective survival analysis was performed using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database between 2004 and 2009 on subjects who were diagnosed as having a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis controlled for confounders was used to assess overall survival comparing rectal and non-rectal cancers. Our population was composed of 1,484 patients: 200 affected by rectal cancer and 1,284 by non-rectal cancer. Unadjusted survival curves resulted to be almost superimposable (P = 0.916). After controlling for age, gender, race, tumor stage, grade, and size, tumor location demonstrated a statistically significant impact on overall survival (P = 0.032; 95% confidence interval 0.640-0.980; hazard ratio 0.792). On the basis of analysis of information from the SEER database, the signet ring cell carcinoma of the rectum was associated to a worse prognosis as compared to non-rectal cancer.

  3. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  4. [Strangled rectal prolapse in young adults: about a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bayar, Rached; Djebbi, Achref; Mzoughi, Zeineb; Talbi, Ghofrane; Gharbi, Lassaad; Arfa, Nafaa; Mestiri, Hafedh; Khalfallah, Mohamed Taher

    2016-01-01

    Rectal prolapse is a rectal static disorder which involves rectal wall intussusception inducing its externalization through the anus. It usually affects children and the elderly. Its occurrence in young adults is rare. Strangulated rectal prolapse is also a rare complication. We report the case of a 30-year old patient who underwent emergency surgery for strangulated rectal prolapse. Emergency perineal rectosigmoidectomy (Altemeier repair) was performed with simple outcome.

  5. Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

  6. Rectal tuberculosis in an HIV-infected patient: case report

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Marcos dos Santos Vieira; Christiano, Celso Guilherme; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Rosa, Vladimir Mulele Pinto Santa

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been increasingly affected by tuberculosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Although strict rectal involvement is rare, the GI site mostly affected is the ileocecal region. Thus, tuberculosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of perianal and rectal lesions, and more so in patients infected by the HIV virus. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old man presenting a long-term history of fever, night sweats, weight loss, bloody diarrhea, fecal incontinence, tenesmus, and rectal pain. HIV serology was positive. The patient underwent anoscopy and biopsy, which disclosed the diagnosis of rectal tuberculosis. Thus the patient was referred to an outpatient clinic to follow the standard treatment. PMID:28573121

  7. Tailoring treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma: immunohistochemistry for predictive biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Over the past couple of decades, multimodality treatment for the management of resectable rectal cancer has substantially improved the outcome of affected patients. However, the broad and unpredictable response to tumor of patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapeutic interventions shows that our understanding of the molecular events leading to radioresistance in patients affected with this malignancy remains sparse. Multiple attempts by individual molecular markers in gene array and tissue microarray studies have emerged with the goal of identifying predictors of a response to chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer. In this report, we discuss the status of the markers currently available in an attempt to tailor specific targeted therapies for rectal cancer in the neoadjuvant setting.

  8. Refining Preoperative Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In the PROSPECT trial, patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy or neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, with chemoradiation reserved for nonresponders.

  9. Adult rectosigmoid junction intussusception presenting with rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing Zeng; Teo, Li Tserng; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of intussusception in adults present with chronic and nonspecific symptoms, and can sometimes be challenging to diagnose. We herein report on a patient with the rare symptom of colonic intussusceptions presenting with rectal prolapse and review the existing literature of similar case reports to discuss how to reach an accurate diagnosis. A 75-year-old woman with dementia presented with per rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse and lower abdominal pain. An operation was scheduled and a large sigmoid intussusception with a polyp as a leading point was found intraoperatively. She subsequently recovered well and was discharged. As large sigmoid intussusceptions may present as rectal prolapse, intussusception should be considered as a differential diagnosis for immobile patients, especially when the leading point is a lesion.

  10. Adult rectosigmoid junction intussusception presenting with rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing Zeng; Teo, Li Tserng; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of intussusception in adults present with chronic and nonspecifi c symptoms, and can sometimes be challenging to diagnose. We herein report on a patient w ith the rare symptom of colonic intussusceptions presenting with rectal prolapse and review the existing literature of similar case reports to discuss how to reach an accurate diagnosis. A 75-year-old woman with dementia presented with per rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse and lower abdominal pain. An operation was scheduled and a large sigmoid intussusception with a polyp as a leading point was found intraoperatively. She subsequently recovered well and was discharged. As large sigmoid intussusceptions may present as rectal prolapse, intussusception should be considered as a differential diagnosis for immobile patients, especially when the leading point is a lesion. PMID:26034324

  11. Intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema.

    PubMed

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Kang Moon; Cho, Hyeon-Min

    2011-11-01

    Rectal burns caused by hot water enema have been reported only occasionally and the majority of them were treated in a conservative manner. Although intractable rectal stricture caused by rectal burn is rare, it may be treated by endoscopic intervention or surgery. A 52-year-old woman who had used various methods of enema to treat her chronic constipation eventually undertook a hot water enema herself. After that, anal pain and constipation became aggravated prompting her to visit our clinic. Although various nonoperative treatments including endoscopic stenting were performed, her obstructive symptom did not improve and endoscopic findings had not changed. Hence, we performed a laparoscopic proctosigmoidectomy and transanal coloanal anastomosis with ileal diversion to treat the disease, and as a result, her obstructive symptom improved well. Corrective surgery such as resection of involved segment with anastomosis may be beneficial in relieving obstructive symptoms of an intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema.

  12. Intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Kang Moon

    2011-01-01

    Rectal burns caused by hot water enema have been reported only occasionally and the majority of them were treated in a conservative manner. Although intractable rectal stricture caused by rectal burn is rare, it may be treated by endoscopic intervention or surgery. A 52-year-old woman who had used various methods of enema to treat her chronic constipation eventually undertook a hot water enema herself. After that, anal pain and constipation became aggravated prompting her to visit our clinic. Although various nonoperative treatments including endoscopic stenting were performed, her obstructive symptom did not improve and endoscopic findings had not changed. Hence, we performed a laparoscopic proctosigmoidectomy and transanal coloanal anastomosis with ileal diversion to treat the disease, and as a result, her obstructive symptom improved well. Corrective surgery such as resection of involved segment with anastomosis may be beneficial in relieving obstructive symptoms of an intractable rectal stricture caused by hot water enema. PMID:22148129

  13. A crunching colon: rectal bezoar caused by pumpkin seed consumption.

    PubMed

    Manne, Janaki R; Rangu, Venu M; Motapothula, Uma Maheswara R; Hall, Matthew C

    2012-05-01

    Rectal seed bezoars are an uncommon cause of fecal impaction, particularly in the United States. Although the literature has reported several cases of phytobezoars composed of various types of seeds, bezoars formed of pumpkin seeds have rarely been reported. We report a case of a man, aged 62 years, with a rectal bezoar composed of pumpkin seeds with complications necessitating extensive treatment, including manual disimpaction and colonoscopy.

  14. Bioavailabilities of rectal and oral methadone in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ola; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2004-01-01

    Aims Rectal administration of methadone may be an alternative to intravenous and oral dosing in cancer pain, but the bioavailability of the rectal route is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the absolute rectal bioavailability of methadone with its oral bioavailability in healthy humans. Methods Seven healthy subjects (six males, one female, aged 20–39 years) received 10 mg d5-methadone-HCl rectally (5 ml in 20% glycofurol) together with either d0-methadone intravenously (5 mg) or orally (10 mg) on two separate occasions. Blood samples for the LC-MS analyses of methadone and it's metabolite EDDP were drawn for up to 96 h. Noninvasive infrared pupillometry was peformed at the same time as blood sampling. Results The mean absolute rectal bioavalability of methadone was 0.76 (0.7, 0.81), compared to 0.86 (0.75, 0.97) for oral administration (mean (95% CI)). Rectal absorption of methadone was more rapid than after oral dosing with Tmax values of 1.4 (0.9, 1.8) vs. 2.8 (1.6, 4.0) h. The extent of formation of the metabolite EDDP did not differ between routes of administration. Single doses of methadone had a duration of action of at least 10 h and were well tolerated. Conclusions Rectal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption, a high bioavailability and long duration of action. No evidence of presystemic elimination was seen. Rectal methadone has characteristics that make it a potential alternative to intravenous and oral administration, particularly in cancer pain and palliative care. PMID:15255797

  15. Combined-modality therapy for rectal cancer using irinotecan.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2002-05-01

    Preoperative or postoperative pelvic radiation plus concurrent fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is standard adjuvant treatment for patients with T3 and/or N1/2 rectal cancer. Newer chemotherapeutic regimens have been developed for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease. Irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar)-based regimens have improved survival in patients with metastatic disease and are being actively investigated in combination with pelvic radiation therapy for patients with rectal cancer.

  16. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  17. Excretory transport of xenobiotics by dogfish shark rectal gland tubules.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S; Masereeuw, R; Henson, J; Karnaky, K J

    1998-09-01

    Marine elasmobranch rectal gland is a specialized, osmoregulatory organ composed of numerous blind-ended, branched tubules emptying into a central duct. To date, NaCl excretion has been its only described function. Here we use isolated rectal gland tubule fragments from dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), fluorescent xenobiotics, and confocal microscopy to describe a second function, xenobiotic excretion. Isolated rectal gland tubules rapidly transported the fluorescent organic anion sulforhodamine 101 from bath to lumen. Luminal accumulation was concentrative, saturable, and inhibited by cyclosporin A (CSA), chlorodinitrobenzene, leukotriene C4, and KCN. Inhibitors of renal organic anion transport (probenecid, p-aminohippurate), organic cation transport (tetraethylammonium and verapamil), and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) were without effect. Cellular accumulation of sulforhodamine 101 was not concentrative, saturable, or inhibitable. Rectal gland tubules did not secrete fluorescein, daunomycin, or a fluorescent CSA derivative. Finally, frozen rectal gland sections stained with an antibody to a hepatic canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or MRP2) showed heavy and specific staining on the luminal membrane of the epithelial cells. We conclude that rectal gland is capable of active and specific excretion of xenobiotics and that such transport is mediated by a shark analog of MRP2, an ATP-driven xenobiotic transporter, but not by P-glycoprotein.

  18. Management and outcome of rectal injury during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun Ju; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-01-01

    To assess the incidence and management of accidental rectal injury during gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. A retrospective study with review of outcomes (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). A tertiary care/research/university hospital. Patients with colon injury during laparoscopy for gynecologic diseases at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2000 to April 2012. Use of absorbable suture or staples in primary repair of injured colon. From January 2000 to April 2012, 12 354 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery. Rectal injury occurred in 15 women (0.12%). Their median age was 42.5 years (30-49), and the median length of injury was 3 cm (0.7-7). Among 13 patients with rectal injuries recognized during surgery, 10 patient injuries were repaired primarily with interrupted absorbable sutures without converting laparotomy, 1 patient underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection with Endo-GIA, 1 underwent open primary repair, and 1 underwent open low anterior resection. Two rectal injuries were detected after surgery. One of these patients underwent primary repair under laparotomy at day 4 after surgery. The other patient had development of a rectovaginal fistula requiring open segmental resection 30 days after primary laparoscopy despite conservative management, including percutaneous drainage and prophylactic antibiotics. Rectal injury during laparoscopy in the gynecologic field can be repaired successfully without the need for a colostomy regardless of mechanism of injury and the size of injury if adequate rectal tissue is available and recognized during surgery. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of remifentanil use on early postoperative outcomes following brain tumor resection or rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji; Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Sumitani, Masahiko; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Shinya; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2012-10-01

    Remifentanil, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, has important characteristics for neuroanesthesia, but data about its effects on postoperative recovery and mortality are currently lacking. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in 2007, we selected patients who underwent elective brain tumor resection with open craniotomy under general anesthesia using either remifentanil or fentanyl and divided them into two categories: remifentanil patients and non-remifentanil patients. After propensity score matching for potential confounders, we compared the in-hospital mortality and postoperative length of stay (LOS) between the two groups. For comparison, the same endpoints were evaluated for patients underwent rectal cancer surgery under general anesthesia with intraoperative epidural anesthesia. In patients who underwent brain tumor resection (936 pairs), remifentanil patients had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (1.5 % vs. 3.0 %; P = 0.029). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for use of remifentanil for in-hospital mortality was 0.47 (95 % confidence interval, 0.25-0.91; P = 0.025). Remifentanil patients also showed earlier discharge from hospital (median LOS, 17 vs. 19 days; hazard ratio, 1.19, 95 % confidence interval, 1.08-1.30; P < 0.001). In contrast, in 2,756 pairs of patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery, no significant difference was seen in either in-hospital morality (1.2 % vs. 1.3 %; P = 0.518) or median LOS (19 vs. 19 days; P = 0.148) between the two groups. Our data suggest a possible association between use of remifentanil and better early postoperative recovery for patients undergoing neurosurgery with craniotomy. Further studies, including a randomized controlled trial, are required to confirm the present results.

  20. TEM and conventional rectal surgery for T1 rectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Wu, Yong-You; Li, Shan; Zhu, Bao-Song; Zhao, Kui; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xing, Chun Gen

    2011-01-01

    To compare transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) with conventional radical surgery (CRS) for T1 rectal cancer focusing on safety, feasibility and efficacy of both procedures. An online search of Ovid, Medline, Embase, Pubmed and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was undertaken to identify studies comparing TEM with CRS published in English between 1984 and March 2010. Only studies comparing TEM with CRS for T1 rectal cancer treatment and with a minimum of 20 cases were included. The parameters compared were postoperative complications, hospital mortality, recurrence rate and 5-year survival. Five studies met screening criteria and 397 patients were enrolled in the meta-analysis; 216 were treated with TEM and the rest received CRS. Complications were observed in 16/196 in the TEM group and 77/163 in the CRS group. The difference was significant (p=0.01). The rate of mortality was 3.68% in CRS group, and 0 in TEM group (p=0.01). The 5-year survival was similar (p=0.84), the TEM group was 80.1% and the CRS group was 81.0%. However, there was more recurrence in the TEM group compared to CRS group (p=0.0004). TEM group was 12.0%, while CRS group was 0.5%. Compared with CRS, TEM had significant shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications. TEM is a safe, feasible and effective option for T1 rectal cancer. Though TEM had a slightly higher rate of recurrence than CRS, no significant difference on 5-year survival was observed.

  1. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

  2. The accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    COTE, ADRIAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; LEBOVICI, ANDREI; MOIS, EMIL; AL HAJJAR, NADIM; MARE, CODRUTA; BADEA, RADU; IANCU, CORNEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The incidence of rectal cancer in the European Union is about 35% of the total colorectal cancer incidence. Staging rectal cancer is important for planning treatment. It is essential for the management of rectal cancer to have adequate preoperative imaging, because accurate staging can influence the therapeutic strategy, type of resection, and candidacy for neoadjuvant therapy. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in rectal cancer staging. Methods A retrospective study was performed to assess the accuracy of ERUS by analyzing patients discharged from Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (IRGH) Cluj-Napoca, Romania, diagnosed with rectal cancer between 01 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Patients who were preoperatively staged by other imaging methods and those who had ERUS performed in another service were excluded from the analysis. As inclusion criteria remained ERUS performed for patients with rectal cancer in IRGH Cluj-Napoca where they were also operated. We analyzed preoperative T stage obtained by ERUS and it was compared with the histopathology findings. Results The number of patients discharged with a diagnosis of rectal cancer were 200 (operated – 157) in 2011, 193 (operated – 151) in 2012, and 198 (operated – 142) in 2013. We analyzed a total of 51 cases diagnosed with rectal cancer who performed ERUS in IRGH Cluj-Napoca. The results according to the T stage obtained by ERUS and histopathology test were: Under-stage T2= 25.0%, T3=7.9% of cases; Over-stage T2=25.0%, T3=31.6% and T4=60.0% of cases. Less than 20% of patients underwent preoperative radio-chemotherapy. Conclusions ERUS is a method of staging rectal cancer which is human dependent. ERUS is less accurate for T staging of stenotic tumours, but the accuracy may still be within acceptable limits. Surgeons use ERUS to adopt a treatment protocol, knowing the risk of under-staging and over-staging of this method

  3. [Quality standards in rectal cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Pera, M; Pascual, M

    2005-01-01

    The results of surgery for rectal cancer have classically been measured through indicators such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. In the last few years other parameters have been included that evaluate healthcare quality such as the functional results of the surgical technique employed and quality of life. Total resection of the mesorectum, performed by experienced surgeons, is the surgical technique of choice. Currently, the sphincter can be preserved in 70% of patients. Anastomotic dehiscence after anterior resection of the rectum is the most serious complication and the most important risk factor is the height of the anastomosis. The overall dehiscence rate should be less than 15% and operative mortality should be between 2% and 3%. The colonic reservoir improves functional outcome and consequently it is the procedure of choice to reconstruct transit after low anterior resection. Local recurrence should be less than 10% and 5-year survival should be between 70% and 80%. In general, quality of life is better after anterior resection of the rectum than after abdominoperineal amputation, despite the functional deterioration presented by some patients.

  4. What is being researched in rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Reina Duarte, Angel; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Rubio Gil, Francisco A; Belda Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Antonio; Blesa Sierra, Isabel; Fuentes Porcel, Orlando; Vidaña Márquez, Elisa; Rosado Cobian, Rafael

    2014-11-25

    Clinical evidence has a more significant role in medical specialties than in surgery. Rectal cancer (CR) is no exception. This paper explores what CR-related subjects are being investigated at the present time in a quantitative and qualitative way and analyzes this information to know what possible answers clinical research could give us in the future. The data collection was carried out in April 2014 and was based on 3 sources: 2 institutional clinical trials registries -American (clinicaltrials.gov) and European (EU Clinical Trials Register)- and a survey given to members of the Asociación Española de Coloproctología (AECP). The obtained studies were exported to a database designed especially for this review, which included a number of descriptive elements that would allow the cataloging of the different studies. The AECP survey results were analyzed separately. There are currently 216 clinical trials ongoing related to CR. Two-thirds are primarily conducted by oncologists. Nearly a third are surgical. The research focuses on improving preoperative treatment: new drugs, new schemes of chemo-radiotherapy (usually induction or consolidation schemes) or optimization of radiotherapy and its effects. Surgical clinical trials are related to robotics, laparoscopy, stoma, low colorectal anastomosis, distal CR and local treatment. Most of the current clinical trials ongoing on CR are analyzing aspects of chemo-radiotherapy and its effects. A third focus on purely surgical issues. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. [Peri-operative treatments for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Gérard, Jean-Pierre; Doyen, Jerome; Bénézery, Karen; Borens, Bruno; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; François, Éric

    2015-06-01

    Depending on its location or stage, rectal cancer may differ significantly. Before any treatment decision a careful work up is mandatory relying mainly on endoscopy and imaging (MRI). Surgery according to the TME principle is the cornerstone of treatment. Most of the time surgery is associated with external beam radiotherapy often combined with concurrent chemotherapy (capecitabine) according to the neoadjuvant regimen CAP 50 (5 weeks long). It is sometimes possible to escalate safely the dose of irradiation using contact X-ray brachytherapy 50 Kv or Iridium 192 interstitial brachytherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be given in case of pejorative pathological findings but its benefit is not yet proven in contrast with colon cancer. Local recurrences are becoming unusual as is permanent APE surgery with permanent stoma. To reduce the risk of distant metastasis clinical trials are testing first line chemotherapy in T3-4 lesions. For early stage (T2-"small" T3) clinical trials try to achieve organ preservation. Intensification of CAP 50 either with more chemotherapy or radiation dose escalation using contact X-ray aim at achieving a clinical complete response followed by local excision or close surveillance.

  6. Outcome of young patients with rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; Ruiz-García, Erika B.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; García-Pérez, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increase in the incidence of rectal carcinoma (RC) in young patients. Methods We analyzed 175 patients with sporadic RC which were divided in two groups according their age: 24 patients ≤40 years and 151 patients >40 years and the two groups were compared in order to determine if the outcomes (especially overall 5-year survival) were different. Results Overall 5-year survival was similar between groups (67.1% for patients over 40 years and 70.4% for those under 40 years, P=0.803). The only differences found were in some clinicopathologic features: patients <40 years showed more dissected lymph nodes (LNs) (21 vs. 15, P=0.035) and more LN metastasis (54.2% vs. 39.1%, P=0.048). In multivariate analysis factors associated with worse survival were incomplete resection and no use of neoadjuvant therapy. Age did not demonstrate prognostic value (P=0.077). Conclusions RC in people ≤40 years demonstrated greater number of LN harvested and LN metastases but oncologic outcomes, especially 5-year overall survival, were similar between groups. PMID:28280614

  7. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  8. [A Case of Rectal Syphilis Incidentally Found at Regular Medical Check-up].

    PubMed

    You, Ji Hong; Cho, Ki Won; Cha, Yoon Jin; Park, Hyo Jin

    2016-10-25

    Syphilis is a rare disease in the rectum. It is difficult to diagnose because the characteristics of the rectal syphilis rectal lesion are highly varied. The endoscopic findings of rectal syphilis are proctitis, ulcers, and masses. If rectal syphilis is suspected to be the cause for rectal lesions, it is important for physicians to consider the sexual history and sexual orientation of the patient. We report a case of incidental rectal syphilis in a 41-year-old man diagnosed during a regular medical check-up.

  9. Evaluation of the robotic approach concerning pitfalls in rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baukloh, J K; Reeh, M; Spinoglio, G; Corratti, A; Bartolini, I; Mirasolo, V M; Priora, F; Izbicki, J R; Gomez Fleitas, M; Gomez Ruiz, M; Perez, D R

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility and advantages of robotic rectal surgery (RRS) in comparison to conventional open or laparoscopic rectal resections have been postulated in several reports. But well-known challenges and pitfalls of minimal invasive rectal surgery have not been evaluated by a prospective, multicenter setting so far. Aim of this study was to analyze the perioperative outcome of patients following RRS especially in regard to the pitfalls such as obesity, male patients and low tumors by a European multicenter setting. This prospective study included 348 patients undergoing robotic surgery due to rectal cancer in six major European centers. Clinicopathological parameters, morbidity, perioperative recovery and short-term outcome were analyzed. A total of 283 restorative surgeries and 65 abdominoperineal resections were carried out. The conversion rate was 4.3%, mean blood loss was 191 ml, and mean operative time was 315 min. Postoperative complications with a Clavien-Dindo score >2 were observed in 13.5%. Obesity and low rectal tumors showed no significant higher rates of major complications or impaired oncological parameters. Male patients had significant higher rates of major complications and anastomotic leakage (p = 0.048 and p = 0.007, respectively). RRS is a promising tool for improvement of rectal resections. The well-known pitfalls of minimal-invasive rectal surgery like obesity and low tumors were sufficiently managed by RRS. However, RRS showed significantly higher rates of major complications and anastomotic leakage in male patients, which has to be evaluated by future randomized trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital rectal examination in the evaluation of rectovaginal septal defects.

    PubMed

    Rachaneni, Suneetha; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-02-17

    The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of digital rectal examination in the identification of a true rectocele. This is a retrospective observational study utilising 187 archived data sets of women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and/or pelvic organ prolapse between August 2012 and November 2013. Evaluation included a standardised interview, ICS-POPQ, rectal examination and 4D translabial ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the diagnosis of rectocele by digital rectal palpation on Valsalva manoeuvre. This diagnosis correlated with the sonographic diagnosis of rectocele to determine agreement between digital examination and ultrasound findings. Complete data sets were available for 180 participants. On imaging, the mean position of the rectal ampulla was 11.07 (-36.3 to 44.3) mm below the symphysis pubis; 42.8% (77) had a rectocele of a depth of ≥10 mm. On palpation, a rectocele was detected in 60 women (33%). Agreement between palpation and imaging was observed in 77%; the kappa was 0.52 (CI 0.39-0.65). On receiver operator characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.854 for the relationship between rectocele pocket depth and the detection of rectocele on palpation. Moderate agreement was found between digital rectal examination for rectocele and translabial ultrasound findings of a "true rectocele". Digital rectal examination may be used to identify these defects in clinical practice. Extending the clinical examination of prolapse to include rectal examination to palpate defects in the rectovaginal septum may reduce the need for defecatory proctograms for the assessment of obstructive defecation and may help triage patients in the management of posterior compartment prolapse.

  11. 'Objective' assessment of rectal sensation: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; El-Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ali A; Ahmed, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    Rectal sensation is used as an investigative tool in the diagnosis of anorectal pathology. However, the data obtained are subjective depending on the patient's perception of the sensation. We investigated the hypothesis that sympathetic skin response (SSR) can be used as a tool for objective assessment of the rectal sensation. The SSR was recorded in 24 healthy volunteers (age 37.2 years, 14 men) using a surface electrode applied to the skin of the palmar surface of the subject's hand and a reference electrode to the dorsum of the same hand. The EMG activity of the pelvic floor muscles was registered by a surface electrode fixed to the perineal skin. The subject was asked before and after individual anesthetization of the rectum and palm to report the first rectal and urge sensations during balloon filling of the rectum in increments of 10 ml of saline. Low volume rectal distension effected no sympathetic skin or pelvic floor responses, while larger volumes produced the response. The skin and pelvic floor responses occurred with every rectal sensation and corresponded with the volunteers' subjective perception. Urge suppression was associated with synchronous decrease of skin and pelvic floor responses which disappeared on balloon expulsion. Rectal balloon distension, 20 minutes after individual anesthetization of the rectum or palm produced no palm skin response, which returned however 3 hours later. A novel approach which can objectively define subjective perceptions arising from the rectum has been identified. Rectal sensations produce coordinated sympathetic skin response and pelvic floor activity which seem to be mediated through a reflex which we term the "recto-palmar reflex". Further studies are required to investigate the role of this reflex in defection and sympathetic disorders.

  12. Apex technique in the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome associated with rectal intussusception and full rectal mucosa prolapse.

    PubMed

    Regadas, F Sergio P; Abedrapo, Mario; Cruz, Jose Vinicius; Murad Regadas, Sthela M; Regadas Filho, F Sergio P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the use of a modified stapling technique, called the apex technique, to treat rectal intussusception and full rectal mucosal prolapse. It was conducted as a retrospective study at 3 centers (2 in Brazil and 1 in Chile). The apex technique is performed by using a HEM/EEA-33 stapler. A pursestring suture is placed at the apex of the prolapse, on the 4 quadrants, independent of the distance to the dentate line. A second pursestring is then placed to define the band of rectal mucosa to be symmetrically resected. Outcome measures included width of the resected full-thickness rectal wall; the intensity of postoperative pain on a visual analog scale from 1 to 10; full mucosal prolapse and rectal intussusception assessed by physical examination, cinedefecography, or echodefecography; and change in the constipation scale. Forty-five patients (30 women/15 men; mean age, 59.5 years) with rectal intussusception and full mucosal prolapse were included. The median operative time was 17 (range, 15-30) minutes. Bleeding after stapler fire requiring manual suture occurred in 3 patients (6.7%); 25 (55.6%) patients reported having no postoperative pain. Hospital stay was 24 hours. The mean width of the resected rectal wall was 5.9 (range, 5.0-7.5) cm. Stricture at the staple line was seen in 4 patients, of whom 1 required dilation under anesthesia. The median follow-up time was 120 (range, 90-120) days. A small residual prolapse was identified in 6 (13.3%) patients. Imaging demonstrated complete disappearance of rectal intussusception in all patients, and the mean postoperative constipation score decreased from 13 (range, 8-15) to 5 (range, 3-7). The apex technique appears to be a safe, quickly performed, and low-cost method for the treatment of rectal intussusception. In this series, imaging examinations showed the disappearance of rectal intussusception, and a significant decrease in constipation score suggested improvement in

  13. Impact of surgical site infections after open and laparoscopic colon and rectal surgeries on postoperative resource consumption.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Morikane, K; Kuroki, M; Kawai, S; Hayashi, K; Ieiri, Y; Matsukawa, H; Okada, K; Sakamoto, F; Shinzato, T; Taniguchi, S

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the impact of surgical site infection (SSI) on postoperative resource consumption for colon and rectal open and laparoscopic surgeries after accounting for infection depth and patient characteristics, and to compare these estimates among institutions. We collected administrative and SSI-related data from eight Japanese hospitals, and used generalized linear models to estimate excess postoperative length of stay (LOS) and charges attributable to SSI. Covariates included wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation time, emergency, colostomy, trauma, implant, and comorbidities. We examined 1,108 colon surgery (CS) and 477 rectal surgery (RS) patients. For open surgery, the postoperative LOS in non-SSI patients was 13.5 (CS) and 15.9 days (RS). Compared with non-SSI patients, the postoperative LOS increased by 4.5 (CS) and 2.8 days (RS) for superficial SSI, 6.8 (CS) and 8.5 days (RS) for deep SSI, and 7.8 and 9.5 days for space/organ SSI. For laparoscopic surgery, the postoperative LOS was 9.8 (CS) and 14.6 days (RS). SSI was significantly associated with increased postoperative LOS for superficial SSI [by 4.8 (CS) and 3.6 days (RS)], deep SSI [by 10.3 (CS) and 23.9 days (RS)], and space/organ SSI [by 8.9 days (RS)]. The postoperative LOS among hospitals was 3.8-10.4 days (CS) and 1.3-12.2 days (RS). Postoperative SSI-attributable charges ranged from $386 to $2,873, depending on organ, procedure, and infection depth. This study quantified the impact of SSIs on resource consumption and confirmed significant cost variations among hospitals. These variations could not be explained by patient characteristics or infection type.

  14. Nomogram to predict rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Ospina, Juan David; Beckendorf, Véronique; Chira, Ciprian; Zhu, Jian; Bossi, Alberto; Messai, Taha; Acosta, Oscar; Castelli, Joël; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), while integrating the potential impact of RT technique, dose escalation, and moderate hypofractionation, thus enabling us to generate a nomogram for individual prediction. Methods In total, 972 patients underwent RT for localized prostate cancer, to a total dose of 70 Gy or 80 Gy, using two different fractionations (2 Gy or 2.5 Gy/day), by means of several RT techniques (3D conformal RT [3DCRT], intensity-modulated RT [IMRT], or image-guided RT [IGRT]). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity. A nomogram was generated based on the logistic regression model used to predict the 3-year rectal toxicity risk, with its accuracy assessed by dividing the cohort into training and validation subgroups. Results Mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 62 months, ranging from 6 to 235. The rate of acute Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity was 22.2%, decreasing when combining IMRT and IGRT, compared to 3DCRT (RR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3–0.6, p<0.01). The 5-year Grade ≥2 risks for rectal bleeding, urgency/tenesmus, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence were 9.9%, 4.5%, 2.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. The 3-year Grade ≥2 risk for overall rectal toxicity increased with total dose (p<0.01, RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 1.0–1.1) and dose per fraction (2Gy vs. 2.5Gy) (p = 0.03, RR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.1–10.0), and decreased when combining IMRT and IGRT (RR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.3–0.8, p<0.01). Based on these three parameters, a nomogram was generated. Conclusions Dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation increase late rectal toxicity. IMRT combined with IGRT markedly decreases acute and late rectal toxicity. Performing combined IMRT and IGRT can thus be envisaged for dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation. Our nomogram predicts the 3-year rectal toxicity risk by integrating total dose, fraction dose, and RT technique. PMID:28640871

  15. [Repeatability of measurements of the rectal temperature and comparison of vaginal and rectal temperature in puerperal sows].

    PubMed

    Stiehler, T; Heuwieser, W; Pfützner, A; Voigtsberger, R; Burfeind, O

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum diseases of sows are economically important in the pig industry. They affect animal health and welfare of sows and piglets. Measuring rectal temperature in sows post partum is a commonly used diagnostic method to early detection of infectious diseases. The study consisted of five parts. The objective of the first four parts was to evaluate the influence of different factors on the measurements of rectal temperature (e.g. investigator, thermometer, penetration depth of the thermometer). The secondary objective of this study was to validate the application of a temperature logger to continuously measure vaginal temperature. Thirty sows on the first day postpartum were used in the first four parts of the study. Rectal temperature was measured repeatedly by one investigator, by different investigators, with different thermometers and at different penetration depths. For the fifth part of the study 21 sows on the first day postpartum were used. A temperature logger was inserted in the vagina for a duration of 6 hours. Additionally, rectal temperature was measured. The data showed that rectal temperature can be measured repeatably (mean ± standard deviation = 38.7 ± 0.1 °C, coefficient of variation = 0.2%). Different investigators or thermometers resulted in low differences (0.0 °C and 0.1 °C). The penetration depth of the thermometer influenced the result (difference of 0.4 °C between 5 and 10 cm). Rectal and vaginal temperatures, measured in 21 sows, were highly correlated (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) with a mean difference of 0.3 °C. Rectal temperature measurement can be regarded as a repeatable diagnostic method. The measurement should be standardized (type of thermometer, penetration depth). The measurement of vaginal temperature with a data logger in early puerperal sows is a possible means for a continuous and non-invasive monitoring of body temperature.

  16. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Dahl, Alv A.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik; Fossa, Sophie D.; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  17. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors.

  18. [Rectal ozone therapy for patients with pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Calunga, José Luis; Paz, Yuleidys; Menéndez, Silvia; Martínez, Alfredo; Hernández, Aparicio

    2011-04-01

    Ozone therapy may stimulate antioxidant systems and protect against free radicals. It has not been used formerly in patients with pulmonary emphysema. To assess the effects of rectal ozone therapy in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Sixty four patients with pulmonary emphysema, aged between 40 and 69 years, were randomly assigned to receive rectal ozone in 20 daily sessions, rectal medicinal oxygen or no treatment. Treatments were repeated three months later in the first two groups. At baseline and at the end of the study, spirometry and a clinical assessment were performed. fifty patients completed the protocol, 20 receiving ozone therapy, 20 receiving rectal oxygen and 10 not receiving any therapy. At baseline, patients on ozone therapy had significantly lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second (fEV1) and fEV1/forced vital capacity. At the end of the treatment period, these parameters were similar in the three treatment groups, therefore they only improved significantly in the group on ozone therapy. No differences were observed in other spirometric parameters. Rectal ozone therapy may be useful in patients with pulmonary emphysema.

  19. Bladder and rectal complications following radiotherapy for cervix cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.; Velkley, D.E.; Cunningham, D.E.; Mortel, R.; Craycraft, G.; Shafer, J.

    1988-01-01

    One-hundred and thirty-two patients with cervix carcinoma who were treated with whole pelvis irradiation and two intracavitary applications had bladder and rectal dosimetry during brachytherapy with contrast agents placed into the bladder and rectum prior to orthogonal simulator radiographs. Doses were computer calculated at points A and B, F (bladder), R1 (rectum), and R2 (rectosigmoid). Late occurring bladder and rectal complications were graded on a severity scale of 1 to 3, and 14% had grade 2 or 3 injuries (9% developed fistulas). Statistical evaluation of the data showed that severe bladder and rectal injuries occur more commonly in stage IIIA and IIIB disease and in those receiving high external beam doses (5000 rad +). Analysis of variance tests revealed a significant correlation of brachytherapy dose to points R1 and R2 with severe rectal injuries but there was not a correlation of dose to F with bladder injuries. Nor was there correlation of injuries with dose to point A or the milligram-hour dose. We conclude that our technique for rectal dosimetry is adequate but that an improved technique of bladder dosimetry is needed. Also, when combining whole pelvis irradiation with two intracavitary applications (4000 rad to point A), the whole pelvis dose should probably not exceed 4000-4500 rad.

  20. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:27416752

  1. Patient surveillance after curative-intent surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Frank E; Longo, Walter E; Ode, Kenichi; Shariff, Umar S; Papettas, Trifonas; McGarry, Alaine E; Gammon, Steven R; Lee, Paul A; Audisio, Riccardo A; Grossmann, Erik M; Virgo, Katherine S

    2005-09-01

    The follow-up of patients with rectal cancer after potentially curative resection has significant financial and clinical implications for patients and society. The ideal regimen for monitoring patients is unknown. We evaluated the self-reported practice patterns of a large, diverse group of experts. There is little information available describing the actual practice of clinicians who perform potentially curative surgery on rectal cancer patients and follow them after recovery. The 1795 members of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons were asked, via a detailed questionnaire, how often they request 14 discrete follow-up modalities in their patients treated for cure with TNM stage I, II, or III rectal cancer over the first five post-treatment years. 566/1782 (32%) responded and 347 of the respondents (61%) provided evaluable data. Members of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons typically follow their own patients postoperatively rather than sending them back to their referral source. Office visit and serum CEA level are the most frequently requested items for each of the first five postoperative years. Endoscopy and imaging tests are also used regularly. Considerable variation exists among these highly experienced, highly credentialed experts. The surveillance strategies reported here rely most heavily on relatively simple and inexpensive tests. Endoscopy is employed frequently; imaging tests are employed less often. The observed variation in the intensity of postoperative monitoring is of concern.

  2. Lamellipodin-Deficient Mice: A Model of Rectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cassandra L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Shen, Zeli; Drees, Frauke; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Chen, Xiaowei; Gong, Guanyu; Nagar, Karan K.; Wang, Timothy C.; Gertler, Frank B.; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    During a survey of clinical rectal prolapse (RP) cases in the mouse population at MIT animal research facilities, a high incidence of RP in the lamellipodin knock-out strain, C57BL/6-Raph1tm1Fbg (Lpd-/-) was documented. Upon further investigation, the Lpd-/- colony was found to be infected with multiple endemic enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS). Lpd-/- mice, a transgenic mouse strain produced at MIT, have not previously shown a distinct immune phenotype and are not highly susceptible to other opportunistic infections. Predominantly male Lpd-/- mice with RP exhibited lesions consistent with invasive rectal carcinoma concomitant to clinically evident RP. Multiple inflammatory cytokines, CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations, and epithelial cells positive for a DNA damage biomarker, H2AX, were elevated in affected tissue, supporting their role in the neoplastic process. An evaluation of Lpd-/- mice with RP compared to EHS-infected, but clinically normal (CN) Lpd-/- animals indicated that all of these mice exhibit some degree of lower bowel inflammation; however, mice with prolapses had significantly higher degree of focal lesions at the colo-rectal junction. When Helicobacter spp. infections were eliminated in Lpd-/- mice by embryo transfer rederivation, the disease phenotype was abrogated, implicating EHS as a contributing factor in the development of rectal carcinoma. Here we describe lesions in Lpd-/- male mice consistent with a focal inflammation-induced neoplastic transformation and propose this strain as a mouse model of rectal carcinoma. PMID:27045955

  3. Multiple differential expression networks identify key genes in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ri-Heng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Li, Shuang; Li, Tian-Yang; Wang, Lian-Jing; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiong-Jie; Zhang, Tao; Peng, Xin-Yu; Liu, Min-Di; Wang, Xu; Lang, Yan; Xue, Wei-Lan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer is an important contributor to cancer mortality. The objective of this paper is to identify key genes across three phenotypes (fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer) of rectal cancer based on multiple differential expression networks (DENs). Differential interactions and non-differential interactions were evaluated according to Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) algorithm, and were selected to construct DENs. Topological analysis was performed for exploring hub genes in largest components of DENs. Key genes were denoted as intersections between nodes of DENs and rectal cancer associated genes from Genecards. Finally, we utilized hub genes to classify phenotypes of rectal cancer on the basis of support vector machines (SVM) methodology. We obtained 19 hub genes and total 12 common key genes of three largest components of DENs, and EGFR was the common element. The SVM results revealed that hub genes could classify phenotypes, and validated feasibility of DEN methods. We have successfully identified significant genes (such as EGFR and UBC) across fungating, polypoid and polypoid & small-ulcer phenotype of rectal cancer. They might be potential biomarkers for classification, detection and therapy of this cancer.

  4. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology.

  5. Voiding Dysfunction after Total Mesorectal Excision in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Noh, Tae Il; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Jae Young; Lee, Jeong Gu; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung Wook

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the voiding dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods This was part of a prospective study done in the rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery with TME between November 2006 and June 2008. Consecutive uroflowmetry, post-voided residual volume, and a voiding questionnaire were performed at preoperatively and postoperatively. Results A total of 50 patients were recruited in this study, including 28 male and 22 female. In the comparison of the preoperative data with the postoperative 3-month data, a significant decrease in mean maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume were found. In the comparison with the postoperative 6-month data, however only the maximal flow rate was decreased with statistical significance (P=0.02). In the comparison between surgical methods, abdominoperineal resection patients showed delayed recovery of maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume. There was no significant difference in uroflowmetry parameters with advances in rectal cancer stage. Conclusions Voiding dysfunction is common after rectal cancer surgery but can be recovered in 6 months after surgery or earlier. Abdominoperineal resection was shown to be an unfavorable factor for postoperative voiding. Larger prospective study is needed to determine the long-term effect of rectal cancer surgery in relation to male and female baseline voiding condition. PMID:22087426

  6. [Current MRI staging of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wietek, B M; Kratt, T

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most prevalent cause for cancer, and has very variable outcomes. Advancements in surgery, the change from adjuvant to neo-adjuvant radio-chemo-therapies as well as in clinical diagnostics have improved the prognosis for patients in a multi-modal therapy concept. An accurate primary staging including a reliable prediction of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has established MR Imaging (MRI) beside intraluminal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). MRI facilitates the selection of patients likely to benefit from a preoperative therapy, especially in cases of unfavorable factors. Currently the relationship of the tumor to the mesorectal fascia has become a more important prognostic factor than the T-staging, particularly for surgical therapy. In addition further prognostic factors like the depth of infiltration into the perirectal fat and the extramural venous infiltration (EMVI) have important impact on therapy and prognosis. High resolution MRI has proved useful in clarifying the relationship between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia, which represents the CRM at the total mesorectal excision (TME) especially in the upper and middle third. Preoperative evaluation of the other prognostic factors as well as the nodal status is still difficult. It is used increasingly not only for primary staging but also progressively for the monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. The addition of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an interesting option for the improvement of response evaluation. The following overview provides an introduction of MRI diagnosis as well as its importance for the evaluation of the clinically relevant prognostic factors leading to an improvement of therapy and prognosis of patients with rectal carcinoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Electrophysiological characterization of human rectal afferents

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kheng-Seong; Brookes, Simon J.; Montes-Adrian, Noemi A.; Mahns, David A.

    2016-01-01

    It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected. Extracellular visceral afferent nerve activity was recorded. Neuronal responses to chemical [capsaicin and “inflammatory soup” (IS)] and mechanical (Von Frey probing) stimuli were recorded and quantified as peak firing rate (range) in 1-s intervals. Twenty-eight separate nerve trunks from eight rectums were studied. Of these, spontaneous multiunit afferent activity was recorded in 24 nerves. Peak firing rates increased significantly following capsaicin [median 6 (range 3–25) spikes/s vs. 2 (1–4), P < 0.001] and IS [median 5 (range 2–18) spikes/s vs. 2 (1–4), P < 0.001]. Mechanosensitive “hot spots” were identified in 16 nerves [median threshold 2.0 g (range 1.4–6.0 g)]. In eight of these, the threshold decreased after IS [1.0 g (0.4–1.4 g)]. By comparison, spontaneous activity was recorded in only 3/30 nerves studied from 10 colons, and only one hot spot (threshold 60 g) was identified. This study confirms the anatomical/functional existence of extrinsic rectal afferent nerves and characterizes their chemo- and mechanosensitivity for the first time in humans. They have different electrophysiological properties to colonic afferents and warrant further investigation in disease states. PMID:27789454

  8. Electrophysiological characterization of human rectal afferents.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kheng-Seong; Brookes, Simon J; Montes-Adrian, Noemi A; Mahns, David A; Gladman, Marc A

    2016-12-01

    It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected. Extracellular visceral afferent nerve activity was recorded. Neuronal responses to chemical [capsaicin and "inflammatory soup" (IS)] and mechanical (Von Frey probing) stimuli were recorded and quantified as peak firing rate (range) in 1-s intervals. Twenty-eight separate nerve trunks from eight rectums were studied. Of these, spontaneous multiunit afferent activity was recorded in 24 nerves. Peak firing rates increased significantly following capsaicin [median 6 (range 3-25) spikes/s vs. 2 (1-4), P < 0.001] and IS [median 5 (range 2-18) spikes/s vs. 2 (1-4), P < 0.001]. Mechanosensitive "hot spots" were identified in 16 nerves [median threshold 2.0 g (range 1.4-6.0 g)]. In eight of these, the threshold decreased after IS [1.0 g (0.4-1.4 g)]. By comparison, spontaneous activity was recorded in only 3/30 nerves studied from 10 colons, and only one hot spot (threshold 60 g) was identified. This study confirms the anatomical/functional existence of extrinsic rectal afferent nerves and characterizes their chemo- and mechanosensitivity for the first time in humans. They have different electrophysiological properties to colonic afferents and warrant further investigation in disease states. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Results of radical surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Heald, R J; Karanjia, N D

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis that a reduction in the distal mural margin during anterior resection for sphincter conservation in rectal cancer excision is safe, provided total mesorectal excision is undertaken with wash-out of the clamped rectum. One hundred ninety-two patients underwent anterior resection and 21 (less than 10%) patients underwent abdomino-perineal excision (APE) by one surgeon (RJH). Anterior resections were classified as "curative" (79%) and "non-curative" (21%); in the "curative" sub-group less than 4% of patients developed local recurrence. The series was retrospectively analyzed for the effect of mural margins on local recurrence with 152 patients undergoing "curative" anterior resections and 40 patients undergoing "non-curative" resections. In the 152 specimens from curative resections, 110 had a resection margin greater than 1 cm and 42 had a resection margin less than 1 cm. Four patients developed local recurrence in the greater than 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0.8%-7.8%) and no patients developed local recurrence in the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group (95% confidence interval: 0%-5.9%). In each patient with local recurrence a cause for failure was apparent. There was no statistically significant difference in local recurrence rate between the less than or equal to 1 cm margin group and the greater than 1 cm margin group. A reduction in resection margin therefore did not compromise survival after anterior resection. The significance of lateral resection margins is discussed. The role of deep radiotherapy and cytotoxics are considered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glimelius, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    In rectal cancer treatment, attention has focused on the local primary tumour and the regional tumour cell deposits to diminish the risk of a loco-regional recurrence. Several large randomized trials have also shown that combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have markedly reduced the risk of a loco-regional recurrence, but this has not yet had any major influence on overall survival. The best results have been achieved when the radiotherapy has been given preoperatively. Preoperative radiotherapy improves loco-regional control even when surgery has been optimized to improve lateral clearance, i.e., when a total mesorectal excision has been performed. The relative reduction is then 50%-70%. The value of radiotherapy has not been tested in combination with more extensive surgery including lateral lymph node clearance, as practised in some Asian countries. Many details about how the radiotherapy is performed are still open for discussion, and practice varies between countries. A highly fractionated radiation schedule (5 Gy × 5), proven efficacious in many trials, has gained much popularity in some countries, whereas a conventionally fractionated regimen (1.8-2.0 Gy × 25-28), often combined with chemotherapy, is used in other countries. The additional therapy adds morbidity to the morbidity that surgery causes, and should therefore be administered only when the risk of loco-regional recurrence is sufficiently high. The best integration of the weakest modality, to date the drugs (conventional cytotoxics and biologicals) is not known. A new generation of trials exploring the best sequence of treatments is required. Furthermore, there is a great need to develop predictors of response, so that treatment can be further individualized and not solely based upon clinical factors and anatomic imaging. PMID:24379566

  11. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  12. The slippery slope: lubricant use and rectal sexually transmitted infections: a newly identified risk.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D

    2012-01-01

    Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Between 2006 and 2008, a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the University of California, Los Angeles Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires, and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay, and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model, testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.98 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk.

  13. Assessment of T staging and mesorectal fascia status using high-resolution MRI in rectal cancer with rectal distention

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Zeng, Meng-Su; Xu, Jian-Ming; Qin, Xin-Yu; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Li, Ren-Chen; Hou, Ying-Yong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the accuracy of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using phased-array coil for preoperative assessment of T staging and mesorectal fascia infiltration in rectal cancer with rectal distention. METHODS: In a prospective study of 67 patients with primary rectal cancer, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (in-plane resolution, 0.66 × 0.56) with phased-array coil were performed for T-staging and measurement of distance between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia. The assessment of MRI was compared with postoperative histopathologic findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall magnetic resonance accuracy was 85.1% for T staging and 88% for predicting mesorectal fascia involvement. Magnetic resonance sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value was 70%, 97.9%, 89.6%, 93.3% and 88.5% for ≤ T2 tumors, 90.5%, 76%, 85.1%, 86.4% and 82.6% for T3 tumors, 100%, 95.2%, 95.5%, 62.5% and 100% for T4 tumors, and 80%, 90.4%, 88%, 70.6% and 94% for predicting mesorectal fascia involvement, respectively. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MRI enables accurate preoperative assessment for T staging and mesorectal fascia infiltration in rectal cancer with rectal distention. PMID:17696238

  14. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-10-14

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion. Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer. A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7, which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum. The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  15. A Review of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Ji; Ma, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Yan, Yanli; Xue, Chaofan; Hui, Beina; Liu, Rui; Ma, Hailin; Ren, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy not only can reduce tumor size and recurrence, but also increase the tumor resection rate and anus retention rate with very slight side effect. Comparing with preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy can further reduce the local recurrence rate and downstage. Middle and low rectal cancers can benefit more from neoadjuvant chemradiotherapy than high rectal cancer. It needs to refine the selection of appropriate patients and irradiation modes for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Different therapeutic reactions to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy affect the type of surgical techniques, hence calling for the need of much attention. Furthermore, many problems such as accurate staging before surgery, selection of suitable neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy method, and sensitivity prediction to preoperative radiotherapy need to be well settled. PMID:27489505

  16. ["The three-lies disease": solitary rectal ulcer syndrome].

    PubMed

    Crespo Pérez, L; Moreira Vicente, V; Redondo Verge, C; López San Román, A; Milicua Salamero, J M

    2007-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon benign condition characterized by rectal bleeding, passage of mucus, and pain. Histological features are well established as obliteration of the lamina propria by fibrosis and smooth-muscle fibers extending from a thickened muscularis mucosa to the lumen. Diagnosis can usually be made on sigmoidoscopy, and biopsies should always be taken. Ulceration is not universally present, and polypoid, non-ulcerated lesions and erythematous areas are also seen. The lesion or lesions are most often found on the anterior or anterolateral wall of the rectum, although they can also be located in the left colon and be more extensive or even circumferential. Lesions are multiple in 30 percent of cases. These are the reasons why this entity is also known as "the disease of three lies". We report a case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome presenting at endoscopy with an erythematous area on the left side wall of the rectum.

  17. Unique considerations in the patient with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2011-08-01

    In the past two decades, substantial progress has been made in the adjuvant management of colorectal cancer. Chemotherapy has improved overall survival in patients with node-positive (N+) disease. In contrast with colon cancer, which has a low incidence of local recurrence, patients with rectal cancer have a higher incidence requiring the addition of pelvic radiation therapy (chemoradiation). Patients with rectal cancer have a number of unique management considerations: for example, the role of short-course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for all patients, and if the type of surgery following chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? This review will address these and other controversies specific to patients with rectal cancer.

  18. Smooth muscle pseudotumours: a potentially confusing artefact of rectal biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dankwa, E K; Davies, J D

    1988-01-01

    An artefactual smooth muscle lesion was found in seven of 500 consecutive rectal biopsy specimens. The lesions had the deceptive appearance of a genuine tumour although none of the patients with the lesion had presented with a rectal mucosal swelling. The morphology of the lesion and its poor reproducibility under experimental conditions suggested that it was an artefact of the biopsy procedure: it was easily reproduced in resected specimens of large bowel using punch or basket forceps but not when using flat forceps. The presence of the lesion seems to depend on the type of forceps used rather than on differences in deployment and seems to be caused by avulsion of the superficial part of the muscularis propria and its incorporation into the tissues included in rectal biopsy specimens. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 1 Fig 4 PMID:3045159

  19. Reproducibility with repeat CT in radiomics study for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Panpan; Wang, Jiazhou; Zhong, Haoyu; Zhou, Zhen; Shen, Lijun; Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reproducibility of radiomics features by repeating computed tomographic (CT) scans in rectal cancer. To choose stable radiomics features for rectal cancer. Results Volume normalized features are much more reproducible than unnormalized features. The average value of all slices is the most reproducible feature type in rectal cancer. Different filters have little effect for the reproducibility of radiomics features. For the average type features, 496 out of 775 features showed high reproducibility (ICC ≥ 0.8), 225 out of 775 features showed medium reproducibility (0.8 > ICC ≥ 0.5) and 54 out of 775 features showed low reproducibility (ICC < 0.5). Methods 40 rectal cancer patients with stage II were enrolled in this study, each of whom underwent two CT scans within average 8.7 days. 775 radiomics features were defined in this study. For each features, five different values (value from the largest slice, maximum value, minimum value, average value of all slices and value from superposed intermediate matrix) were extracted. Meanwhile a LOG filter with different parameters was applied to these images to find stable filter value. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and inter-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of two CT scans were calculated to assess the reproducibility, based on original features and volume normalized features. Conclusions Features are recommended to be normalized to volume in radiomics analysis. The average type radiomics features are the most stable features in rectal cancer. Further analysis of these features of rectal cancer can be warranted for treatment monitoring and prognosis prediction. PMID:27669756

  20. Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, William R.; Hosford, Charles C.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

  1. Human collagen injections to reduce rectal dose during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noyes, William R; Hosford, Charles C; Schultz, Steven E

    2012-04-01

    The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhou; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

  3. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    PubMed

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms.

  4. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  5. Rectal inflammatory stenosis secondary to Chlamydia trachomatis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sánchez, Luis Eduardo; Hernández Barroso, Moisés; Hernández Hernández, Guillermo

    2017-09-01

    The rectal inflammatory originated strictures constitute a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. We present a 30-year-old male patient with a history of HIV and protctitis caused by Chalmydia trachomatis and HSV-2, in which develops a low intestinal obstruction refractory to medical treatment. Surgery was performed with good clinical evolution. The medical treatment constitutes the fundamental basis of the therapy in these patients. Despite that, when fibrotic stenoses are not treatable medical or endoscopically, they often require surgical treatment. We must pay attention to the proctitis infectious diseases as a cause of rectal stenosis, especially by Chlamydia trachomatis, and assess surgical option in refractory cases.

  6. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy for incarcerated rectal prolapse (Altemeier’s procedure)

    PubMed Central

    Sipahi, Mesut; Arslan, Ergin; Börekçi, Hasan; Aytekin, Faruk Önder; Külah, Bahadır; Banlı, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Perineal procedures have higher recurrence and lower mortality rates than abdominal alternatives for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Presence of incarceration and strangulation also influences treatment choice. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy is one of the treatment options in patients with incarceration and strangulation, with low mortality and acceptable recurrence rates. This operation can be performed especially to avoid general anesthesia in old patients with co-morbidities. We aimed to present perineal rectosigmoidectomy and diverting loop colostomy in a patient with neurological disability due to spinal trauma and incarcerated rectal prolapse. PMID:27528816

  7. Fatal cerebral air embolism following endoscopic evaluation of rectal stump

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Chwanrow Karim; Murphy, Michael; Hennessy, Tony; O'Hanlon, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    A 63-year-old man underwent endoscopic evaluation of the rectal stump for rectal bleeding and suffered a massive cerebral air embolism with severe neurological impairment and subsequent death. The patient underwent a Hartmann's procedure 9 month previously for ischaemic bowel and was noted to have portal hypertension at laparotomy. We hypothesise that air entered the venous plexus around rectum and entered the azygos vein via a porto-systemic shunt and travelled retrogradely via the superior vena cava to the venous sinuses of the brain. PMID:23704447

  8. Perirectal fascia: morphology and use in staging of rectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, E.; Lierse, W.; Winkler, R.

    1983-10-01

    A revised anatomy of the perirectal fascia is proposed based on more than 2000 CT examinations of the lower pelvis. CT examination showed that the perirectal fascia completely encloses the capsula adipose rectalis within the subperitoneal space and separates the perirectal compartment from the pararectal connective tissue. The accuracy of CT in preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma was also demonstrated. It is concluded on the basis of 155 preopertive CT examinations of rectal carcinoma that CT staging is superior to Mason's clinical staging scheme, although routine staging by CT is not justified because slight perirectal tumor spread and lymph node metastasis cannot be predicted accurately.

  9. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation.

  10. Total mesorectal excision and management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Ilia; Phang, P Terry

    2007-10-01

    Treatment of rectal cancer over the last two decades has evolved with changes in techniques of surgery and radiation based on national and international trials. Preoperative adjuvant radiation is now preferred over postoperative adjuvant radiation, and total mesorectal excision with preservation of pelvic nerves is the gold standard for surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Preservation of the anal sphincter without compromising oncological outcome is an additional benefit for patients with carcinoma in the distal rectum. Further progress in imaging and a multidisciplinary team approach will facilitate individualization of treatment strategy with more focus on quality of life.

  11. Rectal foreign bodies: imaging assessment and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Pinto, Fabio; Mizio, Veronica Di; Panico, Maria Rita; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia

    2015-02-01

    The amount of patients presenting at the emergency hospitals with retained rectal foreign bodies appears recently to have increased. Foreign objects retained in the rectum may result from direct introduction through the anus (more common) or from ingestion. Affected individuals often make ineffective attempts to extract the object themselves, resulting in additional delay of medical care and potentially increasing the risk of complications. The goals of radiological patient assessment are to identify the type of object retained, its location, and the presence of associated complications. Plain film radiographs still play an important role in the assessment of retained rectal foreign bodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  13. Pre-referral rectal artesunate for severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okebe, Joseph; Eisenhut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe or complicated malaria is a medical emergency and people die as a result of delays in starting treatment. Most patients need parenteral treatment, and in primary healthcare facilities, where intravenous therapy is not available but intramuscular injections can be given, intramuscular quinine, artesunate, and artemether have been used before transporting patients to hospital. However, in rural settings with limited access to health care, intramuscular injections may also be unavailable. In these situations, rectal artesunate given prior to transfer to hospital by volunteers with little medical training, may be a feasible option. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate on mortality and morbidity in people with severe malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE and LILACS up to 21 May 2014. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Individual or cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing pre-referral rectal artesunate with placebo or injectable antimalarials in children and children with severe malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for potentially eligible trials, and extracted data from the included trials. Dichotomous outcomes were summarized using risk ratios (RR) and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Where data allowed, we conducted subgroup analyses by age, trial region and whether participants were included in the trial analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence for the most important outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results One trial met the inclusion criteria; a placebo-controlled trial of 17,826 children and adults living in rural villages in Ghana and Tanzania (Africa) and Bangladesh (Asia). Villagers with no

  14. Surgical Correction of Rectal Prolapse in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Wilding, Laura A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is a common clinical problem in laboratory mice. This condition may occur spontaneously, develop after genetic manipulations, result from infections with pathogens such as Citrobacter species, or arise secondary to experimental design such as colitis models. The current standard of care at our institution is limited to monitoring mice until tissue becomes ulcerated or necrotic; this strategy often leads to premature euthanasia of valuable animals prior to the study endpoint. Surgical correction of rectal prolapse is performed routinely and with minimal complications in larger species by using manual reduction with placement of a pursestring suture. In this report, we investigated whether the use of a pursestring suture was an effective treatment for mice with rectal prolapse. The procedure includes anesthetizing mice with isoflurane, manually reducing prolapsed tissue, and placing a pursestring suture of 4-0 polydioxanone. We have performed this procedure successfully in 12 mice. Complications included self-trauma, fecal impaction due to lack of defecation, and mutilation of the surgical site by cage mates. Singly housing mice for 7 d postoperatively, applying multimodal analgesia, and releasing the pursestring when indicated eliminated these complications. The surgical repair of rectal prolapses in mice is a minimally invasive procedure that resolves the clinical symptoms of affected animals and reduces the number of mice that are euthanized prematurely prior to the study endpoint.

  15. Transvaginal resection of a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayasu; Takayama, Satoru; Arakawa, Atsushi; Sato, Mikinori; Nagasaki, Takaya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    We herein report a case in which a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was resected transvaginally. The patient, a 45-year-old female, had a rectal GIST on the anterior wall of the lower rectum. The tumor was within 6 cm of the anal verge, a location which would normally require performing an ultra-low anterior resection using the Double Staple Technique, and a diverting stoma. To minimize the invasiveness of treatment and to reduce the postoperative morbidity, a transvaginal resection was performed. Under general anesthesia, the posterior vaginal mucosa was incised vertically. The tumor was then excised en bloc with the overlying rectovaginal septum and rectal mesenchymal tissue. The defect was repaired primarily, and a diverting stoma was not required. The procedure was uncomplicated, and the patient was discharged home with an intact anal sphincter function and no abdominal incisions. In female patients, transvaginal resection of low anterior rectal lesions may provide a minimally invasive alternative to the traditional ultra-low anterior resection.

  16. Prototype of a rectal wall ultrasound image analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Ng, Wan S.; Abeyratne, Udantha R.; Tsang, Charles B.

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a software system prototype for rectal wall ultrasound image processing, image display and 3D reconstruction and visualization of the rectal wall structure, which is aimed to help surgeons cope with large quantities of rectal wall ultrasound images. On the core image processing algorithm part, a novel multigradient field active contour model proposed by authors is used to complete the multi-layer boundary detection of the rectal wall. A novel unifying active contour model, which combines region information, gradient information and contour's internal constraint, is developed for tumor boundary detection. The region statistical information is described accurately by Gaussian Mixture Model, whose parameter solution is computed by Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The whole system is set up on Java platform. Java JAI technology is used for 2D image display, Java3D technology is employed for 3D reconstruction and visualization. The system prototype is currently composed of three main modules: image processing, image display and 3D visualization.

  17. Effects of oral phosphocysteamine and rectal cysteamine in cystinosis.

    PubMed Central

    van't Hoff, W G; Baker, T; Dalton, R N; Duke, L C; Smith, S P; Chantler, C; Haycock, G B

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal variation in leucocyte cystine and the effects of equimolar single doses of oral phosphocysteamine and rectal cysteamine were studied in eight patients with cystinosis, aged 1.8-16.5 years. No significant diurnal variation in leucocyte cystine was found. Absorption of cysteamine was reduced after rectal administration compared with the oral dose: mean (SD) peak concentration 17.2 (6.3) mumol/l v 36.4 (5.5) mumol/l at 40 min and mean (SD) area under the curve 22.3 (14.3) v 59.4 (33.1) mumol/h/l. Oral phosphocysteamine significantly reduced the mean (SD) leucocyte cystine from 8.09 (0.47) to 3.26 (1.48) nmol 1/2 cystine/mg protein at three hours. At 12 hours the mean leucocyte cystine was significantly lower than the pretreatment concentration. Rectal cysteamine did not significantly reduce the mean leucocyte cystine concentration. In conclusion, phosphocysteamine suspension may be administered every 12 hours. Rectal cysteamine administration is feasible but higher doses are required before efficacy can be judged. PMID:1776892

  18. Comparative clinicopathological characteristics of colon and rectal T1 carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ichimasa, Katsuro; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Kouyama, Yuta; Hayashi, Takemasa; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Hisayuki, Tomokazu; Kudo, Toyoki; Misawa, Masashi; Mori, Yuichi; Matsudaira, Shingo; Hidaka, Eiji; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Ishida, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis significantly influences the management of patients with colorectal carcinoma. It has been observed that the biology of colorectal carcinoma differs by location. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively compare the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with colon and rectal T1 carcinomas, particularly their rates of lymph node metastasis. Of the 19,864 patients who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection of colorectal neoplasms at Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, 557 had T1 surgically resected carcinomas, including 457 patients with colon T1 carcinomas and 100 patients with rectal T1 carcinomas. Analysed clinicopathological features included patient age, gender, tumor size, morphology, tumor budding, invasion depth, vascular invasion, histological grade, lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis. Rectal T1 carcinomas were significantly larger than colon T1 carcinomas (mean ± standard deviation: 23.7±13.1 mm vs. 19.9±11.0 mm, P<0.01) and were accompanied by significantly higher rates of vascular invasion (48.0% vs. 30.2%, P<0.01). Significant differences were not observed among any other clinicopathological factors. In conclusion, tumor location itself was not a risk factor for lymph node metastasis in colorectal T1 carcinomas, even though on average, rectal T1 carcinomas were larger and accompanied by a significantly higher rate of vascular invasion than colon T1 carcinomas. PMID:28356962

  19. Acute rectal ischaemia following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosley, Frances R.; Akhtar, Sobia; George, Rina; Pillay, Woolagasen R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of isolated rectal ischaemia, a rare complication after emergency surgery for a ruptured abdominal aneurysm. We discuss the possible aetiology of this condition and how this rare condition may be missed unless care is taken at the time of reoperation. PMID:28344761

  20. [Preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy for progressive lower rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yun-qiang; Tan, Zhi-ming; Wang, Jia-kang; Tang, Ri-jie; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hong-yu; Mai, Cong; Zhang, Xiang-liang; Cui, Shu-zhong

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of preoperative regional intra-arterial chemotherapy (PRAC) on progressive lower rectal cancer. Forty-five patients with progressive lower rectal cancer were divided into groups A (23 cases) and B (22 cases) for treatment with PRAC 1 to 2 weeks prior to surgical tumor resection or with surgical resection only, respectively. PRAC caused obvious tissue degeneration and necrosis of rectal cancer with a total effective rate of 95.65%. The rates of radical resection in groups A and B were 91.3% and 72.27%, respectively. The 1-year postoperative survival rates of the two groups were 95.65% and 86.36%, with 3-year survival of 89.96% and 68.18%, and 3-year postoperative recurrence rates of 8.69% and 27.27%, respectively. The anal preservation rates of the two groups were 78.26% and 59.09%. PRAC can increase radical resection rates, promote the postoperative survival and anal preservation rate, and lower the recurrence rate in patients with lower rectal cancer.

  1. Comparison between rectal and infrared skin temperature in the newborn.

    PubMed

    De Curtis, Mario; Calzolari, Flaminia; Marciano, Alessandra; Cardilli, Viviana; Barba, Gianvincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The reliability of measurement of body temperature using a new infrared skin thermometer was evaluated in 107 newborns. The use of the device was associated with low operator-related variability and acceptable limits of agreement with the temperature measured with a rectal mercury thermometer. Use of the infrared skin thermometer is a comfortable and reliable way of measurement of body temperature in newborns.

  2. Multidisciplinary management of resectable rectal cancer. New developments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D; Guillem, Jose G

    2008-11-15

    Until 2004, initial surgery and, in cases of pT3 and/or node-positive disease, postoperative chemoradiotherapy (radiation plus concurrent chemotherapy) was the conventional approach for patients with clinical T3 and/or node-positive rectal cancer. The German CAO/ARO/AIO 94 trial confirmed that, compared with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, postoperative chemoradiotherapy is associated with significantly higher local failure and toxicity rates as well as a decrease in the incidence of sphincter preservation. These data resulted in a change from postoperative to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. This shift to preoperative therapy has prompted a series of new questions regarding the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, including: What is the ideal neoadjuvant approach (short-course vs. combined-modality therapy)? Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for all patients following preoperative chemoradiotherapy? Do patients with node-negative rectal cancer require pelvic radiation? What is the ideal combined-modality regimen? Does an increase in response rate translate into improved local control and survival? And lastly, what is the benefit of novel radiation sensitization and delivery techniques? This review will address these and other questions surrounding the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer.

  3. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  4. Rectal Blue Nevus: Distinguishing Features of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Neena; McCue, Peter; Quirk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old African American man with a history of depression and tuberculosis presented to the gastroenterology department after several months of rectal pain with bowel movements. Colonoscopy revealed hyperpigmentation in the distal rectum and internal hemorrhoids, which resulted in a diagnosis of blue nevi. This is only the third known description of a blue nevus involving the gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:28008401

  5. Lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer management in Canada.

    PubMed

    Maroun, Jean; Ng, Edward; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Le Petit, Christel; Dahrouge, Simone; Flanagan, William M; Walker, Hugh; Evans, William K

    2003-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among Canadians. We derived the direct health care costs associated with the lifetime management of an estimated 16,856 patients with a diagnosis of colon and rectal cancer in Canada in 2000. Information on diagnostic approaches, treatment algorithms, follow-up and care at disease progression was obtained from various databases and was integrated into Statistics Canada's Population Health Model (POHEM) to estimate lifetime costs. The average lifetime cost (in Canadian dollars) of managing patients with colorectal cancer ranged from $20,319 per case for TNM stage I colon cancer to $39,182 per case for stage III rectal cancer. The total lifetime treatment cost for the cohort of patients in 2000 was estimated to be over $333 million for colon and $187 million for rectal cancer. Hospitalization represented 65% and 61% of the lifetime costs of colon and rectal cancer respectively. Disease costing models can be important policy- relevant tools to assist in resource allocation. Our results highlight the importance of performing preoperative tests and staging in an ambulatory care setting, where possible, to achieve optimal cost efficiencies. Similarly, terminal care might be delivered more efficiently in the home environment or in palliative care units.

  6. Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; DeGara, Christopher; Porter, Geoff; Ghosh, Sunita; Schiller, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved. Methods We reviewed the charts of all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 who had a potentially curative resection. The main outcomes examined were 5-year local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Surgeons were classified into 3 groups according to training and volume, and we compared outcome measures among them. We also compared our results to those of the previous study from our region. Results We included 433 cases in the study. Subspecialty-trained colorectal surgeons performed 35% of all surgeries in our study compared to 16% in the previous study. The overall 5-year LR rate and DSS in our study were improved compared to the previous study. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with increased 5-year LR was presence of obstruction, and the factors associated with decreased 5-year DSS were high-volume noncolorectal surgeons, presence of obstruction and increased stage. Conclusion Over the past 10 years, the long-term outcomes of treatment for rectal cancer have improved. We found that surgical subspecialization was associated with improved DSS but not LR. Increased surgical volume was not associated with LR or DSS. PMID:23883504

  7. Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Degara, Christopher; Porter, Geoff; Ghosh, Sunita; Schiller, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved. We reviewed the charts of all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 who had a potentially curative resection. The main outcomes examined were 5-year local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Surgeons were classified into 3 groups according to training and volume, and we compared outcome measures among them. We also compared our results to those of the previous study from our region. We included 433 cases in the study. Subspecialty-trained colorectal surgeons performed 35% of all surgeries in our study compared to 16% in the previous study. The overall 5-year LR rate and DSS in our study were improved compared to the previous study. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with increased 5-year LR was presence of obstruction, and the factors associated with decreased 5-year DSS were high-volume noncolorectal surgeons, presence of obstruction and increased stage. Over the past 10 years, the long-term outcomes of treatment for rectal cancer have improved. We found that surgical subspecialization was associated with improved DSS but not LR. Increased surgical volume was not associated with LR or DSS.

  8. [Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

    1995-09-01

    Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment.

  9. Surgeon-related factors and outcome in rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, G A; Soskolne, C L; Yakimets, W W; Newman, S C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical subspecialty training in colorectal surgery or frequency of rectal cancer resection by the surgeon are independent prognostic factors for local recurrence (LR) and survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in patient outcome in rectal cancer has been shown among centers and among individual surgeons. However, the prognostic importance of surgeon-related factors is largely unknown. METHODS: All patients undergoing potentially curative low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum between 1983 and 1990 at the five Edmonton general hospitals were reviewed in a historic-prospective study design. Preoperative, intraoperative, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcome variables were obtained. Outcomes of interest included LR and disease-specific survival (DSS). To determine survival rates and to control both confounding and interaction, multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The study included 683 patients involving 52 surgeons, with > 5-year follow-up obtained on 663 (97%) patients. There were five colorectal-trained surgeons who performed 109 (16%) of the operations. Independent of surgeon training, 323 operations (47%) were done by surgeons performing < 21 rectal cancer resections over the study period. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LR was increased in patients of both noncolorectal trained surgeons (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, p = 0.001) and those of surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.8, p < 0.001). Stage (p < 0.001), use of adjuvant therapy (p = 0.002), rectal perforation or tumor spill (p < 0.001), and vascular/neural invasion (p = 0.002) also were significant prognostic factors for LR. Similarly, decreased disease-specific survival was found to be independently associated with noncolorectal-trained surgeons (HR = 1.5, p = 0.03) and surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.4, p = 0.005). Stage (p < 0

  10. [Rectal cancer and Trousseau syndrome. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra-Luzuriaga, Gastón; Calle-Loffredo, Daniel; Rodríguez Quinde, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el síndrome de Trousseau se describió por primera vez en 1865; es la relación entre tromboembolismo venoso y cáncer. Objetivo: informar el caso de una paciente con cáncer de recto y síndrome de Trousseau. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 40 años de edad que acudió al servicio de Coloproctología por rectorragia indolora. La TAC reportó un tumor de 5 por 6cm y del margen anal a 5cm. Se efectuó resección anterior ultrabaja, con reservorio colónico e ileostomía de protección. El reporte de patología fue de: adenocarcinoma semidiferenciado del recto, con clasificación T3N0M0. A las 72 horas del postoperatorio tuvo hipotensión arterial súbita y distensión abdominal dolorosa. En la reintervención quirúrgica se encontró: necrosis del colon desde el ángulo esplénico hasta el reservorio colónico, con trombos en meso, signos de isquemia en el útero, trompa de Falopio y ovarios, piso pélvico y 40 cm de intestino delgado, antes de la ileostomía e íleon. Se realizó hemicolectomía izquierda y colostomía. Se trasladó a la unidad de terapia intensiva donde continuó con la administración de heparina; falleció a los cinco días por insuficiencia multiorgánica. Conclusiones: el mecanismo de este síndrome se desconoce pero existen varias hipótesis: se ha sugerido que los cánceres hematológicos son los que tienen mayor riesgo de trombosis venosa profunda. El cáncer de páncreas se relaciona con este síndrome en 50% de los casos. Se sugiere continuar con las normas de prevención del tromboembolismo.

  11. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  12. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  13. Factors affecting rectal temperature measurement using commonly available digital thermometers.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jonathan M; Streeter, Renee M; Torgerson, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95±0.05°C (mean±1 SE, n=53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5°C lower, 38.46±0.07°C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77±0.06°C; these are significantly higher than with the student's initial technique and closer to those obtained with a Cornell thermometer. In a series of 53 water bath tests, student owned thermometers recorded similar mean values to those of a traceable (reference) digital thermometer, Cornell mercury thermometer readings were 0.2°C higher. 10 individual digital thermometers were repeatedly tested against a traceable thermometer in a water bath, one was inaccurate. In a separate experiment a trained clinician tested the effect of angle of insertion of a digital thermometer on temperature readings and the affect was <0.1°C. We conclude that accurate temperature measurements using digital thermometers are only likely if the thermometer is inserted to the beginning of the window and the thermometer's accuracy is checked periodically.

  14. Can endobronchial or endotracheal metastases appear from rectal adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Serbanescu, GL; Anghel, RM

    2017-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial and endotracheal metastases from extra-pulmonary solid tumors are rare. Patients and methods: We reported the case of a patient diagnosed with endobronchial and endotracheal metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma. Case report: Patient P.G., 62 years old, was diagnosed with a rectal tumor in 2011, for which, a surgical intervention was performed (pT3 pN2a M0, stage IIIB). Afterwards, she underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and concomitant radiochemotherapy. In September 2013, the chest CT showed 2 nodules for which, an incomplete surgical resection was done and which were histopathologically diagnosed as metastases from rectal cancer. The patient continued the treatment with chemotherapy associated with Bevacizumab and after 6 months only Bevacizumab for maintenance. In June 2015, the chest CT pointed out a nodule in the right upper lobe and the bronchoscopy highlighted a 4-5 mm lesion at the level of the right primary bronchus, whose biopsy proved the rectal origin. Afterwards, another surgical intervention was performed. Unfortunately, the postoperative chest CT revealed an intratracheal tissue mass (11/ 7mm) and multiple metastases in the right lung. The bronchoscopy showed 2 endotracheal lesions, out of which one was biopsied (histopathological result of metastasis from rectal cancer). Despite the fact that chemotherapy was continued, other endobronchial lesions appeared. All of them were removed and the patient started radiotherapy on the tracheal area. Afterwards, she refused to continue chemotherapy. The last bronchoscopy highlighted one endobronchial and two endotracheal secondary malignant lesions. Conclusion: Endobronchial and endotracheal metastases must be taken into consideration in all the patients with a history of extra-pulmonary cancer. Abbreviations: CT = computed tomography, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, IMRT = intensity-modulated radiotherapy, ESMO = European Society for Medical Oncology, NCCN = National Comprehensive

  15. Real-time in vivo rectal wall dosimetry using MOSkin detectors during linac based stereotactic radiotherapy with rectal displacement.

    PubMed

    Legge, Kimberley; Greer, Peter B; O'Connor, Daryl J; Wilton, Lee; Richardson, Matthew; Hunter, Perry; Wilfert, Alex; Martin, Jarad; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Cutajar, Dean

    2017-02-27

    MOSFET dosimetry is a method that has been used to measure in-vivo doses during brachytherapy treatments and during linac based radiotherapy treatment. Rectal displacement devices (RDDs) allow for safe dose escalation for prostate cancer treatment. This study used dual MOSkin detectors to assess real-time in vivo rectal wall dose in patients with an RDD in place during a high dose prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) boost trial. The PROMETHEUS study commenced in 2014 and provides a prostate SBRT boost dose with a RDD in place. Twelve patients received two boost fractions of 9.5-10 Gy each delivered to the prostate with a dual arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Two MOSkins in a face-to-face arrangement (dual MOSkin) were used to decrease angular dependence. A dual MOSkin was attached to the anterior surface of the Rectafix and read out at 1 Hz during each treatment. The planned dose at each measurement point was exported from the planning system and compared with the measured dose. The root mean square error normalised to the total planned dose was calculated for each measurement point and treatment arc for the entire course of treatment. The average difference between the measured and planned doses over the whole course of treatment for all arcs measured was 9.7% with a standard deviation of 3.6%. The cumulative MOSkin reading was lower than the total planned dose for 64% of the arcs measured. The average difference between the final measured and final planned doses for all arcs measured was 3.4% of the final planned dose, with a standard deviation of 10.3%. MOSkin detectors were an effective tool for measuring dose delivered to the anterior rectal wall in real time during prostate SBRT boost treatments for the purpose of both ensuring the rectal doses remain within acceptable limits during the treatment and for the verification of final rectal doses.

  16. Rectal Dose and Source Strength of the High-Dose-Rate Iridium-192 Both Affect Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU{sub RP}) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICBT and were followed up for 1 year or more were studied. The rectal dose for ICBT was calculated by using the ICRP{sub RP} based on orthogonal radiographs or the DVH parameters based on computed tomography (CT). The total dose was calculated as the biologically equivalent dose expressed in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). The relationship between averaged source strength or the EQD{sub 2} and late rectal bleeding was then analyzed. Results: When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal EQD{sub 2} ({>=} or =} or <2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}), the group with both a high EQD{sub 2} and a high source strength showed a significantly greater probability of rectal bleeding for ICRU{sub RP}, D{sub 2cc}, and D{sub 1cc}. The patients with a median rectal dose above the threshold level did not show a greater frequency of rectal bleeding unless the source strength exceeded 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}. Conclusions: Our results obtained with data based on ICRU{sub RP} and CT-based DVH parameters indicate that rectal dose and source strength both affect rectal bleeding after HDR-ICBT.

  17. Rectal dose and source strength of the high-dose-rate iridium-192 both affect late rectal bleeding after intracavitary radiation therapy for uterine cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Suzuki, Osamu; Konishi, Koji; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Inoue, Takehiro

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU(RP)) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by the Groupe Européen de Curietherapie of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Sixty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICBT and were followed up for 1 year or more were studied. The rectal dose for ICBT was calculated by using the ICRP(RP) based on orthogonal radiographs or the DVH parameters based on computed tomography (CT). The total dose was calculated as the biologically equivalent dose expressed in 2-Gy fractions (EQD(2)). The relationship between averaged source strength or the EQD(2) and late rectal bleeding was then analyzed. When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal EQD(2) (>or= or or= or <2.4 cGy.m(2).h(-1)), the group with both a high EQD(2) and a high source strength showed a significantly greater probability of rectal bleeding for ICRU(RP), D(2cc), and D(1cc). The patients with a median rectal dose above the threshold level did not show a greater frequency of rectal bleeding unless the source strength exceeded 2.4 cGy.m(2).h(-1). Our results obtained with data based on ICRU(RP) and CT-based DVH parameters indicate that rectal dose and source strength both affect rectal bleeding after HDR-ICBT. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pure NOTES rectosigmoid resection: transgastric endoscopic IMA dissection and transanal rectal mobilization in animal models.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Choi, Sung Il; Kang, Byung Mo; Huh, Chang; Choi, Dong Hyun; Lee, Chang Kyun

    2013-07-01

    We report a pure natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) rectosigmoidectomy in animal models using transgastric endoscopic inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) dissection and transanal rectal mobilization. Ten live animals (2 pigs weighing 35-40 kg each and 8 dogs weighing 25-30 kg each) were used. A gastrotomy was made using a needle-knife puncture and the balloon dilatation technique or following the creation of a submucosal tunnel. A circular stapler shaft was transanally inserted up to the sigmoid colon for spatial orientation and traction of the mesocolon. The IMA was endoscopically dissected using a Coagrasper™ (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) and then clipped. Endoscopic division of the sigmoid mesocolon was conducted laterally toward the marginal artery. Transanal full-thickness circumferential rectal and mesorectal dissections were performed, and a colorectal anastomosis was performed using a circular stapler with a single stapling technique. During the transanal approach, the gastrotomy was closed using four endoscopic clips. Endoscopic dissection of the IMA was successful in all cases, but minor bleedings occurred in 3 cases. The mean time from dissection and clipping to division of the IMA was 36.7 minutes (range, 25-45 minutes). The mean operation time was 180.5 minutes (range, 145-210 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The mean length of the resected specimen was 11.2 cm (range, 9-17 cm). A pure NOTES approach to rectosigmoid resection using transgastric endoscopic IMA dissection is technically feasible in animal models.

  19. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  20. Local recurrence after curative resection for rectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-A; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Local recurrence of rectal cancer is difficult to treat, may cause severe and disabling symptoms, and usually has a fatal outcome. The aim of this study was to document the clinical nature of locally recurrent rectal cancer and to determine the effect of surgical resection on long-term survival. A retrospective review was conducted of the prospectively collected medical records of 2485 patients with primary rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent radical resection between September 1994 and December 2008. In total, 147 (5.9%) patients exhibited local recurrence. The most common type of local recurrence was lateral recurrence, whereas anastomotic recurrence was the most common type in patients without preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Tumor location with respect to the anal verge significantly affected the local recurrence rate (P < 0.001), whereas preoperative CCRT did not affect the local recurrence rate (P = 0.433). Predictive factors for surgical resection of recurrent rectal cancer included less advanced tumor stage (P = 0.017, RR = 3.840, 95% CI = 1.271–11.597), axial recurrence (P < 0.001, RR = 5.772, 95% CI = 2.281–14.609), and isolated local recurrence (P = 0.006, RR = 8.679, 95% CI = 1.846–40.815). Overall survival after diagnosis of local recurrence was negatively influenced by advanced pathologic tumor stage (P = 0.040, RR = 1.867, 95% CI = 1.028–3.389), positive CRM (P = 0.001, RR = 12.939, 95% CI = 2.906–57.604), combined distant metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 2.086, 95% CI = 1.352–3.218), and nonsurgical resection of recurrent tumor (P < 0.001, RR = 4.865, 95% CI = 2.586–9.153). In conclusion, the clinical outcomes of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer are diverse. Surgical resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer should be considered as an initial treatment, especially in patients with less advanced tumors and axial recurrence. PMID:27399067

  1. The curative management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Dara O; Martin, Joseph; Small, Cormac; Joyce, Myles R; Faul, Clare M; Kelly, Paul J; O'Riordain, Michael; Gillham, Charles M; Armstrong, John G; Salib, Osama; McNamara, Deborah A; McVey, Gerard; O'Neill, Brian D P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant “long-course” chemoradiation is considered a standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer. In addition to prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without androgen suppression (AS) are well established in prostate cancer management. A retrospective review of ten cases was completed to explore the feasibility and safety of applying these standards in patients with dual pathology. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series of synchronous rectal and prostate cancers treated with curative intent. Methods: Eligible patients had synchronous histologically proven locally advanced rectal cancer (defined as cT3-4Nx; cTxN1-2) and non-metastatic prostate cancer (pelvic nodal disease permissible). Curative treatment was delivered to both sites simultaneously. Follow-up was as per institutional guidelines. Acute and late toxicities were reviewed, and a literature search performed. Results: Pelvic external beam radiotherapy (RT) 45–50.4 Gy was delivered concurrent with 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Prostate total dose ranged from 70.0 to 79.2 Gy. No acute toxicities occurred, excluding AS-induced erectile dysfunction. Nine patients proceeded to surgery, and one was managed expectantly. Three relapsed with metastatic colorectal cancer, two with metastatic prostate cancer. Five patients have no evidence of recurrence, and four remain alive with metastatic disease. With a median follow-up of 2.2 years (range 1.2–6.3 years), two significant late toxicities occurred; G3 proctitis in a patient receiving palliative bevacizumab and a G3 anastomotic stricture precluding stoma reversal. Conclusion: Patients proceeding to synchronous radical treatment of both primary sites should receive 45–50.4 Gy pelvic RT with infusional 5FU. Prostate dose escalation should be given with due consideration to the potential impact of prostate cancer on patient survival, as increasing dose may result in significant late morbidity

  2. Anatomy of the middle rectal artery: a review of the historical literature.

    PubMed

    Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Ishihara, Soichiro; Murono, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    The middle rectal artery is a very important anatomical structure in rectal cancer surgery. It is the only vessel that penetrates through the proper rectal fascia into the pelvic cavity, and therefore threatens the integrity of total mesorectal excision. Moreover, it is very closely related to the lateral lymphatic drainage root. The definition of the middle rectal artery is ambiguous, and different frequencies, origins, and trajectories have been reported in various papers. The frequency of the middle rectal artery is reported to range from 12 to 97 %. Traditionally, the middle rectal artery is described as an artery that penetrates the pelvic plexus from the lateral side along with the lateral ligament; the frequency of this lateral type of middle rectal artery ranges from 20 to 30 %. However, the reports that describe higher frequency values also consider another type of middle rectal artery, which penetrates the neuro-vascular bundle from the antero-lateral direction; this antero-lateral type of middle rectal artery tends to be a small vessel, and frequently forms a common trunk with the prostatic artery. With advancements in endoscopic surgery, the knowledge of the precise anatomy of this structure is becoming more crucial for optimal rectal cancer surgery.

  3. [Influence of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on prognosis in colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-ying; Di, Mei-juan; Dong, Jian-kang; Wang, Feng-juan; Jin, Yi-sen; Zhu, Yi-min; Lai, Mao-de

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on the prognosis of colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the clinical and pathomorphological factors on the prognosis in 101 cases of colon carcinoma, 219 of rectal carcinoma and 137 of rectal carcinoma under curative resections. By using univariate analysis, we identified that lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were the common prognostic factors for both colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Smoking, deep infiltration, chemotherapy and serum albumin concentration were the uncertain prognostic factors for colon carcinoma. Signet-ring cell carcinoma, larger tumor size (>6 cm), deep infiltration, lack of radical surgery, and advanced TNM stage were the exclusive adverse prognostic factors for rectal carcinoma. Further studies showed that the adverse prognostic factors for the rectal carcinoma under curative resection included deep infiltration, lymph node metastasis, vessel invasion, less of peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration, lack of Crohn's like reactivity, high level of tumor budding, advanced TNM stage and positive urine glucose. By using multivariate analysis based on a COX proportional hazard model, it was identified that smoking, lymph node metastasis and serum albumin concentration were independent prognostic factors for colon carcinoma; advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis and palliative surgery for rectal carcinoma; and vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and urine glucose for rectal carcinoma under curative resections. The various clinical and pathomorphological parameters show different prognostic value for colon carcinoma, rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma under curative resections.

  4. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yasuyuki Kariya, Shuji Nakatani, Miyuki Yoshida, Rie Kono, Yumiko Kan, Naoki Ueno, Yutaka Komemushi, Atsushi Tanigawa, Noboru

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  5. Sexual and urinary dysfunction after proctectomy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Eveno, C; Lamblin, A; Mariette, C; Pocard, M

    2010-02-01

    Sexual and urinary dysfunction occur frequently after rectal surgery. Total mesorectal excision (TME) is currently the optimal technique for resection of rectal cancer, providing superior carcinological and functional outcomes. Age, pre-operative radiation therapy, abdominoperineal resection, and surgery which fails to respect the "sacred planes" of TME are the four major risk factors for post-operative sexual and urinary sequelae. In the era of TME, postoperative sexual dysfunction ranges from 10-35%, depending on the scores used to assess it, while urinary sequelae have decreased to less than 5%. The place of laparoscopic surgery remains to be defined, particularly with respect to these complications. It is essential to inform the patient pre-operatively about the possibility of such disorders not only for patient informed consent but also to help with correct post-operative management of the problem. Management is multifaceted, and includes psychological, pharmacological, and sometimes surgical therapy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A rare association of celiac disease and rectal neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Deniz; Tanrıverdi, Özgür; Solak Özşeker, Havva; Özşeker, Burak

    2017-07-28

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy which is triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Increased risk of all gastrointestinal cancers was found during the first year after diagnosis of CD. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous tumor group originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Today, the incidences of both GEP-NETs and CD have increased due to the increased availability of diagnostic tools and awareness. Association of GEP-NETs with CD is rarely seen. Here we aimed to present a case in which we diagnosed CD with concurrent rectal NET. Association of CD and rectal NET has not been reported in the literature, and we believe that our case report can contribute to the epidemiological data.

  7. A Case of Anaphylaxis to Chlorhexidine during Digital Rectal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yun-Jeong; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Jae Keun; Jeong, Eunheui; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2008-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Although the sensitization rate seems to be low, its ubiquitous use raises the possibility of sensitization in many patients and medical care workers. We describe a patient with anaphylaxis during digital rectal examination with chlorhexidine jelly. Urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and hypotension developed within a few minutes of the rectal examination. The patient fully recovered after treatment with epinephrine and corticosteroids. Skin tests for chlorhexidine were undertaken 5 weeks later, showing positive prick and intradermal skin tests. Within 30 min of the skin test, the patient complained of febrile sensation, chest tightness, angioedema, and urticaria on the face and trunk. An enzyme allergosorbent test for latex was negative. We present this case to alert clinicians about hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine that could potentially be life-threatening. We suggest that chlorhexidine should be recognized as a causative agent of anaphylaxis during procedural interventions. PMID:18583893

  8. Atypical Phimosis Secondary to a Preputial Metastasis from Rectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Goris Gbenou, Maximilien C.; Wahidy, Tawfik; Llinares, Karine; Cracco, Dominique; Perrot, Alain; Riquet, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Background Cutaneous metastases from colorectal cancer are uncommon, accounting for 6.5% of all secondary skin lesions. They occur in advanced disease. The most common site is the abdomen. The penis is a rare site. Case Report We report the case of a 79-year-old patient who presented, two years after rectocolectomy for a rectal adenocarcinoma, obstructive renal failure secondary to a presacral recurrence, as well as symptomatic phimosis associated with papulonodules invading the penis, scrotum and pubis. After hemodialysis, percutaneous pyelostomy, and double-J catheter placement, the patient underwent circumcision and a pubic skin biopsy. On histology and immunohistochemistry, a cutaneous metastasis originating from the rectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Conclusions Penile invasion by colorectal cancer revealed by phimosis is a rare occurrence but needs to be recognized and promptly diagnosed by biopsy in order to propose appropriate adjuvant therapy. These rare lesions can occur without any liver or lung involvement. PMID:22187540

  9. A case of anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine during digital rectal examination.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jeong; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Jae Keun; Jeong, Eunheui; Kim, Tae-Bum; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2008-06-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and nonmedical environments. Although the sensitization rate seems to be low, its ubiquitous use raises the possibility of sensitization in many patients and medical care workers. We describe a patient with anaphylaxis during digital rectal examination with chlorhexidine jelly. Urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and hypotension developed within a few minutes of the rectal examination. The patient fully recovered after treatment with epinephrine and corticosteroids. Skin tests for chlorhexidine were undertaken 5 weeks later, showing positive prick and intradermal skin tests. Within 30 min of the skin test, the patient complained of febrile sensation, chest tightness, angioedema, and urticaria on the face and trunk. An enzyme allergosorbent test for latex was negative. We present this case to alert clinicians about hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine that could potentially be life-threatening. We suggest that chlorhexidine should be recognized as a causative agent of anaphylaxis during procedural interventions.

  10. Treatment and prognosis of rectal prolapse in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stern, R C; Izant, R J; Boat, T F; Wood, R E; Matthews, L W; Doershuk, C F

    1982-04-01

    Rectal prolapse occurred in 112 (18.5%) of 605 cystic fibrosis patients. In 48 patients prolapse preceded diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, but physicians (pediatricians, pediatric and general surgeons, and proctologists) rarely appreciated its importance as a symptom of this disease. Prolapses frequently cease with institution of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy following diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. However, even when the disease remains undiagnosed, the symptom is often transient and frequently resolves at 3-5 yr of age. Prolapse occurring initially after cystic fibrosis is diagnosed rarely responds to manipulation of diet or enzyme doses. Many patients develop a method of reduction which involves voluntary abdominal, perineal, and gluteal muscles and does not require manual pressure on the prolapsed segment. Most patients do not need specific treatment for the prolapse. Surgery is rarely necessary. A sweat test should be obtained on any child who has had even a single episode of rectal prolapse.

  11. The importance of a multidisciplinary team in rectal cancer management.

    PubMed

    Bochis, Ovidiu Vasile; Fekete, Zsolt; Vlad, Catalin; Fetica, Bogdan; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Busuioc, Constantin Ioan; Irimie, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the interval between surgery and adjuvant treatments regarding the overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients from a developing country. For stages II and III rectal cancer, international guidelines recommend neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) regardless of the tumor location. In the developing countries there is a shortage of radiotherapy centers, specialists, which lead to long waiting lists for radiotherapy. These problems might lead to protocol deviations. We conducted a retrospective study on 161 patients with rectal cancer treated with surgery, postoperative CRT and with or without chemotherapy for a total of 6 months, at The Oncology Institute Cluj-Napoca between 2006-2010. All patients had 5 years of follow-up. A total of 161 patients were enrolled in this study. The majority of patients were locally advanced stages (89.44%). The well known prognostic factors, such as TNM stage, performance status, CEA serum level, perineural, vascular and lymphatic invasion, and node capsular effraction had a statistically significant influence on overall survival. In 21.12% of patients the first adjuvant treatment was started in the first 4 weeks after surgery. Only 13.04% of patients started the concomitant CRT within the limit of 6 weeks after surgery. Concerning the time between surgery and CRT, we did not observe a statistically significantly difference in OS if the radiotherapy started after the first 6 weeks (p=0.701). The OS rate for locally advanced rectal cancer patients was 69.44%. In rectal cancer, the importance of the first therapeutic act is crucial. Following international guidelines provides a survival advantage and a better quality of life. In case of adjuvant treatment, it is recommended to start this treatment as soon as the local infrastructure allows it.

  12. Rare case of breast tumor secondary to rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Lisette Delgado; Chelliah, Thandavababu; Meisher, Irina; Niranjan, Selvanayagam

    2008-10-01

    Primary breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Metastatic cancer to the breast is very rare. Colorectal cancers usually metastasize to the liver and the lung; other sites of metastasis from colon cancer are uncommon and are usually found in association with extensive liver and/or lung metastases. This is a report of a rare case of aggressive rectal cancer with metastasis to the breast without liver or lung metastases.

  13. Rectal lymphogranuloma venereum surveillance in France 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Herida, M; de Barbeyrac, B; Sednaoui, P; Scieux, C; Lemarchand, N; Kreplak, G; Clerc, M; Timsit, J; Goulet, V; Desenclos, J C; Semaille, Caroline

    2006-09-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis strains belonging to the L1, L2 or L3 genotype. An alert about an outbreak of LGV among MSM in the Netherlands was published in January 2004. The first cases of rectal LGV in France were retrospectively diagnosed in March 2004 and sentinel surveillance for LGV was implemented in April 2004. Most of the participating centres were located in the cities of Paris and Bordeaux. Only confirmed rectal LGV cases were included in the surveillance. Rectal specimens from men that were found to be positive for C trachomatis by PCR were sent to the National Reference Centre for Chlamydia infection for genotyping. Simple epidemiological data provided by clinicians and genotyping results were sent to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS) where data were anonymously recorded. A total of 328 C. trachomatis rectal strains isolated in men were genotyped by the end of December 2005. Of these, 244 (74%) were LGV strains belonging to the L2 genotype. No L1 or L3 C. trachomatis genotype was found. Diagnosis was made retrospectively for 46 cases. The median age of patients with LGV was 39 years. HIV status was known for 96 patients: 82/96 (85%) were HIV-infected. Most LGV cases were diagnosed in the Paris area (92%). Among the remaining 26% C. trachomatis strains, genotypes Da and G were the most frequent. As with syphilis in recent years, the emergence of LGV in Europe is mainly affecting HIV-infected MSM. The screening and treatment of STIs should be included in the clinical follow-up of all HIV-infected MSM.

  14. Rectal drug administration in adults: how, when, why.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Michael

    Administering medication per rectum can be the most appropriate route for some patients may not always be considered by health professionals. Cultural sensitivities, as well as misinformation regarding insertion methods, may be barriers to the practice. This article explains how the rectal route functions in drug absorption, clarifies when this route is appropriate to use and outlines the steps nurses should follow to prepare patients adequately and safely to carry out the procedure.

  15. Rapid Dissemination of SIV Follows Multisite Entry after Rectal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Prétet, Jean-Luc; Michel-Salzat, Alice; Messent, Valérie; Bogdanova, Anna; Couëdel-Courteille, Anne; Souil, Evelyne; Cheynier, Rémi; Butor, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Receptive ano-rectal intercourse is a major cause of HIV infection in men having sex with men and in heterosexuals. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of entry and dissemination during HIV rectal transmission is scarce and does not allow the development of preventive strategies. We investigated the early steps of rectal infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with the pathogenic isolate SIVmac251 and necropsied four hours to nine days later. All macaques were positive for SIV. Control macaques inoculated with heat-inactivated virus were consistently negative for SIV. SIV DNA was detected in the rectum as early as four hours post infection by nested PCR for gag in many laser-microdissected samples of lymphoid aggregates and lamina propria but never in follicle-associated epithelium. Scarce SIV antigen positive cells were observed by immunohistofluorescence in the rectum, among intraepithelial and lamina propria cells as well as in clusters in lymphoid aggregates, four hours post infection and onwards. These cells were T cells and non-T cells that were not epithelial cells, CD68+ macrophages, DC-SIGN+ cells or fascin+ dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ cells carried infectious virus. Detection of Env singly spliced mRNA in the mucosa by nested RT-PCR indicated ongoing viral replication. Strikingly, four hours post infection colic lymph nodes were also infected in all macaques as either SIV DNA or infectious virus was recovered. Rapid SIV entry and dissemination is consistent with trans-epithelial transport. Virions appear to cross the follicle-associated epithelium, and also the digestive epithelium. Viral replication could however be more efficient in lymphoid aggregates. The initial sequence of events differs from both vaginal and oral infections, which implies that prevention strategies for rectal transmission will have to be specific. Microbicides will need to protect both digestive and follicle-associated epithelia. Vaccines will need to induce immunity in lymph nodes

  16. Comparison of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zihai; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Shijie; Zhong, Shizhen; Lin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer. A total of 64 cases of rectal cancer patients undergoing radical surgery between January, 1998 and March, 2010 were collected. The patients were divided into the laparoscopic rectal surgery group (LS group, n=31) and the open surgery group (OS group, n=33). Operation time, postoperative recovery, complications and tumor-free survival rate were compared between the two groups. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Standard Karnofsky score >70 prior to surgery, definitive pathological diagnosis and complete clinical data. The exclusion criteria were concomitant tumors affecting survival. With the Dixon operation, the LS group had a longer operation time compared with the OS group (271.2±56.2 vs. 216.0±62.7 min, respectively; P=0.036), and an earlier time of oral intake (3.0±0.9 vs. 4.7±1.0 days, respectively; P=0.000). There were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). With the Miles operation, there were no obvious differences between the LS and OS groups regarding operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, time of oral intake, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups with the Dixon or Miles operation in terms of 3-year tumor-free survival rate (P>0.05). Thus, laparoscopic surgery appears to be a safe and feasible option for the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:28357087

  17. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal adenomas: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Mikelis, Kipras; Samalavicius, Robertas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a method of choice for the local treatment of rectal adenomas. Though generally considered as a safe method, some authors have expressed skepticism about the anorectal function following TEM. Aim To review our experience in using TEM for removal of rectal adenomas. We focused on morbidity, local recurrence rates, and anorectal function following the operation. Material and methods The study included 72 patients who underwent TEM for rectal adenomas from December 2009 to November 2014 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute. Of the 72 patients, 31 (43.1%) were lost in the follow-up. We recorded the demographics, operative details, final pathology, post-operative length of stay, post-operative complications, recurrences and functional outcome for each of the 41 (56.9%) remaining participants. Results Of the 41 eligible patients, 19 (46.3%) were male and 22 (53.7%) were female. The mean age of our patients was 66.8 years. There were no intraoperative complications. In 4 (9.8%) cases, postoperative complications were observed – urinary retention (2 cases, 4.9%) and postoperative hemorrhage (2 cases, 4.9%). All complications were treated conservatively. There was a single case (2.4%) of adenoma recurrence during the follow-up period. The mean score of the FISI questionnaire was 7.6 ±9.2 (ranging from 0 to 36), and the mean Wexner score was 2.3 ±3.4 (ranging from 0 to 17). Conclusions Transanal endoscopic microsurgery in our experience demonstrated low complication and recurrence rates, and good functional results. We conclude that TEM is an effective and safe method for the treatment of rectal adenomas. PMID:28133497

  18. SEOM Clinical Guideline of localized rectal cancer (2016).

    PubMed

    González-Flores, E; Losa, F; Pericay, C; Polo, E; Roselló, S; Safont, M J; Vera, R; Aparicio, J; Cano, M T; Fernández-Martos, C

    2016-12-01

    Localized rectal adenocarcinoma is a heterogeneous disease and current treatment recommendations are based on a preoperative multidisciplinary evaluation. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasound are complementary to do a locoregional accurate staging. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment and preoperative therapies with chemoradiation (CRT) or short-course radiation (SCRT) must be considered in more locally advanced cases. Novel strategies with induction chemotherapy alone or preceding or after CRT (SCRT) and surgery are in development.

  19. Characterization of founder viruses in very early SIV rectal transmission.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhe; Ma, Fangrui; Demers, Andrew J; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jianqing; Lewis, Mark G; Li, Qingsheng

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of HIV-1 transmission is critical for developing preventative strategies. To that end, we analyzed 524 full-length env sequences of SIVmac251 at 6 and 10 days post intrarectal infection of rhesus macaques. There was no tissue compartmentalization of founder viruses across plasma, rectal and distal lymphatic tissues for most animals; however one animal has evidence of virus tissue compartmentalization. Despite identical viral inoculums, founder viruses were animal-specific, primarily derived from rare variants in the inoculum, and have a founder virus signature that can distinguish dominant founder variants from minor founder or untransmitted variants in the inoculum. Importantly, the sequences of post-transmission defective viruses were phylogenetically associated with competent viral variants in the inoculum and were mainly converted from competent viral variants by frameshift rather than APOBEC mediated mutations, suggesting the converting the transmitted viruses into defective viruses through frameshift mutation is an important component of rectal transmission bottleneck. Anorectal receptive intercourse is a common route of HIV-1 transmission and a better understanding of the transmission mechanisms is critical for developing HIV-1 preventative strategies. Here, we report that there is no tissue compartmentalization of founder viruses during very early rectal transmission of SIV in the majority of rhesus macaques and founder viruses are preferentially derived from rare variant in the inoculum. We also found that founder viruses are animal-specific despite identical viral inoculums. After viruses cross the mucosal barriers, the host further reduces viral diversity by converting some of the transmitted functional viruses into defective viruses through frameshift rather than APOBEC derived mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of founder viruses at multiple tissue sites during very early rectal transmission. Copyright © 2016

  20. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  2. Factors Associated With Receipt of Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    McClure, Laura A; Sussman, Daniel A; Hernandez, Monique N; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Yechieli, Raphael L; Bonner, Judith M; Zheng, D Diane; Lee, David J

    2015-12-22

    Appropriate treatment for cancer is vital to increasing the likelihood of survival; however, for rectal cancer, there are demonstrated disparities in receipt of treatment by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We evaluated factors associated with receipt of appropriate radiation therapy for rectal cancer using data from the Florida Cancer Data System that had been previously enriched with detailed treatment information collected from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Comparative Effectiveness Research study. This treatment information is not routinely available in cancer registry data and represents a unique data resource. Using multivariable regression, we evaluated factors associated with receiving radiation therapy among rectal cancer cases stage II/III. Our sample (n=403) included cases diagnosed in Florida in 2011 who were 18 years and older. Cases clinically staged as 0/I/IV were excluded. Older age (odds ratio=0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.97), the presence of one or more comorbidities (0.61; 0.39-0.96), and receipt of surgical intervention (0.44; 0.22-0.90) were associated with lack of radiation. In this cohort of patients, sociodemographic factors such as race/ethnicity, insurance status, and socioeconomic status, did not influence the receipt of radiation. Further research is needed, however, to understand why aging, greater comorbidity, and having surgery present a barrier to radiation therapy, particularly given that it is a well-tolerated treatment in most patients.

  3. Diclofenac rectal suppository: an effective modality for perineal pain.

    PubMed

    Naz, Shabnam; Memon, Naila Yousuf; Sattar, Asma; Baloch, Rafia

    2016-08-01

    To determine the frequency of perineal pain after childbirth after a single dose of diclofenac rectal suppository. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shaikh Zayed Women Hospital, Larkana, Pakistan, from April to September 2014, and comprised patients who were admitted to the labour room for normal vaginal delivery. A single dose of rectal diclofenac suppository of 100mg was given to the patients delivered vaginally or by second-stage emergency Caesarean section. Post-partum pain was noted after 12 and 24 hours of the administration of analgesia. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 169 subjects, 63(37.28%) were aged 20 years or less, 85(50.3%) between 21 and 30 years, and 21(12.43%) between 31 and 40 years. Frequency of perineal pain was predominantly mild in 95(56%) patients, moderate in 60(35.5%) and severe in 14(8.28%). The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory rectal suppositories was found to be a simple and highly effective modality of reducing the perineal pain.

  4. Alcohol consumption and rectal tumor mutations and epigenetic changes.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Wolff, Roger K; Herrick, Jennifer S; Curtin, Karen; Caan, Bette J; Samowitz, Wade

    2010-08-01

    An association between alcohol and rectal cancer has been reported in the epidemiological literature. In this study we further explore the association by examining specific tumor markers with alcohol consumption as well as types of alcoholic beverages consumed. We assessed alcohol consumption with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, TP53, and KRAS2 mutations in incident rectal cancer cases and compared them with population-based controls. We evaluated type, long-term, and recent alcohol consumption. We observed a trend toward increasing risk of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype positive tumors and long-term alcohol consumption. In contrast, after adjusting for total alcohol intake, recent high beer consumption significantly increased the odds of having a TP53 mutation compared with those who did not drink beer (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI 1.24, 3.12). We observed a nonstatistically significant reduced risk of a TP53 mutation among those who drank wine (in particular, red wine) vs nonconsumers of wine. The association between TP53 mutations and recent beer consumption was strongest for transversion mutations. These data suggest that both alcohol and specific constituents of alcoholic beverages contribute to rectal cancer risk among unique disease pathways.

  5. Rectal Swabs for Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Budding, Andries E.; Grasman, Matthijs E.; Eck, Anat; Bogaards, Johannes A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies. PMID:25020051

  6. Enteral, oral, and rectal absorption of ceftriaxone using glyceride enhancers.

    PubMed

    Beskid, G; Unowsky, J; Behl, C R; Siebelist, J; Tossounian, J L; McGarry, C M; Shah, N H; Cleeland, R

    1988-01-01

    In vivo models in rodents and primates were used to investigate ways of overcoming the poor oral and rectal absorption of ceftriaxone. The sodium salt of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg was formulated in C8-C10 chain length, mono- and diglyceride extracts of coconut oil (Capmul) and administered intraduodenally to adult rats. Peak plasma levels of 17-52 micrograms/ml and bioavailability averaging 38% were attained. Significant plasma levels (42-45 micrograms/ml) were also demonstrated in squirrel monkeys with doses of 20 mg/kg ceftriaxone formulated in Capmul and given by the enteral route. Enteric-coated capsules containing this formulation were also orally administered to squirrel monkeys and gave high plasma levels (10-31 micrograms/ml) between 1 and 6 h following dosing. In rectal absorption studies, ceftriaxone formulated in Capmul as a suspension gave peak blood levels of 62-84 micrograms/ml (average bioavailability 42%) in the rabbit. In the baboon, rectal administration of ceftriaxone formulated with Capmul in a Witepsol H15 suppository gave Cmax levels ranging from 9 to 48 micrograms/ml, depending on the dose of the antibiotic and the drug/enhancer ratio.

  7. Clinically relevant study end points in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Martos, Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Minsky, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    In rectal cancer currently there are no clearly validated early end points which can serve as surrogates for long-term clinical outcome such as local control and survival. However, the use of a variety of response rates (i.e. pathological complete response, downsizing the primary tumor, tumor regression grade (TRG), radiological response) as endpoints in early (phase II) clinical trials is common since objective response to therapy is an early indication of activity. Disease-free survival (DFS) has been proposed as the most appropriate end point in adjuvant trials and is one of the most frequently used in newer rectal cancer trials. Due to the devastating nature of local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer, local control (which is itself a subset of the overall DFS endpoint) is still considered an important endpoint. Recently, circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been proposed as novel early end point because the CRM status can account for effects on DFS and overall survival after chemoradiation, radiation (RT), or surgery alone. Consensus is needed to define the most appropriate end points in both early and phase III trials in locally advanced cancer.

  8. Update of tests of colon and rectal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2006-02-01

    This review deals with the indications, methods, strengths, and limitations of anorectal testing in clinical practice. In chronic constipation, anal manometry and a rectal balloon expulsion test, occasionally supplemented by defecography, are useful to identify a functional defecatory disorder, because symptoms may respond to pelvic floor retraining. In patients with fecal incontinence, diagnostic testing complements the clinical assessment for evaluating the pathophysiology and guiding management. Manometry measures anal resting and squeeze pressures, which predominantly reflect internal and external anal sphincter function, respectively. Defecation may be indirectly assessed by measuring the recto-anal pressure gradient during straining and by the rectal balloon expulsion test. Endoanal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can identify anal sphincter structural pathology, which may be clinically occult, and/or amenable to surgical repair. Only MRI can identify external sphincter atrophy, whereas ultrasound is more sensitive for internal sphincter imaging. By characterizing rectal evacuation and puborectalis contraction, barium defecography may demonstrate an evacuation disorder, excessive perineal descent or a rectocele. Dynamic MRI can provide similar information and also image the bladder and genital organs without radiation exposure. Because the measurement of pudendal nerve latencies suffers from several limitations, anal sphincter electromyography is recommended when neurogenic sphincter weakness is suspected.

  9. GLUT-1 expression and response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Sarah; Sheehan, Katherine M; McNamara, Deborah A; Deasy, Joseph; Bouchier-Hayes, David J; Kay, Elaine W

    2009-12-15

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is used in locally advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence and improve operability, however a proportion of tumors do not undergo significant regression. Identification of predictive markers of response to chemoradiotherapy would improve patient selection and may allow response modification by targeting of specific pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and p53 in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies was predictive of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1 and p53 was performed on 69 pretreatment biopsies and compared to tumor response in the resected specimen as determined by the tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. GLUT-1 expression was significantly associated with reduced response to chemoradiotherapy and increasing GLUT expression correlated with poorer response (p=0.02). GLUT-1 negative tumors had a 70% probability of good response (TRG3/4) compared to a 31% probability of good response in GLUT-1 positive tumors. GLUT-1 may be a useful predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

  10. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Niazi, Masooma; Balar, Bhavna; Nayudu, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass) and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum). The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa. PMID:27920648

  11. Locally advanced rectal cancer: The importance of a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Rossana; Maccaroni, Elena; Onofri, Azzurra; Morgese, Francesca; Torniai, Mariangela; Tiberi, Michela; Ferrini, Consuelo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Rectal cancer accounts for a relevant part of colorectal cancer cases, with a mortality of 4-10/100000 per year. The development of locoregional recurrences and the occurrence of distant metastases both influences the prognosis of these patients. In the last two decades, new multimodality strategies have improved the prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer with a significant reduction of local relapse and an increase in terms of overall survival. Radical surgery still remains the principal curative treatment and the introduction of total mesorectal excision has significantly achieved a reduction in terms of local recurrence rates. The employment of neoadjuvant treatment, delivered before surgery, also achieved an improved local control and an increased sphincter preservation rate in low-lying tumors, with an acceptable acute and late toxicity. This review describes the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, focusing on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and of post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy both in the standard combined modality treatment programs and in the ongoing research to improve these regimens. PMID:25516638

  12. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic vs open rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Winson Jianhong; Chew, Min Hoe; Dharmawan, Angela Renayanti; Singh, Manraj; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tang, Choong Leong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term clinical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic rectal resection (LRR) and the impact of conversion in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: An analysis was performed on a prospective database of 633 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Patients were compared in three groups: Open surgery (OP), laparoscopic surgery, and converted laparoscopic surgery. Short-term outcomes, long-term outcomes, and survival analysis were compared. RESULTS: Among 633 patients studied, 200 patients had successful laparoscopic resections with a conversion rate of 11.1% (25 out of 225). Factors predictive of survival on univariate analysis include the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.016), together with factors such as age, ASA status, stage of disease, tumor grade, presence of perineural invasion and vascular emboli, circumferential resection margin < 2 mm, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival benefit of laparoscopic surgery was no longer significant on multivariate analysis (P = 0.148). Neither 5-year overall survival (70.5% vs 61.8%, P = 0.217) nor 5-year cancer free survival (64.3% vs 66.6%, P = 0.854) were significantly different between the laparoscopic group and the converted group. CONCLUSION: LRR has equivalent long-term oncologic outcomes when compared to OP. Laparoscopic conversion does not confer a worse prognosis. PMID:27358678

  13. Advances and Challenges in Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Joshua; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer have occurred over the past 30 years. Advances in surgical pathology, refinements in surgical techniques and instrumentation, new imaging modalities, and the widespread use of neoadjuvant therapy have all contributed to these improvements. Several questions emerge as we learn of the benefits or lack thereof for components of the current multimodality treatment in subgroups of patients with nonmetastatic locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). What is the optimal surgical technique for distal rectal cancers? Do all patients need postoperative chemotherapy? Do all patients need radiation? Do all patients need surgery, or is a nonoperative, organ-preserving approach warranted in selected patients? Answering these questions will lead to more precise treatment regimens, based on patient and tumor characteristics, that will improve outcomes while preserving quality of life. However, the idea of shifting the treatment paradigm (chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant therapy) currently applied to all patients with LARC to a more individually tailored approach is controversial. The paradigm shift toward organ preservation in highly selected patients whose tumors demonstrate clinical complete response to neoadjuvant treatment is also controversial. Herein, we highlight many of the advances and resultant controversies that are likely to dominate the research agenda for LARC in the modern era. PMID:25918296

  14. [Causes of local recurrence after curative surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Hôhn, József; Varga, László; Baradnay, Gellért; Simonka, Zsolt; Géczi, Tibor; Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; Maráz, Anikó; Kahán, Zsuzsa; Balogh, Adám

    2003-01-01

    The rate of local recurrence (LR) has been 20-40% after resective surgery for rectal cancer by the traditional - Miles or Dixon - operative technics. The authors performed curative resection in 358 patients with rectal cancer in a 10 year period (01.01.1990 - 31.12.2000) in the Surgical Department of Szeged University. Since 01.01.1996 the authors changed this type of surgery for the Heald technics (total mesorectal excision - TME - with sharp dissection, using the UltraCision device) for the surgical treatment of middle or lower third rectal cancer. To compare the results of the two procedures, the authors analysed their material in two periods: Period I: 01.01.1991 - 31.12.1992: 62 patients operated on with the traditional operative technics; LR 15% within 2 years after surgery. Period II: 01.01.1997 - 31.12.1998: 78 patients operated on with the Heald technics (TME with sharp dissection); LR 6.4% within 2 years after surgery. Based on their results, the authors found that the modern operative technics by Heald, used in the second period of the study, was a relevant factor decreasing LR from 15% to 6.4%, while the gender, age of the patients, ratio of the abdominoperineal extirpation versus anterior resection (APRE/AR) and the free margin of more than 3 cm proved to be irrelevant.

  15. Locally advanced rectal cancer: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Rossana; Maccaroni, Elena; Onofri, Azzurra; Morgese, Francesca; Torniai, Mariangela; Tiberi, Michela; Ferrini, Consuelo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-12-14

    Rectal cancer accounts for a relevant part of colorectal cancer cases, with a mortality of 4-10/100000 per year. The development of locoregional recurrences and the occurrence of distant metastases both influences the prognosis of these patients. In the last two decades, new multimodality strategies have improved the prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer with a significant reduction of local relapse and an increase in terms of overall survival. Radical surgery still remains the principal curative treatment and the introduction of total mesorectal excision has significantly achieved a reduction in terms of local recurrence rates. The employment of neoadjuvant treatment, delivered before surgery, also achieved an improved local control and an increased sphincter preservation rate in low-lying tumors, with an acceptable acute and late toxicity. This review describes the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, focusing on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and of post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy both in the standard combined modality treatment programs and in the ongoing research to improve these regimens.

  16. Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Yang; Zhe, Hong

    2013-12-11

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy.

  17. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Thigh Secondary to Radiation Colitis in a Rectal Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyun; Choi, Jung Ran; Song, Ji Young; Kang, Kyu Keun; Yoo, Woong Sun; Han, Sung Wan

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis usually occurs after dermal injury or through hematogenous spread. To date, few cases have been reported as necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh secondary to rectal perforation in rectal cancer patients. A 66-year-old male complained of pelvic and thigh pain and subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis in his right thigh. Four years earlier, he had undergone a low anterior resection and radiotherapy due to of rectal cancer. An ulcerative lesion had been observed around the anastomosis site during the colonoscopy that had been performed two months earlier. Pelvic computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy showed rectal perforation and presacral abscess extending to buttock and the right posterior thigh fascia. Thus, the necrotizing fasciitis was believed to have occurred because of ulcer perforation, one of the complications of chronic radiation colitis, at the anastomosis site. When a rectal-cancer patient complains of pelvic and thigh pain, the possibility of a rectal perforation should be considered. PMID:23346513

  19. Embolization of Rectal Arteries: An Alternative Treatment for Hemorrhagic Shock Induced by Traumatic Intrarectal Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, Nicolas E-mail: nicolas.pichon@chu-limoges.fr; Francois, Bruno; Pichon-Lefievre, Florence; Mathonnet, Murielle; Maubon, Antoine; Vignon, Philippe

    2005-05-15

    Rectal injuries caused by foreign bodies or iatrogenic insertions may lead to severe complications whose therapeutic management remains controversial. At times, both the rapid identification and treatment of subsequent active rectal bleeding may be challenging, especially when endoscopy fails to locate and control the arterial hemorrhage. We present the first two successful cases of middle rectal artery embolization in patients presenting with sustained bleeding and hemorrhagic shock.

  20. Differences in gene expression profiles and carcinogenesis pathways between colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Nan; Zhao, Li; Wu, Jun; Wu, Bin; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Heng Hui; Qian, Jia Ming

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer is more common in the USA and Europe than that in China, for reasons that are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in gene expression profiles and carcinogenesis pathways between colon and rectal cancer. Expression profiling of primary tumor tissues from 12 colon and 12 rectal cancers was performed using oligonucleotide microarray analysis. All samples were strictly matched by clinical features. Bioinformatic analyses such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes were used to identify genes and pathways specifically associated with colon or rectal cancers. A total of 824 genes were differentially expressed in colon and rectal cancers. All differential gene interactions in the Signal-Net were analyzed. More genes were differentially expressed and included in the Signal-Net for rectal than colon cancer. Of the genes differentially expressed between colon and rectal cancer, S100P, the Reg family, ACTN1, CAMK2G and ACAT1 were the most significantly altered. Genes involved in the cell cycle pathway were present in rectal and colon cancers, but were more important in rectal cancer. The p53 and metabolic signaling pathways were significantly different in colon and rectal cancers. Gene expression profiles differed between colon and rectal cancer, with metabolic pathways being more important in rectal cancer. The oncogenesis of rectal cancer may be more complex than that of colon cancer. Some genes could be new biomarkers for distinguishing between these two cancers. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2011 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery resulting in massive per-rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, T.I.; Gillespie, C.J.; Butcher, W.; Lu, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    Rectal bleeding is a common reason for presentation to hospital, with large bleeds most commonly caused by diverticular disease and angiodysplasia. Here we present an unusual aetiology of massive per-rectal bleeding attributable to pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery leading to an arterial fistula to the distal large bowel. It is hoped the case will serve as a reminder that rectal bleeding can have a less common aetiology. PMID:24964318

  2. A familial component to human rectal cancer, independent of colon cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Maul, John Scott; Burt, Randall W.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: The Utah Population Database (UPDB) is unique; it links genealogy for over 2 million Utah individuals to a statewide Cancer Registry. We have investigated the familial nature of rectal cancer, considered independently from colon cancer. Methods: We estimated relative risks in relatives, and average relatedness among rectal cancer cases using matched controls from the UPDB. Results: There is a significant increased risk for rectal cancer in first-degree relatives of rectal cancer cases (Relative Risk = 1.97), equivalent to the risk for colon cancer (RR =2.11). The significant increased risk for rectal cancer extends to second- and third-degree relatives. The relative risk for rectal cancer among first-degree relatives of young-onset rectal cancer cases (< 55 years), is equivalent (RR = 3.34) to their risk of colon cancer (RR=3.35). Conclusions: The UPDB provides strong evidence for a familial component to rectal cancer that may include a genetic component in addition to shared environment. There is a significant increased risk of rectal cancer in the close and distant relatives of rectal cancer cases, which is even higher among relatives of young-onset cases. While it has been reported that relatives of colon cancer probands are at increased risk for colorectal cancer, the risk of large bowel cancer among relatives of rectal cancer patients has been less clear. Relatives of rectal cancer probands experience a risk of cancer of the large bowel that is at least as high as the risk previously reported for relatives of individuals with colon cancer. PMID:17625976

  3. Retained rectal foreign body with rectal perforation; a complication of the traditional management of haemorrhoids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Olaoye, Iyiade Olatunde; Adensina, Micheal Dapo

    2013-10-01

    Retained rectal foreign bodies are most commonly seen in homosexuals and after assault. A few have been reported after self-treatment of anorectal conditions and prostatic massage. Harmful traditional medical practices have been reported in many communities in Africa but therapeutic anal insertion of foreign bodies for the management of haemorrhoids is rare. We present a patient with features of peritonitis following insertion of a wine bottle into his rectum in an attempt to manage his prolapsed haemorrhoids.

  4. Endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD): an optimized therapy for major leaks from extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Glitsch, A; von Bernstorff, W; Seltrecht, U; Partecke, I; Paul, H; Heidecke, C D

    2008-03-01

    A major leak from a rectal anastomosis is an important surgical complication. Endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD) is a new method for treating nonseptic major anastomotic leaks after extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses. Between January 2002 and March 2007 a total of 17 patients (mean age 61.2 years) who developed anastomotic leakage after resection of the rectum or rectosigmoid colon were prospectively evaluated. Their treatment began with endoscopic debridement of the leak/cavity; nylon sponges were then endoscopically fitted into the cavity. Continuous suction was applied via suction tubes inserted into the sponges. Repeat endoscopies and sponge exchanges, including further debridement were essential. In 16/17 patients ETVARD was successful, relieving patients quickly from infectious symptoms and other complaints; one patient eventually required a Hartmann's procedure. Cavity sizes varied from 2 cm x 2 cm to 10 cm x 13 cm. The mean duration of drainage was 21.4 days, with a mean of 5.4 sponge exchanges and 10.7 endoscopies, and a mean total time to closure of the cavity of 53.1 days. The total time to closure of the cavity was directly dependent on the size of the cavity ( P< 0.015). Fifteen patients received additional intramural fibrin glue injections. In eight patients ETVARD was continued on an outpatient basis. There was no advantage demonstrated for patients with diverting loop ileostomies. Patients with anastomoses that were 6 cm or less from the anocutaneous line had considerably longer healing times. The healing time depended significantly on age ( P< 0.036). Follow-up endoscopies have shown only minor anastomotic changes in two patients. ETVARD is a well-tolerated and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of major leaks after extraperitoneal rectal anastomoses. In most cases ETVARD obviates the need for additional surgery, in particular diverting loop ileostomy.

  5. Learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Díaz-Pavón, José Manuel; de la Portilla de Juan, Fernando; Prendes-Sillero, Emilio; Dussort, Hisnard Cadet; Padillo, Javier

    2013-06-01

    One of the main uses of robotic assisted abdominal surgery is the mesorectal excision in patients with rectal cancer. The aim of the present study is to analyse the learning curve for robotic assisted laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer. We included in our study 43 consecutive rectal cancer resections (16 females and 27 males) performed from January 2008 through December 2010. Mean age of patients was 66 ± 9.0 years. Surgical procedures included both abdomino-perineal and anterior resections. We analysed the following parameters: demographic data of the patients included in the study, intra- and postoperative data, time taking to set up the robot for operations (set-up or docking time), operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, conversion rates and pathological specimen features. The learning curve was analysed using cumulative sum (CUSUM) methodology. The procedures understudied included seven abdomino-perineal resections and 36 anterior resections. In our series of patients, mean robotic set-up time was 62.9 ± 24.6 min, and the mean operative time was 197.4 ± 44.3 min. Once we applied CUSUM methodology, we obtained two graphs for CUSUM values (operating time and success), both of them showing three well-differentiated phases: phase 1 (the initial 9-11 cases), phase 2 (the middle 12 cases) and phase 3 (the remaining 20-22 cases). Phase 1 represents initial learning; phase 2 plateau represents increased competence in the use of the robotic system, and finally, phase 3 represents the period of highest skill or mastery with a reduction in docking time (p = 0.000), but a slight increase in operative time (p = 0.007). The CUSUM curve shows three phases in the learning and use of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery which correspond to the phases of initial learning of the technique, consolidation and higher expertise or mastery. The data obtained suggest that the estimated learning curve for robotic assisted rectal cancer

  6. Use of brachytherapy in management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goes, R N; Beart, R W; Simons, A J; Gunderson, L L; Grado, G; Streeter, O

    1997-10-01

    Locally recurrent rectal cancer is associated with poor quality of life and has justified aggressive surgical and adjuvant approaches to control the disease. This study was designed to evaluate if the use of brachytherapy in association with wide surgical excision (debulking operation) can offer reasonable palliation for patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent rectal cancer who were not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy and who were previously considered as having unresectable tumors were included in the study and were followed-up from May 1981 to November 1990. All of them had undergone laparotomy and had either radical or debulking surgical resection performed. At the same time, brachytherapy was used with temporary or permanent implant of seeds of iridium-192 or iodine-125. Thirty patients were included. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 74 years, and 16 patients were female. No mortality was observed, and morbidity was low (small-bowel obstruction (1 patient), intestinal fistula (1 patient), and urinary fistula (1 patient). Histologic examination of the specimen showed gross residual disease in 67 percent of patients and microscopic disease in 25 percent of patients. Long-term follow-up was possible in 28 patients. Mean follow-up and local control were, respectively, 26.5 months and 37.5 percent for gross residual disease and 34 months and 66 percent for microscopic residual disease. Eighteen patients (64 percent) had locally recurrent rectal cancer under control at the time of the last follow-up, with seven patients (25 percent) having no evidence of local or distant recurrence. This is the first report of brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer. This appears to offer a therapeutic alternative to patients who are not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy. Surgical morbidity and mortality are acceptable. Local control in 18 patients (64 percent) is comparable with

  7. Selective permeability barrier to urea in shark rectal gland.

    PubMed

    Zeidel, Joshua D; Mathai, John C; Campbell, John D; Ruiz, Wily G; Apodaca, Gerard L; Riordan, John; Zeidel, Mark L

    2005-07-01

    Elasmobranchs such as the dogfish shark Squalus acanthius achieve osmotic homeostasis by maintaining urea concentrations in the 300- to 400-mM range, thus offsetting to some degree ambient marine osmolalities of 900-1,000 mosmol/kgH(2)O. These creatures also maintain salt balance without losing urea by secreting a NaCl-rich (500 mM) and urea-poor (18 mM) fluid from the rectal gland that is isotonic with the plasma. The composition of the rectal gland fluid suggests that its epithelial cells are permeable to water and not to urea. Because previous work showed that lipid bilayers that permit water flux do not block flux of urea, we reasoned that the plasma membranes of rectal gland epithelial cells must either have aquaporin water channels or must have some selective barrier to urea flux. We therefore isolated apical and basolateral membranes from shark rectal glands and determined their permeabilities to water and urea. Apical membrane fractions were markedly enriched for Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, whereas basolateral membrane fractions were enriched for Na-K-ATPase. Basolateral membrane osmotic water permeability (P(f)) averaged 4.3 +/- 1.3 x 10(-3) cm/s, whereas urea permeability averaged 4.2 +/- 0.8 x 10(-7) cm/s. The activation energy for water flow averaged 16.4 kcal/mol. Apical membrane P(f) averaged 7.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(-4) cm/s, and urea permeability averaged 2.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(-7) cm/s, with an average activation energy for water flow of 18.6 kcal/mol. The relatively low water permeabilities and high activation energies argue strongly against water flux via aquaporins. Comparison of membrane water and urea permeabilities with those of artificial liposomes and other isolated biological membranes indicates that the basolateral membrane urea permeability is fivefold lower than would be anticipated for its water permeability. These results indicate that the rectal gland maintains a selective barrier to urea in its basolateral membranes.

  8. Stimulation of defecation: effects of coffee use and nicotine on rectal tone and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sloots, Cornelius E J; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; West, Rachel L; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2005-07-01

    Coffee and cigarette use is believed to induce bowel movements, although the literature is controversial and precise measurements of rectal tone and sensitivity with a barostat have never been performed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of coffee and nicotine on rectal tone, compliance and sensitivity. Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the coffee (n = 8) and nicotine (n = 8) experiments. The experiments were randomly performed in a placebo-controlled crossover design on separate days. In the coffee experiment, 280 ml strong coffee or warm water was drunk and in the nicotine experiment, nicotine (2 mg) or placebo was given sublingually. A rectal barostat procedure was carried out. A flaccid bag, mounted on a catheter, was inserted in the rectum. Continuous pressure distension was exerted to register basal visceral sensitivity and compliance. After rectal adaptation, the stimulus was given. Rectal tone was measured for 1 h, after which continuous pressure distension was repeated. Rectal tone increased by 45% 30 min after coffee intake (p = 0.031) and by 30% after water intake (p = 0.032), but the effects of coffee and water were not significantly different. Rectal tone did not change significantly after administration of nicotine (7%) or placebo (10%). There was no difference in compliance and visceral sensitivity between coffee and water or nicotine and placebo. Both coffee and warm water have an effect on defecation by increasing rectal tone, but nicotine (2 mg) did not affect rectal tone. Coffee and nicotine did not influence sensitivity or compliance.

  9. Relationship between rectal sensitivity, symptoms intensity and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sabaté, Jean-Marc; Veyrac, Michel; Mion, François; Siproudhis, Laurent; Ducrotté, Philippe; Zerbib, Franck; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Dapoigny, Michel; Dyard, François; Coffin, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Background Relationships between pain threshold during rectal distension and both symptoms intensity and alteration in quality of life (QoL) in IBS patients have been poorly evaluated. Aim To evaluate relationships between rectal sensitivity, IBS symptom intensity and QoL in a multicentre prospective study. Methods Rectal threshold for moderate pain was measured during rectal distension in IBS patients (Rome II) while IBS symptoms intensity was assessed by a validated questionnaire and QoL by the FDDQL questionnaire. Results 68 patients (44.2 ± 12.7 yrs, 48 women) were included. The mean rectal distending volume for moderate pain was 127 ± 35 mL while 45 patients (66 %) had rectal hypersensitivity (pain threshold < 140 mL). Rectal threshold was not significantly related to overall IBS intensity score (r = −0.66, P = 0.62) or to its different components, neither to FDDQL score (r = 0.30, P = 0.14). Among FDDQL domains, only anxiety (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) and coping (r = 0.31, P = 0.009) were significantly related with pain threshold. Conclusion In this study, 2/3 of IBS patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity. No significant correlation was found between rectal threshold and either symptom intensity or alteration in QoL. PMID:18544074

  10. Effect of misclassified underlying cause of death on survival estimates of colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Daixin; Morris, Cyllene R; Bates, Janet H; German, Robert R

    2011-07-20

    Inaccurate coding of patients' Underlying Cause of Death (UCOD) has constrained cause-specific survival estimates for colon and rectal cancers. Using California data from the Accuracy of Cancer Mortality study, we compared the cancer site data from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) with UCODs reported on death certificates and reclassified the UCODs based on cancer registry data when they disagreed. We then calculated 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year cause-specific survival for colon and rectal cancers separately, before and after the reclassification. Records from 26 312 colon and 10 687 rectal cancer patients were examined. UCOD records disagreed with CCR records for 700 (6%) of 11 404 colon cancer deaths and with 1958 (39%) of 5011 rectal cancer deaths, and 82% of the misclassified rectal cancer deaths were coded as colon cancer deaths in the UCOD. Reclassification decreased cause-specific survival for both colon and rectal cancers, but the impact was more pronounced for rectal cancer (eg, 5-year cause-specific survival of colon cancer decreased by 2.8% and of rectal cancer decreased by 20.0% relative to previous estimates; absolute rates changed from 65.4% to 63.6%, and 81.2% to 64.9%, respectively, after reclassification). Interchangeable use of the terms colon cancer and colorectal cancer is likely to be one of the reasons for UCOD misclassification. Educational measures could improve the accuracy of UCOD for colon and rectal cancer deaths.

  11. Effects of rectal and ambient temperatures and humidity on conception rates.

    PubMed

    Zakari, A Y; Molokwu, E C; Osori, D I

    1981-09-01

    One hundred and thirteen inseminations were performed for which rectal temperatures were taken at the time of inseminations. Climatological factors were also recorded daily. Pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation was carried out 3 months post-insemination. Pregnancy rates for all services were related to selected climatological measurements and rectal temperatures. The results obtained indicate that elevated rectal temperature, mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures and relative humidity were detrimental to conception. The effect of the climatological factor on conception is compounded by feed scarcity during the dry periods of the year.

  12. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer; Mocellin, Simone

    2012-03-14

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the Western world. Apart from surgery - which remains the mainstay of treatment for resectable primary tumours - postoperative (i.e., adjuvant) chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based regimens is now the standard treatment in Dukes' C (TNM stage III) colon tumours i.e. tumours with metastases in the regional lymph nodes but no distant metastases. In contrast, the evidence for recommendations of adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer is sparse. In Europe it is generally acknowledged that locally advanced rectal tumours receive preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes' C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma; moreover, no formal systematic review and meta-analysis has been so far performed on this subject. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1975 until March 2011 in order to quantitatively summarize the available evidence regarding the impact of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with surgically resectable rectal cancer. The outcomes of interest were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). CCCG standard search strategy in defined databases with the following supplementary search. 1. Rect* or colorect* - 2. Cancer or carcinom* or adenocarc* or neoplasm* or tumour - 3. Adjuv* - 4. Chemother* - 5. Postoper* Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer who received no adjuvant chemotherapy with those receiving any postoperative chemotherapy regimen. Two authors extracted data and a third author performed an independent search for verification. The main outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) between the risk of event between the treatment arm (adjuvant chemotherapy

  13. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea

  14. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  15. ¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling of human rectal cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis. Methods Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n = 127) and normal controls (n = 43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer. Results Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I = 35; stage II = 37; stage III = 37 and stage IV = 18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would

  16. Defining the rectal dose constraint for permanent radioactive seed implantation of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michele; Song, Jun S; Schultz, Delray; Cormack, Robert A; Tempany, Clare M; Haker, Steve; Devlin, Phillip M; Beard, Clair; Hurwitz, Mark D; Suh, Wonsuk W; Jolesz, Ferenc; D'Amico, Anthony V

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to define the rectal dose constraint that would predict late rectal bleeding requiring argon plasma coagulation (APC) following prostate brachy mono-therapy. Between February 1999 and April 2002, 91 patients with low risk prostate cancer underwent permanent I(125) radioactive seed implantation without the use of supplemental external beam radiation or androgen suppression therapy. Patients received both CT and MRI scans 6 weeks postimplant for evaluation of dosimetry. The CT and MRI scans were fused. Rectal volumes were contoured on the T2 weighted MR images. For those patients requiring APC, the date on which a patient reported rectal bleeding was recorded. A Cox regression analysis was performed to assess whether there was a significant association between the rectal volume (continuous) exceeding 100 Gy time rectal bleeding. Comparisons of estimates of rectal bleeding requiring APC were made using a 2-sided log rank test. There was a significant association (hazard ratio = 5.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.3, 23.8]; P = 0.002) between the rectal volume exceeding 100 Gy and rectal bleeding requiring APC. After a median follow-up of 4.25 (1-6) years, no patient with less than a median value of 8 cc of rectum exceeding 100 Gy required APC, whereas 20% (P = 0.004) were estimated to require APC within 3 years following treatment. Keeping the rectal volume receiving more than 100 Gy below 8 cc will minimize the risk of rectal bleeding requiring APC following I(125) permanent prostate brachy mono-therapy.

  17. Rectal injury during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: incidence and management.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Mendoza, Pierre; Sharma, Saurabh; Hastings, Rachel L; Monahan, Kelly P; Walicki, Mary; Ahlering, Thomas E; Porter, James; Castle, Erik P; Ahmed, Faisal; Engel, Jason D; Frazier, Harold A; Eun, Daniel; Lee, David I

    2011-11-01

    Rectal injury during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a rare but significant complication. Since the Clavien grading classification of complications does not include intraoperative injury without further sequelae, rectal injury may be underreported in the literature. We present what is to our knowledge the largest retrospective review to date of rectal injury and subsequent management. We reviewed the records of 6,650 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at a total of 6 institutions. Patient characteristics, perioperative parameters, pathological findings and rectal injury management were tabulated and analyzed for intraoperative predictors of outcome and subsequent management. A total of 11 rectal injury cases were identified of the 6,650 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for a combined 0.17% incidence of rectal injury. Of rectal injuries 72.7% were identified intraoperatively and most did well with primary closure. Delayed recognition injury presented as rectourethral fistula without septic complications and required delayed fistula repair after primary diversion. We found no conclusive association of rectal injury with any patient parameter, intraoperative differences, pathological finding or surgeon experience. Posterior prostate plane dissection, including seminal vesicle dissection, is the crucial stage when rectal injury can occur and be identified. Our review of the records at 6 centers revealed a combined 0.17% incidence of rectal injury. This compares favorably to the incidence in modern open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy series. No preoperative, intraoperative or pathological differences correlated with injury. Cases in which rectal injury was identified intraoperatively required fewer surgical repeat interventions but ultimately each group had acceptable long-term urinary and bowel function results. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. [(18)F]Fluoromisonidazole PET in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Puri, Tanuj; Greenhalgh, Tessa A; Wilson, James M; Franklin, Jamie; Wang, Lia Mun; Strauss, Victoria; Cunningham, Chris; Partridge, Mike; Maughan, Tim

    2017-09-20

    There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2). The first 6 patients did not receive an enema (the non-enema group) and the last 4 patients received an enema before PET-CT scan (the enema group). [(18)F]FMISO production failed on 2 occasions. Static PET images at 4 h were analysed using tumour-to-muscle (T:M) SUVmax and tumour-to-blood (T:B) SUVmax. The 0-45 min dynamic PET scans were analysed using Casciari model to report hypoxia and perfusion. Akaike information criteria (AIC) were used to compare data fittings for different pharmacokinetic models. Pathological tumour regression grade was scored using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7.0. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of the data. Five out of eleven (5/11) patients were classed as good responders (AJCC 0/1 or good clinical response) and 6/11 as poor responders (AJCC 2/3 or poor clinical response). The median T:M SUVmax was 2.14 (IQR 0.58) at baseline and 1.30 (IQR 0.19) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 1.08 (IQR 1.31) cm(3) and 0 (IQR 0.15) cm(3), respectively. The median T:B SUVmax was 2.46 (IQR 1.50) at baseline and 1.61 (IQR 0.14) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 5.68 (IQR 5.86) cm(3) and 0.76 (IQR 0.78) cm(3), respectively. For 0-45 min tumour modelling, the median hypoxia was 0.92 (IQR 0.41) min(-1) at baseline and 0.70 (IQR 0.10) min(-1) at week 2. The median perfusion was 4.10 (IQR 1.71) ml g(-1)

  19. Clinical impact of HLA class I expression in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Frank M.; de Bruin, Elza C.; Morreau, Hans; Zeestraten, Eliane C. M.; Putter, Hein; van Krieken, J. Han; van Buren, Maaike M.; van Velzen, Monique; Dekker-Ensink, N. Geeske; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the clinical impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression in irradiated and non-irradiated rectal carcinomas. Experimental design Tumor samples in tissue micro array format were collected from 1,135 patients. HLA class I expression was assessed after immunohistochemical staining with two antibodies (HCA2 and HC10). Results Tumors were split into two groups: (1) tumors with >50% of tumor cells expressing HLA class I (high) and (2) tumors with ≤50% of tumor cells expressing HLA class I (low). No difference in distribution or prognosis of HLA class I expression was found between irradiated and non-irradiated patients. Patients with low expression of HLA class I (15% of all patients) showed an independent significantly worse prognosis with regard to overall survival and disease-free survival. HLA class I expression had no effect on cancer-specific survival or recurrence-free survival. Conclusions Down-regulation of HLA class I in rectal cancer is associated with poor prognosis. In contrast to our results, previous reports on HLA class I expression in colorectal cancer described a large population of patients with HLA class I negative tumors, having a good prognosis. This difference might be explained by the fact that a large proportion of HLA negative colon tumors are microsatellite instable (MSI). MSI tumors are associated with a better prognosis than microsatellite stable (MSS). As rectal tumors are mainly MSS, our results suggest that it is both, oncogenic pathway and HLA class I expression, that dictates patient’s prognosis in colorectal cancer. Therefore, to prevent confounding in future prognostic analysis on the impact of HLA expression in colorectal tumors, separate analysis of MSI and MSS tumors should be performed. PMID:17874100

  20. Robotic-Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Excision Versus Traditional Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Michael S.; Abbass, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robotic surgery has been advocated for the radical excision of rectal cancer. Most data supporting its use have been reported from European and Asian centers, with a paucity of data from the United States documenting clear advantages of the robotic technique. This study compares the short-term outcome of robotic versus laparoscopic surgery. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic (group 1) or robotic (group 2) rectal cancer excision at a single institution over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were operative time, blood loss, conversion rates, number of lymph nodes, margin positivity, length of hospital stay, complications, and readmission rates. Results: Forty-two patients were analyzed. The median operative time was shorter in group 1 than that in group 2 (240 minutes vs 260 minutes, P = .04). No difference was noted in blood loss, transfusion rates, intraoperative complications, or conversion rates. There was no difference in circumferential or distal margin positivity. The median length of stay was shorter in group 1 (5 days vs 6 days, P = .05). The 90-day complication rate was similar in both groups (33% vs 43%, P = .75), but there was a trend toward more anastomotic leaks in group 1 (14% vs 0%, P = .23). Similarly, a non–statistically significant trend toward a higher readmission rate was noted in group 1 (24% vs 5%, P = .18). Conclusion: Robotic rectal cancer excision yielded a longer operative time and hospital length of stay, although immediate oncologic results were comparable. The need for randomized data is critical to determine whether the added resource utilization in robotic surgery is justifiable. PMID:25392653

  1. Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338

  2. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia Karagiannis, Georgios Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  3. Oncological results according to type of resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciga Lozano, Miguel Ángel; Codina Cazador, Antonio; Ortiz Hurtado, Héctor

    2015-04-01

    This multicentre observational study aimed to compare outcomes of anterior resection (AR) and abdominal perineal resection (APR) in patients treated for rectal cancer. Between March 2006 and March 2009 a cohort of 1,598 patients diagnosed with low and mid rectal cancer were operated on in the first 38 hospitals included in the Spanish Rectal Cancer Project. In 1,343 patients the procedure was considered curative. Clinical and outcome results were analysed in relation to the type of surgery performed. All patients were included in the analysis of clinical results. The analysis of outcomes was performed only on patients treated by a curative procedure. Of the 1,598 patients, 1,139 (71.3%) underwent an AR and 459 (28.7%) an APR. In 1,343 patients the procedure was performed with curative intent; from these 973 (72.4%) had an AR and 370 (27.6%) an APR. There were no differences between AR and APR in mortality (29 vs. 18 patients; P=.141). After a median follow up of 60.0 [49.0-60.0] months there were no differences in local recurrence (HR 1.68 [0.87-3.23]; P=.12), metastases (HR 1.31 [0.98-1.76]; P=.064). However, overall survival was worse after APR (HR 1.37 [1.00-1.86]; P=.048). This study did not identify abdominoperineal excision as a determinant of local recurrence or metastases. However, patients treated by this operation have a decreased overall survival. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining the distal margin of rectal cancer for surgical planning

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takashi; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the distal rectal tumor margin is essential in selecting the appropriate surgical procedure. However, there is no standard measurement method. The National Cancer Institute consensus group recommends use of the anal verge (AV) as a landmark, and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology recommends use of the anorectal ring (ARR). In addition, whether measurements should be made on double contrast barium enema (BE) radiographs or magnetic resonance (MR) images remains controversial. We measured the distal tumor margin on both BE and MR images obtained preoperatively from 52 patients who underwent sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. The distances from the distal end of the tumor to the AV and the ARR were measured on both types of images, and the variability was investigated by Bland-Altman analysis. The mean distance from the tumor to the AV was 8.9 cm on the BE radiographs and 7.7 cm on the MR images (P=0.013). The mean distances to the ARR were 6.8 and 5.6 cm, respectively (P=0.070). Significant proportional bias was shown as the measured distances increased, the difference between the BE- and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements increased. Use of one or the other landmark did not affect selection of the appropriate surgical procedure. We conclude that an approximate 1-cm underestimation should be taken into account when MRI-based measurement of the distal rectal tumor margin is used to choose between sphincter-saving resection and abdominoperineal resection. PMID:28280625

  5. Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.

    PubMed

    Igari, Yui; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno's method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henssge's parameter determination (Henssge's method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno's method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge's method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno's method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge's method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno's method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of survival following pelvic exenteration for primary rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Radwan, R W; Jones, H G; Rawat, N; Davies, M; Evans, M D; Harris, D A; Beynon, J

    2015-09-01

    Pelvic exenteration is a potentially curative treatment for locally advanced primary rectal cancer. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes and heterogeneous data. A consecutive series of patients was studied to identify the clinicopathological determinants of survival. All patients undergoing pelvic exenterative surgery for primary rectal cancer (1992-2014) at this hospital were analysed. The primary outcome measure was 5-year overall survival. Secondary endpoints included length of hospital stay, complication rate, 30-day mortality and disease recurrence rate. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. A total of 174 patients with a median age of 65 (range 31-90) years were included. Ninety-six patients underwent posterior pelvic exenteration and 78 had total pelvic exenteration. Median follow-up was 48 (range 1-229) months. Two patients (1.1 per cent) died within 30 days of surgery and 16.1 per cent returned to the operating theatre. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection (R0) was 59.3 per cent. In univariable analysis, adverse survival was associated with advanced age (P = 0.003), metastatic disease (P = 0.001), pathological node status (P = 0.001), circumferential resection margin (P = 0.001), local recurrence (P = 0.015) and the need for neoadjuvant therapy (P = 0.039). Pelvic exenteration is an aggressive treatment option with a high morbidity rate that provides favourable long-term outcomes in patients with locally advanced primary rectal cancer. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transcriptomic profiles differentiate normal rectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J; Dejulius, K; Liu, X; Coffey, J C; Kalady, M F

    2015-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a histologic diagnosis based on subjective findings. Transcriptional profiles have been used to differentiate normal tissue from disease and could provide a means of identifying malignancy. The goal of this study was to generate and test transcriptomic profiles that differentiate normal from adenocarcinomatous rectum. Comparisons were made between cDNA microarrays derived from normal epithelium and rectal adenocarcinoma. Results were filtered according to standard deviation to retain only highly dysregulated genes. Genes differentially expressed between cancer and normal tissue on two-groups t test (P < 0.05, Bonferroni P value adjustment) were further analyzed. Genes were rank ordered in terms of descending fold change. For each comparison (tumor versus normal epithelium), those 5 genes with the greatest positive fold change were grouped in a classifier. Five separate tests were applied to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of each classifier. Genetic classifiers derived comparing normal epithelium with malignant rectal epithelium from pooled stages had a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.6% and 98.2%, respectively. The classifiers derived from comparing normal and stage I cancer had comparable mean sensitivities and specificities (97% and 98%, respectively). Areas under the summary receiver-operator characteristic curves for each classifier were 0.981 and 0.972, respectively. One gene was common to both classifiers. Classifiers were tested in an independent Gene Expression Omnibus-derived dataset. Both classifiers retained their predictive properties. Transcriptomic profiles comprising as few as 5 genes are highly accurate in differentiating normal from adenocarcinomatous rectal epithelium, including early-stage disease.

  8. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and pathological complete response in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Linda; Fichera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The management of rectal cancer has evolved significantly in the last few decades. Significant improvements in local disease control were achieved in the 1990s, with the introduction of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Level 1 evidence has shown that, with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) the rates of local recurrence can be lower than 6% and, as a result, neoadjuvant CRT currently represents the accepted standard of care. This approach has led to reliable tumor down-staging, with 15–27% patients with a pathological complete response (pCR)—defined as no residual cancer found on histological examination of the specimen. Patients who achieve pCR after CRT have better long-term outcomes, less risk of developing local or distal recurrence and improved survival. For all these reasons, sphincter-preserving procedures or organ-preserving options have been suggested, such as local excision of residual tumor or the omission of surgery altogether. Although local recurrence rate has been stable at 5–6% with this multidisciplinary management method, distal recurrence rates for locally-advanced rectal cancers remain in excess of 25% and represent the main cause of death in these patients. For this reason, more recent trials have been looking at the administration of full-dose systemic chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting (in order to offer early treatment of disseminated micrometastases, thus improving control of systemic disease) and selective use of radiotherapy only in non-responders or for low rectal tumors smaller than 5 cm. PMID:26290512

  9. Can Rectal Diclofenac Prevent Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Lua, Guan Way; Muthukaruppan, Raman; Menon, Jayaram

    2015-10-01

    Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce the incidence of post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). There were various trials using different routes and dosages of NSAIDs but meta-analysis revealed inconsistent results. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of rectal diclofenac in preventing PEP and to evaluate any adverse events. This was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, prospective clinical trial. Only patients at high risk of developing PEP were recruited. They received 100 mg rectal diclofenac or no intervention immediately after ERCP. The patients were reviewed 30 days after discharge to evaluate any adverse event. Among 144 recruited patients, 69 (47.9%) received diclofenac and 75 (52.1%) had no intervention. Eleven patients (7.6%) developed PEP, in which seven were from the diclofenac group and four were in the control group. Eight cases of PEP (5.5%) were mild and three cases (2.1%) were moderate. The differences in pancreatitis incidence and severity between both groups were not statistically significant. There were 11 adverse events reported. Clinically significant bleeding happened in four patients (2.8%): one from the diclofenac group and three from the control group. Other events included cholangitis: two patients (2.9%) from the diclofenac group and four (5.3%) from the control group. One patient from the diclofenac group (1.4%) had a perforation which was treated conservatively. In summary, prophylactic rectal diclofenac did not significantly decrease the incidence of PEP among patients at high risk for developing PEP. However, the administration of diclofenac was fairly safe with few clinical adverse events.

  10. Metachronous metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ketata, Sabeur; Boulaire, Jean Loup; Soulimane, Benamar; Bargain, Alain

    2007-09-01

    Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, but can also arise from tumors of the large bowel; other primary sites are extremely uncommon. We report the case of a 59-year-old patient with 2 penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma, which was discovered 26 years after abdominoperineal resection. Penile biopsy was carried out and established the metastatic nature. The patient underwent palliative chemotherapy treatment with cetuximab/irinotecan. All previously reported cases of penile metastasis from the rectum are reviewed. Regardless of the treatment options, the prognosis of such metastasis remains poor.

  11. Transanal resection of a colonic lipoma, mimicking rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Tzilinis, Argyrios; Fessenden, John M; Ressler, Kristie M; Clarke, Leon E

    2003-01-01

    Colonic lipomas are benign tumors usually asymptomatic. Occasionally, they may cause symptoms such as bleeding, intussusception, obstruction, or rectal prolapse. We present a 44-year-old African-American female that presented with an 8 cm colonic lipoma protruding through the anal verge. We also reviewed all the reported cases in the English literature. The patient was treated successfully with transanal resection, which has rarely been done before for this large a tumor. Transanal resection of large benign tumors of the rectosigmoid is possible.

  12. An Unusual Case of Rectal and Ileal Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsamad, Molham; Abbas, Naeem; Balar, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor is the most common neuroendocrine tumor affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The coexistence of multifocal carcinoid lesions is a well-established phenomenon. Although intubation of the terminal ileum is not routinely attempted during colonoscopy, it can occasionally reveal the presence of some incidental findings. We present a patient with known rectal carcinoid, who was found to have another carcinoid lesion in the terminal ileum during surveillance colonoscopy. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy, and no chemotherapy was required as the patient was found to have stage 1 carcinoid tumor. PMID:28203126

  13. Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

  14. Oxaliplatin-based combined-modality therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2003-08-01

    There are two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer. The first is surgery, and, if the tumor is T3 and/or N1-2, this is followed by postoperative combined-modality therapy. The second, for patients with ultrasound T3 or clinical T4 disease, is preoperative combined-modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. In this review, the results of these approaches as well as novel combined-modality approaches using oxaliplatin-based regimens will be presented.

  15. Radiation plus chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2002-04-01

    The most common neo-adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer is chemotherapy and concurrent radiation therapy. In general, it is delivered pre-operatively for patients with clinical evidence of T(3-4) disease or post-operatively in patients who have undergone surgery and have T(3) and/or N(1-2) disease. This chapter reviews the rationale and results for neo-adjuvant therapy, the selection process for pre-operative versus post-operative treatment, and new approaches and controversies.

  16. Long-term results of local excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Paty, Philip B; Nash, Garrett M; Baron, Paul; Zakowski, Maureen; Minsky, Bruce D; Blumberg, David; Nathanson, Daniel R; Guillem, Jose G; Enker, Warren E; Cohen, Alfred M; Wong, W Douglas

    2002-10-01

    To review the authors' experience with local excision of early rectal cancers to assess the effectiveness of initial treatment and of salvage surgery. Local excision for rectal cancer is appealing for its low morbidity and excellent functional results. However, its use is limited by inability to assess regional lymph nodes and uncertainty of oncologic outcome. Patients with T1 and T2 adenocarcinomas of the rectum treated by local excision as definitive surgery between 1969 to 1996 at the authors' institution were reviewed. Pathology slides were reviewed. Among 125 assessable patients, 74 were T1 and 51 were T2. Thirty-one patients (25%) were selected to receive adjuvant radiation therapy. Fifteen of these 31 patients received adjuvant radiation in combination with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 6.7 years. One hundred fifteen patients (92%) were followed until death or for greater than 5 years, and 69 patients (55%) were followed until death or for greater than 10 years. Recurrence was recorded as local, distant, and overall. Survival was disease-specific. Ten-year local recurrence and survival rates were 17% and 74% for T1 rectal cancers and 26% and 72% for T2 cancers. Median time to relapse was 1.4 years (range 0.4-7.0) for local recurrence and 2.5 years (0.8-7.5) for distant recurrence. In patients receiving radiotherapy, local recurrence was delayed (median 2.1 years vs. 1.1 years), but overall rates of local and overall recurrence and survival rates were similar to patients not receiving radiotherapy. Among 26 cancer deaths, 8 (28%) occurred more than 5 years after local excision. On multivariate analysis, no clinical or pathologic features were predictive of local recurrence. Intratumoral vascular invasion was the only significant predictor of survival. Among 34 patients who developed tumor recurrence, the pattern of first clinical recurrence was predominantly local: 50% local only, 18% local and distant, and 32% distant only. Among the 17

  17. Tumeur stromale rectale: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Rejab, Haitham; Kridis, Wala Ben; Ben Ameur, Hazem; Feki, Jihene; Frikha, Mounir; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales sont des tumeurs mésenchymateuses peu fréquentes. Elles sont localisées préférentiellement eu niveau de l'estomac. La localisation rectale reste rare. A un nouveau cas de tumeur stromale du rectum ainsi qu'une bref revue de la littérature, on se propose d’étudier les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare. PMID:25120863

  18. [Secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis in a 39-year-old man after rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jarosch, A; Tiller, M; Rohrbach, H; Leimbach, T; Schepp, W

    2016-05-01

    A 39-year-old man had been treated for rectal cancer 6 years ago by lower anterior resection of the rectum and perioperative radiochemotherapy. Since then follow-up had been unremarkable but now the patient presented with unspecific lower abdominal pain. The cause of the pain was identified as paraneoplastic retroperitoneal fibrosis secondary to metachronous pulmonary metastases of the rectal cancer.

  19. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  20. New barium paste mixture for helical (slip-ring) CT evaluation of rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Noda, Y; Nishioka, A; Inomata, T; Yoshida, S; Toki, T; Ogoshi, S; Ma, J

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new method for complete opacification of the rectum using helical CT and a newly developed anal contrast agent. Rectal cancers were easily identified in all of the 21 patients examined, and diagnostic accuracy in detecting local invasion was 94%. Our method of rectal CT is easy to perform and well tolerated.

  1. Formulation and delivery of anti-HIV rectal microbicides: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rute; Sarmento, Bruno; das Neves, José

    2014-11-28

    Men and women engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI) are at higher risk of acquiring HIV from infected partners. The implementation of preventive strategies is urgent and rectal microbicides may be a useful tool in reducing the sexual transmission of HIV. However, pre-clinical and first clinical trials have been able to identify limitations of candidate products, mostly related with safety issues, which can in turn enhance viral infection. Indeed, the development of suitable formulations for the rectal delivery of promising antiretroviral drugs is not an easy task, and has been mostly based on products specifically intended for vaginal delivery, but these have been shown to provide sub-optimal outcomes when administered rectally. Research and development in the rectal microbicide field are now charting their own path and important information is now available. In particular, specific formulation requirements of rectal microbicide products that need to be met have just recently been acknowledged despite additional work being still required. Desirable rectal microbicide product features regarding characteristics such as pH, osmolality, excipients, dosage forms, volume to be administered and the need for applicator use have been studied and defined in recent years, and specific guidance is now possible. This review provides a synopsis of the field of rectal microbicides, namely past and ongoing clinical studies, and details on formulation and drug delivery issues regarding the specific development of rectal microbicide products. Also, future work, as required for the advancement of the field, is discussed.

  2. 78 FR 46965 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine Rectal Suppositories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... applications (ANDAs) for mesalamine rectal suppositories. The draft guidance is a revised version of a..., USP) Rectal Suppositories, new drug application 021252, 500 milligram (mg) and 1,000 mg strengths were... pharmacokinetic endpoints and comparative in vitro studies (melting point, differential scanning...

  3. Comparison of non-contact infrared thermometry and rectal thermometry in cats.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Kelly R; Levy, Julie K; Tucker, Sylvia J

    2016-10-01

    Body temperature is commonly used for assessing health and identifying infectious diseases in cats. Rectal thermometry, the most commonly used method, is stressful, invasive and time consuming. Non-contact infrared thermometry (NIRT) has been used with mixed success to measure temperature in humans and other species. The purpose of this study was to determine if NIRT measurements were comparable to rectal temperature measurements or, if not highly correlated, could at least identify cats in the hypothermic or hyperthermic range in need of further evaluation. From a total of six NIRT devices and 15 anatomic sites, three devices and three sites (pinna, gingiva and perineum) with the highest correlation to rectal temperature were selected for further study. Measurements were made in 188 adult cats housed indoors at animal shelters, veterinary clinics and private homes across a wide range of body temperatures and compared with rectal temperatures. Bland-Altman analysis revealed poor agreement between NIRT and rectal thermometry. The mean NIRT measurements ranged from 0.7-1.3°C below the mean rectal measurements, but the effect was not consistent; NIRT measurements tended to exceed rectal measurements in hypothermic cats and fall below rectal measurements in normothermic and hyperthermic cats. The accuracy of temperature measurements using NIRT devices is not reliable for clinical use in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subrata; Donn, Steven M; Bhagat, Indira; Dechert, Ronald E; Barks, John D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored whole-body cooling concurrently by both esophageal and rectal probes. Esophageal temperature was significantly higher compared with simultaneous rectal temperature during cooling, with a temperature gradient ranging from 0.46 to 1.03°C (median, 0.8°C; IQR, 0.6-0.8°C). During rewarming, this temperature difference disappeared.

  5. Development of a Self-contained, Indwelling Rectal Temperature Probe for Cattle Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A device was developed to automatically monitor rectal temperature (RT) of cattle for application in research settings. Compared with manual measurement of rectal temperature, this device decreases labor and time requirements, and allows data collection without the influence of animal handling or re...

  6. Novel combination combining J-Vac and VAC sponge for draining a rectal wound.

    PubMed

    Durai, R; Ng, P C H

    2010-01-01

    Active drains, which work by negative pressure, require a closed space for retaining the vacuum. Here the authors describe their novel technique of combining a J-Vac drain and the sponge of a vacuum assisted closure dressing pack to drain a rectal wound. This modification may be useful for rectal wounds and anastomotic leaks.

  7. Rectal chlamydia infection in women at high risk of chlamydia attending Canberra Sexual Health Centre.

    PubMed

    Musil, Kate; Currie, Marian; Sherley, Miranda; Martin, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Australian guidelines recommend urogenital screening in asymptomatic men and women, and rectal screening in men who have sex with men or women reporting anal sex/symptoms. International studies describe a rectal chlamydia prevalence in women of 5% to 21%. We found that in women at high risk of chlamydia, 57% (32/56) tested positive for rectal chlamydia. Of these, 97% (31/32) had concurrent urogenital chlamydia. Women with urogenital chlamydia were significantly more likely to have a positive rectal result (χ(2), p = 0.000). Neither anal symptoms nor reported anal sex were associated with a positive rectal chlamydia test. The recommended treatment of rectal chlamydia differs substantially from that of urogenital chlamydia, raising the possibility that Australian women are being regularly undertreated due to a lack of rectal testing. Untreated rectal chlamydia may increase the risk of persistent infection, reproductive tract reinfection, complications and transmission. Further work is needed to determine the optimal management of chlamydia in women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. High-grade internal rectal prolapse: Does it explain so-called "idiopathic" faecal incontinence?

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, A L A; Buchs, N C; Prapasrivorakul, S; Cunningham, C; Jones, O M; Hompes, R; Lindsey, I

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a multifactorial disorder, with multiple treatment options. The role of internal rectal prolapse in the aetiology of faecal incontinence is debated. Recent data has shown the importance of high-grade internal rectal prolapse in case of faecal incontinence. We aimed to determine the incidence and relevance of internal rectal prolapse in patients with faecal incontinence without an anal sphincter defect. Patient data, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, were assessed. All females with moderate to severe pure faecal incontinence, without obstructed defecation and sphincter muscle defects, were included. Data on defecation proctography, anorectal physiology and incontinence scores were analysed. Of 2082 females in the database, 174 fitted the inclusion criteria. High-grade internal rectal prolapse was found in 49% of patients and was associated predominantly with urge faecal incontinence. Passive faecal incontinence was more common in low-grade compared to high-grade internal rectal prolapse patients. Maximum resting pressure was lower in older patients and in patients with high-grade compared to low-grade internal rectal prolapse. Internal rectal prolapse grade was not significantly correlated with faecal incontinence severity score. High-grade internal rectal prolapse is common in female patients suffering particularly urge faecal incontinence, without anal sphincter lesions. Defecation proctography should be routine in the work up of faecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systematic review: anal and rectal changes after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Krol, Robin; Smeenk, Robert Jan; van Lin, Emile N J T; Yeoh, Eric E K; Hopman, Wim P M

    2014-03-01

    Pelvic radiotherapy may lead to changes of anorectal function resulting in incontinence-related complaints. The aim of this study was to systematically review objective findings of late anorectal physiology and mucosal appearance after irradiation for prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were searched. Original articles in which anal function, rectal function, or rectal mucosa were examined ≥3 months after EBRT for prostate cancer were included. Twenty-one studies were included with low to moderate quality. Anal resting pressures significantly decreased in 6 of the 9 studies including 277 patients. Changes of squeeze pressure and rectoanal inhibitory reflex were less uniform. Rectal distensibility was significantly impaired after EBRT in 7 of 9 studies (277 patients). In 4 of 9 studies on anal and in 5 of 9 on rectal function, disturbances were associated with urgency, frequent bowel movements or fecal incontinence. Mucosal changes as assessed by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score revealed telangiectasias in 73 %, congestion in 33 %, and ulceration in 4 % of patients in 8 studies including 346 patients, but no strictures or necrosis. Three studies reported mucosal improvement during follow-up. Telangiectasias, particularly multiple, were associated with rectal bleeding. Not all bowel complaints (30 %) were related to radiotherapy. Low to moderate quality evidence indicates that EBRT reduces anal resting pressure, decreases rectal distensibility, and frequently induces telangiectasias of rectal mucosa. Objective changes may be associated with fecal incontinence, urgency, frequent bowel movements, and rectal bleeding, but these symptoms are not always related to radiation damage.

  10. Effects of zinc and/or iron deficiency on rectal temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Konomi, Aki; Yokoi, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    O'Dell et al. reported that rectal temperature was decreased by zinc deficiency in rats. However, it is not known whether a combined deficiency of zinc and iron affects rectal temperature. Forty 4-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into four dietary treatment groups of 10 rats each for the 4-wk study: zinc-deficient group (4.5 mg Zn and 35 mg Fe/kg diet; -Zn), iron-deficient group (30 mg Zn/kg diet, no supplemental iron; -Fe), zinc/iron-deficient group (4.5 mg Zn/kg diet, no supplemental iron; -Zn-Fe), and control group (AIN-93G; Cont). At d 24-27, the rectal temperature was determined. The rectal temperature of the -Zn group was significantly lower than the Cont group. The rectal temperature of the -Zn-Fe group was similar to that of the Cont group, although thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxin concentrations were the lowest in the -Zn-Fe group among all groups. The pattern of the plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations across groups was similar to rectal temperature. Although observation of the rectal temperature is not conclusive, the balance between zinc and iron intake seems to determine the body temperature set point. These results suggest that the thermogenic effect of thyroid hormones is not thought to influence the paradoxical maintenance of rectal temperature in combined deficiency of zinc and iron.

  11. SwiftLase: a new technology for char-free ablation in rectal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, David A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe layer-by-layer char-free ablation of hemorrhoids and other rectal lesions at very low CO2 laser power levels with a miniature `SwiftLaser' optomechanical flashscanner. Increased speed with excellent control, very shallow thermal damage, and less postoperative pain are the main advantages of the flashscan technology in rectal surgery.

  12. A conservative approach in a child with haematuria after accidental rectal impalement trauma.

    PubMed

    Schijns, Josephine; Plötz, Frans Berend

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an 11-year-old boy with haematuria after traumatic rectal insertion of a sharp metal stick. It demonstrates that an expectative management with close observation can be considered in patients with rectal impalement trauma presenting with haematuria and stable vital parameters without significant injury on abdominal ultrasound.

  13. Rectal ulcer with an elusive diagnosis: all that ulcers is not Crohn disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...

  14. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  15. Información general sobre los mosquitos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Una consecuencia más importante de algunas picaduras de mosquitos es la trasmisión de ciertas enfermedades graves como el paludismo, la fiebre del dengue y varias formas de encefalitis, que incluyen el virus del Nilo occidental.

  16. Selective approach for upper rectal cancer treatment: total mesorectal excision and preoperative chemoradiation are seldom necessary.

    PubMed

    Marinello, Franco G; Frasson, Matteo; Baguena, Gloria; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Cervantes, Andres; Roselló, Susana; Espí, Alejandro; García-Granero, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of preoperative chemoradiation combined with total mesorectal excision has reduced local recurrence rates in rectal cancer. However, the use of both types of treatment in upper rectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this work was to assess oncological results after radical resection of upper rectal cancers compared with sigmoid, middle, and lower rectal cancers and to determine risk factors for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. This study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital in Valencia, Spain. Analysis included 1145 patients who underwent colorectal resection with primary curative intent for primary sigmoid (n = 450), rectosigmoid (n = 70), upper rectal (n = 178), middle rectal (n = 186), or lower rectal (n = 261) cancer. Oncological results, including local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival, were compared between the different tumor locations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer. A total of 147 patients (82.6%) with upper rectal tumors underwent partial mesorectal excision, and only 10 patients (5.6%) of that group received preoperative chemoradiation. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival rates for upper rectal tumors were 4.9%, 82.0%, and 91.6%. Local recurrence rates showed no differences when compared among all of the locations (p = 0.20), whereas disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival were shorter for lower rectal tumors (p = 0.006; p = 0.003). The only independent risk factor for local recurrence in upper rectal cancer was an involved circumferential resection margin at pathologic analysis (HR, 14.23 (95% CI, 2.75-73.71); p = 0.002). This was a single-institution, retrospective study. Most upper rectal tumors can be treated with partial mesorectal excision without the

  17. The effect of obesity on rectal dosimetry after permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nikhilesh; Crook, Juanita; Saibishkumar, Elantholi P; Aneja, Manipdip; Borg, Jette; Pond, Greg; Ma, Clement

    2009-01-01

    Men with higher body mass index (BMI) tend to have more fatty tissue in prostate-rectum interface, which may reduce the rectal wall dose by the inverse square law. We hypothesized that men with higher BMI will have a lower dose to the rectal wall and less rectal toxicity after permanent prostate implant. Prospectively collected data on rectal dosimetry/toxicity and BMI of 407 patients who underwent iodine-125 ((125)I) prostate implant were analyzed. Postimplant dosimetry used CT-MRI fusion on Day 30. Rectal wall was contoured on all slices where seeds were seen. The volume of rectal wall receiving the prescribed dose (RV(100) in cm(3)) and the dose to 1cc of rectal wall (RD(1cc)) were reported. Other factors evaluated for association with rectal dosimetry and toxicity included age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, use of neoadjuvant hormones, T stage, baseline prostate volume, 1 month prostate edema, seed type and activity, and prostate dosimetry factors (the isodose enclosing 90% of the prostate volume [D(90)], the percentage of the prostate volume enclosed by the prescription [V(100)], and the percentage of the prostate volume enclosed by the 150% isodose [V(150)]). Rectal toxicity was reported as per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. BMIs ranged from 15.9 to 46.8 (mean+/-standard deviation [SD]: 27.8+/-4.2). The mean+/-SD values for RV(100) and RD(1cc) were 0.79+/-0.49cm(3) and 128.2+/-27.8Gy, respectively. There was a significant negative association of BMI with RV(100) (p=0.007) and RD(1cc) (p=0.01) on univariate analysis. The mean RV(100) and RD(1cc) for men with higher BMI (>27.8) were lower compared with their slimmer counterparts (0.70 vs. 0.86cm(3) and 123.4 vs. 132.4Gy, respectively). On multivariate analysis for RV(100) and RD(1cc), BMI remained significant (p-values 0.004 and 0.01, respectively) along with prostate volume and V(150), suggesting that anatomic factors are important in rectal dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Overall the

  18. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional Endorectal Ultrasound for Staging Early Extraperitoneal Rectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rodrigo Ambar; Corrêa Neto, Isaac José Felippe; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Rizkalah Nahas, Caio Sérgio; Sparapan Marques, Carlos Frederico; Ribeiro Junior, Ulysses; Kawaguti, Fábio Shiguehissa; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Adequate oncologic staging of rectal neoplasia is important for treatment and prognostic evaluation of the disease. Diagnostic methods such as endorectal ultrasound can assess rectal wall invasion and lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to correlate findings of 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis of extraperitoneal rectal tumors with regard to depth of rectal wall invasion, lymph node involvement, percentage of rectal circumference involvement, and tumor extension. Consecutive patients with extraperitoneal rectal tumors were prospectively assessed by 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound blind to other staging methods and pathologic diagnosis. Patients who underwent endorectal ultrasound followed by surgery were included in the study. The study was conducted at a single academic institution. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, area under curve, and κ coefficient between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for tumor extension and percentage of rectal wall involvement. Forty-four patients (27 women; mean age = 63.5 years) were evaluated between September 2010 and June 2014. Most lesions were malignant (72.7%). For depth of submucosal invasion, 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound showed sensitivity of 77.3%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 85.0%, a negative predictive value of 79.2%, and an area under curve of 0.82. The weighted κ coefficient for depth of rectal wall invasion staging was 0.67, and there was no agreement between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis for lymph node involvement (κ = -0.164). Intraclass correlation coefficient for lesion extension and percentage of rectal circumference involvement were 0.45 and 0.66. A better correlation between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis was observed in tumors <5 cm and with <50

  19. Visual diagnosis: 12-year-old girl with constipation and rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Arvind; Wendel, Danielle; Bond, Geoffrey; Lowe, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Rectal duplication cysts are rare, thought to be due to defects in embryologic development, and often associated with other structural abnormalities. Clues to the existence of a rectal cyst are mainly due to bowel compression and presence of ectopic gastric mucosa within the cyst, leading to rectal bleeding. The diagnosis of a rectal duplication cyst requires a high index of suspicion. Confirming the diagnosis can be difficult based on the location of the cyst. Efforts to confirm the diagnosis include digital rectal examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and Meckel scan. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, especially because of the cyst’s potential for malignant transformation. Because of the cyst’s proximal location to the nerves innervating the anal canal and sphincters, surgical resection can lead to fecal incontinence.

  20. Study on reconstruction of rectal sensation based on wavelet packet analysis and SVM strategy.

    PubMed

    Zan, P; Ren, P; Shao, Y; Jiang, E; Zhu, X

    2012-05-01

    To control anal incontinence, we have developed an artificial anal sphincter system with sensor feedback. The artificial anal sphincter system is a novel hydraulic-electric muscle which mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter, a wireless power supply subsystem, and a rectal sensation reconstruction subsystem. To investigate the features of the patients' rectal sensation, we have developed an in vitro experimental platform of artificial anal sphincter. In vitro experiments have been performed, and demonstrate that the traditional threshold method is not suitable for predicting the time for defecation. The traditional threshold method only uses single-dimensional pressure time series which may contain a few interdependent components simultaneously. A wavelet packet analysis algorithm is employed to extract the feature vector of the rectal pressure signal, then the rectal sensation prediction model is constructed based on a support vector machine for defecation pattern recognition. The results show that the proposed method is an effective approach for the reconstruction of patients' rectal sensation.

  1. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Urgancı, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2013-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare, benign disorder in children that usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. The underlying etiology is not well understood, but it is secondary to ischemic changes and trauma in the rectum associated with paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and the external anal sphincter muscles; rectal prolapse has also been implicated in the pathogenesis. This syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings, but SRUS often goes unrecognized or is easily confused with other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, amoebiasis, malignancy, and other causes of rectal bleeding such as a juvenile polyps. SRUS should be suspected in patients experiencing rectal discharge of blood and mucus in addition to previous disorders of evacuation. We herein report six pediatric cases with SRUS.

  2. Local excision for early rectal cancer: transanal endoscopic microsurgery and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of treatment for early stage rectal cancer is to optimize oncologic control while minimizing the long-term impact of treatment on quality of life. The standard of care treatment for most stage I and II rectal cancers is radical surgery alone, specifically total mesorectal excision (TME). For early rectal cancers, this procedure is usually curative but can have a substantial impact on quality of life, including the possibility of permanent colostomy and the potential for short and long-term bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Given the morbidity associated with radical surgery, alternative approaches to management of early rectal cancer have been explored, including local excision (LE) via transanal excision (TAE) or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Compared to the gold standard of radical surgery, local procedures for strictly selected early rectal cancers should lead to identical oncological results and even better outcomes regarding morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. PMID:26029457

  3. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  4. The analgesic effects of rectal diclofenac versus rectal paracetamol following caudal-bupivacaine for pediatric day-case inguinal herniotomies: a randomized controlled prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Nnaji, Chimaobi T; Onajin-Obembe, Bisola; Ebirim, Longinus

    2017-09-01

    Postoperative pain is a common complaint in day-case inguinal herniotomy, thus there is a need to provide effective analgesia. This study compared the postoperative analgesic effects of the combinations of caudal-bupivacaine and rectal diclofenac with caudal-bupivacaine and rectal-paracetamol in children scheduled for daycase inguinal-herniotomy. Ninety children of ASA I scheduled for elective day-case inguinal-herniotomy were randomly assigned into Group A (1ml/kg of 0.25% caudal-bupivacaine and 1mg/kg rectal-diclofenac), Group B (1ml/kg of 0.25% caudal-bupivacaine and 30mg/kg rectal paracetamol) and Group C (1ml/kg of 0.25% caudal-bupivacaine). The duration of analgesia, pain scores, postoperative analgesic consumption and side effects were assessed and recorded. Data collected was analyzed with the statistical package for social sciences 17 for windows. Eighty-seven children completed the study, and it was found that the duration of analgesia was prolonged in Group A compared to Groups B and C (p<0.01). Caudal-bupivacaine and rectal-diclofenac combination provides a more prolonged postoperative analgesia, and lower pain score compared to caudal-bupivacaine and rectal-paracetamol combination or caudal-bupivacaine alone. Level 1 evidence treatment study. Randomized controlled trials with adequate statistical power to detect differences (narrow confidence intervals) and follow up >80%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Soluble Immune Factor Environment of Rectal and Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Romas, Laura M.; Hasselrot, Klara; Aboud, Lindsay G.; Birse, Kenzie D.; Ball, T. Blake; Broliden, Kristina; Burgener, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual transmission of HIV occurs across a mucosal surface, which contains many soluble immune factors important for HIV immunity. Although the composition of mucosal fluids in the vaginal and oral compartments has been studied extensively, the knowledge of the expression of these factors in the rectal mucosa has been understudied and is very limited. This has particular relevance given that the highest rates of HIV acquisition occur via the rectal tract. To further our understanding of rectal mucosa, this study uses a proteomics approach to characterize immune factor components of rectal fluid, using saliva as a comparison, and evaluates its antiviral activity against HIV. Methods Paired salivary fluid (n = 10) and rectal lavage fluid (n = 10) samples were collected from healthy, HIV seronegative individuals. Samples were analyzed by label-free tandem mass spectrometry to comprehensively identify and quantify mucosal immune protein abundance differences between saliva and rectal fluids. The HIV inhibitory capacity of these fluids was further assessed using a TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results Of the 315 proteins identified in rectal lavage fluid, 72 had known immune functions, many of which have described anti-HIV activity, including cathelicidin, serpins, cystatins and antileukoproteinase. The majority of immune factors were similarly expressed between fluids, with only 21 differentially abundant (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected). Notably, rectal mucosa had a high abundance of mucosal immunoglobulins and antiproteases relative to saliva, Rectal lavage limited HIV infection by 40–50% in vitro (p<0.05), which is lower than the potent anti-HIV effect of oral mucosal fluid (70–80% inhibition, p<0.005). Conclusions This study reveals that rectal mucosa contains many innate immune factors important for host immunity to HIV and can limit viral replication in vitro. This indicates an important role for this fluid as the first line of defense

  6. Lubricant Use and Rectal Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Men Who Engage in Receptive Anal Intercourse.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, Courtney; Rice, Cara E; Wang, Shu-Hua; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-07-01

    Use of lubricants during anal intercourse is very common among men who have sex with men. However, few studies have evaluated associations between specific lubricants and rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Between July 2012 and October 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men recruited from an urban, public sexual health clinic. In a self-administered survey, participants identified the lubricants used and frequency of lubricant use in the previous three months. Among men reporting any receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in the previous 3 months, we used multivariable binomial regression models to analyze associations between recent use of 9 specific lubricants and prevalent rectal chlamydia, rectal gonorrhea, and either rectal infection. Twenty-five percent of the 146 participants had rectal chlamydial infection and 21% had rectal gonococcal infection; 37% had either (chlamydial or gonococcal) infection. Three-quarters reported always or almost always using lubricant during recent receptive anal intercourse. After adjustment for age, race, human immunodeficiency virus status, and condom use, Gun Oil (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.80) and Slick (aPR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.38-9.12) were significantly associated with prevalent gonococcal infection. No lubricants were significantly associated with prevalent rectal chlamydia, but in analyses of either rectal infection, precum (aPR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.66), Vaseline (aPR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10-2.64), and baby oil (aPR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.43-3.57) were all significantly associated with prevalent rectal infection. Several lubricants were significantly associated with increased prevalence of rectal STI. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine any causal relationship between specific lubricants and STI acquisition.

  7. Estabilidad de los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Vergne, M. M.; Wachlin, F. C.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Los modelos de Heggie y Ramamani de satélites galácticos en órbitas circulares se basan en una teoría aproximada, por lo que es importante verificar su estabilidad mediante simulaciones numéricas. En esta forma, hemos logrado mostrar que son estables sobre intervalos de tiempo mucho mayores que los que lograron los propios autores de los modelos. Por otra parte, dado que hemos mostrado que el caos es significativo en estos modelos, son un sistema ideal para investigar si, pese a ello, se mantienen estacionarios. Nuestras simulaciones numéricas muestran que, pese al caos, la estacionariedad se mantiene sobre intervalos de centenares de tiempos de cruce del sistema, mucho mayores que los tiempos de Liapunov característicos de sus movimientos caóticos.

  8. Pilot Study of a Clinical Pathway Implementation in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; López-Lara, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rectal cancer is a highly prevalent disease which needs a multidisciplinary approach to be treated. The absence of specific protocols implies a significant and unjustifiable variability among the different professionals involved in this disease. The purpose is to develop a clinical pathway based on the analysis process and aims to reduce this variability and to reduce unnecessary costs. Methods: We created a multidisciplinary team with contributors from every clinical area involved in the diagnosis and treatment in this disease. We held periodic meetings to agree on a protocol based on the best available clinical practice guidelines. Once we had agreed on the protocol, we implemented its use as a standard in our institution. Every patient older than 18 years who was diagnosed with rectal cancer was considered a candidate to be treated via the pathway. Results: We evaluated 48 patients during the course of this study. Every parameter measured was improved after the implementation of the pathway, except the proportion of patients with 12 nodes or more analysed. The perception that our patients had about this project was very good. Conclusions: Clinical pathways are needed to improve the quality of health care. This kind of project helps reduce hospital costs and optimizes the use of limited resources. On the other hand, unexplained variability is also reduced, with consequent benefits for the patients. PMID:21151842

  9. Locally advanced rectal cancer: time for precision therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Martin R; Zhang, Zhen; Schrag, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the 30th anniversary of the publication of NSABP-R01, a landmark trial demonstrating the benefit of adding pelvic radiation to the treatment regimen for locally advanced rectal cancer with a resultant decrease in local recurrence from 25% to 16%. These results ushered in the era of multimodal therapy for rectal cancer, heralding modern treatment and changing the standard of care in the United States. We have seen many advances over the past 3 decades, including optimization of the administration and timing of radiation, widespread adoption of total mesorectal excision (TME), and the implementation of more effective systemic chemotherapy. The current standard is neoadjuvant chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and a radiosensitizer, TME, and adjuvant chemotherapy including 5-FU and oxaliplatin. The results of this regimen have been impressive, with a reported local recurrence rate of less than 10%. However, the rates of distant relapse remain 30% to 40%, indicating room for improvement. In addition, trimodality therapy is arduous and many patients are unable to complete the full course of treatment. In this article we discuss the current standard of care and alternative strategies that have evolved in an attempt to individualize therapy according to risk of recurrence.

  10. Predictive response biomarkers in rectal cancer neoadjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Crotti, Sara; Bedin, Chiara; Cecchin, Erika; Maretto, Isacco; D'Angelo, Edoardo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Nitti, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) treatment is a challenge, because RC has a high rate of local recurrence. To date preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pCRT) is widely accepted as standard protocol of care for middle-low RC, but complete tumour response rate ranges from 4 to 44% and 5-year local recurrence rate is 6%. Better understanding of molecular biology and carcinogenesis pathways could be used both for pre-neoplastic lesions and locally recurrence diagnosis, and for tumour response prediction to therapy. Circulating molecules, gene expression and protein signature are promising sources to biomarker discovery. Several studies have evaluated potential predictors of response and recently, cell-free Nucleic Acid levels have been associated to tumour response to neoadjuvant therapies. Alternative method is the serum or plasma proteome and peptidome analysis. It may be ideally suited for its minimal invasiveness and it can be repeated at multiple time points throughout the treatment in contrast to tissue-based methods which still remain the most reliable and specific approach. Many studies have analyzed preoperative rectal tissue prognostic factor, but data are controversial or not confirmed.

  11. Formulation and Evaluation of Irinotecan Suppository for Rectal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Haiyang; Zhu, Yuping; Li, Dechuan

    2014-01-01

    Irinotecan suppository was prepared using the moulding method with a homogeneous blend. A sensitive and specific fluorescence method was developed and validated for the determination of irinotecan in plasma using HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered and rectal administered in rabbits was investigated. Following a single intravenous dose of irinotecan (50 mg/kg), the plasma irinotecan concentration demonstrated a bi-exponential decay, with a rapid decline over 15 min. Cmax, t1/2, AUC0–30h and AUC0-∞ were 16.1 ± 2.7 g/ml, 7.6 ± 1.2 h, 71.3 ± 8.8 μg·h/ml and 82.3 ± 9.5 μg·h/ml, respectively. Following rectal administration of 100 mg/kg irinotecan, the plasma irinotecan concentration reached a peak of 5.3 ± 2.5 μg/ml at 4 h. The AUC0–30h and AUC0-∞ were 32.2 ± 6.2 μg·h/ml and 41.6 ± 7.2 μg·h/ml, respectively. It representing ∼50.6% of the absolute bioavailability. PMID:24596626

  12. Neonatal isolated rectal bleeding and the risk of hypersensitivity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Reiter, O; Morag, I; Mazkereth, R; Strauss, T; Maayan-Metzger, A

    2014-01-01

    When rectal bleeding occurs in an otherwise asymptomatic child, it can be classified as isolated rectal bleeding (IRB). Among the different etiologies suggested for IRB, one of the most common is a hypersensitivity reaction of the bowel mucosa to digested antigens. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes and the risk of developing hypersensitivity syndromes among infants following an IRB event. A historical prospective comparative study was carried out. The study compared 77 infants who were born at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel during the period 2002 to 2009 and who experienced a neonatal IRB event to 77 infants with the same gestational age, but without IRB. Data were obtained from hospital records and from phone interviews with the parents regarding hypersensitivity syndrome between the ages of 3 and 10 years. The IRB group was not at an increased risk of developing a hypersensitivity syndrome or gastrointestinal symptoms compared to the control group. Longer duration of breast-feeding was found to be related to a lower incidence of hypersensitivity symptoms. An IRB event in the neonatal period does not increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity syndromes or food allergies during childhood.

  13. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management. PMID:27795811

  14. Effect of ulcerative colitis and smoking on rectal blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, E D; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Rhodes, J

    1990-01-01

    Rectal blood flow was measured by laser doppler flowmetry over 60 minutes in eight patients with colitis in remission and eight healthy male non-smokers. Ten smokers were also examined on two occasions, one of which included smoking a cigarette. Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in smokers. All subjects showed a pronounced fall in rectal blood flow in the first 30 minutes and patients with colitis had significantly higher values compared with smokers (p less than 0.002; p less than 0.04) and non-smokers (p less than 0.007; p less than 0.002) during the first and second 30 minutes respectively. Values in smokers and non-smokers were similar, but smoking a cigarette was associated with a significant fall in blood flow (p less than 0.04) and this change was inversely related to the rise in plasma nicotine concentration (r = -0.63; p less than 0.05). The findings may be relevant to the association between colitis and the smoking history. PMID:2210447

  15. Distant metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma in a temporary tracheostoma

    PubMed Central

    Sifrer, Robert; Strojan, Primoz; Zidar, Nina; Zargi, Miha; Groselj, Ales; Krajinovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Background The temporary tracheostoma’s metastases of head and neck cancer had already been reported in the literature. So far, they had been considered as regional dissemination of the malignant disease. We report a case of temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of carcinoma from non-head-and-neck primary site, what has not been reported in the literature, yet. Therefore, it is the first reported case of the systemic dissemination of malignant tumour into temporary tracheostoma. Case report. Fifty-four-year-old female patient, previously treated for a rectal adenocarcinoma, reported in our office with exophytic pink tissue masses around the temporary tracheostoma. The biopsy and immunohistochemistry findings were consistent with temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of the rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient received palliative radiotherapy and died of systemic progression of the disease. Conclusions The patients with history of primary cancer of any origin and exophytic proliferating changes around the tracheostoma require an appropriate diagnostic work-up including a biopsy. The type of treatment depends on the extent of the disease, previous therapy and general condition of the patient. PMID:25435853

  16. Optimal Imaging Strategies for Rectal Cancer Staging and Ongoing Management.

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Brown, Gina

    2016-06-01

    Imaging determines the optimal treatment for rectal cancer patients. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) overcomes many of the known limitations of previous methods. When performed in accordance with the recommended standards, MRI enables accurate staging of both early and advanced rectal cancer, accurate response assessment, the delineation of recurrent disease and planning surgical treatment in a safe and effective manner. Tumour-related high-risk features with known adverse outcomes can be preoperatively identified and treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Further, MRI post-treatment tumour response assessment using TRG grading system also predicts the likely survival outcomes and in the future will be used to modify treatment further by stratification into good and poor responders. There is a paucity of literature with validated outcome data concerning use of diffusion-weighted imaging and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), and in the absence of any validated methods and outcome data, their use in the initial assessment and restaging after treatment is limited to research protocols. Combination MRI and CT is essential for distant spread assessment and recurrent disease, and currently PET-CT is sometimes used in the workup of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease.

  17. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-10-15

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.

  18. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-11-27

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes.

  19. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Musio, Daniela; Izzo, Luciano; Pugliese, Federico; Izzo, Paolo; Bolognese, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes in patients aged 70 and older with locally advanced rectal carcinoma treated with multimodality approach. Methods and Materials. We retrospectively analysed 20 consecutive elderly patients, with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma, staged T3-4, and/or node-positive tumour, who received chemoradiotherapy and proceeded to surgical approach. Performance status score and adult comorbidity evaluation-27 score were calculated, and their influence on treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes was analysed. Results. All patients completed programmed chemoradiotherapy treatment. Gastrointestinal toxicity was the most common acute side effects: proctitis in 70% of patients and diarrhoea in 55%, classified as Grade 3 in 3 patients only. Radiation dermatitis was reported in 7 patients (35%) and it was graded G3 in one patient. There was no haematological toxicity. Eighteen patients out of 20 underwent surgery. Sphincter preservation was assured in 13 patients. Comorbidity index was related to higher severe acute toxicity (P = 0.015) but no influenced treatment outcomes. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance with combined modality is good in elderly patients. Due to age, no dose reduction for radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. PMID:24392453

  20. Distant metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma in a temporary tracheostoma.

    PubMed

    Sifrer, Robert; Strojan, Primoz; Zidar, Nina; Zargi, Miha; Groselj, Ales; Krajinovic, Milena

    2014-12-01

    The temporary tracheostoma's metastases of head and neck cancer had already been reported in the literature. So far, they had been considered as regional dissemination of the malignant disease. We report a case of temporary tracheostoma's metastasis of carcinoma from non-head-and-neck primary site, what has not been reported in the literature, yet. Therefore, it is the first reported case of the systemic dissemination of malignant tumour into temporary tracheostoma. Fifty-four-year-old female patient, previously treated for a rectal adenocarcinoma, reported in our office with exophytic pink tissue masses around the temporary tracheostoma. The biopsy and immunohistochemistry findings were consistent with temporary tracheostoma's metastasis of the rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient received palliative radiotherapy and died of systemic progression of the disease. The patients with history of primary cancer of any origin and exophytic proliferating changes around the tracheostoma require an appropriate diagnostic work-up including a biopsy. The type of treatment depends on the extent of the disease, previous therapy and general condition of the patient.

  1. Presacral venous bleeding during mobilization in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casal Núñez, Jose Enrique; Vigorita, Vincenzo; Ruano Poblador, Alejandro; Gay Fernández, Ana María; Toscano Novella, Maria Ángeles; Cáceres Alvarado, Nieves; Pérez Dominguez, Lucinda

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the anatomy of sacral venous plexus flow, the causes of injuries and the methods for controlling presacral hemorrhage during surgery for rectal cancer. METHODS A review of the databases MEDLINE® and Embase™ was conducted, and relevant scientific articles published between January 1960 and June 2016 were examined. The anatomy of the sacrum and its venous plexus, as well as the factors that influence bleeding, the causes of this complication, and its surgical management were defined. RESULTS This is a review of 58 published articles on presacral venous plexus injury during the mobilization of the rectum and on techniques used to treat presacral venous bleeding. Due to the lack of cases published in the literature, there is no consensus on which is the best technique to use if there is presacral bleeding during mobilization in surgery for rectal cancer. This review may provide a tool to help surgeons make decisions regarding how to resolve this serious complication. CONCLUSION A series of alternative treatments are described; however, a conventional systematic review in which optimal treatment is identified could not be performed because few cases were analyzed in most publications. PMID:28321171

  2. [Adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer and total mesorectal excision].

    PubMed

    Coco, C; Valentini, V; Verbo, A

    2001-01-01

    Local recurrence (LR) after surgical resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum still remains an unsolved problem. Local relapse often occurs when tumor spreads in perirectal fat (mesorectum) or along the lateral iliac lymph nodes also when surgery is considered radically. There is a close relationship between local recurrence rate and lymphatic involvement, local tumor extension and tumour grading. Total mesorectal excision (TME) appears to be associated with a reduced LR rate when resection of perirectal fat is done "en-bloc" and when a negative radial margins is obtained. TME allows autonomic nerve sparing and sphincter preservation too, but lateral nodes are not treated by TME. Extended lymphadenectomy with lateral dissection for advanced rectal cancer has been often associated with an increase rate of long term morbidity, particularly regarding urinary and sexual function. Concomitant preoperative chemo-radiation for advanced rectal cancer is a relatively safe procedure with an acceptable morbidity and mortality. This approach is associated with a considerable clinical and pathologic tumor downstaging. Tumor resectability is improved and lateral spreading is also better controlled. An improving in survival and a longer disease free period has been reported. More radical sphincter saving operations are also allowed.

  3. Internal rectal prolapse: Definition, assessment and management in 2016.

    PubMed

    Cariou de Vergie, L; Venara, A; Duchalais, E; Frampas, E; Lehur, P A

    2017-02-01

    Internal rectal prolapse (IRP) is a well-recognized pelvic floor disorder mainly seen during defecatory straining. The symptomatic expression of IRP is complex, encompassing fecal continence (56%) and/or evacuation disorders (85%). IRP cannot be characterized easily by clinical examination alone and the emergence of dynamic defecography (especially MRI) has allowed a better comprehension of its pathophysiology and led to the proposition of a severity score (Oxford score) that can guide management. Decision for surgical management should be multidisciplinary, discussed after a complete work-up, and only after medical treatment has failed. Information should be provided to the patient, outlining the goals of treatment, the potential complications and results. Stapled trans-anal rectal resection (STARR) has been considered as the gold standard for IRP treatment. However, inconsistent results (failure observed in up to 20% of cases, and fecal incontinence occurring in up to 25% of patients at one year) have led to a decrease in its indications. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy has substantial advantages in solving the functional problems due to IRP (efficacy on evacuation and resolution of continence symptoms in 65-92%, and 73-97% of patients, respectively) and is currently considered as the gold standard therapy for IRP once the decision to operate has been made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jennifer L.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Bernard, Johnny R.; Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J.

    2014-04-01

    Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ≥2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ≥2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ≤ 0.041) and of grade ≥ 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

  5. Preliminary experience of a predictive model to define rectal volume and rectal dose during the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Falco, M D; D'Andrea, M; Fedele, D; Barbarino, R; Benassi, M; Giudice, E; Hamoud, E; Ingrosso, G; Ladogana, P; Santarelli, F; Tortorelli, G; Santoni, R

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define a method to evaluate the total dose delivered to the rectum during the whole treatment course in six patients undergoing irradiation for prostate cancer using an offline definition of organ motion with images from a cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner available on a commercial linear accelerator. Patient set-up was verified using a volumetric three-dimensional CBCT scanner; 9-14 CBCT scans were obtained for each patient. Images were transferred to a commercial treatment planning system for offline organ motion analysis. The shape of the rectums were used to obtain a mean dose-volume histogram (), which was the average of the DVHs of the rectums as they appeared in each verification CBCT. A geometric model of an average rectum (AR) was produced using the rectal contours delineated on the CBCT scans (DVH(AR)). To check whether the first week of treatment was representative of the whole treatment course, we evaluated the DVHs related to only the first five CBCT scans ( and DVH(AR5)). Finally, the influence of a dietary protocol on the goodness of our results was considered. In all six patients the original rectal DVH for the planning CT scan showed higher values than all DVHs. Although the application of the model to a larger set of patients is necessary to confirm this trend, reconstruction of a representative volume of the rectum throughout the entire treatment course seems feasible.

  6. Preliminary experience of a predictive model to define rectal volume and rectal dose during the treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Falco, M D; D'Andrea, M; Fedele, D; Barbarino, R; Benassi, M; Giudice, E; Hamoud, E; Ingrosso, G; Ladogana, P; Santarelli, F; Tortorelli, G; Santoni, R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to define a method to evaluate the total dose delivered to the rectum during the whole treatment course in six patients undergoing irradiation for prostate cancer using an offline definition of organ motion with images from a cone beam CT (CBCT) scanner available on a commercial linear accelerator. Methods Patient set-up was verified using a volumetric three-dimensional CBCT scanner; 9–14 CBCT scans were obtained for each patient. Images were transferred to a commercial treatment planning system for offline organ motion analysis. The shape of the rectums were used to obtain a mean dose–volume histogram (), which was the average of the DVHs of the rectums as they appeared in each verification CBCT. A geometric model of an average rectum (AR) was produced using the rectal contours delineated on the CBCT scans (DVHAR). To check whether the first week of treatment was representative of the whole treatment course, we evaluated the DVHs related to only the first five CBCT scans ( and DVHAR5). Finally, the influence of a dietary protocol on the goodness of our results was considered. Results In all six patients the original rectal DVH for the planning CT scan showed higher values than all DVHs. Conclusion Although the application of the model to a larger set of patients is necessary to confirm this trend, reconstruction of a representative volume of the rectum throughout the entire treatment course seems feasible. PMID:21849366

  7. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

  8. Laparoscopic versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vennix, Sandra; Pelzers, Loeki; Bouvy, Nicole; Beets, Geerard L; Pierie, Jean-Pierre; Wiggers, Theo; Breukink, Stephanie

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world. For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, the oncological safety of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial due to the lack of definitive long-term results. Thus, the expected short-term benefits can only be of interest when oncological results are at least equal. To evaluate the differences in short- and long-term results after elective laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for the resection of rectal cancer compared with open total mesorectal excision (OTME). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1990 to February 2013), EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (February 2013). We handsearched the reference lists of the included articles for missed studies. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LTME and OTME, reporting at least one of our outcome measures, was considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed study quality according to the CONSORT statement, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We rated the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We identified 45 references out of 953 search results, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria involving 3528 rectal cancer patients. We did not consider the risk of bias of the included studies to have impacted on the quality of the evidence. Data were analysed according to an intention-to-treat principle with a mean conversion rate of 14.5% (range 0% to 35%) in the laparoscopic group.There was moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic and open TME had similar

  9. 'Believe it or not': the medical framing of rectal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William J

    2017-01-06

    Medical and lay attention to and intervention for rectal foreign bodies, the presence of an object in the rectum most often via insertion through the anus, has long been a source of humour and suspicion in both medical and public discourses. How do the ways medical providers write and talk to each other about rectal foreign bodies shape and reflect understandings of gender, sexuality and the (im)proper use of the anus and rectum? This paper examines the medical literature on rectal foreign bodies to shed light on the ways in which medical providers frame rectal foreign bodies. It develops a set of six frames that demonstrate how the medical literature on rectal foreign bodies (re)produces a variety of normative assumptions about and sociocultural values concerning bodies and sexuality, danger, shame, deception, mental illness and medical professionalism. It concludes with a discussion of how these framings of rectal foreign bodies might potentially contribute to the ongoing stigmatisation not only of rectal foreign body patients, but of non-heteronormative sexualities in general.

  10. Gasterophilosis: a major cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Adako Mulugeta; Innocent, Giles; Trawford, Andrew Francis; Reid, Stuart William James; Love, Sandy

    2012-04-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Analysis of data on rectal prolapse cases obtained from the Donkey Health and Welfare Project clinic at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, from 1995 to 2004 revealed that 83.6% (n = 177) of the cases were associated with Gasterophilus nasalis. The rest 10.7% and 5.7% were associated with work-related (overloading) cause and diarrhoea, respectively. The mean and median numbers of G. nasalis recovered from the rectum of infected donkeys were 66 and 64, respectively, with a range of 2-195. Over 100 G. nasalis larvae were recovered from the rectum of 22% of the donkeys. Circular demarcated ulcer-like and deep circumferential pits or ring-like mucosal lesions were found at the larval attachment sites. G. nasalis infection and the associated rectal prolapse were observed year round. However, the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse were significantly higher during the rainy season (P < 0.01). Age and sex of the donkeys had no significant effect on the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse (P > 0.05).

  11. Pharmacokinetics of a CCR5 inhibitor in rhesus macaques following vaginal, rectal and oral application

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, R. Karl; Lowry, Deborah; Boyd, Peter; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Goldman, Laurie; Klasse, P. J.; Shattock, Robin J.; Moore, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study measured and compared the pharmacokinetics of CMPD167, a small molecule antiretroviral CCR5 inhibitor with potential as an HIV microbicide, following vaginal, rectal and oral administration in rhesus macaques. Methods A vaginal hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel, a rectal HEC gel, a silicone elastomer matrix-type vaginal ring and an oral solution, each containing CMPD167, were prepared and administered to rhesus macaques pretreated with Depo-Provera. CMPD167 concentrations in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue (ring only), rectal fluid and blood plasma were quantified by HPLC–mass spectrometry. Results CMPD167 concentrations measured in rectal fluid, vaginal fluid and blood plasma were highly dependent on both the route of administration and the formulation type. Although rectal and vaginal fluid concentrations were highest when CMPD167 was administered locally (via either gel or ring), lower concentrations of the drug were also measured in these compartments following administration at the remote mucosal site or orally. CMPD167 levels in the vaginal and rectal fluid following oral administration were relatively low compared with local administration. Conclusions The study provides clear evidence for vaginal–rectal and rectal–vaginal drug transfer pathways and suggests that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with CMPD167 may be less efficacious at preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1 than topically applied products. PMID:24381072

  12. Fecal impaction in children: report of 53 cases of rectal seed bezoars.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Arie; Katz, Israel M; Sweed, Yechiel; Bickel, Amitai

    2007-06-01

    Rectal seed bezoars in children seem to present an uncommon problem that necessitates some operative intervention. Our objective is to determine the occurrence and clinical characteristics of rectal seed bezoars in children with fecal impaction. A retrospective review of hospital records of children with discharge diagnosis of fecal impaction was conducted from 1996 to 2005 in a university-affiliated general hospital The study group is composed 59 children. A total of 53 had rectal seed bezoars: watermelon seeds in 43 children, prickly pear seeds in 6, sunflower seeds in 3, and pumpkinseeds in 1. Six children had seedless fecal impaction. All the children with seed bezoars were of Arab origin. Fifty children were treated under general anesthesia. Of the remaining 9 children, 5 underwent digital disimpaction without general anesthesia: 3 with seedless feces and 2 with rectal seed bezoars. Four children with rectal seed bezoars evacuated spontaneously without digital disimpaction. There was summer seasonal preference for watermelon and prickly pear seed bezoars, whereas sunflower seed bezoars occurred in the spring. Fecal impaction owing to rectal seed bezoars is more common than previously believed. Its occurrence among Arab children alone in this study might indicate a high proportion of fecal seed bezoars throughout the Middle East. We propose that the preferred treatment should include disimpaction and irrigation of the rectal content under anesthesia. Greater awareness by primary care practitioners and parents might be beneficial in its prevention in the future.

  13. Rectal stricture associated with the long-term use of ibuprofen suppositories.

    PubMed

    Alsalameh, S; al-Ward, R; Berg, P; Aigner, T; Ell, C

    2000-10-01

    Here, we report the case of a 64-year-old woman who suffered from chronic lower backache for which she received ibuprofen suppositories. The patient was admitted to the hospital with a suspected rectal tumor. Clinical examination did not reveal any abnormal finding apart from a mild, bilateral peritibial edema. On rectal examination, an area of stenosis was detected approximately 7 cm above the anal verge. All laboratory parameters, including different tumor markers, were within normal range. Pelvic CT scan and colonoscopy revealed a circular rectal stenosis with severe destruction of the rectal mucosa. The rectal biopsy taken during endoscopy showed severe acute and chronic ulceration, chronic granulation and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration. After exclusion of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and lymphogranuloma venerium or exposure to drugs as a possible cause of rectal stenosis, the history in this particular case suggests that the prolonged use of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor "ibuprofen" as a suppository is the cause of mucosal destruction and rectal stenosis.

  14. Ultrastructure of the excretory organs of Bombus morio (Hymenoptera: Bombini): bee without rectal pads.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    Bumblebees need to keep bodily homeostasis and for that have an efficient system of excretion formed by the Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum. We analyzed the excretory organs of Bombus morio, a bee without rectal pads. In addition, we analyzed the rectal epithelium of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides which has rectal pads. The Malpighian tubules exhibited two cell types and the ileum four types. However, comparative analysis of the rectum showed that only cells of the anterior region of the rectal epithelium of B. morio are structurally distinct. We suggest that cells of the Malpighian tubules of B. morio have an excretory feature and that cells of ileum have different functions, such as ion absorption and water, organic compound, and protein secretion. In addition, only the anterior region of the rectum of B. morio showed characteristic absorption. We suggest that Malpighian tubules participate in the excretion of solutes and that the ileum and rectal epithelium are responsible for homeostasis of water and solutes, compensating for the absence of rectal papillae. These results contribute to our understanding of the morphophysiology of the excretory organs of bees without rectal pads.

  15. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers. PMID:26167068

  16. Rectal and vaginal immunization of mice with human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Fraillery, Dominique; Zosso, Nathalie; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2009-04-14

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particle (VLP) can prevent genital HPV infection and associated lesions after three intramuscular injections. Needle-free administration might facilitate vaccine implementation, especially in developing countries. Here we have investigated rectal and vaginal administration of HPV16 L1 VLPs in mice and their ability to induce anti-VLP and HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and in genital, rectal and oral secretions. Rectal and vaginal immunizations were not effective in the absence of adjuvant. Cholera toxin was able to enhance systemic and mucosal anti-VLPs responses after rectal immunization, but not after vaginal immunization. Rectal immunization with Resiquimod and to a lesser extent Imiquimod, but not monophosphoryl lipid A, induced anti-HPV16 VLP antibodies in serum and secretions. Vaginal immunization was immunogenic only if administered in mice treated with nonoxynol-9, a disrupter of the cervico-vaginal epithelium. Our findings show that rectal and vaginal administration of VLPs can induce significant HPV16-neutralizing antibody levels in secretions, despite the fact that low titers are induced in serum. Imidazoquinolines, largely used to treat genital and anal warts, and nonoxonol-9, used as genital microbicide/spermicide were identified as adjuvants that could be safely used by the rectal or vaginal route, respectively.

  17. Advantages of the robotic approach to deep infiltrating rectal endometriosis: because less is more.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Marques, Renato Moretti; Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira

    2016-06-01

    For symptomatic deep infiltrating endometriosis, surgery is often required to achieve symptom relief and restore fertility. A minimally invasive approach using laparoscopy is considered the gold standard. However, specific limitations of the laparoscopic approach deep in the pelvis keep challenging even surgeons with a solid experience with minimally invasive techniques. Robotic surgery has the potential to compensate for technical drawbacks inherent in conventional laparoscopic surgery, such as limited degree of freedom, two-dimensional vision, and the fulcrum effect. In the present report, we aim at demonstrating the central role of robotic surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis, with special emphasis in the ability to practice organ (rectal) preservation. A 45-year-old white female with a 4-month history of chronic pelvic pain, dyschezia, and dysmenorrhea, refractory to hormonal therapy was referred to our unit. MRI findings were diagnostic of deep infiltrating endometriosis (retrocervical and rectovaginal) extending to the anterior rectal serosal layer (partial-thickness rectal invasion). Using a fully robotic approach, appropriate dissection of the rectovaginal septum and of the extraperitoneal rectum followed by complete excision of the endometriotic rectal nodule with organ (rectal) preservation was undertaken. It is our belief that using a robotic approach, the potential to boost rectal preservation might be established. Moreover, it is possible that in many cases, a robotic operation may allow the surgeon to perform the intervention with greater accuracy and comfort. As a result, more patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis may benefit from rectal sparing procedures.

  18. Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid by rectal treatment on a TNBS-induced rat colitis model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xiang, Jin; Liu, Min; Wang, Shi; Lee, Robert J; Ding, Hong

    2011-03-01

    The research compared rectal and oral treatments with glycyrrhizic acid for trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: one normal and six with colitis, including TNBS, glycyrrhizic acid (2, 10 and 50 mg/kg, rectally treated and 10 mg/kg, orally treated) and sulfasalazine (positive control, 225 mg/kg rectally treated) groups. Colitis was induced by colonic administration of TNBS in 30% ethanol. There were significant pathological changes in colon in TNBS-treated groups, and rectal glycyrrhizic acid significantly attenuated colitis. Myeloperoxidase, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β of colon tissue or serum in the rectal glycyrrhizic acid groups were markedly reduced when compared with the TNBS group, and lower than in the orally treated glycyrrhizic acid group. It was further noted that, in vitro, glycyrrhizic acid (up to 100 µg/ml) inhibited interleukin-6 and elevated interleukin-10 production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, and significantly inhibited proliferation of spleen lymphocytes, suggesting the immunoregulatory function of glycyrrhizic acid. Rectally administered glycyrrhizic acid has significant protective effects against TNBS-induced colitis in rats, and the rectal route may be a complementary treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. PrPCWD in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (Odocoileus spp.).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R; González, Lorenzo; Dagleish, Mark P; Sirochman, Tracey M; Brown, Jeremy C; Jeffrey, Martin; Miller, Michael W

    2007-07-01

    The utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) infections in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. CWD-associated prion protein (PrP(CWD)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa. In orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the presence of glycine (G) or serine (S) at codon 96 of the native PrP (denoted 96GG, 96GS or 96SS) appeared to influence the temporal patterns of PrP(CWD) deposition: nine out of 11 infected 96GG individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 342 days p.i., whereas only three out of seven infected 96GS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 381 days p.i. and none of three 96SS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 751 days p.i. These findings support further evaluation of rectal mucosa sampling in CWD surveillance.

  20. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Bondurant, Kristina L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In this study we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were utilized. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk and CXCR1, and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/NSAID, cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% CI 1.18–2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28–2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. PMID:22674296

  1. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  2. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeremy G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  3. Update and Debate Issues in Surgical Treatment of Middle and Low Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; AL-Asari, Sami F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, this paper provides an update on surgical treatment of middle and low rectal cancer and discusses issues of debate surrounding that treatment. The main goal of the surgical treatment of rectal cancer is radical resection of the tumor and surrounding lymphatic tissue. Local excision of early rectal cancer can be another treatment option, in which the patient can avoid possible complications related to radical surgery. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) has been recommended for patients with cT3-4N0 or any T N+ rectal cancer because CRT shows better local control and less toxicity than adjuvant CRT. However, recent clinical trials showed promising results for local excision after neoadjuvant CRT in selected patients with low rectal cancer. In addition, the "wait and see" concept is another modality that has been reported for the management of tumors that show complete clinical remission after neoadjuvant CRT. Although radical surgery for middle and low rectal cancer is the cornerstone therapy, an ultralow anterior resection with or without intersphincteric resection (ISR) has become an alternative standard surgical method for selected patients. Many studies have reported on the oncological safety of the ISR, but few of them have addressed the issue the functional outcome. Furthermore, an abdominoperineal resection (APR) has problems with high rates of tumor perforations and positive circumferential resection margins, and those factors have contributed to its having a high rate of local recurrence and a poor survival rate for rectal cancer compared with sphincter-saving procedures. Recently, great efforts have been made to reduce these problems, and the total levator excision or the extended APR concept has emerged. Surgical management for low rectal cancer should aim to radically excise the tumor and to preserve as much of the sphincter function as possible by using multidisciplinary approaches. However, further prospective

  4. Rectal-wall dose dependence on postplan timing after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita . E-mail: Juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Dose to rectal wall after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy is dependent on distance between posterior prostatic seeds and anterior rectal wall and is influenced by postimplant periprostatic edema. We analyzed the effect of postplan timing on anterior rectal-wall dose. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received permanent seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy as monotherapy (145 Gy). Implants were preplanned by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and carried out by use of preloaded needles. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated by use of magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion on Days 1, 8, and 30. The anterior rectal-wall dose is reported as the isodose enclosing 1.0 or 2.0 cc of rectal wall and as the RV100 in cc. Results: The dose to rectal wall increased progressively over time. The median increase in dose to 1.0 cc of rectal wall (RD [1 cc]) from Day 1 to 30 was 39.2 Gy (p < 0.001). RV100 increased from a median of 0.07 cc on Day 1 to 0.67 cc on Day 30. The most significant predictor of rectal-wall dose (RD [1 cc], RD [2 cc], or RV100) was the time of evaluation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although periprostatic edema cannot be quantified by postimplant imaging, the dose to the anterior rectal wall increases significantly over time as prostatic and periprostatic edema resolve. Critical-organ dose reporting and guidelines for minimizing toxicity must take into account the time of the assessment.

  5. Predictive factors and management of rectal bleeding side effects following prostate cancer brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Price, Jeremy G; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥ grade 2 proctitis. A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Actuarial risk of ≥ grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Strong PMSA Radioligand Uptake by Rectal Carcinoma: Who Put the "S" in PSMA?

    PubMed

    Stoykow, Christian; Huber-Schumacher, Sabine; Almanasreh, Nadja; Jilg, Cordula; Ruf, Juri

    2017-03-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old patient with newly diagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma and hepatic metastases. Restaging after chemotherapy revealed a good response of the rectal primary while liver metastases were progressive. As the patient also had a history of prostate cancer, a Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT scan was performed to noninvasively further assess hepatic metastases. However, a definite differentiation between tumor entities was not possible because not only the liver metastases but also the rectal primary showed radioligand uptake (moderate and strong, respectively). Consecutive liver biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of intestinal origin.

  7. Proposal of a neotype strain (A1-86) for Eubacterium rectale. Request for an opinion.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2008-07-01

    Eubacterium rectale is one of the most abundant bacterial species recovered from human faeces. E. rectale (Hauduroy et al. 1937) appears in the 'List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature', but it is noted that the originally proposed type strain, VPI 0989(T), has been lost and its possible replacement by another strain (VPI 0990) from the same faecal sample has never been formally proposed. It is therefore proposed that strain A1-86 (=DSM 17629=NCIMB 14373), isolated from human adult faeces, be formally recognized as the neotype strain of Eubacterium rectale.

  8. Laparoscopic repair of a rectal fistula due to a benign ovarian dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Chong, Gun Oh; Chun, Da Som; Park, Soo Yeun; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian dermoid cysts are one of the most common benign neoplasms in women. Rectal fistula formation due to an ovarian dermoid cyst, particularly a benign dermoid cyst, is extremely rare. A 17-year-old girl with symptoms of lower abdominal pain, passage of sebaceous materials in the stool, and hematochezia was found to have an 11-cm dermoid cyst complicated with a rectal fistula formation. Laparoscopic repair of the rectal fistula was performed successfully with bilateral ovarian cystectomies. This case presents the rare formation of a fistula between a benign dermoid cyst and the rectum and its treatment using laparoscopic repair without laparotomy.

  9. Laparoscopic repair of a rectal fistula due to a benign ovarian dermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Chun, Da Som; Park, Soo Yeun; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian dermoid cysts are one of the most common benign neoplasms in women. Rectal fistula formation due to an ovarian dermoid cyst, particularly a benign dermoid cyst, is extremely rare. A 17-year-old girl with symptoms of lower abdominal pain, passage of sebaceous materials in the stool, and hematochezia was found to have an 11-cm dermoid cyst complicated with a rectal fistula formation. Laparoscopic repair of the rectal fistula was performed successfully with bilateral ovarian cystectomies. This case presents the rare formation of a fistula between a benign dermoid cyst and the rectum and its treatment using laparoscopic repair without laparotomy. PMID:28791272

  10. Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumor G1 with a Solitary Hepatic Metastatic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kohei; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimada, Seitarou; Ando, Takayuki; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Matsui, Koshi; Imura, Joji; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    Rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a relatively rare tumor. NET is classified as G1, G2, or G3 according to the degree of mitosis or Ki-67 proliferation index, which reflect the malignant potential of the tumor, such as metastasis. Advanced cases with metastasis are indicated for chemotherapy treatment. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy is limited. Therefore, resection is considered, even in metastatic cases, if complete resection is possible. We herein report a case of small rectal NET discovered with hepatic metastasis classified as G1. The patient showed good progress with no recurrence after undergoing hepatectomy and endoscopic resection of rectal NET. PMID:28154272

  11. A systematic approach to the interpretation of preoperative staging MRI for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Fiona G M; Swift, Robert I; Blomqvist, Lennart; Brown, Gina

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an aid to the systematic evaluation of MRI in staging rectal cancer. MRI has been shown to be an effective tool for the accurate preoperative staging of rectal cancer. In the Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence Study (MERCURY), imaging workshops were held for participating radiologists to ensure standardization of scan acquisition techniques and interpretation of the images. In this article, we report how the information was obtained and give examples of the images and how they are interpreted, with the aim of providing a systematic approach to the reporting process.

  12. Proteomic analysis of colon and rectal carcinoma using standard and customized databases.

    PubMed

    Slebos, Robbert J C; Wang, Xia; Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xaojing; Zhang, Bing; Tabb, David L; Liebler, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding proteomic differences underlying the different phenotypic classes of colon and rectal carcinoma is important and may eventually lead to a better assessment of clinical behavior of these cancers. We here present a comprehensive description of the proteomic data obtained from 90 colon and rectal carcinomas previously subjected to genomic analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Here, the primary instrument files and derived secondary data files are compiled and presented in forms that will allow further analyses of the biology of colon and rectal carcinoma. We also discuss new challenges in processing these large proteomic datasets for relevant proteins and protein variants.

  13. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marlos G.; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A.; Aquino, Monally C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably. PMID:21731094

  14. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

    1986-10-24

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

  15. Rectal metastasis from Breast cancer: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cho Ee; Wright, Lucie; Pieri, Andrew; Belhasan, Anas; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer metastases occurs in around 50% of all presentation. It is the second most common type of cancer to metastasise to the GI tract but this only occurs in less than 1% of cases. Presentation of case We report a case that underwent treatment for invasive lobular cancer (ILC) of the breast and 5 years later was found to have rectal and peritoneal metastasis. She is currently receiving palliative management including chemotherapy in the form of weekly Paclitaxel (Taxol®) and stenting to relieve obstruction. Conclusion There should be high clinical suspicion of bowel metastasis in patients presenting with positive faecal occult blood with or without bowel symptoms even if the incidence is less <1% of metastases, particularly in cases where the initial breast tumour was large, with positive axillary nodes. PMID:26188979

  16. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  17. Ossification of a rectal tumor: an uncommon finding.

    PubMed

    Smajda, Stanislas; Danse, Etienne; Mertens de Wilmars, Maud; Humblet, Yves; Kartheuser, Alex; Jouret-Mourin, Anne

    2015-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 29-year-old woman with partially calcified stage cT4N2M0 mucoid adenocarcinoma of the mid-rectum. Concomitant neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was administered. Preoperative CT scan and MRI demonstrated stable disease with a marked increase of its mineralized component. Histology confirmed a mucoid adenocarcinoma with ossified matrix. Osteocytes were identified in the tumor. TNM (5th edition) staging was ypT3N2M1. This case illustrates heterotopic ossification of a rectal tumor, a fairly uncommon finding. The mechanism of heterotopic bone formation within gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma has not been fully elucidated. The impact of this particular feature on patient outcome is unknown. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  18. Management of rectal carcinoma: impact of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    van Waes, P.F.G.M.; Koehler, P.R.; Feldberg, M.A.M.

    1983-06-01

    Twenty-one patients with rectal carcinoma were examined preoperatively in order to assess the accuracy of CT in recognizing the extraluminal extension of the tumor and its effect on treatment planning. Evaluation was done by barium enema, endoscopy, and standard CT augmented by nonreconstructed coronal and sagittal sections. The information was compared with the operative and pathologic findings. Correct staging was achieved in 19 out of 21 patients. In two patients, CT overestimated the extent of the disease. In two patients, small distant metastases detected at surgery were not appreciated; however, the extent of pelvic disease was accurately assessed. In 17 patients, CT added new important information unobtainable by standard techniques. This new information affected treatment planning in 10 patients.

  19. pANCA-vasculitis associated with rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hommel, C; Rihova, Z; Mokaddem, F; Libotte, B

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old male patient who was admitted for fever, dry cough, recurrent sinusitis with epistaxis, anorexia with weight loss of 20 kg over a 3-month period, myalgia, and mononeuritis multiplex. He was diagnosed with pANCA/anti-MPO associated vasculitis and rectal adenocarcinoma. The tumor was treated by surgical resection. Recurrence of vasculitis occurred during steroid tapering which prompted us to add Mycophenolate mofetyl. A complete remission was achieved. We conclude that in the present case the vasculitis was an independent disease, not a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We discuss the value of different ANCA serologies for diagnostics and follow-up, the epidemiology of vasculitis associated with malignancy, and the concept of vasculitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome.

  20. Surgery for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: Tips, Tricks, and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Satish K.; Heriot, Alexander G.; Lynch, Andrew Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer can recur locally in up to 10% of the patients who undergo definitive resection for their primary cancer. Surgical salvage is considered appropriate in the curative setting as well as select cases with palliative intent. Disease-free survival following salvage resection is dependent upon achieving an R0 resection margin. A clear understanding of applied surgical anatomy, appropriate preoperative planning, and a multidisciplinary approach to aggressive soft tissue, bony, and vascular resection with appropriate reconstruction is necessary. Technical tips, tricks, and pitfalls that may assist in managing these cancers are discussed and the roles of additional boost radiation and intraoperative radiation therapy in the management of such cancers are also discussed. PMID:27247536

  1. Surgery for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: Tips, Tricks, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Satish K; Heriot, Alexander G; Lynch, Andrew Craig

    2016-06-01

    Rectal cancer can recur locally in up to 10% of the patients who undergo definitive resection for their primary cancer. Surgical salvage is considered appropriate in the curative setting as well as select cases with palliative intent. Disease-free survival following salvage resection is dependent upon achieving an R0 resection margin. A clear understanding of applied surgical anatomy, appropriate preoperative planning, and a multidisciplinary approach to aggressive soft tissue, bony, and vascular resection with appropriate reconstruction is necessary. Technical tips, tricks, and pitfalls that may assist in managing these cancers are discussed and the roles of additional boost radiation and intraoperative radiation therapy in the management of such cancers are also discussed.

  2. Chemoradiation for rectal cancer: rationale, approaches, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2010-10-01

    The standard adjuvant treatment of cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiation. However, there are many controversies regarding this approach. These controversies include the role of short course radiation, whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for all patients, and if the type of surgery following chemoradiation should be based on the response rate. More accurate imaging techniques and/or molecular markers may help identify patients with positive pelvic nodes to reduce the chance of overtreatment with preoperative therapy. Will more effective systemic agents both improve the results of radiation, as well as modify the need for pelvic radiation? These questions and others remain active areas of clinical investigation.

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    PubMed Central

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  4. Seasonal variations in rectal temperature of Yankasa sheep.

    PubMed

    Igono, M O; Molokwu, E C; Aliu, Y O

    1983-06-01

    From measurements of rectal temperature (Tre) at 06:00h (06:00Tre) and at 14:00h (14:00Tre), meteorological stress was determined in six Yankasa ewes in terms of per cent rise of 14:00Tre over 06:00Tre reference values during the harmattan and hot-dry seasons. Absolute and mean Tre values were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the harmattan than the hot-dry season. In both seasons, mean 14:00Tre was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than 06:00Tre. The mean diurnal difference between 14:00Tre and 06:00Tre, i.e. delta Tre was about 1 degrees C during the harmattan but ranged between 0.5 and 0.7 degrees C during the hot-dry season. All animals were observed to shiver during harmattan nights.

  5. Long-Term Results of Local Excision for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paty, Philip B.; Nash, Garrett M.; Baron, Paul; Zakowski, Maureen; Minsky, Bruce D.; Blumberg, David; Nathanson, Daniel R.; Guillem, Jose G.; Enker, Warren E.; Cohen, Alfred M.; Wong, W. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the authors’ experience with local excision of early rectal cancers to assess the effectiveness of initial treatment and of salvage surgery. Summary Background Data Local excision for rectal cancer is appealing for its low morbidity and excellent functional results. However, its use is limited by inability to assess regional lymph nodes and uncertainty of oncologic outcome. Methods Patients with T1 and T2 adenocarcinomas of the rectum treated by local excision as definitive surgery between 1969 to 1996 at the authors’ institution were reviewed. Pathology slides were reviewed. Among 125 assessable patients, 74 were T1 and 51 were T2. Thirty-one patients (25%) were selected to receive adjuvant radiation therapy. Fifteen of these 31 patients received adjuvant radiation in combination with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 6.7 years. One hundred fifteen patients (92%) were followed until death or for greater than 5 years, and 69 patients (55%) were followed until death or for greater than 10 years. Recurrence was recorded as local, distant, and overall. Survival was disease-specific. Results Ten-year local recurrence and survival rates were 17% and 74% for T1 rectal cancers and 26% and 72% for T2 cancers. Median time to relapse was 1.4 years (range 0.4–7.0) for local recurrence and 2.5 years (0.8–7.5) for distant recurrence. In patients receiving radiotherapy, local recurrence was delayed (median 2.1 years vs. 1.1 years), but overall rates of local and overall recurrence and survival rates were similar to patients not receiving radiotherapy. Among 26 cancer deaths, 8 (28%) occurred more than 5 years after local excision. On multivariate analysis, no clinical or pathologic features were predictive of local recurrence. Intratumoral vascular invasion was the only significant predictor of survival. Among 34 patients who developed tumor recurrence, the pattern of first clinical recurrence was predominantly local: 50% local only

  6. [Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy treatment in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Carau, B; Orrù, P; Orrù, S; Dessì, M; Nagliati, M; Lay, G; Maxia, V; Casula, G; Amichetti, M

    2003-01-01

    A prospective phase II study was conducted to evacuate toxicity and results of preoperative radiochemotherapy in locoregionally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). A total of 33 patients entered the study and received 45 Gy to the pelvis plus a supplemental boost of 5.4-9 Gy concurrently with 5 FU c.i. at a dose of 225-275 mg/m2. Thirty patients were operated after 5-7 weeks (20 anterior resection and 10 abdominoperineal excision). In 14 patients (47%) a downstaging was observed, 5 patients experienced a complete clearance of the primary tumor. After a median of 14 months (range, 5-27), 23 patients, are alive and well. And 8 patients experienced a disease progression (4 local-regional and 4 distant). Our results provide further evidence of the utility and effectiveness of preoperative radiochemotherapy in LARC.

  7. Delaying surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy improves prognosis of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mihmanlı, Mehmet; Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Akgün, İsmail Ethem; Celayir, Mustafa Fevzi; Yazıcı, Pınar; Tunçel, Deniz; Bek, Tuba Tülin; Öz, Ayhan; Ömeroğlu, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prognostic effect of a delayed interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS We evaluated 87 patients with locally advanced mid- or distal rectal cancer undergoing total mesorectal excision following an interval period after neoadjuvant CRT at Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul between January 2009 and January 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the interval before surgery: < 8 wk (group I) and ≥ 8 wk (group II). Data related to patients, cancer characteristics and pathological examination were collected and analyzed. RESULTS When the distribution of timing between group I (n = 45) and group II (n = 42) was viewed, comparison of interval periods (median ± SD) of groups showed a significant difference of as 5 ± 1.28 wk in group I and 10.1 ± 2.2 wk in group II (P < 0.001). The median follow-up period for all patients was 34.5 (9.9-81) mo. group II had significantly higher rates of pathological complete response (pCR) than group I had (19% vs 8.9%, P = 0.002). Rate of tumor regression grade (TRG) poor response was 44.4% in group I and 9.5% in group II (P < 0.002). A poor pathological response was associated with worse disease-free survival (P = 0.009). The interval time did not show any association with local recurrence (P = 0.79). CONCLUSION Delaying the neoadjuvant CRT-surgery interval may provide nodal down-staging, improve pCR rate, and decrease the rate of TRG poor response. PMID:27672428

  8. Neoadjuvant Treatment Strategies for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gollins, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2016-02-01

    Improved surgical technique plus selective preoperative radiotherapy have decreased rectal cancer pelvic local recurrence from, historically, 25% down to about 5-10%. However, this improvement has not reduced distant metastatic relapse, which is the main cause of death and a key issue in rectal cancer management. The current standard is local pelvic treatment (surgery ± preoperative radiotherapy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, depending on resection histology. For circumferential resection margin (CRM)-threatened cancer on baseline magnetic resonance imaging, downstaging long-course preoperative chemoradiation (LCPCRT) is generally used. However, for non-CRM-threatened disease, varying approaches are currently adopted in the UK, including straight to surgery, short-course preoperative radiotherapy and LCPCRT. Clinical trials are investigating intensification of concurrent chemoradiation. There is also increasing interest in investigating preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as a way of exposing micro-metastatic disease to full-dose systemic chemotherapy as early as possible and potentially reducing metastatic relapse. Phase II trials suggest that this strategy is feasible, with promising histological response and low rates of tumour progression during NAC. Phase III trials are needed to determine the benefit of NAC when added to standard therapy and also to determine if it can be used instead of neoadjuvant radiotherapy-based schedules. Although several measures of neoadjuvant treatment response assessment based on imaging or pathology are promising predictive biomarkers for long-term survival, none has been validated in prospective phase III studies. The phase III setting will enable this, also providing translational opportunities to examine molecular predictors of response and survival. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain networks encoding rectal sensation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lelic, D; Brock, C; Søfteland, E; Frøkjær, J B; Andresen, T; Simrén, M; Drewes, A M

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have abnormal processing of sensory information following stimulation in the oesophagus. In order to find less invasive stimuli to study visceral afferent processing and to further elaborate the gut-brain network in diabetes, we studied brain networks following rectal electrical stimulations. Twelve type 1 diabetes patients with GI symptoms and twelve healthy controls were included. A standard ambulatory 24-h electrocardiography was performed. 122-channel-evoked brain potentials to electrical stimulation in the rectum were recorded. Brain source-connectivity analysis was done. GI symptoms were assessed with the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index and quality of life (QOL) with SF-36. Any changes in brain source connectivity were correlated to duration of the disease, heart beat-to-beat intervals (RRs), clinical symptoms, and QOL of the patients. Diabetic patients with GI symptoms showed changes relative to controls in the operculum-cingulate network with the operculum source localized deeper and more anterior (P≤0.001) and the cingulate source localized more anterior (P=0.03). The shift of operculum source was correlated with the duration of the disease, severity of GI symptoms, and decreased RR (P<0.05). The shift of the cingulate source was correlated with the mental QOL (P=0.04). In healthy controls, the contribution of the cingulate source to the network was higher than the contribution of the operculum source (P≤0.001), whereas in patients the contribution of the two sources was comparable. This study gives further evidence for CNS involvement in diabetes. Since network reorganizations were correlated to GI symptoms, irregularities of rectal-evoked potentials can be viewed as a proxy for abnormal bottom-up visceral afferent processing. The network changes might serve as a biomarker for disturbed sensory visceral processing of GI symptoms in diabetes patients

  10. Position Verification for the Prostate: Effect on Rectal Wall Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Haverkort, Marie A.D.; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Pieters, Bradley R.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Assendelft, Esther; Lensing, Andrea L.; Herk, Marcel van; Reijke, Theo M. de; Stoker, Jaap; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of gold marker (GM)-based position correction on the cumulative dose in the anorectal wall compared with traditional bony anatomy (BA)-based correction, taking into account changes in anorectal shape and position. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 consecutive prostate cancer patients, treated with curative external beam radiotherapy, were included. Four fiducial GMs were implanted in the prostate. Positioning was verified according to the shift in BA and GMs on daily electronic portal images. Position corrections were determined using on- and off-line position verification protocols according to the position of the GMs (GM-on and GM-off) and BA (BA-off). For all patients, intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were made for the GM (8-mm planning target volume margin) and BA (10-mm planning target volume margin) protocols. The dose distribution was recomputed on 11 repeat computed tomography scans to estimate the accumulated dose to the prostate and anorectal wall while considering internal organ motion. Results: The dose that is at least received by 99% of the prostate was, on average, acceptable for all protocols. The individual patient data showed the best coverage for both GM protocols, with >95% of the prescribed dose for all patients. The anorectal wall dose was significantly lower for the GM protocols. The dose that is at least received by 30% of the rectal wall was, on average, 54.6 Gy for GM-on, 54.1 Gy for GM-off, and 58.9 Gy for BA-off (p <.001). Conclusion: Position verification with GM and reduced planning target volume margins yielded adequate treatment of the prostate and a lower rectal wall dose, even when accounting for independent movement of the prostate and anorectal wall.

  11. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  12. Rectal Imaging: Part I, High-Resolution MRI of Carcinoma of the Rectum at 3 T

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Vivek Gowdra; Villalobos, Celia Pamela Corona; Bonekamp, Susanne; Gearhart, Susan L.; Efron, Jonathan; Herman, Joseph; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE MRI is currently the imaging modality of choice for the detection, characterization, and staging of rectal cancer. A variety of examinations have been used for preoperative staging of rectal cancer, including digital rectal examination, endorectal (endoscopic) ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Endoscopic ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for small and small superficial tumors. MRI is superior to CT for assessing invasion to adjacent organs and structures, especially low tumors that carry a high risk of recurrence. CONCLUSION High-resolution MRI is an accurate and sensitive imaging method delineating tumoral margins, mesorectal involvement, nodes, and distant metastasis. In this article, we will review the utility of rectal MRI in local staging, preoperative evaluation, and surgical planning. MRI at 3 T can accurately delineate the mesorectal fascia involvement, which is one of the main decision points in planning treatment. PMID:22733930

  13. An adolescent with prolapsed omentum per rectum: Spontaneous rectal perforation managed laparoscopically

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ameet; Jakhmola, Chandra K.; Kukreja, Yogesh; Kumar, S. S.; Sandhu, Arjun Singh

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the rectum is a rare occurrence. A total laparoscopic approach to rectal perforation has only occasionally been reported. We report an unusual case of a young boy who developed a spontaneous rupture of the rectum following a trivial fall. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tear in the rectum at the peritoneal reflection with the omentum plugging it. He denied any history of rectal instrumentation or abnormal sexual activity. He had no history of constipation or rectal prolapse. The tear was repaired laparoscopically and a covering loop sigmoid colostomy was added. He made an uneventful post-operative recovery. Spontaneous rupture of the rectum can occur in younger age groups and even in the absence of significant trauma. One needs to diligently bring out a history of rectal trauma. Equally important is to rule out any underlying pathological condition. A laparoscopic approach is feasible, especially in early cases. PMID:28281483

  14. The role of the robotic technique in minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors’ centre. PMID:24101946

  15. Immunosuppressive effect induced by intraperitoneal and rectal administration of boar seminal immunosuppressive factor.

    PubMed

    Dostál, J; Veselský, L; Drahorád, J; Jonáková, V

    1995-06-01

    The immunosuppressive component was isolated from boar seminal vesicle secretion and administered i.p. or rectally to male mice. By means of the immunofluorescent method, the seminal immunosuppressive component was found on the membranes of 50-70% of white blood cells of treated mice the first day after i.p. and the third day after rectal administration. The immunosuppressive component was observed on the membranes of 10-20% of white cells even at the 17th day after treatment. Intraperitoneal or rectal administration of the immunosuppressive component led to a decrease in the white cell concentration in blood of treated mice. These findings indicate that rectal deposition of semen may compromise some aspects of the immune system and may be an important cofactor in the development of viral or bacterial infections among homosexual men.

  16. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy: 30-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmic, Ante; Cigit, Irenej; Zupancic, Bozidar; Bumci, Igor; Popovic, Ljiljana; Kljenak, Antun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role and our experience of injection sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children. METHODS: In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 children. In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform operative treatment. RESULTS: In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerotherapy. In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful. In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment. Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%). In children who needed operative treatment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal complications. PMID:18205264

  17. Rectal adenocarcinoma infiltrating the bulbar urethra and metastasising to the penis.

    PubMed

    James, Mathews; Amaranathan, Anandhi; Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad; Toi, Pampa Chakrabarty

    2016-06-16

    Secondary penile tumours from rectal carcinoma is a known clinical entity but can be missed unless carefully evaluated. We report a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with synchronous painless penile nodules. A patient presented with constipation and rectal bleeding. He had an anorectal growth as well as palpable nodules on his penis. Rectal biopsy yielded adenocarcinoma. Imaging revealed direct infiltration of tumour into the bulb of the penis as well as distal shaft lesions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the penile nodule showed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Diversion colostomy was performed and the patient referred for chemoradiation. Since he did not have any urinary symptoms, the penile lesions were left unaltered. Repeat imaging after concurrent chemoradiotherapy showed no response. The prognosis was explained and the patient was given palliative clinic care.

  18. Necrotising fasciitis secondary to perforated rectal adenocarcinoma presenting as a thigh swelling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William David George; Winters, Conchubhair; Amin, Eshan

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the medical admissions ward with right thigh pain presumed to be a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Subsequent duplex ultrasonography excluded a DVT but noted the presence of a significant amount of subcutaneous gas. A plain film radiograph was performed with the same finding raising the possibility of necrotising fasciitis (NF). Only at this point was digital rectal examination performed revealing a large rectal mass oozing pus and blood. CT imaging showed thickening of the rectum consistent with a tumour with gas and fluid in the perirectal space extending to the anterolateral right femur. Despite aggressive debridement and treatment, the patient deteriorated and died 6 weeks later. This case should serve as a reminder to consider digital rectal examination and the occurrence of a rectal perforation in all patients who present with suspicious thigh swellings. PMID:25824287

  19. Intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma in a young adult: a case report.

    PubMed

    Inada, Ryo; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Toshima, Toshiaki; Mori, Yoshiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2014-09-21

    An intussusception due to colonic adenocarcinoma has sometimes been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, reports of intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. In this report, the case of a young man with rectal adenocarcinoma causing intussusception is described. A 24-year-old man visited a hospital complaining of abdominal pain, and an upper rectal cancer was diagnosed by colonoscopy. Computed tomography showed intussusception caused by a large tumor in the pelvis and absence of distant metastases. Locally advanced rectal cancer causing intussusception was diagnosed, and a low anterior resection was performed. Intraoperatively, repair of the invagination could not be accomplished easily; therefore, the repair was abandoned. Instead, the tumor was removed en bloc to avoid dissemination of the cancer. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IIA. The patient has no evidence of recurrence at 10 mo after the operation.

  20. Intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma in a young adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Ryo; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Toshima, Toshiaki; Mori, Yoshiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    An intussusception due to colonic adenocarcinoma has sometimes been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, reports of intussusception due to rectal adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. In this report, the case of a young man with rectal adenocarcinoma causing intussusception is described. A 24-year-old man visited a hospital complaining of abdominal pain, and an upper rectal cancer was diagnosed by colonoscopy. Computed tomography showed intussusception caused by a large tumor in the pelvis and absence of distant metastases. Locally advanced rectal cancer causing intussusception was diagnosed, and a low anterior resection was performed. Intraoperatively, repair of the invagination could not be accomplished easily; therefore, the repair was abandoned. Instead, the tumor was removed en bloc to avoid dissemination of the cancer. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IIA. The patient has no evidence of recurrence at 10 mo after the operation. PMID:25253975

  1. Procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids for treatment of rectal mucosa prolapse following anorectoplasty for imperforate anus.

    PubMed

    Amortegui, Jose D; Solla, Julio A

    2008-05-01

    Surgical management of imperforate anus and rectal mucosal prolapse has evolved significantly over the last two decades. The procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids (PPH) is now widely used primarily for rectal mucosal prolapse and internal hemorrhoids. We describe the use of PPH in the management of symptomatic rectal mucosal prolapse in a 39-year-old man with a history of a high imperforate anus and pelvic floor reconstruction. At 4-year follow up, the prolapse has not recurred and the preoperative symptoms have resolved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a PPH in the management of rectal mucosal prolapse in a patient with these characteristics.

  2. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  3. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-31

    Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14-16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study.

  4. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14–16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Results Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. Conclusions TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study. PMID:26486374

  5. High-resolution Anorectal Manometry for Identifying Defecatory Disorders and Rectal Structural Abnormalities in Women.

    PubMed

    Prichard, David O; Lee, Taehee; Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Fletcher, Joel G; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Bharucha, Adil E

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, the rectoanal gradient during evacuation is negative in many healthy people, undermining the utility of anorectal high-resolution manometry (HRM) for diagnosing defecatory disorders. We aimed to compare HRM and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing rectal evacuation and structural abnormalities. We performed a retrospective analysis of 118 patients (all female; 51 with constipation, 48 with fecal incontinence, and 19 with rectal prolapse; age, 53 ± 1 years) assessed by HRM, the rectal balloon expulsion test (BET), and MRI at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from February 2011 through March 2013. Thirty healthy asymptomatic women (age, 37 ± 2 years) served as controls. We used principal components analysis of HRM variables to identify rectoanal pressure patterns associated with rectal prolapse and phenotypes of patients with prolapse. Compared with patients with normal findings from the rectal BET, patients with an abnormal BET had lower median rectal pressure (36 vs 22 mm Hg, P = .002), a more negative median rectoanal gradient (-6 vs -29 mm Hg, P = .006) during evacuation, and a lower proportion of evacuation on the basis of MRI analysis (median of 40% vs 80%, P < .0001). A score derived from rectal pressure and anorectal descent during evacuation and a patulous anal canal was associated (P = .005) with large rectoceles (3 cm or larger). A principal component (PC) logistic model discriminated between patients with and without prolapse with 96% accuracy. Among patients with prolapse, there were 2 phenotypes, which were characterized by high (PC1) or low (PC2) anal pressures at rest and squeeze along with higher rectal and anal pressures (PC1) or a higher rectoanal gradient during evacuation (PC2). In a retrospective analysis of patients assessed by HRM, measurements of rectal evacuation by anorectal HRM, BET, and MRI were correlated. HRM alone and together with anorectal descent during evacuation may identify

  6. Transmission of rectal electric waves: is it through circular or longitudinal smooth muscle layers or both?

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-04-01

    The rectum possesses electric activity in the form of pacesetter (PPs) and action potentials (APs). In recent studies we suggested that the waves are not initiated by the extrarectal autonomic innervation but might be triggered by a 'rectosigmoid pacemaker' and are transmitted in the rectal wall through the rectal musculature and not the enteric nerve plexus. To investigate whether the rectal waves are transmitted through the circular or longitudinal muscle layer, the rectum of 18 mongrel dogs was exposed under anesthesia through an abdominal incision. Three electrodes were applied to the rectal wall (longitudinal muscle layer) and another 3 electrodes to the circular muscle; the latter was exposed by splitting apart the fibers of the longitudinal muscle. Rectal electric activity and pressure were recorded from the 6 electrodes before and after performing individual myotomy of the rectal longitudinal (9 dogs), circular (9 dogs), and then the whole muscle layers (18 dogs). The myotomy was performed proximal to and between the electrodes. Pacesetter (PPs) and action potentials (APs) were recorded from the 3 electrodes on the longitudinal muscle but no waves were registered from those on the circular muscle. After longitudinal muscle myotomy was performed between electrodes 1 and 2, PPs and APs were recorded from electrode 1 but not 2 and 3 and when performed proximally to electrode 1, no waves were registered. The rectal pressure increased concomitantly with occurrence of APs. Circular muscle myotomy effected no change in the rectal electric activity recorded from the 3 electrodes applied to the longitudinal muscle. In total muscle myotomy, the electric waves were recorded from the electrodes proximal but not distal to the myotomy. We propose that the motile activity of the rectal longitudinal muscle is initiated by the electric activity which appears to be triggered by the rectosigmoid pacemaker, while that of the circular muscle fibers is believed to be initiated

  7. Metachronous squamous-cell carcinoma of the colon and treatment of rectal squamous carcinoma with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brammer, R D; Taniere, P; Radley, S

    2009-02-01

    Rectal squamous-cell carcinoma is a rare tumour with an incidence of less than 1 per 1000 cases. We report such a case treated with chemoradiotherapy. The patient developed a metastasis in the spleen and a further squamous tumour in the right colon, both of which were successfully resected. No histological evidence of recurrent rectal tumour has been found. Two years following presentation, the patient remains disease-free although symptomatic from a radiotherapy-induced stricture of the rectum.

  8. Metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jabir, H; Tawfiq, N; Moukhlissi, M; Akssim, M; Guensi, A; Kadiri, B; Bouchbika, Z; Taleb, A; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Zamiati, S; Benider, A

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  9. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.

    PubMed

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation.

  10. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Burcak; Ozer, Digdem; Akdogan, Meral; Ozaslan, Ersan; Yuksel, Osman

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control. CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain. PMID:18567081

  11. Detection of OXA-370 directly from rectal swabs and blood culture vials using an immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Nodari, Carolina Silva; Gales, Ana Cristina; Barth, Afonso Luís; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of OXA-48 K-SeT assay for detecting OXA-370 directly from spiked rectal swabs and blood culture vials. The limit of detection of this test was 10(4)UFC/mL for rectal swabs. Detection of the OXA-370-producing isolates was successfully achieved directly from positive blood culture vials independent of growing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Late Rectal Toxicity on RTOG 94-06: Analysis Using a Mixture Lyman Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei; Bosch, Walter R.; Michalski, Jeff; Winter, Kathryn; Mohan, Radhe; Purdy, James A.; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, M. Rex; Thames, Howard D.; Cox, James D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To estimate the parameters of the Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model using censored time-to-event data for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06, a dose-escalation trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model was fitted to data from 1,010 of the 1,084 patients accrued on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06 using an approach that accounts for censored observations. Separate fits were obtained using dose-volume histograms for whole rectum and dose-wall histograms for rectal wall. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, the crude incidence of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity was 15% (n = 148). The parameters of the Lyman model fitted to dose-volume histograms data, with 95% profile-likelihood confidence intervals, were TD{sub 50} = 79.1 Gy (75.3 Gy, 84.3 Gy), m = 0.146 (0.107, 0.225), and n = 0.077 (0.041, 0.156). The fit based on dose-wall histogram data was not significantly different. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a significantly higher incidence of late rectal toxicity (p = 0.015), corresponding to a dose-modifying factor of 5.3%. No significant association with late rectal toxicity was found for diabetes, hypertension, rectal volume, rectal length, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, or prescribed dose per fraction (1.8 Gy vs. 2 Gy). Conclusions: These results, based on a large cohort of patients from a multi-institutional trial, are expected to be widely representative of the ability of the Lyman model to describe the long-term risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  13. A novel method of dealing with a large rectal enterotomy in an irradiated pelvis.

    PubMed

    Wong, N Y; Koh, P K; Eu, K W

    2007-12-01

    Pelvic irradiation as part of adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer is frought with many complications. We describe the case of a young man who presented with frequent intestinal obstruction after resection and radiotherapy for a low rectal cancer. Subsequent laparotomy and adhesiolysis resulted in a large defect at the previous anastomotic site. A loop of sigmoid colon was used to cover the pelvic brim in an effort to preserve the sphincter and intestinal continuity.

  14. [Rectal anaesthesia with diazepam added to ketamine for preschool child (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Postel, J P; Brille, P; Starobinsky, E; Buffet, J P; Milhaud, A

    1981-01-01

    The authors relate their experience of 61 rectal anesthesias with ketamine (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25-0.5 mg/kg). Rectal anesthesia is well accepted by children who are afraid of percutaneous injection. When ketamine is used alone, they obtained only 76 p. cent good result. When diazepam is associated, good results arise to 95 p. cent. Diazepam added to ketamine allows surface surgery during 10 to 15 minutes.

  15. [Total excision of the mesorectum and preservation of the genitourinary innervation in surgery of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Tiret, E; Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    Locoregional recurrence is one of the most important problems after surgery for rectal cancer. Four to five per cent local recurrence rates have been reported after total mesorectal excision with autonomic nerve preservation. After an anatomic description, the authors describe the surgical technique of total mesorectal excision with nerve preservation. Carcinologic and functional results are reported, before concluding that this technique should be performed for mid or low rectal tumours with a distance to anorectal junction less than 5 cm.

  16. Relation between rectal sensation and anal function in normal subjects and patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W M; Read, N W; Miner, P B

    1990-01-01

    The relation between sensory perception of rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the motor responses of the rectum and external and internal anal sphincters in 27 normal subjects and 16 patients with faecal incontinence who had impaired rectal sensation but normal sphincter pressures was studied. In both patients and normal subjects, the onset and duration of rectal sensation correlated closely with the external anal sphincter electrical activity (r = 0.8, p less than 0.0001) and with rectal contraction (r = 0.51, p less than 0.001), but not with internal sphincter relaxation. All normal subjects perceived a rectal sensation within one second of rapid inflation of a rectal balloon with volumes of 20 ml or less air. Six patients did not perceive any rectal sensation until 60 ml had been introduced, while in the remaining nine patients the sensation was delayed by at least two seconds. Internal sphincter relaxation occurred before the sensation was perceived in three of 27 normal subjects and 11 of 16 patients (p less than 0.001), and could be associated with anal leakage, which stopped as soon as sensation was perceived. The lowest rectal volumes required to induce anal relaxation, to cause sustained relaxation, or to elicit sensations of a desire to defecate or pain were similar in patients and normal subjects. In conclusion, these results show the close association between rectal sensation and external anal sphincter contraction, and show that faecal incontinence may occur as a result of delayed or absent external anal sphincter contraction when the internal anal sphincter is relaxed. PMID:2210452

  17. Effect of intra-rectal administration of boar seminal immunosuppressive fraction on mouse lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Veselský, L; Dostál, J; Drahorád, J

    1994-08-01

    The repeated deposition of an immunosuppressive fraction isolated from boar vesicular gland secretion into the rectum of healthy male and female mice reduced responses of lymphocytes to mitogens in vitro. Rectal deposition of the immunosuppressive component also led to a decrease in the activity of plaque-forming cells. These findings indicate that repeated rectal deposition of semen may compromise some aspects of the immune system and may be an important cofactor in the development of viral or bacterial infections among homosexual men.

  18. Effects of Prostate-Rectum Separation on Rectal Dose From External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Susil, Robert C.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Song, Danny

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is the major dose-limiting structure. Physically separating the rectum from the prostate (e.g., by injecting a spacer) can reduce the rectal radiation dose. Despite pilot clinical studies, no careful analysis has been done of the risks, benefits, and dosimetric effects of this practice. Methods and Materials: Using cadaveric specimens, 20 mL of a hydrogel was injected between the prostate and rectum using a transperineal approach. Imaging was performed before and after spacer placement, and the cadavers were subsequently dissected. Ten intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated (five before and five after separation), allowing for characterization of the rectal dose reduction. To quantify the amount of prostate-rectum separation needed for effective rectal dose reduction, simulations were performed using nine clinically generated intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. Results: In the cadaveric studies, an average of 12.5 mm of prostate-rectum separation was generated with the 20-mL hydrogel injections (the seminal vesicles were also separated from the rectum). The average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy decreased from 19.9% to 4.5% (p < .05). In the simulation studies, a prostate-rectum separation of 10 mm was sufficient to reduce the mean rectal volume receiving 70 Gy by 83.1% (p <.05). No additional reduction in the average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy was noted after 15 mm of separation. In addition, spacer placement allowed for increased planning target volume margins without exceeding the rectal dose tolerance. Conclusion: Prostate-rectum spacers can allow for reduced rectal toxicity rates, treatment intensification, and/or reduced dependence on complex planning and treatment delivery techniques.

  19. Memorias del segundo simposio internacional sobre políticas, planificación y economía de los programas de protección contra incendios forestales: una visión global; 2004 Abril 19–22; Córdoba, España

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2008-01-01

    Estas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la protección contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual que agencias en la comunidad internacional. Los temas discutidos en el simposio incluyen economía del fuego, teoría y modelos...

  20. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Méndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52-119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p < 0.001) and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p = 0.032). Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7-14) g/dL to 13 (10-15) g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation.

  1. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Méndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p < 0.001) and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p = 0.032). Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14) g/dL to 13 (10–15) g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation. PMID:26357522

  2. Age and cellular context influence rectal prolapse formation in mice with caecal wall colorectal cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Tommelein, Joke; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; De Vlieghere, Elly; Wagemans, Glenn; Gespach, Christian; Boterberg, Tom; Demetter, Pieter; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer. PMID:27689329

  3. Oil Red O-positive lipid in peritoneal fluid from a horse with a rectal tear.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer S; Johnson, Mark C; Sims, Will P; Boone, Lindsey H; Swor, Tamara M; Weeks, Bradley R

    2011-06-01

    A 4-year-old Quarter Horse mare was presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a rectal tear. On initial evaluation, rectal palpation and colonoscopy revealed a grade IIIb rectal tear. Analysis of peritoneal fluid revealed a modified transudate. Preliminary supportive care included fluid therapy and mineral oil administration via nasogastric tube. Approximately 48 hours after presentation, a second abdominocentesis was performed, and cytologic examination of the fluid revealed a marked suppurative exudate. Round clear nonrefractile material observed within neutrophils and macrophages and in the background stained bright pink to red with Oil Red O, confirming the material as lipid, likely from leakage of mineral oil through the rectal tear. The condition of the mare deteriorated and euthanasia was elected due to the poor prognosis. At necropsy, gross and histologic findings included peritoneal effusion and a full-thickness rectal tear with transmural necrotizing pyogranulomatous colitis and fibrinous peritonitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Oil Red O-positive lipid vacuoles in the peritoneal fluid of a horse from presumed leakage of mineral oil through a transmural rectal perforation. The frequency of this occurrence in horses is unknown, but it is important for cytopathologists to be familiar with the appearance and significance of lipid-type droplets in phagocytic cells in cytologic fluid analysis specimens.

  4. Study on rectal administration of azithromycin by suppository for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Miyuki; Nakano, Yukitaka; Aoyama, Takahiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Fujito, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is widely used as a first-line treatment option for children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Although pharmacists perform medication counseling in the pediatric ward, children often experience vomiting as a result of oral AZM administration. Drugs that are administered rectally are generally considered to enter the circulation system without passing through the liver first. The aim of our study was to prepare an AZM suppository and investigate the pharmaceutical properties and well as pharmacokinetics of the rectal administration route in humans. Five healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All subjects provided written informed consent before participating in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either oral administration of oral AZM 500-mg tablet or rectal administration of 125-mg, 250-mg, or 500-mg AZM suppository. Blood samples for preparation of serum were collected predose as well as at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours following the first rectal dose. Serum concentrations of AZM were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. The bioavailability of the AZM suppository through rectal administration was 20.3% compared to oral administration. We hypothesize that the surface area where AZM is absorbed also affects the absorption by rectal administration. Although further investigation is necessary to improve the absorption of AZM by the rectum and to ensure safety in children, the AZM suppository may be an effective preparation in cases where oral administration is not tolerated.

  5. Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Pirozzi, Giuseppe Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Cuscuna, Daniele; Di Lallo, Alessandra; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Mantini, Giovanna; Pacelli, Fabio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Ingrosso, Marcello; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the grade and incidence of late clinical rectal toxicity through short-term (1 year) mucosal alterations. Methods and Materials: Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with curative or adjuvant radiotherapy underwent proctoscopy a year after the course of radiotherapy. Mucosal changes were classified by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Late toxicity data were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed by log-rank analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 45 months (range, 18-99), the 3-year incidence of grade {>=}2 rectal late toxicity according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was 24%, with all patients (24/24; 100%) experiencing rectal bleeding. The occurrence of grade {>=}2 clinical rectal late toxicity was higher in patients with grade {>=}2 (32% vs. 15 %, p = 0.02) or grade {>=}3 VRS telangiectasia (47% vs. 17%, p {<=} 0.01) and an overall VRS score of {>=}2 (31% vs. 16 %, p = 0.04) or {>=}3 (48% vs. 17%, p = 0.01) at the 1-year proctoscopy. Conclusions: Early proctoscopy (1 year) predicts late rectal bleeding and therefore can be used as a surrogate endpoint for late rectal toxicity in studies aimed at reducing this frequent complication.

  6. Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection in the treatment of total rectal prolapse: early outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masao; Abe, Tatsuya; Kitada, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki

    2007-11-01

    No surgical method for repair of total rectal prolapse has been established as optimal. We describe a new technique that uses ALTA (aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid) injection as a simple perianal procedure for total rectal prolapse. Fourteen patients with total rectal prolapse were treated with sclerosing therapy by using ALTA injection. Via a perianal approach, 0.5 to 1 ml of ALTA solution was injected along a linear track into the submucosa at 30 to 80 different sites, totaling 20 to 60 ml. All 14 patients treated with injection sclerotherapy were cured, with no intraoperative or postoperative complications. One patient required a repeat injection after two months to be cured. No exacerbation of constipation has resulted, and no stenosis has been evident on rectal examination. In seven of ten patients presenting with fecal incontinence, this complaint resolved after therapy. ALTA sclerotherapy yielded satisfactory results in total rectal prolapse, causing no alteration in neurophysiology of bowel function. Injection sclerotherapy should be recommended as the first procedure for treatment of total rectal prolapse.

  7. A case of metastatic carcinoma of anal fistula caused by implantation from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Rina; Ichikawa, Ryosuke; Ito, Singo; Mizukoshi, Kosuke; Ishiyama, Shun; Sgimoto, Kiichi; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Yao, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    This case involved an 80-year-old man who was seen for melena. Further testing revealed a tubular adenocarcinoma 50 mm in size in the rectum. In addition, an anal fistula was noted behind the anus along with induration. A biopsy of tissue from the external (secondary) opening of the fistula also revealed adenocarcinoma. Nodules suspected of being metastases were noted in both lung fields. The patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, a cancer arising from an anal fistula, and a metastatic pulmonary tumor, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was begun. A laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection was performed 34 days after 6 cycles of mFOLFOX-6 therapy. Based on pathology, the rectal cancer was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and this adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastasis (yp T3N2aM1b). There was no communication between the rectal lesion and the anal fistula, and a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma resembling the rectal lesion was noted in the anal fistula. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that both the rectal lesion and anal fistula were cytokeratin 7 (CK7) (-) and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) (+), and the patient's condition was diagnosed as implantation of rectal cancer in an anal fistula.In instances where an anal fistula develops in colon cancer, cancer implantation in that fistula must also be taken into account, and further testing should be performed prior to surgery.

  8. Clinical value of MRI-detected extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pratik; Rao, Sheng Xiang; Zeng, Meng Su

    2017-01-01

    Extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is associated with a poor prognosis and a poor overall survival rate in rectal cancer. It can independently predict local and distant tumor recurrences. Preoperative EMVI detection in rectal cancer is useful for determining the treatment strategy. EMVI status is beneficial for the post-treatment evaluation and analysis of rectal cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic modality with no radiation effects. High-resolution MRI can detect EMVI with high accuracy. In addition, MRI results are equal to or even better than pathological results in the detection of medium to large EMVI in rectal cancer. MRI-detected EMVI (mrEMVI) can be used as a potential biomarker that facilitates treatment methods. This review highlights the importance of MRI before and after rectal cancer treatment. In addition, we analyze the prognostic correlation between mrEMVI and circulating tumor cells (CTC) in rectal cancer. This article may help shed light on the significance of mrEMVI.

  9. Expression of guanylyl cyclase C in tissue samples and the circulation of rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Cheng, Guoping; Qian, Jun; Ju, HaiXing; Zhu, YuPing; Stefano, Meucci; Keilholz, Ulrich; Li, DeChuan

    2017-06-13

    Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) is a transmembrane surface receptor restricted to intestinal epithelial cells, from the duodenum to the rectum. We compared GCC expression in tumors and normal rectal tissues, and investigated the relation between GCC expression and metastasis and long-term survival of rectal cancer patients. Based on the UICC classification, 42 rectal cancer patients in this study were classified as stage I, 48 patients as stage II, and 90 patients as stage III. Overexpression of GCC was observed in 80 rectal tumors as compared to matched normal tissues, where no strong staining of GCC was observed. An association between GCC mRNA in the circulation and tumor emboli in vessels, CK20 mRNA, distant organ metastasis, and survival status was observed in 100 rectal cancer patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that tumor emboli in vessels, lymph node metastasis, mesenteric root lymph node metastasis and GCC mRNA correlated with 5-year disease-free survival (DFS); while lymph node metastasis, GCC mRNA, and CK20 mRNA strongly correlated with 5-year overall survival (OS). In a multivariate Cox regression model, GCC mRNA level and mesenteric root lymph node metastasis associated with DFS, while GCC mRNA levels associated with OS. Quantification of GCC expression in circulation is a valuable biomarker for assessing tumor burden and predicting outcome in rectal cancer patients.

  10. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  11. Rectal gland of Bactrocera papayae: ultrastructure, anatomy, and sequestration of autofluorescent compounds upon methyl eugenol consumption by the male fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Cynthia C H; Tan, Keng Hong

    2005-08-01

    Sexually mature males of Bactrocera papayae are strongly attracted to and consume methyl eugenol (ME). Upon consumption, ME is biotransformed to two phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF), that are transported in the hemolymph, sequestered and stored in the rectal glands, and subsequently released as sex and aggregation pheromones during courtship. To date, very little work on the ultrastructure and anatomy of the rectal gland has been done, and the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males has not been observed visually. Our objectives are to describe the anatomy and fine structures of the rectal glands of males and females and to observe the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds in the rectal glands of males. The rectal glands of males and females have four rectal papillae with each papilla attached to a rectal pad. The rectal pads protrude from the rectal gland as the only surfaces of the gland that are not surrounded by muscles. The rectal papillae of ME-fed males had oil droplets and autofluorescent compounds that were absent from those of ME-deprived males. The autofluorescent compounds accumulated in the rectal sac, which is an evagination that is not found in rectal glands of females. The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland.

  12. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial.

    PubMed

    Hirji, Karim F; Premji, Zulfiqarali G

    2011-08-08

    Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design-indicated stratified or multi-variate analysis was not done

  13. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n = 55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60 min to 35 ± 1°C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0 h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66 h. After 66 h the ambient temperature was increased within 30 min to 41 ± 1°C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ΔTn (ΔT6, ΔT18, ΔT30, ΔT42, ΔT54 and ΔT66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ΔTT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ΔTn as well as ΔTT (rΔ T 18  = -0.28 and rΔ TT  = -0.31, respectively, P < 0.05; rΔT30  = -0.36, rΔ T 42  = -0.38, rΔT54  = -0.56, P < 0.01). Importantly, pullets with low ΔT18 showed a longer HSST (256.0 ± 208.4 min) than those with high ΔT18 (HSST = 123.7 ± 78.3 min). This observation suggested that the ΔT18 or early increment of RT under heat stress might be considered as a reliable indicator for evaluation of heat resistance in chickens. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Jakobsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of studies have investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential markers of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. So far, agreement between studies has been minimal, which may in part be explained by intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression. The aim of the present study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches. Materials and Methods The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) in tumour specimens from 27 patients with T3-4 rectal cancer. From each tumour, tissue from three different luminal localisations was examined. Inter- and intra-patient variability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Correlations between RT-qPCR and ISH were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation. Results ICCsingle (one sample from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21 and miRNA-31. For miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630, ICCsingle was lower than 50%. The ICCmean (mean of three samples from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21(RT-qPCR and ISH), miRNA-125b (RT-qPCR and ISH), miRNA-145 (ISH), miRNA-630 (RT-qPCR), and miRNA-31 (RT-qPCR). For miRNA-145 (RT-qPCR) and miRNA-630 (ISH), ICCmean was lower than 50%. Spearman correlation coefficients, comparing results obtained by RT-qPCR and ISH, respectively, ranged from 0.084 to 0.325 for the mean value from each patient, and from -0.085 to 0.515 in the section including the deepest part of the tumour. Conclusion Intratumoral heterogeneity may influence the measurement of miRNA expression and consequently the number of samples needed for representative estimates. Our findings with two different methods suggest that one sample is sufficient for adequate assessment of miRNA-21 and miRNA-31, whereas more samples would improve the assessment of miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630

  15. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. Results We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design-indicated stratified or multi

  16. Intermediate-fraction neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Tiancheng; Gu, Jin; Li, Ming; Du, Changzheng

    2013-04-01

    In China, standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy has not been well accepted, not only because of financial constraints but also because of the poorly-tolerated long duration of the regimen. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of a modified neoadjuvant radiation regimen on the prognosis of rectal cancer patients in China. This was a nonrandomized cohort study evaluating outcomes of patients who chose to undergo preoperative radiotherapy compared with those who chose not to undergo preoperative radiotherapy (controls). The study was carried out in Peking University Cancer Hospital, a tertiary care cancer center in China. Records of patients with locally advanced, mid-to-low rectal cancer who underwent total mesorectal excision at Peking University Cancer Hospital from 2001 through 2005 were analyzed in this study. Patients who chose preoperative radiotherapy received a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 10 once-daily fractions of 3.0 Gy each, with at least a 14-day delay of surgery after delivery of the last fraction. Tumor downstaging was evaluated. Local recurrence, distant metastases, and disease-free and overall survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 101 patients accepted and 162 patients declined the modified preoperative radiotherapy regimen. Of the 101 patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy, 5 (5%) had a complete response, and 50 (50%) achieved TNM downstaging. The local recurrence rate was 5% with preoperative radiotherapy and 18% in the control groups (p = 0.02). Within the preoperative radiotherapy group, 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with T-, N-, or TNM-downstaging than in patients without downstaging. Evaluation of literature reports indicated that clinical safety and effectiveness of the modified protocol are comparable to results of standard neoadjuvant procedures. The allocation to study groups was not randomized, and patient self-selection may

  17. Memorias del cuarto simposio internacional sobre políticas, planificación y economía de los incendios forestales: cambio climático e incendios forestales; 2012 noviembre 5–11; Ciudad de México, México

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos IndividualesEstas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la protección contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual...

  18. Surgical management and outcome of rectal carcinoids in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rockson; Lo, Oswens S H; Law, Wai Lun

    2015-02-07

    Rectal carcinoids are an uncommon entity comprising only 1%-2% of all rectal tumors. Rectal carcinoids are frequently diagnosed during colonoscopy, but management after polypectomy is still controversial. The aims of this study were to review the surgical procedures for rectal carcinoids and to compare the outcomes of patients after different treatment modalities in a university hospital in Hong Kong. All rectal carcinoids diagnosed between January 2003 and September 2012 were reviewed retrospectively, including clinicopathological characteristics, their management, and surgical outcomes. There were 54 patients with a median age of 60 years, and 32 were males (59.3%). All patients underwent colonoscopy, and the most had rectal bleeding (53.7%). Two patients were diagnosed incidentally in the surgical specimens of rectal tissues. Eighteen patients were diagnosed to have rectal carcinoids after snaring polypectomy, and no further intervention was required. Twenty-five patients had local resection either by means of transanal resection or transanal endoscopic operation. Radical resection was performed in seven patients in which one had T3N1 disease and the others did not have any lymph node metastasis. In the median follow-up of 30 months (10-108 months), there was no recurrence in the "incidental" or post-polypectomy group. However, two patients with transanal resection and two patients with radical resection developed hepatic metastases after 13-24 months post-treatment. The 5-year overall survival was 100% in patients having snaring polypectomy only, 83% for those with local resection, and 63% in patients who underwent radical surgery (p = 0.04). Our data suggested that that local resection was an effective treatment for small rectal carcinoids and generally brought about good oncological and surgical outcomes. For larger tumors, radical resection seemed to provide acceptable oncological outcomes. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy and endorectal

  19. Functional outcomes following laparoscopic and open rectal resection for cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlone, Emma R; Khan, Omar A; Conti, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed whether laparoscopic approach confers a difference in functional outcome compared to conventional open resectional surgery for rectal cancer. 246 papers were found using the reported search, of which five represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group, study type, relevant outcomes and key results of these papers are tabulated. Of these five studies, none showed any difference in post-operative urinary function between patients undergoing laparoscopic or open surgery. The two randomised studies reported either a trend or a significant difference in favour of open surgery for sexual outcome in men. Three more recent, case-control studies showed differences in favour of laparoscopic surgery for sexual function in men. We conclude that there is no evidence to suggest that laparoscopic approach makes any difference to post-operative urinary function. The data relating to sexual function in men is contradictory, and as none of the studies available have generated high level evidence and further trials are required to clarify whether laparoscopic approach confers an advantage or disadvantage in terms of sexual function for men post-operatively. In terms of sexual function in women, the available data is far too scarce to satisfactorily determine whether laparoscopy is superior to open surgery. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The endo-rectal probe prototype for the TOPEM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musico, Paolo; Topem Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The TOPEM project was funded by INFN with the aim of studying the design of a TOF-PET system dedicated to prostate imaging. During last year a big effort was put into building the prototype of the endo-rectal probe from all point of view: mechanical, thermal, electrical. A dedicated integrated circuit was adopted to have the minimum dimensions: the TOFPET ASIC. The system is composed by a LYSO pixellated crystal which is seen by a 128 SiPM matrix on both surfaces: this permits Depth Of Interaction (DOI) measurement. The 4 needed ASICs are handled by a FPGA board which transmits the acquired data over an UDP connection. The external container was made using 3-D printing technology: internal channels on the external surface permit the flowing of controlled temperature (≈35 °C) water. Electronic components power is dissipated using an internal air flow kept at lower temperature (≈20 °C). The probe is MR compatible: a dedicated small antenna can be accommodated in the container. This will permit simultaneous imaging in MRI and PET systems.

  1. Unusual recurrent rectal carcinoma: a cancer field theory viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Vyslouzil, Kamil; Brychtova, Svetlana; Zboril, Pavel; Skalicky, Pavel; Vomackova, Katherine; Bezdekova, Michala; Brychta, Tomas

    2014-09-01

    The rate of rectal cancer locoregional recurrence following radical surgery varies from 4% to 33%. Though the causes are unclear, likely factors include microscopic tumor residues in the lymphatics, positive resection margins and exfoliation of tumor cells and their subsequent intraluminar spread during operation. Other significant factors include type and technique of surgical procedure. Recently, it has been demonstrated that local recurrence may also be associated with the biological behaviour of the tumor and/or with the composition of the cellular microenvironment which creates optimal conditions for the growth and spread of tumor cells. The presented case here is interesting because the tumour recurred early following a curative surgical procedure with negative resection margins, without positive lymph nodes, without infiltration of the pelvic wall and without distant metastases. In patients with a determined risk of genetically altered tumor field encompassing epithelial or stromal changes, a different treatment strategy, including gene therapy, anti-inflammatory or anti-angiogenic therapy should be chosen to minimize increased tumor risk.

  2. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Shaddox, Kent F; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri R; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Rivers, Robert C; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, R Reid; Ellis, Matthew J C; Carr, Steven A; Tabb, David L; Coffey, Robert J; Slebos, Robbert J C; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-09-18

    Extensive genomic characterization of human cancers presents the problem of inference from genomic abnormalities to cancer phenotypes. To address this problem, we analysed proteomes of colon and rectal tumours characterized previously by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and perform integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. Messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumours. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA 'microsatellite instability/CpG island methylation phenotype' transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates, including HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha), TOMM34 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34) and SRC (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology.

  3. [Photochemotherapy with indocyanine green in cutaneous metastases of rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Abels, C; Bäumler, W; Steinbauer, M; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R M

    1997-09-12

    Six weeks before admission of a 47-year-old man with known rectal carcinoma, small nodular metastases had occurred over the front of both his thighs. Examination showed many aggregatet cuti-color or livid nodes, diameter 0.5 cm. The patient's poor general condition excluded the usual palliative measures. Photochemotherapy of the skin metastases with indocyanine green (ICG; absorption maximum 805 nm), a non-toxic dye approved for diagnostic purposes, was undertaken on a trial basis. The dye, being bound to plasma proteins, is retained in the intravacular space. Immediately after administration of the dye (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) the skin metastases were irradiated by diode laser (lambda = 805 nm, 100 J/cm2, 3 W/cm2, radiation diameter 2 cm). This necrosed the metastases and clinically as well as histologically resulted in their complete disappearance with scarring of the treated area. This case illustrates the effectiveness of photochemotherapy with ICG against solid skin tumours of increased microvascular density.

  4. Surgical and oncology trials for rectal cancer: who will participate?

    PubMed

    Harrison, James D; Solomon, Michael J; Young, Jane M; Meagher, Alan; Hruby, George; Salkeld, Glenn; Clarke, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The assessment of patients' and clinicians' willingness to participate in clinical trials is advisable as part of a feasibility exercise prior to the commencement of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ensure adequate support in terms of likely accrual to achieve the required sample size in a timely fashion. Furthermore, understanding why patients are unwilling to enter RCTs is imperative before the current trend of low participation can be reversed. Patients, colorectal surgeons, and medical and radiation oncologists, were presented with 5 different, detailed treatments for locally advanced rectal cancer. They were asked whether they would be willing to enter an RCT comparing each treatment choice. Patients who would not participate were asked to indicate their reason for refusal. Patients' willingness to participate in each trial was consistently low (19% to 32%). Similar low levels of participation were indicated by each clinical subspecialty (15% to 38%). Of the scenarios, patients and clinicians were most willing to enter a trial investigating surgery plus preoperative radiotherapy. A dislike of randomization, a desire to be involved in decision-making, and quality of life considerations were the most commonly stated reasons for refusal. This study highlights the difficulties in performing RCTs in surgery and oncology. However, results suggest that improvements in communication regarding randomization and clinical trial processes and the actual, rather than perceived, side effects of treatments are strategies that may enhance patient participation.

  5. Initially unresectable rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Bland, K.I.; Pfaff, W.W.; Copeland, E.M. 3d.

    1987-01-01

    This is an analysis of 23 patients with clinically and/or surgically unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum on initial evaluation who were treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery between March 1970 and April 1981. All patients have had follow-up for at least 5 years. Five patients (22%) had exploratory laparotomy and diverting colostomy before irradiation. All patients were irradiated with megavoltage equipment to the pelvis at 180 rad/fraction, continuous-course technique. Total doses ranged from 3500 to 6000 rad with a mean of 4800 rad and a median of 5000 rad. All patients had surgery 2-11 weeks (mean: 4.9 weeks; median: 4 weeks) after radiation therapy. Twelve patients (52%) had lesions that were incompletely resected because of positive margins (7 patients), distant metastasis (1 patient), or both (4 patients). All of these patients died of cancer within 5 years of treatment. Eleven patients had an apparent complete excision of their rectal cancer; six patients (55%) subsequently had a local recurrence. The 5-year absolute survival rate for patients who had complete resection was 18% (2 of 11 patients). The 5-year absolute and determinate survival rates for the entire study were 9% (2 of 23 patients) and 9% (2 of 22 patients), respectively. One patient (in the incomplete resection group) died after operation secondary to sepsis and diffuse intravascular coagulation.

  6. Stability of diazepam rectal gel in ambulance-like environments.

    PubMed

    Alldredge, Brian K; Venteicher, Robert; Calderwood, Thomas S

    2002-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability of diazepam rectal gel (Diastat) in various conditions of temperature and light exposure as might be found in ambulances. Three lots of Diastat (Xcel Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) in various fill/syringe configurations were evaluated in controlled conditions of a freeze-thaw cycle, hard freeze (-30 degrees C for 72 hours), extreme light exposure (1,000 ft candles for 1 month), and long-term evaluation at either 30 degrees C or 40 degrees C. In the various configurations and tests, diazepam concentration always exceeded 95% of label, with no changes of note in excipients or physicochemical properties. The estimated shelf-life at 30 degrees C exceeds 48 months. Based on the results of the present study, the restocking frequency of Diastat in ambient storage conditions (eg, ambulances), could be up to 48 months in nonfreezing environments, as long as this does not exceed the labeled expiration date on the product. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.)

  7. Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuremsky, Jeffrey G.; Tepper, Joel E.; McLeod, Howard L. Phar

    2009-07-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in the initial assessment of 1,204 articles. Articles addressing the ability of a biomarker to predict outcome for LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were included. Six biomarkers met the criteria for review: p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2/bax. On the basis of composite data, p53 is unlikely to have utility as a predictor of response. Epidermal growth factor receptor has shown promise as a predictor when quantitatively evaluated in pretreatment biopsies or when EGFR polymorphisms are evaluated in germline DNA. Thymidylate synthase, when evaluated for polymorphisms in germline DNA, is promising as a predictive biomarker. Ki-67 and bcl-2 are not useful in predicting outcome. p21 needs to be further evaluated to determine its usefulness in predicting outcome. Bax requires more investigation to determine its usefulness. Epidermal growth factor receptor, thymidylate synthase, and p21 should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical trials for their ability to guide preoperative therapy choices in LARC.

  8. Prevalence and consultation behavior of self-reported rectal bleeding by face-to-face interview in an Asian community.

    PubMed

    Basaranoglu, Metin; Celebi, Selman; Ataseven, Huseyin; Rahman, Suheyla; Deveci, S Erhan; Acik, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Although rectal bleeding is a common gastrointestinal symptom, there are very few community-based studies, and all of these studies were conducted in the West. So far the epidemiologic characteristics of rectal bleeding have not been defined in an Asian country. We aimed to characterize self-reported rectal bleeding and its association with functional bowel disorders in Turkey. Factors affecting healthcare-seeking behavior were reviewed as well. In this study, 760 subjects were chosen randomly. Questionnaires were completed by nurses during face-to-face interviews with each participant. Of the 707 (93%) subjects included in this study, 9.5% had functional dyspepsia, 8.6% had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 24.5% had functional constipation, and 13.8% had functional abdominal bloating. The prevalence of rectal bleeding in the previous year was 14.7%. The recent onset of rectal bleeding was 2.7%. Rectal bleeding was more common among subjects younger than 45 years. Subjects who had functional constipation or constipation-dominant IBS reported rectal bleeding more frequently than others. The rate of consultation was only 41.3% among the subjects with rectal bleeding. Subjects aged > or =45 years and who had marked bleeding or bleeding more than twice a day or fear of cancer sought healthcare more frequently than others. Rectal bleeding is as common a symptom in Turkey as in Western countries. Advanced age and fear of cancer were independent predictors of consultation behavior in this group. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding associated with solitary rectal ulcer in a patient with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Bes, C; Dağlı, Ü; Yılmaz, F; Soy, M

    2015-09-16

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare benign disorder that has a wide range of clinical presentations and variable endoscopic findings which makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. The clinical and endoscopic picture in this condition can also mimic malign ulceration, malignancy or Crohn's disease. Behçet's disease can affect the gastrointestinal tract. However to the best of our knowledge, no case with solitary rectal ulceration has been reported so far in literature. We herein present a patient diagnosed with Behçet's disease admitted to our clinic with rectal bleeding due to solitary rectal ulceration.

  10. Impact of rectal gonorrhoea and chlamydia on HIV viral load in the rectum: potential significance for onward transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, Olubanke; Costelloe, Sinead; Cross, Gemma; Dew, Tracy; O'Shea, Siobhan; White, John; Fox, Julie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of asymptomatic rectal bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on rectal HIV viral load (VL). A prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men who have sex with men attending a tertiary centre in London, UK, for their routine HIV care was performed. Forty-two HIV-positive men who have sex with men were recruited between January and August 2014. In participants on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there was no significant difference in rectal VL in those with and without STI ( p = 0.4). All rectal HIV VLs were below the limit of detection (<100 copies/µg of total RNA) whether an STI was present or not. In those not on ART, rectal HIV VL was on average 0.6log10 lower post STI treatment. The presence of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia and gonorrhoea was not associated with increased rectal HIV VL in those fully suppressed on ART. In the context of effective ART, the presence of rectal gonorrhoea or chlamydia does not appear to increase rectal HIV VL and the risk of increased viral infectivity.

  11. In vivo rectal wall measurements during HDR prostate brachytherapy with MOSkin dosimeters integrated on a trans-rectal US probe: Comparison with planned and reconstructed doses.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Mauro; Tenconi, Chiara; Rossi, Giulio; Borroni, Marta; Cerrotta, Annamaria; Grisotto, Simone; Cusumano, Davide; Pappalardi, Brigida; Cutajar, Dean; Petasecca, Marco; Lerch, Michael; Gambarini, Grazia; Fallai, Carlo; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    To study if MOSkin detectors coupled to a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe may be used for in vivo dosimetry on the rectal wall surface during US-based HDR prostate brachytherapy and to quantify possible discrepancies between planned and delivered doses. MOSkins are a specific type of MOSFET dosimeter optimized to measure dose in steep dose gradients on interfaces. Two MOSkins were assembled on a TRUS probe used for on-line treatment planning. Measurements of the dose to the rectal wall were performed over 18 treatment sessions and compared to the doses calculated on the pre-treatment plan (DPRE) and reconstructed on post-treatment images (DPOST). Averages of the absolute differences between MOSkin readings and DPRE, MOSkin readings and DPOST and DPRE and DPOST were 6.7 ± 5.1%, 3.6 ± 1.9% and 6.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. Agreement between measurements and DPOST was significantly better than between measurements and DPRE (p=0.002) and DPRE and DPOST (p=0.004). Discrepancy between DPOST and DPRE correlated with the time required for treatment planning. MOSkin dosimeters integrated to the TRUS probe proved to be an accurate instrument for measuring the dose delivered to the rectal wall in HDR prostate brachytherapy. The delivered doses may differ significantly from those calculated in the treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ETVARD (endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage) leads to complete but delayed closure of extraperitoneal rectal anastomotic leakage cavities following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Glitsch, Anne; Schreiber, André; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus Dieter

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to prospectively assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on the formation of major anastomotic rectal leaks and treatment by endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD). Twenty six patients with malignancies with rectal anastomotic leaks were prospectively treated, including 14 of 26 patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. ETVARD was the first-line treatment. In 23 of 26 patients, ETVARD was successfully completed. In patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy sizes of leakage cavities, duration of ETVARD, number of sponge exchanges, and endoscopies as well as time to closure of cavities were significantly increased (0.009 < p < 0.035) compared to patients after primary surgery. Increased age showed similar correlations, whereas the level of anastomoses did not influence these parameters. Patients without (ile)ostomies could also be treated by ETVARD. Follow-up endoscopies have not shown any major changes. Radiochemotherapy has a significant impact on development and treatment of major anastomotic rectal leaks. Most patients can be successfully treated by ETVARD, avoiding additional resective surgery or permanent (col)ostomies.

  13. Learning curve in robotic rectal cancer surgery: current state of affairs.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Rubio-Dorado-Manzanares, Mercedes; Díaz-Pavón, José Manuel; Reyes-Díaz, M Luisa; Vazquez-Monchul, Jorge Manuel; Garcia-Cabrera, Ana M; Padillo, Javier; De la Portilla, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Robotic-assisted rectal cancer surgery offers multiple advantages for surgeons, and it seems to yield the same clinical outcomes as regards the short-time follow-up of patients compared to conventional laparoscopy. This surgical approach emerges as a technique aiming at overcoming the limitations posed by rectal cancer and other surgical fields of difficult access, in order to obtain better outcomes and a shorter learning curve. A systematic review of the literature of robot-assisted rectal surgery was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in October 2015 in PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, for articles published in the last 10 years and pertaining the learning curve of robotic surgery for colorectal cancer. It consisted of the following key words: "rectal cancer/learning curve/robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery". A total of 34 references were identified, but only 9 full texts specifically addressed the analysis of the learning curve in robot-assisted rectal cancer surgery, 7 were case series and 2 were non-randomised case-comparison series. Eight papers used the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method, and only one author divided the series into two groups to compare both. The mean number of cases for phase I of the learning curve was calculated to be 29.7 patients; phase II corresponds to a mean number 37.4 patients. The mean number of cases required for the surgeon to be classed as an expert in robotic surgery was calculated to be 39 patients. Robotic advantages could have an impact on learning curve for rectal cancer and lower the number of cases that are necessary for rectal resections.

  14. Temporal artery and axillary thermometry comparison with rectal thermometry in children presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Adam J; Juliano, Michael L; Conley, Sean P; Cronyn, Patrick D; McGlynn, Andrea; Auten, Jonathan D

    2017-06-11

    Accurate temperature readings, often obtained rectally, are an important part of the initial evaluation of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. Temporal artery thermometry (TAT) is one way to noninvasively measure temperature. We sought to compare the accuracy of axillary and temporal artery temperatures compared to rectal. This prospective study included children age 0-36months presenting to the Emergency Department of a large military treatment facility. Rectal, axillary, and temporal artery temperatures were obtained. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) were reported. The effect of cutoff values 99.9°F, 100.4°F, and 102.2°F on test characteristics were also evaluated. The sensitivities of axillary and temporal artery thermometry to detect rectal fever is 11.5% and 61.5% respectively. Cutoff values did not significantly alter test characteristics. In this study, temporal artery thermometry was 0.2°C lower than rectal temperature, axillary measurement was 0.9°C below the reference standard. Mean temperature difference in the febrile group between TAT and rectal thermometry was >0.5°C compared with a mean temperature difference 0.05°C in afebrile patients. The findings of our study do not support using axillary thermometry to screen pediatric patients for fever in the emergency department. TAT cannot be recommended as a rectal thermometry replacement where height and duration of fever are used in pediatric disease prediction models. TAT may have a role in screening for fever in the appropriate pediatric patient population like primary orthopedic or trauma presentations where the balance between device precision, data capture and patient comfort may favor use of TAT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Rectal shaving for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum: a 5-year continuous retrospective series.

    PubMed

    Roman, Horace; Moatassim-Drissa, Salwa; Marty, Noemie; Milles, Mathilde; Vallée, Aurélie; Desnyder, Eulalie; Stochino Loi, Emanuela; Abo, Carole

    2016-11-01

    To report postoperative outcomes after rectal shaving for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum. Retrospective study using data prospectively recorded in the CIRENDO database. University tertiary referral center. One hundred and twenty-two consecutive patients whose follow-up observation ranged from 1 to 6 years. Rectal shaving performed using ultrasound scalpel or scissors and plasma energy in 68 and 54 women, respectively. Postoperative digestive function assessed using standardized gastrointestinal questionnaires: the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) and the Knowles-Eccersley-Scott-Symptom Questionnaire (KESS). Nodules were between 1 and 3 cm, <1 cm, and >3 cm in diameter, in 73.7%, 11.5%, and 14.8% of cases, respectively. They were located on the middle (49.2%) and upper rectum (50.8%). Clavien-Dindo 3a, 3b, 4a, and 4b complications occurred in 0.8%, 5.7%, 1.6%, and 0.8% of cases, respectively. Excepting two rectal fistulas (1.6%), the majority of complications were not related to rectal shaving itself. Gastrointestinal scores revealed statistically significant improvement in digestive function and pelvic pain at 1 and 3 years after rectal shaving, but not constipation. Rectal recurrences occurred in 4% of patients, 2.4% of whom had segmental resection, 0.8% shaving, and 0.8% disc excision. Three years postoperatively, the pregnancy rate was 65.4% among patients with pregnancy intention, 59% of whom conceived spontaneously. Our data suggest that rectal shaving is a valuable treatment for deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum, providing a low rate of postoperative complications, good improvement in digestive function, and satisfactory fertility outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptom distribution and anorectal physiology results in male patients with rectal intussusception and prolapse.

    PubMed

    Hotouras, Alexander; Murphy, Jamie; Abeles, Aliza; Allison, Marion; Williams, Norman S; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L

    2014-05-01

    Rectal intussusception and external rectal prolapse are uncommon proctographic findings in men reflecting the lack of studies investigating such patients. The aim of this study was to identify the demographic, clinical, and physiological characteristics of this population with a view to appreciate the mechanism of development of this condition. All men, presenting with symptoms of constipation or fecal incontinence, who were diagnosed proctographically with recto-rectal intussusception (RRI)/recto-anal intussusception (RAI) or external rectal prolapse (ERP) between 1994 and 2007 at a tertiary academic colorectal unit were studied. Demographics, relevant comorbidities, distribution and symptom duration, and anorectal physiology results were analyzed retrospectively for each proctographic group and intergroup comparisons performed. Two hundred five men (median age 50 y; range, 13-86) including 155 (75.6%) without any relevant comorbidities were studied. A significant proportion of patients in all proctographic groups reported rectal evacuatory difficulty ([RRI, 46.4%], [RAI, 39.4%], [ERP, 44.8%]; P = 0.38,analysis of variance). Patients also reported a combination of fecal incontinence symptoms (e.g., urge, passive, postdefecatory leakage) that did not differ across the proctographic groups. Anorectal physiological parameters were within normal range and were not found to be statistically different between the proctographic groups with the exception of anal resting pressure, which was lowest in ERP patients (62 cm H2O; range, 14-155) compared with patients with RRI (89 cm H2O; range, 16-250; P = 0.003) and RAI (92 cm H2O; range, 38-175; P = 0.006). Men with rectal intussusception and prolapse present with a combination of symptoms, predominantly defective rectal evacuation. Anorectal physiological assessment has failed to shed light into the mechanism of development of this condition and thus, the need for large observational studies incorporating integrated

  17. A comparison between infrared tympanic thermometry, oral and axilla with rectal thermometry in neutropenic adults.

    PubMed

    Dzarr, Abu Abdullah; Kamal, Mustafa; Baba, Abdul Aziz

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the agreement between infrared tympanic membrane (TM), axillary, corrected axillary (+0.5 degrees C), oral, and corrected oral (+0.3 degrees C) to rectal thermometry as reference standard in neutropenic adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned thermometries in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were also analysed. This is a comparative diagnostic test study. A total of 400 sets of blinded simultaneous temperature readings were measured from 21 haemato-oncology in-patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy. Three-hundred sets were then randomly sampled. Agreements were analysed using random two-way intraclass correlation (ICC). Sensitivity and specificity were analysed using contingency 2x2 table. Both right and left TM thermometry have good correlation with rectal thermometry; 0.810 (95% CI, 0.748-0.855) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.713-0.815) respectively. Axilla thermometry has weak agreement (ICC 0.486 (95% CI, 0.118-0.689)) with rectal thermometry. The sensitivity (sn) and specificity (sp) in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were: right TM (sn) 0.712 (95% CI, 0.586-0.814), (sp) 0.957 (95% CI, 0.920-0.978); oral (sn) 0.561 (95% CI, 0.433-0.681), (sp) 0.983 (95% CI, 0.954-0.995); and axilla (sn) 0.348 (95% CI, 0.238-0.477), (sp) 0.996 (95% CI, 0.973-0.999). Single tympanic membrane thermometry is in good agreement with rectal thermometry. It is more sensitive than oral or axillary thermometry in detecting rectal fever.

  18. Correlation of SATB1 overexpression with the progression of human rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wen-Jian; Yan, Hui; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Heng; Wang, Rong; Zhan, Lan; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2012-02-01

    To date, the association between special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been reported. This study was aimed at investigating the expression and potential role of SATB1 in human rectal cancers. Ninety-three paired samples of rectal cancer and distant normal rectal tissue were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the correlations between SATB1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated. The expression profiles of SATB1 were also investigated in a panel of five human colon carcinoma cell lines. The general level of SATB1 mRNA in rectal cancer tissues was statistically significantly higher than that in normal mucosa (P = 0.043). The rate of positive SATB1 protein expression in rectal cancers (44.1%) was significantly higher than that in normal tissues (25.8%) by IHC analysis (P = 0.009). Overexpression of SATB1 mRNA was more predominant in patients with earlier onset of rectal cancer (P = 0.033). SATB1 expression correlated with invasive depth and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage at both protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Furthermore, SATB1 expression in the poorly metastatic KM12C cells was significantly lower than the highly metastatic KM12SM and KM12L4A cells and higher than the HCT116 and SW480 cells (P = 0.001). These results were further confirmed by Western blotting. Our results indicate that SATB1 may play an important role in the progression of human rectal cancer, which represents a possible new mechanism underlying CRC.

  19. Complete rectal prolapse in young Egyptian males: Is schistosomiasis really condemned?

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Ahmed A; ElAbbassy, Islam H; Kamal, Ahmed M; Somaie, Dina A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the assumption that schistosomiasis is the main cause of rectal prolapse in young Egyptian males. METHODS Twenty-one male patients between ages of 18 and 50 years with complete rectal prolapse were included in the study out of a total 29 patients with rectal prolapse admitted for surgery at Colorectal Surgery Unit, Ain Shams University hospitals between the period of January 2011 and April 2014. Patients were asked to fill out a specifically designed questionnaire about duration of the prolapse, different bowel symptoms and any past or present history of schistosomiasis. Patients also underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy and four quadrant mid-rectal biopsies documenting any gross or microscopic rectal pathology. Data from questionnaire and pathology results were analyzed and patients were categorized according to their socioeconomic class. RESULTS Twelve patients (57%) never contracted schistosomiasis and were never susceptible to the disease, nine patients (43%) had history of the disease but were properly treated. None of the patients had gross rectal polyps and none of the patients had active schistosomiasis on histopathological examination. Fifteen patients (71%) had early onset prolapse that started in childhood, majority before the age of 5 years. Thirteen patients (62%) were habitual strainers, and four of them (19%) had straining dating since early childhood. Four patients (19%) stated that prolapse followed a period of straining that ranged between 8 mo and 2 years. Nine patients (43%) in the present study came from the low social class, 10 patients (48%) came from the working class and 2 patients (9%) came from the low middle social class. CONCLUSION Schistosomiasis should not be considered the main cause of rectal prolapse among young Egyptian males. Childhood prolapse that continues through adult life is likely involved. Childhood prolapse probably results from malnutrition, recurrent parasitic infections and diarrhea that induce

  20. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Bondurant, Kristina L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2013-02-15

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In our study, we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1,555 cases and 1,956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were used. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk, and CXCR1 and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28-2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest that interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Rectal Dose-Volume Differences Using Proton Radiotherapy and a Rectal Balloon or Water Alone for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos Mahajan, Chaitali; Fryer, Amber; Indelicato, Daniel; Henderson, Randal H.; McKenzie, Craig C.; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Oliver, Kenneth; Keole, Sameer

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To describe dose-volume values with the use of water alone vs. a rectal balloon (RB) for the treatment of prostate cancer with proton therapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 30 proton plans for 15 patients who underwent CT and MRI scans with an RB or water alone. Simulation was performed with a modified MRI endorectal coil and an RB with 100 mL of water or water alone. Doses of 78-82 gray equivalents were prescribed to the planning target volume. The two groups were compared for three structures: rectum, rectal wall (RW), and rectal wall 7 cm (RW7) at the level of the planning target volume. Results: Rectum and RW volumes radiated to low, intermediate, and high doses were small: rectum V10, 33.7%; V50, 17.3%; and V70, 10.2%; RW V10, 32.4%; V50, 20.4%; and V70, 14.6%. The RB effectively increased the rectal volume for all cases (139.8 {+-} 44.9 mL vs. 217.7 {+-} 32.2 mL (p < 0.001). The RB also decreased the volume of the rectum radiated to doses V10-V65 (p {<=} 0.05); RW for V10-V50; and RW7 for V10-V35. An absolute rectum V50 improvement >5% was seen for the RB in 5 of 15 cases, for a benefit of 9.2% {+-} 2.3% compared with 2.4% {+-} 1.3% for the remaining 10 cases (p < 0.001). Similar benefit was seen for the rectal wall. No benefit was seen for doses {>=}70 gray equivalents for the rectum, RW, or RW7. No benefit of {<=}1% was seen with an RB in 46% for the rectum V70 and in 40% for the rectal wall V70. Conclusions: Rectum and rectal wall doses with proton radiation were low whether using water or an RB. Selected patients will have a small but significant advantage with an RB; however, water alone was well tolerated and will be an alternative for most patients.

  2. LAPAROSCOPICALLY ASSISTED ANORECTOPLASTY AND THE USE OF THE BIPOLAR DEVICE TO SEAL THE RECTAL URINARY FISTULA.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Robson Azevedo; Boscollo, Adriana Cartafina Perez

    2016-01-01

    The anorectal anomalies consist in a complex group of birth defects. Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty improved visualization of the rectal fistula and the ability to place the pull-through segment within the elevator muscle complex with minimal dissection. There is no consensus on how the fistula should be managed. To evaluate the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty and the treatment of the rectal urinary fistula by a bipolar sealing device. It was performed according to the original description by Georgeson1. Was used 10 mm infraumbilical access portal for 30º optics. The pneumoperitoneum was established with pressure 8-10 cm H2O. Two additional trocars of 5 mm were placed on the right and left of the umbilicus. The dissection started on peritoneal reflection using Ligasure(r). With the reduction in the diameter of the distal rectum was identified the fistula to the urinary tract. The location of the new anus was defined by the location of the external anal sphincter muscle complex, using electro muscle stimulator externally. Finally, it was made an anastomosis between the rectum and the new location of the anus. A Foley urethral probe was left for seven days. Seven males were operated, six with rectoprostatic and one with rectovesical fistula. The follow-up period ranged from one to four years. The last two patients operated underwent bipolar sealing of the fistula between the rectum and urethra without sutures or surgical ligation. No evidence of urethral leaks was identified. There are benefits of the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty for the treatment of anorectal anomaly. The use of a bipolar energy source that seals the rectal urinary fistula has provided a significant decrease in the operating time and made the procedure be more elegant. As anomalias anorretais consistem de um grupo complexo de defeitos congênitos. A anorretoplastia laparoscópica permite melhor visualização da fístula retourinária e propicia o posicionamento do reto abaixado

  3. Precipitous intussusception with anal protrusion and complete overt rectal prolapse presenting with intestinal obstruction and an associated rectal adenoma in a young man: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ongom, Peter A; Lukande, Robert L

    2013-10-05

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to intussusception, occurring simultaneously with complete rectal prolapse, is an unusual entity among young adults. When it occurs the intussusceptum may protrude per anus. Few cases are cited in literature; each with a unique clinical presentation. There is apparently no uniform trend in its clinical and pathological picture. A 38-year-old, African-Ugandan man presented with sudden occurrence of rectal prolapse for one day. He had otherwise been in good health. Symptoms were precipitous. A clinical diagnosis of intussusception of the lower gut with rectal prolapse, and intestinal obstruction, was made. The intussusception was found to have a polyp as the 'lead point'. He was treated by manual reduction of the intussusception and the prolapse under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the polyp showed it to be an adenoma. Definitive surgical treatment of the patient was not completed due to socioeconomic challenges. Rectal prolapse and intussusception are commonly childhood conditions. Rectal prolapse alone is commoner in the middle-aged and elderly; females in particular. The finding of this combined clinical entity in a young, adult male is therefore a unique condition with an unusual presentation. It is the first case of its kind reported in East Africa. It is also an example of an adenoma constituting a 'lead point' for an intussusception at the gastrointestinal tract's terminus. Even in the presence of a pre-existing adenoma, a relatively common lesion, other differential diagnoses acting as 'lead points' ought to be considered in perspective. This characteristic, along with other features described in this case, is useful knowledge for colorectal surgeons, general surgeons, gastrointestinal pathologists, and gastroenterologists given their involvement in the diagnosis and management of anorectal disease of peculiar presentation.

  4. Precipitous intussusception with anal protrusion and complete overt rectal prolapse presenting with intestinal obstruction and an associated rectal adenoma in a young man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal obstruction secondary to intussusception, occurring simultaneously with complete rectal prolapse, is an unusual entity among young adults. When it occurs the intussusceptum may protrude per anus. Few cases are cited in literature; each with a unique clinical presentation. There is apparently no uniform trend in its clinical and pathological picture. Case presentation A 38-year-old, African-Ugandan man presented with sudden occurrence of rectal prolapse for one day. He had otherwise been in good health. Symptoms were precipitous. A clinical diagnosis of intussusception of the lower gut with rectal prolapse, and intestinal obstruction, was made. The intussusception was found to have a polyp as the ‘lead point’. He was treated by manual reduction of the intussusception and the prolapse under general anesthesia. Histopathologic examination of the polyp showed it to be an adenoma. Definitive surgical treatment of the patient was not completed due to socioeconomic challenges. Conclusions Rectal prolapse and intussusception are commonly childhood conditions. Rectal prolapse alone is commoner in the middle-aged and elderly; females in particular. The finding of this combined clinical entity in a young, adult male is therefore a unique condition with an unusual presentation. It is the first case of its kind reported in East Africa. It is also an example of an adenoma constituting a ‘lead point’ for an intussusception at the gastrointestinal tract’s terminus. Even in the presence of a pre-existing adenoma, a relatively common lesion, other differential diagnoses acting as ‘lead points’ ought to be considered in perspective. This characteristic, along with other features described in this case, is useful knowledge for colorectal surgeons, general surgeons, gastrointestinal pathologists, and gastroenterologists given their involvement in the diagnosis and management of anorectal disease of peculiar presentation. PMID:24093478

  5. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS): new treatment for early rectal cancer and large rectal polyps—experience of an Italian center.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Riccardo; Muzi, Gallinella Marco; Massimo, Massimo Meucci; Masoni, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique for excision of rectal tumors that avoids conventional pelvic resectional surgery along with its risks and side effects. Although appealing, the associated cost and complex learning curve limit TEM use by colorectal surgeons. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has emerged as an alternative to TEM. This platform uses ordinary laparoscopic instruments to achieve high-quality local excision. The aim of the study is to assess reliability of the technique. From July 2012 to August 2013, 15 consecutive patients with rectal pathology underwent TAMIS. After a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port was introduced into the anal canal, a pneumorectum was established with a laparoscopic device followed by transanal excision with conventional laparoscopic instruments, including graspers, electrocautery, and needle drivers. Patient demographics, operative data, and pathologic data were recorded. Of the 15 patients, 10 had rectal cancers (six T1 lesions and four T2 after preoperative chemoradiotherapy). The remainder of patients had a local excision for voluminous benign rectal adenomas. The median length of the lesions from the anal verge was 7 cm (range, 4 to 20 cm). The median operating time was 86 minutes (range, 33 to 160 minutes). There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. The median postoperative hospital stay was two days (range, 1 to 4 days). TAMIS seems to be a feasible and safe treatment option for early rectal cancer. We believe that this new technique is easy to perform, cost-effective, and less traumatic to the anal sphincter compared with traditional TEM.

  6. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Delayed Endoluminal Vacuum Therapy for Rectal Anastomotic Leaks after Rectal Resection in a Swine Model: A New Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A.; Mauro, David M.; Mentrikoski, Mark J.; Feldman, Sanford H.; Kleiner, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high‐risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early‐treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

  8. A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Duru, Chika O; Akinbami, Felix O; Orimadegun, Adebola E

    2012-06-25

    Tympanic thermometry has come as a suitable alternative to traditional thermometry because of its safety and ease of use. However, it is still yet to gain wide acceptance in African settings due to conflicting results on its accuracy, thus rectal thermometry remains the gold standard in the newborn. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. Rectal and tympanic temperatures were measured simultaneously in 300 consecutive term neonates between the ages of 37 and 42 weeks gestation using mercury-in-glass and the Infrared tympanic thermometers respectively. Paired t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Using rectal thermometry as gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of tympanic thermometry at various rectal temperature cut-offs were determined. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were constructed and the Areas Under the Curves (AUC) were compared. The mean rectal temperature (37.34±0.55°C) was significantly higher than the mean tympanic temperature (37.25 ± 0.56°C) (p<0.001) with a mean difference of 0.09 °C±0.24 °C (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12). There was a strong positive correlation between the two measurements (r=0.9; p<0.001). Tympanic thermometry showed sensitivities ranging from 65% to 86% and specificities of 95% to 99% at rectal temperature cut-offs of 37.5°C to 38°C. The positive and negative predictive values of the tympanic temperatures at the various temperature cut-offs ranged from 82% to 93% and 80% to 98% respectively. Accuracy was noted to increase with higher temperatures as shown by the Receiver Operating Curves with the highest accuracy at the temperature cut-off of 38°C and AUC of 0.91. The sensitivity of tympanic thermometry was relatively low in detecting rectal temperatures despite the good correlation and agreement between them. The specificities and predictive values of tympanic temperatures in

  9. Laparoscopic-Assisted Altemeier’s Procedure for Recurrent Strangulated Rectal Prolapse: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameen, Wael M.; Privitera, Antonio; Al-Ayed, Amal; Sabr, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 39 Final Diagnosis: Recurrent strangulated rectal prolapse Symptoms: Chronic constipation • painful rectal mass • irreducible rectal prolapse Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Operation Specialty: Surgery Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Rectal prolapse is an uncommon disease that usually requires surgical intervention. Several techniques have been described with either an abdominal or perineal approach, the latter having a higher recurrence rate. In case of irreducible and strangulated full-thickness prolapse, a perineal approach is necessary, and efforts should be made to reduce recurrence rates. Case Report: A 39-year-old mentally retarded woman presented with a painful, recurrent, strangulated sigmoid prolapse following a perineal recto-sigmoidectomy (Altemeier’s procedure) for strangulated rectal prolapse 2 months previously. Examination revealed a 10-cm strangulated, prolapsed sigmoid. A laparoscopic-assisted perineal sigmoid resection with colo-anal anastomosis was carried out. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. Conclusions: This is the second report in the literature highlighting the role of laparoscopy in Altemeier’s procedure for strangulated prolapse. Laparoscopy aids assessment of sigmoid length, allows colonic mobilization, and assures that all redundant bowel is excised. This approach can reduce recurrence rate and need of further surgical interventions. PMID:27811832

  10. Extralevator abdominoperineal excision versus conventional surgery for low rectal cancer: a single surgeon experience

    PubMed Central

    Neşşar, Gürel; Demirbağ, Ali Eba; Celep, Bahadır; Elbir, Orhan Hayri; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    Objective Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) reduces the risk of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) and of intraoperative perforation (IOP), both of which are associated with high local recurrence rates and poor survival outcomes for rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the results of ELAPE with conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE) for low rectal cancer. Material and Methods A total of 25 consecutive patients underwent ELAPE for low rectal cancer between November 2008 and September 2011. Fifty-six patients treated by conventional APE prior to 2008 were selected from our rectal cancer database for comparison as a historical cohort. Results The mean follow-up was 44.7 months in the ELAPE group, and 70.6 months in the APE group. Patients undergoing ELAPE had a lower CRM positivity and IOP rate than APE (12% vs. 20%, p=0,531; 4% vs. 8,9%, p=0,826; respectively). The ELAPE group was associated with higher perineal wound complications than the APE group (16.0% vs. 1.8%, p=0.030). Local recurrence rates for patients in both groups did not differ significantly (4.0% vs. 3.6%, p=1.0). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that ELAPE technique was associated with less CRM involvement and reduced rates of IOP but markedly higher rates of postoperative perineal complications occurred as compared to conventional surgery. ELAPE must be reserved for advanced low rectal cancers. PMID:28149119

  11. Optimization of collimator parameters to reduce rectal dose in intensity-modulated prostate treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chapek, Julie . E-mail: Julie.chapek@hci.utah.edu; Tobler, Matt; Toy, Beau J.; Lee, Christopher M.; Leavitt, Dennis D.

    2005-01-01

    The inability to avoid rectal wall irradiation has been a limiting factor in prostate cancer treatment planning. Treatment planners must not only consider the maximum dose that the rectum receives throughout a course of treatment, but also the dose that any volume of the rectum receives. As treatment planning techniques have evolved and prescription doses have escalated, limitations of rectal dose have remained an area of focus. External pelvic immobilization devices have been incorporated to aid in daily reproducibility and lessen concern for daily patient motion. Internal immobilization devices (such as the intrarectal balloon) and visualization techniques (including daily ultrasound or placement of fiducial markers) have been utilized to reduce the uncertainty of intrafractional prostate positional variation, thus allowing for minimization of treatment volumes. Despite these efforts, prostate volumes continue to abut portions of the rectum, and the necessary volume expansions continue to include portions of the anterior rectal wall within high-dose regions. The addition of collimator parameter optimization (both collimator angle and primary jaw settings) to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows greater rectal sparing compared to the use of IMRT alone. We use multiple patient examples to illustrate the positive effects seen when utilizing collimator parameter optimization in conjunction with IMRT to further reduce rectal doses.

  12. Is endoscopic ultrasonography essential for endoscopic resection of small rectal neuroendocrine tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Bum; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Hyeong Seok

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the importance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for small (≤ 10 mm) rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) treatment. METHODS Patients in whom rectal NETs were diagnosed by endoscopic resection (ER) at the Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital between 2008 and 2014 were included in this study. A total of 120 small rectal NETs in 118 patients were included in this study. Histologic features and clinical outcomes were analyzed, and the findings of endoscopy, EUS and histology were compared. RESULTS The size measured by endoscopy was not significantly different from that measured by EUS and histology (r = 0.914 and r = 0.727 respectively). Accuracy for the depth of invasion was 92.5% with EUS. No patients showed invasion of the muscularis propria or metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. All rectal NETs were classified as grade 1 and demonstrated an L-cell phenotype. Mean follow-up duration was 407.54 ± 374.16 d. No patients had local or distant metastasis during the follow-up periods. CONCLUSION EUS is not essential for ER in the patient with small rectal NETs because of the prominent morphology and benign behavior. PMID:28373770

  13. Unusual cause of 55 years of rectal bleeding: hemolymphangioma (a case report)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Zhu, Junfeng; Lu, Xiaofang; Chang, Dandan; Li, Xiuhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hemolymphangioma is a rare developmental error of combined blood and lymphatic vasculature. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one case of rectal hemolymphangioma reported in Pubmed. Our case probably is the first reported rectal hemolymphangioma with computed tomography (CT) evaluation. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 57-year-old male was presented to our hospital with 55 years of long history of episodic rectal bleeding. Past medical history showed numerous hospital visits for similar illness. Multiple diagnoses were made and different treatment modalities were applied for his benefit, but none of them relieved the symptoms permanently. He was then referred to our hospital. On admission, he was presented with intermediate rectal bleeding of fresh blood. CT examination showed isodense homogenous rectal wall thickening with heterogeneous enhancement on contrast examination. Multiple calcifications were seen in and around the lesion. Interventions and outcomes: He underwent open abdominal surgery with total surgical excision of the lesion. Post-surgical histopathological examination of excised specimen showed submucosal multiple thin-walled vessel of varying size, some consistent with blood vessel and other with lymph vessel, thus diagnosis of hemolymphangioma was made. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Lessions: Hemolymphangioma is a benign developmental lesion. Radiological findings can be challenging and range from benign cystic lesion to aggressive lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, combined clinical history, radiological findings, and continuous follow-up can help make proper diagnosis and provide prompt and accurate treatment. PMID:28272235

  14. Nitrates in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and rectal cancer development has been inconclusive. A matched case-control and nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between mortality attributed to rectal cancer and drinking-water nitrate exposure in Taiwan. All deaths due to rectal cancer of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2003 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios for rectal cancer death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water, as compared to the lowest tertile, were 1.22 (0.98-1.52) and 1.36 (1.08-1.70), respectively. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of nitrates in drinking water in the etiology of rectal cancer in Taiwan.

  15. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-14

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer.

  16. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimal