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Sample records for rectal sucralfate suspension

  1. Sucralfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... located in first part of the small intestine). Treatment with other medications, such as antibiotics, may also be necessary to treat and prevent the return of ulcers caused by a certain type of bacteria (H. pylori) Sucralfate is in a class of medications called ...

  2. The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.B.; Wong, F.L.W. )

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

  4. A study of the effect of certain formulation variables on the mucoadhesive properties of per oral sucralfate suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrozsi, Douglas Joseph

    1999-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on the ability of a suspension of the material sucralfate to be triggered to gel by components of the gastrointestinal fluid and in so doing, act as an in situ gelling mucoadhesive liquid. The particle size and type of sucralfate raw material, suspension pH, ionic strength, and presence of the humectant suspension aid glycerin were studied. Sucralfate materials were prepared in sizes ranging from under 50 nanometers up to 60 microns. Included were conventional powders, and a gel form prepared by controlled precipitation from acid solution. Sucralfate zero point of charge was determined by titration to be pH 4.8--4.9 for powder, and 5--5.3 for gel. The gel was found to exist as aggregates of a relatively uniform, spherical, nanoparticulate colloidal sol with particle size in the range of 50 to 400 nanometers. The aggregates could be disrupted by high pressure homogenization so that individual colloidal particles could be detected in water dispersion. Rheologic and mucoadhesion evaluations of suspensions were conducted. Models were established for in vitro mucoadhesion by rheologic synergism with mucin, and for mucosal coating and retention on rat esophagus ex vivo. Experiments with marketed sucralfate suspensions indicated that rheologic synergism with gastric mucin correlated with ex vivo mucoretention and agreed directionally with published human mucoretention. Aqueous suspension viscosity was found to be increased by KCl, by increasing sucralfate concentration, and for the gel by adjusting pH near the zero point of charge. Viscosity also increased with decreasing sucralfate particle size but rheologic synergism did not correlate with particle size. Glycerin increased rheologic synergism with mucin. Suspension viscosity and rheologic synergism were much greater under all conditions for sucralfate gel suspensions than for sucralfate powder suspensions. Disruption of gel

  5. Sucralfate in the treatment and prevention of gastric ulcer: multicentre double blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, A L; Bethge, H; Bode, J C; Domschke, W; Feurle, G; Hackenberg, K; Hammer, B; Hüttemann, W; Jung, M; Kachel, G

    1990-01-01

    A randomised controlled multicentre trial was performed in 160 patients with gastric ulcer, proved by endoscopy and biopsy, to compare ulcer healing with sucralfate and ranitidine (double blind double dummy design) and to assess the effect of maintenance treatment with sucralfate on ulcer recurrence (double blind placebo controlled design). The healing rates were similar with 4 g sucralfate suspension per day and 300 mg ranitidine per day (82% and 88% after 12 weeks, respectively). Of the 109 patients with healed ulcers, 92 were entered into the maintenance trial and treated with sucralfate tablets (2 g per day) or placebo tablets. Maintenance treatment with sucralfate delayed symptoms of gastric ulcer recurrence. Lifetable analysis showed significant differences between sucralfate and placebo, both after six months (p = 0.018) and after 12 months (p = 0.044). The rates of symptom recurrences were 13% and 34% after six months and 34% and 55% after 12 months for sucralfate and placebo, respectively. The rate of asymptomatic recurrences after 12 months was similar in the two groups (9% and 10%, respectively). The recurrence rate was higher in patients who had never taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than in those who had but had stopped on admission to the study. It was also higher in patients with recurrent ulcer and in those with scarring deformation and narrowing of the pylorus. Maintenance treatment with sucralfate slowed the appearance of symptom recurrences of gastric ulcer. PMID:2196208

  6. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  7. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  8. Chemical aspects of labeling sucralfate with /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Billinghurst, M.W.; Abrams, D.N.; Lawson, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Two formulations of (/sup 99m/Tc)sucralfate have been used to image gastric and duodenal ulcers and inflammatory bowel disease. One formulation is a complexation of (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA with sucralfate. The second is prepared by directly labeling sucralfate with (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate in the presence of stannous ion. An in vitro study of the factors affecting the production and stability of these labeled sucralfate preparations was conducted. Both formulations were stable at the acidic pH likely encountered in the stomach. However, at pH greater than 6 the albumin-sucralfate complex began to dissociate while directly labeled sucralfate was stable to a pH of 9. Conversely it was shown that directly labeled sucralfate was more susceptible to loss of /sup 99m/Tc to other chelating species. Sucralfate complexed with (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA was radiochemically stable up to a specific activity of 26 GBq (700 mCi) per gram while directly labeled sucralfate showed decreased 24-hr stability at specific activities greater than 837 mCi (31 GBq) per gram.

  9. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  10. Gastric ulcer localization by direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, A.; Seevers, R.H.; Meyer, K.; Hall, C.; Bekerman, C.; Anderson, T.M.; Katzen, H.; Laakso, L.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1985-09-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a new procedure for imaging gastric ulcer disease with technetium 99m - labeled sucralfate. The new method employs direct in vivo labeling of sucralfate instead of in vitro labeling using human serum albumin, as previously reported in the literature. In 26 studies using humans with sucralfate labeled directly in vivo, 15 gave true-negative results. Of 14 studies using humans with in vitro labeled sucralfate, three gave true-negative results, three gave true-positive results, and the results of eight were either false-negative or could not be interpreted because of high levels of activity remaining in the stomach. They suggest that the direct in vivo labeling method significantly improves the sucralfate gastric ulcer imaging technique.

  11. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  12. Morphine Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    Rectal morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Rectal morphine comes as a suppository to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted every 4 hours. Use ...

  13. Novel self-assembled mesalamine-sucralfate complexes: preparation, characterization, and formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Ispas-Szabo, Pompilia; Friciu, Mihaela Maria; Nguyen, Phuong; Dumoulin, Yves; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Two well-known active agents, mesalamine (MES) and sucralfate (SUC), were investigated for possible utilization as fixed-dose combination product. The anti-inflammatory action of MES in association with bioadhesiveness and mucosal healing properties of SUC were considered promising for the development of a new compound containing both molecules, aimed as an improved treatment of ulcerative colitis. The present study investigates the capacity of the two active agents to interact and generate a new and stable entity via self-assembling. Spray-drying was used to co-process the two active principles from an aqueous mixture where the ratio MES:SUC was in the range 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25. The structural data (X-Ray, FTIR, SEM, DSC, and (1)H NMR) have shown that MES and SUC are interacting leading to complexes with properties differing from those of each separate active agent and from their physical blends. (1)H NMR results indicated that complexation occurred when the aqueous suspensions of drugs were mixed, prior to spray-drying. Drug-drug self-assembling was the driving mechanism in the formation of the new entity. Based on the structural data, a hypothetical structure of the complex was proposed. Co-processing of MES and SUC represents a simple and useful procedure to prepare new self-assembled compounds by valorizing the ionic interactions between the two entities. Preliminary studies with oral solid dosage forms based on MES-SUC complexes tested in vitro have shown a controlled MES release, opening the perspective of a new colon-targeted delivery system and a novel class of compounds with therapeutic application in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26574144

  14. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy: clinical results with antacids and sucralfate.

    PubMed

    Lazzaroni, M; Sainaghi, M; Bianchi Porro, G

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of antacids in the short- and long-term treatment of peptic ulcers, has suggested a possible use in the prevention and in the treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug related gastroduodenal lesions. In short-term prevention studies, significant protection against ASA-related lesions was observed when antacids at high-dose were given before the administration of the offending drug. To the contrary, antacids at low dose did not prevent ASA-induced lesions of gastric and duodenal mucosa. As for long-term prophylaxis, no clinical effect was observed. In the treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related mucosal lesions in patients who were able to discontinue the offending drugs, antacids proved of some use, when compared with placebo, but were significantly less effective than H2 blockers, as cimetidine. Sucralfate is an effective antiulcer drug thought to provide cytoprotective action. Although initial studies utilizing sucralfate for protection against short-term aspirin administration were encouraging, longer term studies (more than 7 days) were generally disappointing. A comparative study with misoprostol demonstrated that the PGE1 analogue was far superior for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcers, and that ulceration rates in the sucralfate group were equivalent to rates in the placebo group. As far as the treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related mucosal lesions is concerned, sucralfate proved superior to placebo, similar to ranitidine, but significantly less effective than omeprazole.

  15. Rectal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The rectum is the lower part of your large intestine where your body stores stool. Problems with rectum are common. They include hemorrhoids, abscesses, incontinence and cancer. Many people are embarrassed to talk about rectal ...

  16. Mesalamine Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    Rectal mesalamine is used to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in the lining of the colon [large intestine] and rectum), proctitis (swelling in the rectum), and ...

  17. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  18. Sucralfate and Lidocain: Antacid 50:50 solution in Post Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Kadir, Ehsan; Aijaz, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of pain relief of Sucralfate and lidocain antacid 50:50 solution in post esophageal variceal band ligation pain. Methods: All patients who had under gone Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation (EVBL) were included in the study. Patients un-willing to be included in the study or those who didn’t have post EVBL pain were excluded. Patients with post EVBL pains were divided into two groups: one group was given sucralfate and other was given lidocaine: antacid 50:50 solution. Both were inquired about the duration of the pain relief after the medication. The results were analyzed on SPSS 23. Independent samples T-test was performed to find out whether the difference in duration of pain relief was significantly different in the two groups Results: Out of 110 patients who have EVBL, 66(60.00%) had pain and 44(40.00%) were pain free. In the pain group 46 (69.7%) were given sucralfate and 20 (30.3%) were given lidocain: antacid 50:50 solution. Mean duration of pain relief in two groups was 2.78 (SD ± 2.096) and 2.5 days (SD ±. 0.76) respectively. Independent samples T-test results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the duration of pain relief between these two groups with p value 0.426. Conclusion: Both Sucralfate and Lidocain: antacid 50:50 solutions are effective in relieving the post EVBL pain. However, no statistically significant difference in duration of pain relief was detected in separate groups of patients treated with either treatment.

  19. Sucralfate and Lidocain: Antacid 50:50 solution in Post Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Kadir, Ehsan; Aijaz, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of pain relief of Sucralfate and lidocain antacid 50:50 solution in post esophageal variceal band ligation pain. Methods: All patients who had under gone Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation (EVBL) were included in the study. Patients un-willing to be included in the study or those who didn’t have post EVBL pain were excluded. Patients with post EVBL pains were divided into two groups: one group was given sucralfate and other was given lidocaine: antacid 50:50 solution. Both were inquired about the duration of the pain relief after the medication. The results were analyzed on SPSS 23. Independent samples T-test was performed to find out whether the difference in duration of pain relief was significantly different in the two groups Results: Out of 110 patients who have EVBL, 66(60.00%) had pain and 44(40.00%) were pain free. In the pain group 46 (69.7%) were given sucralfate and 20 (30.3%) were given lidocain: antacid 50:50 solution. Mean duration of pain relief in two groups was 2.78 (SD ± 2.096) and 2.5 days (SD ±. 0.76) respectively. Independent samples T-test results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the duration of pain relief between these two groups with p value 0.426. Conclusion: Both Sucralfate and Lidocain: antacid 50:50 solutions are effective in relieving the post EVBL pain. However, no statistically significant difference in duration of pain relief was detected in separate groups of patients treated with either treatment. PMID:27648035

  20. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Haghighat, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can be unsatisfactory. Some treatment protocols for SRUS include conservative management such as family reassurance, regulation of toilet habits, avoidance of straining, encouragement of a high-fiber diet, topical treatments with salicylate, sulfasalazine, steroids and sucralfate, and surgery. In children, SRUS is relatively uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases, however, it is being reported more than in the past. This condition in children is benign; however, morbidity is an important problem as reflected by persistence of symptoms, especially rectal bleeding. In this review, we discuss current diagnosis and treatment for SRUS. PMID:23236227

  1. Prevention of ethanol-induced vascular injury and gastric mucosal lesions by sucralfate and its components: possible role of endogenous sulfhydryls

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Brown, A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that sucralfate, which contains eight sulfate and aluminum molecules on a sucrose and its other components might decrease ethanol-induced vascular injury and hemorrhagic mucosal lesions through a sulfhydryl (SH)-sensitive process. Experiments performed in rats revealed that the entire sucralfate molecule is not a prerequisite for protection against ethanol-induced mucosal vascular injury and erosions. It appears that sulfate and sucrose octasulfate are potent components of sucralfate, although an equimolar amount of sucralfate is at least twice as effective in gastroprotection than its components. The SH alkylator N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotection by sucralfate, suggesting SH-sensitive process in the mucosal protection which seems to be associated with the prevention of rapidly developing vascular injury in the stomach of rats given ethanol.

  2. Technical considerations in gastric ulcer localization using technetium-99m sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, S.G.; Wcislo, W.J.

    1985-09-01

    After the completion and evaluation of 17 patients studies using technetium-99m-labeled sucralfate for the detection of ulcerated areas, the authors felt that the technical aspects of the studies should be evaluated. The factors for evaluation are: the time the patient is kept fasting; the time the patient is being imaged and rotated for various anatomic views; the technologist time and camera time that are involved in one study; and the cost factor of the testing procedure. Based on the findings of their small sample of patients, the sensitivity of the test is uncertain.

  3. Influence of intravenously administered ciprofloxacin on aerobic intestinal microflora and fecal drug levels when administered simultaneously with sucralfate.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, W A; Ruckdeschel, G; Unertl, K

    1997-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, when given intravenously (i.v.), is secreted in significant amounts via the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. Sucralfate inhibits the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin. The effect of combined therapy on the intestinal flora was investigated in 16 healthy volunteers. They were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received 2 g of sucralfate orally three times a day for 7 days and 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. twice a day (b.i.d.) starting 3 days after the sucralfate administration began. Group B was given only 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. b.i.d. for 4 days. A total of 9 stool samples were collected from each subject beginning the week before ciprofloxacin was administered and on days -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 or 11 after commencement of the infusion period. The aerobic fecal flora was determined by standard microbiological methods. Measurements of fecal ciprofloxacin levels were based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Counts of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae decreased in all subjects and were below 10(2) CFU/g in eight of eight subjects (group A) and six of eight subjects (group B) on day 4, but they returned to normal in all but one subject (group A) 10 days after the last infusion. The decreases in levels of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not significantly different in groups A and B (Kaplan-Meier test). Staphylococci and nonfermenters responded variably, enterococci and lactobacilli remained unchanged, and candida levels increased transiently in four subjects (two in each group). Maximum fecal drug levels ranged from 251 to 811 microg/g. No significant difference could be found between the two groups. The i.v. application of ciprofloxacin eliminates intestinal bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in a rapid and selective manner. This effect is not affected by simultaneous oral application of sucralfate. PMID:9257749

  4. The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157, H2-blockers, omeprazole and sucralfate on new vessels and new granulation tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Anic, T; Buljat, G; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Pigac, B; Hanzevacki, M; Marovic, A; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Zoricic, I; Ziger, T; Aralica, G; Konjevoda, P; Prkacin, I; Gjurasin, M; Miklic, P; Artukovic, B; Tisljar, M; Bratulic, M; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I

    1999-12-01

    A clear protection of the gastrointestinal tract and an evident anti-inflammatory effect were shown for a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (i.p./i.g.) in comparison with several reference standards in various ulcer models along with a protection of endothelium and particular interaction with the NO-system. Thus, we evaluated whether this pentadecapeptide along with other gastroprotective agents could affect angiogenesis and the healing process in vivo using a procedure initially described by Szabo and co-workers. In each rat, two sterile sponges (1 x 1 x 0.25 cm; V = 0.25 mL) with the same quantities of BPC 157 (10 ng x mL(-1), 10 microg x mL(-1), 50 microg x kg(-1)) or reference agents (cimetidine: 10, 100, 500 mg x mL(-1); ranitidine: 2.5, 25, 250 mg x mL(-1); famotidine: 10, 50, 100 mg x mL(-1); omeprazole: 10, 50, 100 mg x mL(-1); sucralfate: 1, 5, 10 mg x mL(-1) were implanted subcutaneously in the lumbar region. The sponges were removed after 3 or 7 d, fixed in formalin, and processed for histologic and histochemical evaluation and morphometry assessment. Compared with the control values, the number of newly formed endothelial spaces inside newly formed granulation tissue was markedly increased in all animals treated with BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, sucralfate and omeprazole, a consistent finding noted after either 3 or 7 d. Compared with control values, markedly more granulation tissue was noted in the rats in the groups of animals treated with BPC 157 (50 microg) and in the rats treated with sucralfate in all dosages used, euthanized after 3 d. In all groups treated with H2-blockers however, similar values to those of controls were noted. Thus, it could be concluded that an evident angiogenic property was consistently noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, H2-blockers (cimetidine, famotidine and ranitidine) and omeprazole, besides the well known angiogenic effect of sucralfate. Furthermore, unlike H2-blockers and omeprazole

  5. Validation of binding of SE-75 labeled sucralfate to sites of gastrointestinal ulceration

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.H.; Knight, L.C.; Kollman, M.; Krevsky, B.; Pleet, D.; D'Ercole, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1985-05-01

    This study was performed to determine if and for how long sucralfate (SU) binds selectively to sites of gastro-intestinal (GI) ulceration. Se-Su was prepared by sulfating sucrose with tracer Se-75 and precipitating it as the basic Al salt. All patients (pts) had endoscopy to confirm the presence of either: esophagitis (n=5), gastritis (GA) (n=5), gastric ulcers (GU) (n=5), duodenal ulcers (DU) (n=5), or no ulceration (NU) (n=5). Following an overnight fast the pts swallowed 1 gm with 100 ..mu..Ci of Se-SU and were imaged continuously over 24 hours or until no activity remained in the upper GI tract. Pts with GU visually demonstrated focal SU binding at the ulcers for an average of 3.9 +- 1.1 hrs. with a mean GET of 68 +- 25 min. Mean GET for pts with DU was prolonged, 171 +- 63 min, however focal binding at duodenal ulcers was not seen. All pts with GA had diffuse retention of SU in the stomach with a mean GET of 118 +- 34 min. Focal binding of SU at all sites of esophagitis was seen with a T-1/2 of 65 +- 32 min at the ulcerations. In conclusion these data support the theory that the mechanism of ulcer healing with SU is related to its ability to adhere to the ulcer site forming a protective barrier. In addition Se-SU is a potential ulcer imaging agent which can be used to noninvasively assess healing.

  6. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Eren, Eryiğit; Demiralay, Ebru; Işıklar, İclal; Demirağ, Alp; Moray, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction.

  7. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  8. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  9. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever or significant rectal bleeding. Laser or infrared coagulation and sclerotherapy (injection of medicine directly into the ... or if symptoms persist despite rubber band ligation, coagulation or sclerotherapy. What are anal fissures? Tears that ...

  10. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail. PMID:26034724

  11. Bleeding and pneumonia in intensive care patients given ranitidine and sucralfate for prevention of stress ulcer: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Messori, A; Trippoli, S; Vaiani, M; Gorini, M; Corrado, A

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effectiveness of ranitidine and sucralfate in the prevention of stress ulcer in critical patients and to assess if these treatments affect the risk of nosocomial pneumonia. Design Published studies retrieved through Medline and other databases. Five meta-analyses evaluated effectiveness in terms of bleeding rates (A: ranitidine v placebo; B: sucralfate v placebo) and infectious complications in terms of incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (C: ranitidine v placebo; D: sucralfate v placebo; E: ranitidine v sucralfate). Trial quality was determined with an empirical ad hoc procedure. Main outcome measures Rates of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding and nosocomial pneumonia (compared between the two study arms and expressed with odds ratios specific for individual studies and meta-analytic summary odds ratios). Results Meta-analysis A (five studies) comprised 398 patients; meta-analysis C (three studies) comprised 311 patients; meta-analysis D (two studies) comprised 226 patients: and meta-analysis E (eight studies) comprised 1825 patients. Meta-analysis B was not carried out as the literature search selected only one clinical trial. In meta-analysis A ranitidine was found to have the same effectiveness as placebo (odds ratio of bleeding 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 1.70, P=0.46). In placebo controlled studies (meta-analyses C and D) ranitidine and sucralfate had no influence on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia. In comparison with sucralfate, ranitidine significantly increased the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia (meta-analysis E: 1.35, 1.07 to 1.70, P=0.012). The mean quality score in the four analyses (on a 0 to 10 scale) ranged from 5.6 in meta-analysis E to 6.6 in meta-analysis A. Conclusions Ranitidine is ineffective in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients in intensive care and might increase the risk of pneumonia. Studies on sucralfate do not provide conclusive results. These findings are

  12. Long-lasting cytoprotection after pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, sucralfate or cholestyramine application in reflux oesophagitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Jadrijevic, S; Seiwerth, S; Sosa, T; Deskovic, S; Perovic, D; Aralica, G; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagic, V; Turkovic, B; Ziger, T; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Zoricic, I; Sebecic, B; Patrlj, L; Kocman, B; Sarlija, M; Mikus, D; Separovic, J; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklic, P

    1999-12-01

    Recently, the effectiveness of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and other anti-ulcer agents, called 'direct cytoprotection', was evidenced in totally gastrectomized rats duodenum challenged with cysteamine 24 h after surgery, and sacrificed 24 h after ulcerogen application. The further focus was on the possibility that this effect could be seen over a more prolonged period (1, 2, 4 weeks), and in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. oesophagus). After the removal of the stomach, the oesophagus and jejunum were joined by a termino-lateral anastomosis. The animals were euthanized 7, 14 or 28 d after surgery, when oesophagitis was blindly assessed both macroscopically (percentage of ulcerations areas) and microscopically (percentage of areas of ulcers, regeneration and hyperplasia; number of inflammatory cells - polymorphonuclear and mononuclear). Starting 24 h after surgery, the medication was continuously given in the drinking water, in a volume of 12.5 mL/rat daily, until euthanasia at the end of the observation period, i.e. 7, 14, 28 d following surgery. Based on previous experiments, the doses of agents were daily calculated per kg b.w. as follows: BPC 157 125 mg or 125 ng, cholestyramine 2.5 mg, ranitidine 125 mg, sucralfate 725 mg, whereas controls received 72.5 mL x kg(-1) water. In support of these initial findings, and considering gastrectomized acid-free rats as an ideal model for long-term cytoprotective studies as well, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 markedly attenuated termino-lateral oesophagojejunal anastomosis-reflux oesophagitis also over a quite prolonged period. This efficacy was only partly shared by other anti-ulcer agents. After 1-week-old oesophagitis (microscopical assessment), but not after 2 or 4 weeks, less damaged mucosa was noted in rats drinking ranitidine or sucralfate compared to controls. Similar effectiveness was noted for cholestyramine. The obtained results were supported also by inflammatory cell assessment. Compared with control

  13. Rectal Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    The last few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, vaginal microbicides, and treatment as prevention as effective strategies for reducing the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. There has also been significant progress in the development of rectal microbicides. Preclinical non-human primate studies have demonstrated that antiretroviral microbicides can provide significant protection from rectal challenge with SIV or SHIV. Recent Phase 1 rectal microbicide studies have characterized the safety, acceptability, compartmental pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmaco-dynamics (PD) of both UC781 and tenofovir gels. The tenofovir gel formulation used in vaginal studies was not well tolerated in the rectum and newer rectal-specific formulations have been developed and evaluated in Phase 1 studies. The PK/PD data generated in these Phase 1 studies may reduce the risk of advancing ineffective candidate rectal microbicides into late stage development. Tenofovir gel is currently poised to move into Phase 2 evaluation and it is possible that a Phase 2B/3 effectiveness study with this product could be initiated in the next 2–3 years. PMID:23612991

  14. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Rectal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  15. [Laparoscopic rectal resection technique].

    PubMed

    Anthuber, M; Kriening, B; Schrempf, M; Geißler, B; Märkl, B; Rüth, S

    2016-07-01

    The quality of radical oncological operations for patients with rectal cancer determines the rate of local recurrence and long-term survival. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced tumors, a standardized surgical procedure for rectal tumors less than 12 cm from the anus with total mesorectal excision (TME) and preservation of the autonomous nerve system for sexual and bladder function have significantly improved the oncological results and quality of life of patients. The TME procedure for rectal resection has been performed laparoscopically in Germany for almost 20 years; however, no reliable data are available on the frequency of laparoscopic procedures in rectal cancer patients in Germany. The rate of minimally invasive procedures is estimated to be less than 20 %. A prerequisite for using the laparoscopic approach is implicit adherence to the described standards of open surgery. Available data from prospective randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that in the early postoperative phase the generally well-known positive effects of the minimally invasive approach to the benefit of patients can be realized without any long-term negative impact on the oncological results; however, the results of many of these studies are difficult to interpret because it could not be confirmed whether the hospitals and surgeons involved had successfully completed the learning curve. In this article we would like to present our technique, which we have developed over the past 17 years in more than 1000 patients. Based on our experiences the laparoscopic approach can be highly recommended as a suitable alternative to the open procedure. PMID:27277556

  16. Rectal bleeding induced by Dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Bayer, I; Kyzer, S; Creter, D; Lewinski, U H

    1986-02-01

    Nineteen patients treated continuously with Dipyridamole were evaluated for rectal bleeding. Thirteen suffered from overt rectal bleeding and six served as controls. Hemorrhoids were found in all patients. Contact bleeding was found in 16. The bleeding continued despite rubber band ligation, and stopped only on withdrawal of the drug. PMID:3484697

  17. Rethinking Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Frank H.; Collins, Betty J.

    2010-01-01

    The overrepresentation of the Black and Hispanic subgroups in suspension data is a national problem and a troubling issue for schools and school systems across the United States. In Maryland, an analysis of student suspensions by school districts for the 2006-2007 school year revealed disproportionality issues. In 23 of the 24 jurisdictions,…

  18. Rectal cancer: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Claus; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-08-01

    The monolithic approach to apply the same schedule of preoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) to all patients with clinically staged TNM stage II/III rectal cancer need to be questioned. Five randomized trials have been completed to determine if the addition of oxaliplatin to preoperative 5-FU/capecitabine-based CRT offers an advantage compared with single-agent CRT. In contrast to the German CAO/ARO/AIO-04 trial, results from the ACCORD 12, STAR-01, PETACC-6 and NSAPB R-04 trials failed to demonstrate a significant improvement of early or late efficacy endpoints with the addition of oxaliplatin. Most of the phase II trials incorporating cetuximab into CRT reported disappointingly low rates of pCR; the combination of CRT with VEGF inhibition showed encouraging pCR rates but at the cost of increased surgical complications. Novel clinical trials currently address (1) the role of induction and consolidation chemotherapy before or after CRT, (2) minimal or omitted surgery following complete response to CRT, or (3) the omission of radiotherapy for selected patients with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The notion of different multimodal treatment concepts according to tumor stage, location, mesorectal fascia margin status, molecular profiles, tumor response, and patients' preferences becomes increasingly popular and will render the multimodal treatment approach of rectal cancer more risk-adapted. PMID:27644910

  19. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental.

  20. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental. PMID:23584263

  1. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  2. The surgical anatomy of rectocele and anterior rectal wall intussusception.

    PubMed

    Abendstein, B; Petros, P E P; Richardson, P A; Goeschen, K; Dodero, D

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the dynamic anatomical supports of the posterior vaginal wall from the perspective of rectocele and rectal intussusception repair. Two groups of patients were studied. Group 1 (n = 24) with genuine stress incontinence but no major vault prolapse had vagino/proctomyograms and transperineal ultrasound examinations. Group 2 with vaginal vault prolapse, clinical rectoceles and obstructive defecation symptoms (n = 19 had single-contrast defecating proctography before and after posterior-sling surgery. The posterior vaginal wall is suspended between perineal body, which underlies half its length, and uterosacral ligaments, which also support the anterior wall of rectum. Muscle forces stretch the vagina and rectum against the perineal body and uterosacral ligaments, creating shape and strength, like a suspension bridge. Postoperative proctogram studies indicated that anterior rectal wall intussusception has the same etiology as rectocele, deficient recto-vaginal ligamentous support. Repair to uterosacral ligaments and perineal body should be considered with large rectoceles, anterior rectal wall intussusception and obstructive defecation disorders. PMID:18074069

  3. Management of extraperitoneal rectal injuries.

    PubMed

    Bostick, P J; Johnson, D A; Heard, J F; Islas, J T; Sims, E H; Fleming, A W; Sterling-Scott, R P

    1993-06-01

    Twenty-eight consecutive extraperitoneal rectal injuries for a period of 34 months ending in May 1990 were reviewed retrospectively. All injuries were due to penetrating gunshot wounds. The rectal exam was positive in 75% of patients versus 80.8% with proctosigmoidoscopy. All 28 patients had diversion of the fecal stream. Diverting colostomies were performed in 17 patients, Hartmann's colostomies in 7 patients, and proximal loop colostomies in 4 patients. Presacral drainage was used in 25 patients (89.3%). Distal irrigation was performed in 13 patients (46.4%) and primary repair in 9 patients (32.1%). There was one infectious complication (3.6%) and no deaths (0%). Fecal diversion and presacral drainage are the mainstay of therapy for civilian rectal injuries. The importance of distal irrigation of the rectum has not been established. Primary repair of the rectum has no effect on morbidity and mortality.

  4. A rare cause of severe rectal bleeding: solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urganc, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Usta, Merve; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2014-10-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare benign disorder in children which often goes unrecognized or easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases. It usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, and lower abdominal pain. The rectal bleeding varies from a little fresh blood to severe hemorrhage that requires blood transfusion. We report herein a pediatric case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome who admitted to pediatric emergency department with severe rectal bleeding for reminding this rare syndrome.

  5. Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Millet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic – specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate. PMID:22868232

  6. Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment.

    PubMed

    Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic - specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate.

  7. Suspension trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Caroline; Porter, Keith M

    2007-01-01

    Suspension trauma (also known as “harness‐induced pathology” or “orthostatic shock while suspended”) is the development of presyncopal symptoms and loss of consciousness if the human body is held motionless in a vertical position for a period of time. It has been described in experiments of personal fall protection, and has been implicated in causes of death in mountaineering accidents, but it seems neither to be widely known about nor to have been presented to the medical profession. This article highlights the potential existence of suspension trauma and suggests that more robust medical research using modern harnesses and healthy volunteers would be beneficial to assess whether this is purely a theoretical risk. PMID:17384373

  8. Sleeping position and rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S A; Anderson, E S; Lodemore, M; Rawson, D; Wailoo, M P

    1991-08-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and (3) babies the night after diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation, whose temperature rhythms were disturbed. Sleeping in the prone position was not associated with higher rectal temperatures at any time of night in young babies, nor did it exaggerate the disturbance of rectal temperature rhythm after immunisation. In older normal babies the prone position did not disturb rectal temperature in the first part of the night, though prone sleepers warmed a little faster prior to walking, especially in warm conditions. Prone sleepers were, however, born earlier in gestation and tended to be of lower birth weight. Normal babies can therefore thermoregulate effectively whatever their sleeping posture, even in warm conditions, though the prone position may make it slightly more difficult to lose heat. It is difficult to see how the prone position, even interacting with warm conditions, could induce lethal hyperthermia in otherwise normal babies. Perhaps the prone position is associated with other risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.

  9. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  10. [The acute bleeding rectal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Hansen, H

    1985-06-14

    An acute bleeding rectal ulcer was the solitary condition in four patients. The cause of such an ulcer, which always results in heavy arterial bleeding, remains unknown. The source of bleeding is demonstrated by rectoscopy which may at times be difficult because of the large amount of blood in the rectum and the hidden position of the small ulcer. Sclerosing or circumferential suturing of the ulcer provides immediate cessation of bleeding and cure.

  11. Rectal Ischemia Mimicked Tumor Mass

    PubMed Central

    Zikos, Nicolaos; Aggeli, Panagiota; Louka, Evangelia; Pappas-Gogos, George

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic proctitis is a rare disease which is usually encountered in elderly with comorbidities. We present a case of an 80-year old man with severe coronary disease who presented with severe hematochezia and hypotension. Endoscopy revealed a rectal mass 3-4 cm above the dental line and rectosigmoid mucosal inflammation compatible with ischemic colitis. The rectal insult was so intense that it resembled a neoplasmatic lesion. We discuss the causes, the prognostic factors, and the clinical and therapeutic challenges of this rare, albeit life-threatening entity, and we review the relative literature. A percentage of 10%–20% of patients with ischemic colitis usually have a distal potentially obstructing lesion or disorder such as cancer, diverticulitis or fecal impaction. Ischemic colitis, when mucosal and submucosal edema is severe and hemorrhagic nodules are large enough, can mimic a neoplasmatic lesion. The best treatment approach is a conservative management initially with a close clinical followup and after stabilization a repetition of rectal endoscopy with new biopsies. Early recognition of this clinical entity is of paramount importance to implement appropriate therapy (conservative or surgical) and avoid potentially fatal treatment of presumed inflammatory or infectious bowel diseases. PMID:24109523

  12. Optimizing Treatment for Rectal Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Hrabe, Jennifer; Gurland, Brooke

    2016-09-01

    Rectal prolapse is associated with debilitating symptoms and leads to both functional impairment and anatomic distortion. Symptoms include rectal bulge, mucous drainage, bleeding, incontinence, constipation, tenesmus, as well as discomfort, pressure, and pain. The only cure is surgical. The optimal surgical repair is not yet defined though laparoscopic rectopexy with mesh is emerging as a more durable approach. The chosen approach should be individually tailored, taking into account factors such as presence of pelvic floor defects and coexistence of vaginal prolapse, severe constipation, surgical fitness, and whether the patient has had a previous prolapse procedure. Consideration of a multidisciplinary approach is critical in patients with concomitant vaginal prolapse. Surgeons must weigh their familiarity with each approach and should have in their armamentarium both perineal and abdominal approaches. Previous barriers to abdominal procedures, such as age and comorbidities, are waning as minimally invasive approaches have gained acceptance. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is one such approach offering relatively low morbidity, low recurrence rates, and good functional improvement. However, proficiency with this procedure may require advanced training. Robotic rectopexy is another burgeoning approach which facilitates suturing in the pelvis. Successful rectal prolapse surgeries improve function and have low recurrence rates, though it is important to note that correcting the prolapse does not assure functional improvement. PMID:27582654

  13. An Unusual Cause of Rectal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Maja; Füglistaler, Ida; Zettel, Andreas; Fox, Mark; Manz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign disease that is often misdiagnosed. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms, endoscopic findings and histology. Patients present with constipation, rectal bleeding, mucous discharge, pain and a sensation of incomplete defecation. There are many different manifestations of this disease, with or without rectal prolapse. We report an unusual presentation of SRUS as a circular stenosis in a middle-aged male.

  14. Chemoradiotherapy response in recurrent rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stanley K T; Bhangu, Aneel; Tait, Diana M; Tekkis, Paris; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Brown, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in recurrent versus primary rectal cancer has not been investigated. We compared radiological downsizing between primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT and determined the optimal size reduction threshold for response validated by survival outcomes. The proportional change in tumor length for primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT was compared using the independent sample t-test. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier product limit method and differences between survival for tumor size reduction thresholds of 30% (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors [RECIST]), 40%, and 50% after CRT in primary and recurrent rectal cancer groups. A total of 385 patients undergoing CRT were analyzed, 99 with recurrent rectal cancer and 286 with primary rectal cancer. The mean proportional reduction in maximum craniocaudal length was significantly higher for primary rectal tumors (33%) compared with recurrent rectal cancer (11%) (P < 0.01). There was no difference in OS for either primary or recurrent rectal cancer when ≤30% or ≤40% definitions were used. However, for both primary and recurrent tumors, significant differences in median 3-year OS were observed when a RECIST cut-off of 50% was used. OS was 99% versus 77% in primary and 100% versus 42% in recurrent rectal cancer (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively). Only patients that demonstrated >50% size reduction showed a survival benefit. Recurrent rectal cancer appears radioresistant compared with primary tumors for tumor size after CRT. Further investigation into improving/intensifying chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer is justified. PMID:24403010

  15. Rectal mucocoele following subtotal colectomy for colitis.

    PubMed

    Appleton, N; Day, N; Walsh, C

    2014-09-01

    We present a unique case of a rectal mucocoele affecting a patient several years after his subtotal colectomy for ulcerative colitis. This was secondary to both a benign anorectal stenosis and a benign mucus secreting rectal adenoma. This case highlights the importance of surveillance in such patients.

  16. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  20. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  1. Nonoperative management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Torok, Jordan A; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G; Czito, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Surgery has long been the primary curative modality for localized rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has significantly improved local control rates and, in a significant minority, eradicated all disease. Patients who achieve a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant therapy have an excellent prognosis, although the combination treatment is associated with long-term morbidity. Because of this, a nonoperative management (NOM) strategy has been pursued to preserve sphincter function in select patients. Clinical and radiographic findings are used to identify patients achieving a clinical complete response to chemoradiation, and they are then followed with intensive surveillance. Incomplete, nonresponding and those demonstrating local progression are referred for salvage with standard surgery. Habr-Gama and colleagues have published extensively on this treatment strategy and have laid the groundwork for this approach. This watch-and-wait strategy has evolved over time, and several groups have now reported their results, including recent prospective experiences. Although initial results appear promising, several significant challenges remain for NOM of rectal cancer. Further study is warranted before routine implementation in the clinic.

  2. Evaluation of a rabbit rectal VX2 carcinoma model using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xin-Mei; Tang, Guang-Yu; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Zhou, Bi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish a rabbit rectal VX2 carcinoma model for the study of rectal carcinoma. METHODS: A suspension of VX2 cells was injected into the rectum wall under the guidance of X-ray fluoroscopy. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to observe tumor growth and metastasis at different phases. Pathological changes and spontaneous survival time of the rabbits were recorded. RESULTS: Two weeks after VX2 cell implantation, the tumor diameter ranged 4.1-5.8 mm and the success implantation rate was 81.8%. CT scanning showed low-density foci of the tumor in the rectum wall, while enhanced CT scanning demonstrated asymmetrical intensification in tumor foci. MRI scanning showed a low signal of the tumor on T1-weighted imaging and a high signal of the tumor on T2-weighted imaging. Both types of signals were intensified with enhanced MRI. Metastases to the liver and lung could be observed 6 wk after VX2 cell implantation, and a large area of necrosis appeared in the primary tumor. The spontaneous survival time of rabbits with cachexia and multiple organ failure was about 7 wk after VX2 cell implantation. CONCLUSION: The rabbit rectal VX2 carcinoma model we established has a high stability, and can be used in the study of rectal carcinoma. PMID:19418587

  3. Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-03

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  4. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  5. Rectal Duplication Cyst: A Rare Cause of Rectal Prolapse in a Toddler.

    PubMed

    Khushbakht, Samreen; ul Haq, Anwar

    2015-12-01

    Rectal duplication cysts are rare congenital anomalies. They constitute only 4% of the total gastrointestinal anomalies. They usually present in childhood. The common presenting symptoms are mass or pressure effects like constipation, tenesmus, urinary retention, local infection or bleeding due to presence of ectopic gastric mucosa. We are reporting a rare presenting symptom of rectal duplication cyst in a 4-year-old boy/toddler who presented with rectal prolapse. He also had bleeding per rectum. Rectal examination revealed a soft mass palpable in the posterior rectal wall. CT scan showed a cystic mass in the posterior wall of the rectum. It was excised trans-anally and the postoperative recovery was uneventful. Biopsy report showed rectal duplication cyst. PMID:26691370

  6. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  7. [Ultrasonographic study of rectal carcinoid tumors].

    PubMed

    Nomura, M; Fujita, N; Matsunaga, A; Ando, M; Tominaga, G; Noda, Y; Kobayashi, G; Kimura, K; Yuki, T; Ishida, K; Yago, A; Mochizuki, F; Chonan, A

    1996-11-01

    To compare intraluminal ultrasonographic (ILUS) findings with histological findings of rectal carcinoid tumors, 35 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1) The rectal wall was visualized as a seven- or nine-layer structure by means of ILUS in 81% of the patients. 2) The possibility that the thin hyperechoic third layer above the tumor on ILUS corresponds to the muscularis mucosae and fibrointerstitium above the tumor histologically. 3) In cases with relatively high internal echoes, the amount of fibrointerstitium exceeded that of tumor cells histologically. 4) In cases with nonuniform internal echo patterns, tumor cells were separated by thick fibrointerstitium forming nodular nests.

  8. MRI staging of low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shihab, Oliver C; Moran, Brendan J; Heald, Richard J; Quirke, Philip; Brown, Gina

    2009-03-01

    Low rectal tumours, especially those treated by abdominoperineal excision (APE), have a high rate of margin involvement when compared with tumours elsewhere in the rectum. Correct surgical management to minimise this rate of margin involvement is reliant on highly accurate imaging, which can be used to plan the planes of excision. In this article we describe the techniques for accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment and a novel staging system for low rectal tumours. Using this staging system it is possible for the radiologist to demonstrate accurately tumour-free planes for surgical excision of low rectal tumours. PMID:18810451

  9. The Suspension School: An Alternative to Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; And Others

    A suspension school for secondary students, established in the 1977-78 school year in an Arkansas school district has developed specific program goals and procedures. Following a discussion of the school's origins, this paper describes operating procedures, philosophy, support system, and student reaction. Suspensions declined considerably through…

  10. [Perianal and rectal impalement injuries].

    PubMed

    Joos, A K; Herold, A; Palma, P; Post, S

    2006-09-01

    Perianal impalement injuries with or without involvement of the anorectum are rare. Apart from a high variety of injury patterns, there is a multiplicity of diagnostic and therapeutic options. Causes of perianal impalement injury are gunshot, accidents, and medical treatment. The diagnostic work-up includes digital rectal examination followed by rectoscopy and flexible endoscopy under anaesthesia. We propose a new classification for primary extraperitoneal perianal impalement injuries in four stages in which the extension of sphincter and/or rectum injury is of crucial importance. Therapeutic aspects such as wound treatment, enterostomy, drains, and antibiotic treatment are discussed. The proposed classification encompasses recommendations for stage-adapted management and prognosis of these rare injuries. PMID:16896899

  11. Rectal temperature after marathon running.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B; Thompson, J

    1985-01-01

    Rectal temperature was measured in 62 male runners who competed in the 1983 Dundee marathon race: all measurements were made immediately after the race. Competitors' times were noted at 5, 10, 15 and 20 miles (8.0, 16.1, 24.1, 32.2 km) and at the finish (26.2 miles, 42.2 km). Mean finishing time of the group was 3 hr 33 min +/- 48 min (mean +/- S.D.; range = 2 hr 17 min-5 hr 11 min). Mean running speed of the group decreased progressively as the distance covered increased. Mean post-race rectal temperature was 38.7 +/- 0.9 degrees C (range 35.6-40.3 degrees C). The post-race temperature was correlated (p less than 0.01) with the time taken to cover the last 6.2 miles (10 km) of the race, but not with the overall finishing time (p greater than 0.05). Only the fastest runners were able to maintain an approximately constant pace throughout the race, whereas the slower runners slowed down progressively. The runners with the highest post-race temperature, although not necessarily the fastest runners, also tended to maintain a steady pace throughout. The runners with the lowest post-race temperature slowed down markedly only over the last 6.2 mile section of the race. The results clearly indicate that runners forced by fatigue or injury to slow down in the latter stages of races held at low ambient temperatures may already be hypothermic or at serious risk of hypothermia. Images p192-a p192-b p192-c PMID:4092138

  12. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  13. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  14. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  15. Scrotal cooling increases rectal temperature in man.

    PubMed

    Vash, Peter D; Engels, Thomas M; Kandeel, Fouad R; Greenway, Frank

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scrotal cooling on rectal temperature in man. Pilot studies suggested that immersing the scrotum in a 30 degrees C water bath increased rectal temperature, but immersing the scrotum in a 0 degree C water bath did not. Six healthy young men immersed their scrotums in a 35 degrees C water bath for 11 min followed by 21 min at 30 degrees C. Rectal temperature rose by 0.38 +/- 0.04 degrees C (P < 0.01) in response to the 30 degrees C water bath. Repetition of the study by immersing the hands instead of the scrotum in the water bath had no effect on rectal temperature. The scrotum appears to play a role in human temperature regulation.

  16. Problems in family practice. Rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Graham, J

    1978-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of rectal bleeding problems varies with the urgency of the situation, the age of the patient, and the applicability of available diagnostic methods. Every instance of rectal bleeding is a problem that demands investigation by endoscopic, radiographic, and laboratory means. A physician can be misled by the patient's understatement or underobservance of bleeding. A good history obtained as quickly as possible in urgent circumstances and in great detail under more relaxed circumstances is of immeasurable diagnostic value.

  17. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kokelaar, RF; Evans, MD; Davies, M; Harris, DA; Beynon, J

    2016-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer). Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0) resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. PMID:27785074

  18. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  19. Identification of capsaicin-sensitive rectal mechanoreceptors activated by rectal distension in mice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, N J; Kerrin, A; Singer, C A; Hennig, G W; Gerthoffer, W T; McDonnell, O

    2008-05-01

    Rodents detect visceral pain in response to noxious levels of rectal distension. However, the mechanoreceptors that innervate the rectum and respond to noxious levels of rectal distension have not been identified. Here, we have identified the mechanoreceptors of capsaicin-sensitive rectal afferents and characterized their properties in response to circumferential stretch of the rectal wall. We have also used the lethal spotted (ls/ls) mouse to determine whether rectal mechanoreceptors that respond to capsaicin and stretch may also develop in an aganglionic rectum that is congenitally devoid of enteric ganglia. In wild type (C57BL/6) mice, graded increases in circumferential stretch applied to isolated rectal segments activated a graded increase in firing of slowly-adapting rectal mechanoreceptors. Identical stimuli applied to the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice also activated similar graded increases in firing of stretch-sensitive rectal afferents. In both wild type and aganglionic rectal preparations, focal compression of the serosal surface using von Frey hairs identified mechanosensitive "hot spots," that were associated with brief bursts of action potentials. Spritzing capsaicin (10 microM) selectively onto each identified mechanosensitive hot spot activated an all or none discharge of action potentials in 32 of 56 identified hot spots in wild type mice and 24 of 62 mechanosensitive hot spots in the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice. Each single unit activated by both capsaicin and circumferential stretch responded to low mechanical thresholds (1-2 g stretch). No high threshold rectal afferents were ever recorded in response to circumferential stretch. Anterograde labeling from recorded rectal afferents revealed two populations of capsaicin-sensitive mechanoreceptor that responded to stretch: one population terminated within myenteric ganglia, the other within the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. In the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice, only the

  20. Californium-252 brachytherapy for anal and ano-rectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, B.; Maruyama, Y.; Proudfoot, W.; Malcolm, A.

    1986-01-01

    Surgery has historically been the standard treatment for anal, ano-rectal and rectal carcinoma but is prone to local or regional failure. Over the past 15 years there has been increasing interest in and success with radiation therapy and combined chemoradiotherapy for treatment of anal and ano-rectal cancers. Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with external beam teletherapy has been investigated for anal and ano-rectal lesions at the Univ. of Kentucky with encouraging results.

  1. Stapled transanal rectal mucosectomy ten years after.

    PubMed

    Pescatori, M; Aigner, F

    2007-03-01

    Stapled mucosectomy (SM) was first proposed for the management of patients with rectal internal mucosal prolapse and obstructed defecation, but gained popularity worldwide for the treatment of hemorrhoids. The present review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the operation. SM tends to decrease postoperative pain and shortens convalescence after hemorrhoid surgery, but may be followed by severe complications, e.g. rectal obliteration and pelvic sepsis requiring a diverting stoma, more frequently than after standard hemorrhoidectomy. Moreover it carries a higher recurrence rate in the treatment of fourth-degree piles. A recent Cochrane metaanalysis demonstrated that SM is less effective than standard hemorrhoidectomy since it carries a higher recurrence rate (OR=3.6) and reintervention rate (OR=2.3). When used for rectal mucosal prolapse and obstructed defecation, SM is reported to have variable results. A better outcome is likely to be achieved in patients without anismus and psychoneurosis operated on by specialists trained with this technique.

  2. Management and imaging of low rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Gisella; Daniels, Ian; Heald, R J; Brown, Gina; Moran, B J

    2004-01-01

    Large variations in recurrence rates have been reported with the best results following total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery for low and middle rectal cancers. However, the low rectal cancers still have higher rates of local recurrence (up to 30%) whether operated by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal excision (APE) due to high rates of circumferential margin involvement. The treatment of choice for low rectal cancers that encroach upon the potential circumferential resection margin is surgery combined with preoperative neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative chemotherapy combined with long-term radiotherapy reduces recurrence rates and preoperative loco-regional staging can help to select the patients more likely to benefit from neo-adjuvant therapy. Surface coil MRI is the most promising modality for patient selection, which can provide good views of the circumferential resection margin especially the presence or absence of tumour encroaching the intersphincteric plane. PMID:15572087

  3. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  4. Silicone elastomer sling for rectal prolapse in cats

    PubMed Central

    Corgozinho, Katia Barão; Belchior, Cristiane; de Souza, Heloisa Justen Moreira; Ferreira, Ana Maria; Resende, Carolina; Damico, Brandão; Cunha, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This study reports 2 cases of recurrent rectal prolapse secondary to anal abnormality in cats. In both cases the anus was wide, leading to a rectal mucosal prolapse during defecation. A silicone elastomer sling was introduced around the anus, and the rectal prolapse was definitively resolved. PMID:20676293

  5. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben Youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route.

  6. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route. PMID:27123404

  7. Modelling a Suspension Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Phil

    1991-01-01

    The quadratic function can be modeled in real life by a suspension bridge that supports a uniform weight. This activity uses concrete models and computer generated graphs to discover the mathematical model of the shape of the main cable of a suspension bridge. (MDH)

  8. Research on School Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the nation report increases in the use of punitive disciplinary methods (e.g., suspension). The need for these disciplinary practices to address serious student misconduct is undisputed. What research has questioned is why some students seem to be suspended more often than others, what effects suspension has on students, and whether…

  9. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... dilator is a device designed to dilate the anal sphincter and canal when the size of the anal opening...

  10. Rod Climbing of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Youjing; Wang, Xiaorong

    We wish to report an unexpected effect observed for particle suspensions sucked to pass through a vertical pipe. Above a critical concentration, the suspension on the outside of the pipe may climb along the outside wall of the pipe and then display a surprising rod-climbing effect. Our study shows that the phenomenon is influenced mainly by the suspension composition, the pipe dimension and the suction speed. The effects of the pipe materials of different kinds are negligible. Increasing the suction force and the concentration increases the climbing height. Increasing the pipe diameter and wall thickness reduces the climbing effect. This behavior may be relevant to that the suspensions of the type described are all displaying markedly shear-thickening.

  11. Transanal Evisceration Caused by Rectal Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Torres Sánchez, María Teresa; Richart Aznar, Jose Manuel; Martí Martínez, Eva María; Martínez-Abad, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Transrectal evisceration caused by colorectal injury is an unusual entity. This pathology is more frequent in elderly patients and it is usually produced spontaneously. Rectal prolapse is the principal predisposing factor. An 81-year-old woman was taken to the hospital presenting exit of intestinal loops through the anus. After first reanimation measures, an urgent surgery was indicated. We observed the absence of almost every small intestine loop in the abdominal cavity; these had been moved to the pelvis. After doing the reduction, a 3 to 4 cm linear craniocaudal perforation in upper rectum was objectified, and Hartmann's procedure was performed. We investigated and knew that she frequently manipulate herself to extract her faeces. The fast preoperative management avoided a fatal conclusion or an extensive intestinal resection. Reasons that make us consider rectal self-injury as the etiologic factor are explained. PMID:24639971

  12. The Evaluation of Rectal Bleeding in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Elizabeth; Nicolaidis, Christina; Helfand, Mark

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though primary care patients commonly present with rectal bleeding, the optimal evaluation strategy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare the cost-effectiveness of four diagnostic strategies in the evaluation of rectal bleeding. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov decision model. DATA SOURCES Systematic review of the literature, Medicare reimbursement data, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Registry. TARGET POPULATION Patients over age 40 with otherwise asymptomatic rectal bleeding. TIME HORIZON The patient's lifetime. PERSPECTIVE Modified societal perspective. INTERVENTIONS Watchful waiting, flexible sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by air contrast barium enema (FS+ACBE), and colonoscopy. OUTCOME MEASURES Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for colonoscopy compared with flexible sigmoidoscopy was $5,480 per quality-adjusted year of life saved (QALY). Watchful waiting and FS+ACBE were more expensive and less effective than colonoscopy. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES The cost of colonoscopy was reduced to $1,686 per QALY when age at entry was changed to 45. Watchful waiting became the least expensive strategy when community procedure charges replaced Medicare costs, when age at entry was maximized to 80, or when the prevalence of polyps was lowered to 7%, but the remaining strategies provided greater life expectancy at relatively low cost. The strategy of FS+ACBE remained more expensive and less effective in all analyses. In the remaining sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy compared with flexible sigmoidoscopy never rose above $34,000. CONCLUSIONS Colonoscopy is a cost-effective method to evaluate otherwise asymptomatic rectal bleeding, with a low cost per QALY compared to other strategies. PMID:15693933

  13. MicroRNA in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Azizian, Azadeh; Gruber, Jens; Ghadimi, B Michael; Gaedcke, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    In rectal cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide, the proper staging of the disease determines the subsequent therapy. For those with locally advanced rectal cancer, a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is recommended before any surgery. However, response to CRT ranges from complete response (responders) to complete resistance (non-responders). To date we are not able to separate in advance the first group from the second, due to the absence of a valid biomarker. Therefore all patients receive the same therapy regardless of whether they reap benefits. On the other hand almost all patients receive a surgical resection after the CRT, although a watch-and-wait procedure or an endoscopic resection might be sufficient for those who responded well to the CRT. Being highly conserved regulators of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) seem to be promising candidates for biomarkers. Many studies have been analyzing the miRNAs expressed in rectal cancer tissue to determine a specific miRNA profile for the ailment. Unfortunately, there is only a small overlap of identified miRNAs between different studies, posing the question as to whether different methods or differences in tissue storage may contribute to that fact or if the results simply are not reproducible, due to unknown factors with undetected influences on miRNA expression. Other studies sought to find miRNAs which correlate to clinical parameters (tumor grade, nodal stage, metastasis, survival) and therapy response. Although several miRNAs seem to have an impact on the response to CRT or might predict nodal stage, there is still only little overlap between different studies. We here aimed to summarize the current literature on rectal cancer and miRNA expression with respect to the different relevant clinical parameters. PMID:27190581

  14. [Multidisciplinary treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Faes, Seraina; Gié, Olivier; Demartines, Nicolas; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2016-06-15

    Treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer remains challenging. Preoperative imaging with pelvic MRI allows to identify patients for multimodal treatment including induction chemothe- rapy or neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy and an extended surgical resection. With multidisciplinary approach and an experienced team, excellent oncologic results may be achieved, as well as a good function and quality of life, even with preservation of the anus in the majority of patients. PMID:27487624

  15. Importance of surgical margins in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mukkai Krishnamurty, Devi; Wise, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    Distal resection margin (DRM) and circumferential resection margin (CRM) are two important considerations in rectal cancer management. Although guidelines recommend a 2 cm DRM, studies have shown that a shorter DRM is adequate, especially in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Standardization of total mesorectal excision has greatly improved quality of CRM. Although more patients are undergoing sphincter-saving procedures, abdominoperineal resection is indicated for very distal tumors, and pelvic exenteration is often necessary for tumors involving pelvic organs. PMID:27094456

  16. Acute rectal obstruction after PPH stapled haemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, S.; Pescatori, M.

    2002-09-01

    An unusual case of acute intestinal obstruction following a PPH stapled haemorrhoidectomy is reported: the complication was due to an almost complete interruption of the rectal lumen tightened by a purse-string suture anchored by staples. The stricture was dilated and the suture released thus restoring intestinal continuity. Surgeons should be aware that such troublesome complication may occur and can be treated successfully by a transanal approach.

  17. Spiral rectal valves: Anatomy, eponyms, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Ikard, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    Rectal wall valves are obscure anatomic parts that rarely are considered in current medical practice. Yet from the seminal analysis of them in the early nineteenth century by the Irish anatomist and surgeon, John Houston, their structure, purpose, and clinical significance were topics of surprising disagreement. Were they true structures? What function might they have? Did disease originate in rectal valves? Were special operations required for any such diseases? Because Houston's anatomic analyses of rectal valves were substantiated, they came to be known in the English literature as the Spiral Rectal Valves of Houston. In the mid-nineteenth century, a single mid-rectal valve was described by the Hanoverian, Otto Kohlrausch., creating confusion with the established eponym "Houston's Valves." Many hypotheses about rectal valves have been discredited; and their physiologic functions are still unknown.

  18. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-10

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  19. Rectal Diclofenac Versus Rectal Paracetamol: Comparison of Antipyretic Effectiveness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sarami, Golbahareh; Rangraz, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is the most common complaint in pediatric medicine and its treatment is recommended in some situations. Paracetamol is the most common antipyretic drug, which has serious side effects such as toxicity along with its positive effects. Diclofenac is one of the strongest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, which has received little attention as an antipyretic drug. Objectives This study was designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of the rectal form of Paracetamol and Diclofenac. Patients and Methods This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 children aged six months to six years old. One group was treated with rectal Paracetamol suppositories at 15 mg/kg dose and the other group received Diclofenac at 1 mg/kg by rectal administration (n = 40). Rectal temperature was measured before and one hour after the intervention. Temperature changes in the two groups were compared. Results The average rectal temperature in the Paracetamol group was 39.6 ± 1.13°C, and 39.82 ± 1.07°C in the Diclofenac group (P = 0.37). The average rectal temperature, one hour after the intervention, in the Paracetamol and the Diclofenac group was 38.39 ± 0.89°C and 38.95 ± 1.09°C, respectively (P = 0.02). Average temperature changes were 0.65 ± 0.17°C in the Paracetamol group and 1.73 ± 0.69°C in the Diclofenac group (P < 0.001). Conclusions In the first one hour, Diclofenac suppository is able to control the fever more efficient than Paracetamol suppositories. PMID:26889398

  20. [Rectal cancer in a pregnant woman, a case report].

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Helle Manfeld; Rahr, Hans

    2012-06-25

    A case of disseminated rectal cancer in a 32-year-old pregnant woman is described. Pain was her main complaint, but this had been ascribed to haemorrhoids and treated with topical agents. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer late in the third trimester when her midwife referred her for surgical assessment. Following caesarian section, diagnostic workup showed multiple liver metastases. Rectal cancer in pregnancy is rare, while haemorrhoids are common. We recommend keeping the differential diagnoses in mind and performing a digital rectal examination if pregnant women have anal symptoms.

  1. Case report: Sigmoid strangulation from evisceration through a perforated rectal prolapse ulcer – An unusual complication of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer Z.; Kittmer, Tiffaney; Forbes, Shawn; Ruo, Leyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal prolapse occurs particularly in elder females and presentation can sometimes lead to complications such as strangulation and evisceration of other organs through the necrotic mucosa. Presentation of case This is a case of a 61 year-old female with rectal prolapse complicated by rectal perforation through which a segment of sigmoid colon eviscerated and became strangulated. This patient initially presented with sepsis requiring ICU admission, but fully recovered following a Hartmann’s procedure with a sacral rectopexy. Discussion Complications of rectal prolapse include incarceration, strangulation, and rarely, perforation with evisceration of other viscera requiring urgent operation. This report provides a brief overview of complications associated with rectal prolapse, reviews similar cases of transrectal evisceration, and discusses the management of chronic rectal prolapse. Conclusion Prompt surgical consult is warranted if any signs or symptoms suggestive of complications from prolapse are present. PMID:25680532

  2. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was

  3. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Superconductors, especially high T{sub c} ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO.

  4. [Tyndall's hypochromism in suspensions].

    PubMed

    Vekshin, N L; Frolova, M S; Kovalev, V I; Begunova, E A

    2015-01-01

    Since the passage of light through each individual particle in a suspension includes the competition of processes of absorption and scattering, it leads to hypochromism--a decrease in the extinction coefficient. Such "scattering" hypochromism increases with the particle size and its refractive index. Since the Tyndall's light scattering in suspensions, where the size of each particle is substantially larger with respect to wavelengths of light, is not strongly dependent on the wavelength, the absorption spectrum (and excitation spectrum) attenuated almost uniformly at different wavelengths. A simple method to find true extinction coefficients from the absorption (or excitation) spectra of diluted suspensions (not having multiple light scattering) is suggested. The experimental data on spectra of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, actinomycin in DNA and flavins in mitochondria are given.

  5. Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening Truss; Upper & Lower Decks; Assembled System - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, Claude R. (Editor); Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided.

  7. Clustering in Bubble Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenit, Roberto

    2000-11-01

    A monidisperse bubble suspension is studied experimentally for the limit in which the Weber number is small and the Reynolds number is large. For this regime the suspension can be modeled using potential flow theory to describe the dynamics of the interstitial fluid. Complete theoretical descriptions have been composed (Spelt and Sangani, 1998) to model the behavior of these suspensions. Bubble clustering is a natural instability that arises from the potential flow considerations, in which bubbles tend to align in horizontal rafts as they move upwards. The appearance of bubble clusters was recently corroborated experimentally by Zenit et al. (2000), who found that although clusters did appear, their strength was not as strong as the predictions. Experiments involving gravity driven shear flows are used to explain the nature of the clustering observed in these type of flows. Balances of the bubble phase pressure (in terms of a calculated diffusion coefficient) and the Maxwell pressure (from the potential flow description) are presented to predict the stability of the bubble suspension. The predictions are compared with experimental results.

  8. Keep solids in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Gladki, H.Z.

    1997-10-01

    Mixing is an important operation in the CPI. It is not synonymous with agitation. Mixing is a random distribution into and through one another of two or more initially separate phases. Within that broad definition is the important specialty area of liquid-solid dispersion. This paper addresses the dispersion of solids in lower concentrations that don`t affect the rheological properties of the fluid. The just suspended condition represents the lowest grade of complete suspension, but this level of agitation is the most efficient for solids-liquid agitation. Higher mixing speeds waste energy. Undersized mixers need replacing. The top-entering mixer has a long history in the CPI and the environmental area. Many suspension studies were run with this type. These papers result in empirical correlations for just suspension conditions to scale up from laboratory measurement. Variables considered are the agitation speed, liquid and solids physical properties, solids concentration, system geometry and impeller type. Lately, submersible mixers are becoming more popular, but there are no published sizing methods. This article will explain how to define the critical hydraulic conditions in the tank to reach just solids suspension for a submersible agitator of the type described here as FJFA (Free Jet Flow Agitator).

  9. Stability of Metronidazole Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Ying, James

    2015-01-01

    Metronidazole is an antiprotozoal agent used in the treatment of bacterial and protozoal anaerobic infections. The objectives of this study were to develop concentrated metronidazole suspensions that are inexpensive and easy to prepare and determine the stability of these suspensions after storage in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles at room temperature (23°C) and under refrigeration (5°C). Metronidazole suspensions (50 mg/mL) were prepared from powder using Ora-Blend or simple syrup as the vehicles. Samples were collected in triplicate from each container on days 0, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 93. Samples were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method that had been validated as stability indicating. Color, change in physical appearance, and pH were also monitored at each time interval. There was no apparent change in color or physical appearance. The pH values changed by less than 0.20 units over the 93 days. The stability of metronidazole suspensions compounded from United States Pharmacopeia powder using Ora-Blend or simple syrup and packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles was determined to be 93 days when stored at either room temperature or under refrigeration. PMID:26714365

  10. Alternatives to Student Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, David

    2012-01-01

    Seven years ago, James A. Garfield High School in East Los Angeles set a school record with 613 student suspensions, out of a total enrollment of 5,000 students. The school, made famous by the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver", was no stranger to the high rates of student discipline all too common within the Los Angeles Unified School District.…

  11. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, E.G.D.; Schepper, I.M. de

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  12. Flywheel Magnetic Suspension Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan; Kenny, Andrew; Sifford, Curtiss; Thomas, Erwin; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Provenza, Andrew; Kascak, Albert; Montague, Gerald; Lei, Shuliang; Kim, Yeonkyu; Sun, Guangyoung; Chon, ChonHee; Tucker, Randy; Preuss, Jason; Li, Ming; Minihan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of many areas of the flywheel magnetic suspension (MS) R&D being performed at the Texas A&M Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab (TAMU-VCEL). This includes system response prediction, actuator optimization and redundancy, controller realizations and stages, sensor enhancements and backup bearing reliability.

  13. Crewbot Suspension Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Nathan A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary Surface Robot Work Crews (RWC) represent a new class of construction robots for future deployment in planetary exploration. Rovers currently being used for the RWC platform lack the load carrying capabilities required in regular work. Two new rovers, dubbed CrewBots, being designed in JPL's Planetary Robotics Lab specifically for RWC applications greatly increase the load carrying capabilities of the platform. A major component of the rover design was the design of the rocker type suspension, which increases rover mobility. The design of the suspension for the Crewbots departed from the design of recent rovers. While many previous rovers have used internal bevel gear differentials, the increased load requirements of the Crewbots calls for a more robust system. The solution presented is the use of an external modified three-bar, slider-linkage, rocker-style suspension that increases the moment arm of the differential. The final product is a suspension system capable of supporting the extreme loading cases the RWC platform presents, without consuming a large portion of the Crewbots' internal space.

  14. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  15. Is rectal MRI beneficial for determining the location of rectal cancer with respect to the peritoneal reflection?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Joo; Ryu, Chun Geun; Kim, Gangmi; Kim, Su Ran; Nam, Sang Eun; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Young Jun; Hwang, Dae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background An objective method for determining the location of the cancer with respect to peritoneal reflection would be helpful to decide the treatment modality for rectal cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of rectal MRI to determine spatial relations between the peritoneal reflection and rectal cancer and to compare these with operative findings. Patients and methods Patients that underwent a rectal cancer operation after a rectal MRI check between November 2008 and June 2010 were considered for the study. The patients that received preoperative concurrent chemoradiation or trans-anal local excision were excluded. Results Fifty-four patients constituted the study cohort. By comparing surgical and radiologic findings, the accuracy for predicting tumour location in relation to the peritoneal reflection by rectal MRI in all patients was 90.7%. In terms of tumour location in relation to peritoneal reflection, the accuracy of rectal MRI was 93.5% in patients with a tumour located above the peritoneal reflection, 90.0% in patients with a tumour located on the peritoneal reflection, and 84.6% in patients with a tumour located below the peritoneal reflection (p=0.061). When the cohort was subdivided by gender, body mass index (BMI), operative findings, or tumour size, no significant difference was observed among subgroups. Conclusions Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the relation between rectal cancer and peritoneal reflection especially when tumour size is less than 8cm. Rectal MRI can provide information regarding the location of rectal cancer in relation to the peritoneal reflection for treatment planning purposes. PMID:23411588

  16. "Graciloplasty" in treatment of recurrent complete rectal prolapse: case report.

    PubMed

    Khainga, S O

    2007-08-01

    Gracilis muscle flap was used to treat a seven year old boy with a one year history of recurrent rectal prolapse. Initial perineal surgery in form of Thiersch stitch resulted into failure to control rectal prolapse and damage to anal sphincter. Graciloplasty corrected both problems. PMID:17970009

  17. Why Rectal Douches May Be Acceptable Rectal-Microbicide Delivery Vehicles for MSM

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Mayer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Rationale To explore age of onset of rectal douching among men who have sex with men (MSM) and reasons leading to and maintaining douching behavior; and to consider whether rectal douches containing microbicidal agents might be acceptable for men at HIV risk. Methods In Stage 1, we used qualitative methods to explore douching behavior in a sample of 20 MSM. Subsequently, we developed a structured questionnaire that was administered in Stage 2 to 105 MSM. Results More than half of participants who completed Stage 1 douched during the trial despite having been advised not to do so. Of the 105 HIV uninfected participants in Stage 2, 51% reported using rectal douches in the prior six months; 47% douched before and 25% after anal intercourse. Most participants reported douching frequently or always. On average, men reported douching about two hours prior to or one hour following intercourse. Average age of onset was late 20s. Most men who douched wanted to be clean or were encouraged to douche by their partners. Some men thought douching after sex could prevent STIs. Conclusion Rectal douching appears to be a popular behavior among men who have RAI. It is necessary to identify harmless douches. If HIV/STI preventive douches can be developed, rectal douching prior to or following sexual intercourse could become an important additional prevention tool. To reshape an existing behavior to which some men strongly adhere, like douching, by suggesting use of one type of douche over another may be more successful than trying to convince MSM to engage in behaviors they never practiced before or those they resist (e.g., condom use). PMID:19959973

  18. A new 'enterocompressor' to facilitate rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Barraza, R P

    1990-02-01

    A newly devised enterocompressor facilitates low rectal anastomosis in children with Hirschsprung's disease. This simple surgical instrument, composed of two semicylindrical valves, a hinge, and a regulating screw, maintains intestinal anastomoses properly placed and produces spur crushing. In addition, it is inexpensive and reusable. The enterocompressor, used in 33 primary and 15 secondary Duhamel operations, and applied to normalize intestinal transit in 10 colectomies, provided adequate anastomosis and prevented leakage of intestinal contents. This enterocompressor can be used safely in children as young as six months of age. PMID:2298104

  19. Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Rectal Cancer after Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boustani, J; Caubet, M; Bosset, J-F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this overview was to investigate whether adjuvant chemotherapy has a favourable effect on the outcome of patients with rectal cancer who had preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. A review of randomised clinical trials that allocated patients between fluorouracil-based and observation or between fluorouracil-based and oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy was carried out, including their corresponding meta-analyses. None of the five randomised trials has shown a significant benefit of fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for overall survival or disease-free survival. Also, the three corresponding meta-analyses failed to show a benefit of adjuvant treatment. Of three randomised trials - two phase III and one phase II with a 3-year disease-free survival end point - two showed a small benefit of adding oxaliplatin to fluorouracil, one failed. The corresponding meta-analyses showed that the pooled difference was not significant. In conclusion, the use of postoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin in patients with rectal cancer after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy is not scientifically proven.

  20. Transsacral rectopexy for recurrent complete rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Araki, Y; Isomoto, H; Tsuzi, Y; Matsumoto, A; Yasunaga, M; Yamauchi, K; Hayashi, K; Kodama, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the functional outcome of transsacral rectopexy performed with Dexon mesh for recurrent complete rectal prolapse. Anorectal function was assessed by anorectal manometry and defecography, before and from 1 year after surgery in five patients who were followed up for 1-3 years. The fecal incontinence score recovered from a preoperative mean score of 3.8 to a postoperative mean score of 1.2, and constipation was improved in four patients (80%). The straining anorectal angle (S-ARA), measured by defecography, improved from a preoperative value of 120.6 degrees +/- 6.9 degrees to a postoperative value of 98.5 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees (P < 0.05), and the perineal descent (PD) improved from a preoperative value of 16.2 +/- 2.5 cm to a postoperative value of 8.1 +/- 1.3 cm (P < 0.05). The maximal resting pressure (MRP) increased from a preoperative value of 20.5 +/- 3.7 cmH2O to a postoperative value of 40.5 +/- 4.8 cmH2O (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that transsacral rectopexy with Dexon mesh can achieve good control of recurrent complete rectal prolapse. PMID:10489150

  1. Rectal examination in paediatric trauma care.

    PubMed

    Winnett, M

    1999-01-01

    When providing trauma care, there is a danger that staff might forget what a frightening and confusing experience it can be for the patient, particularly if that patient is a child. As part of an academic exercise in reflection, I recently examined a critical incident involving the trauma care of a 9-year-old boy. In Accident and Emergency (A&E) the doctor inappropriately performed a rectal examination, which I witnessed in horror. The doctor failed to consider the effect of his actions on the child, the legal necessity for consent and the importance of a full explanation. Deeply disturbed by this incident and determined to avoid any repetition, I set out to find documented evidence to support my assertion that no child should be subjected to such intimate examinations, unless absolutely unavoidable. It is hoped that discussion of this incident will serve to raise the awareness of A&E staff working throughout the country with regard to paediatric rectal examination, as has been the case in my own workplace.

  2. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  3. Laparoscopic rectopexy for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome without overt rectal prolapse: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Menekse, Ebru; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Karateke, Faruk; Ozyazici, Sefa; Demirturk, Pelin; Kuvvetli, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare clinical entity. Several treatment options has been described. However, there is no consensus yet on treatment algorithm and standard surgical procedure. Rectopexy is one of the surgical options and it is generally performed in patients with solitary rectal ulcer accompanied with overt prolapse. Various outcomes have been reported for rectopexy in the patients with occult prolapse or rectal intussusception. In the literature; outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure have been reported in the limited number of case or case series. No study has emphasized the outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection rectopexy procedure in the patients with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse. In this report we aimed to present clinical outcomes of laparoscopic non-resection posterior suture rectopexy procedure in a 21-year-old female patient with solitary rectal ulcer without overt prolapse.

  4. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26886938

  5. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26886938

  6. Suspension for automotive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, W.C.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a vehicle suspension system for mounting ground-engaging wheels to a vehicle frame. The suspension system comprises at least two substantially rigid arms secured to opposite sides of the frame through substantially aligned pivot mounts; at least one wheel-carrying axle between the arms; and a bracket means securing the at least one axle to each of the arms. The improvements described here is in each of the bracket means comprising: an axle plate means rigidly secured to the axle and having an elongated planar complementary surface at least partially wrapping around the axle; two spaced connecting plates secured transversely to the axle plate means and to one of the arms; and a bracing means comprising at least one curved gusset plate rigidly and angularly secured to and between the axle plate means and one of the connecting plates.

  7. Articulated Suspension Without Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Wheels negotiate bumps and holes with minimal tilting of vehicle body. In new suspension, wheel climbs obstacle as high as 1 1/2 times its diameter without excessive tilting of chassis. Provides highly stable ride over rough ground for such vehicles as wheelchairs, military scout cars, and police and fire robots. System of levers distributes weight to wheels. Sized to distribute equal or other desired portions of load among wheels.

  8. Stress in dilute suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Passman, Stephen L.

    1989-01-01

    Generally, two types of theory are used to describe the field equations for suspensions. The so-called postulated equations are based on the kinetic theory of mixtures, which logically should give reasonable equations for solutions. The basis for the use of such theory for suspensions is tenuous, though it at least gives a logical path for mathematical arguments. It has the disadvantage that it leads to a system of equations which is underdetermined, in a sense that can be made precise. On the other hand, the so-called averaging theory starts with a determined system, but the very process of averaging renders the resulting system underdetermined. A third type of theory is proposed in which the kinetic theory of gases is used to motivate continuum equations for the suspended particles. This entails an interpretation of the stress in the particles that is different from the usual one. Classical theory is used to describe the motion of the suspending medium. The result is a determined system for a dilute suspension. Extension of the theory to more concentrated systems is discussed.

  9. The Tail Suspension Test

    PubMed Central

    Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Bhat, Shambhu; Gould, Todd D.

    2012-01-01

    The tail-suspension test is a mouse behavioral test useful in the screening of potential antidepressant drugs, and assessing of other manipulations that are expected to affect depression related behaviors. Mice are suspended by their tails with tape, in such a position that it cannot escape or hold on to nearby surfaces. During this test, typically six minutes in duration, the resulting escape oriented behaviors are quantified. The tail-suspension test is a valuable tool in drug discovery for high-throughput screening of prospective antidepressant compounds. Here, we describe the details required for implementation of this test with additional emphasis on potential problems that may occur and how to avoid them. We also offer a solution to the tail climbing behavior, a common problem that renders this test useless in some mouse strains, such as the widely used C57BL/6. Specifically, we prevent tail climbing behaviors by passing mouse tails through a small plastic cylinder prior to suspension. Finally, we detail how to manually score the behaviors that are manifested in this test. PMID:22315011

  10. Rectal and colon cancer: Not just a different anatomic site.

    PubMed

    Tamas, K; Walenkamp, A M E; de Vries, E G E; van Vugt, M A T M; Beets-Tan, R G; van Etten, B; de Groot, D J A; Hospers, G A P

    2015-09-01

    Due to differences in anatomy, primary rectal and colon cancer require different staging procedures, different neo-adjuvant treatment and different surgical approaches. For example, neoadjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is administered solely for rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer might be responsible in part for the differing effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on overall survival, which is more evident in colon cancer than in rectal cancer. Apart from anatomic divergences, rectal and colon cancer also differ in their embryological origin and metastatic patterns. Moreover, they harbor a different composition of drug targets, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), which is preferentially mutated in proximal colon cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is prevalently amplified or overexpressed in distal colorectal cancers. Despite their differences in metastatic pattern, composition of drug targets and earlier local treatment, metastatic rectal and colon cancer are, however, commonly regarded as one entity and are treated alike. In this review, we focused on rectal cancer and its biological and clinical differences and similarities relative to colon cancer. These aspects are crucial because they influence the current staging and treatment of these cancers, and might influence the design of future trials with targeted drugs.

  11. Rectal Mechano-sensory Function in Patients with Carcinoid Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Tine; Brock, Christina; Haase, Anne-Mette; Laurberg, Søren; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Grønbæk, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, excessive production of serotonin and other amines may cause the carcinoid syndrome, which is mainly characterized by diarrhea and flushing. Little is known about the pathophysiology of carcinoid diarrhea. In several other groups of patients, diarrhea may be associated with rectal hypersensitivity and increased rectal tone. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare rectal sensitivity and compliance in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and in healthy subjects. Methods Twelve patients (6 males, aged 54–78 years, median 65 years), with carcinoid diarrhea and 19 healthy subjects (7 males, aged 50–78 years, median 61 years) were included. Rectal mechanical and heat stimulation was used for assessment of rectal mechano-sensory properties. Results Overall, 5.3% higher temperatures were needed to elicit sensory responses in patients with carcinoid diarrhea than in healthy subjects (P = 0.015). Posthoc analyses revealed that the sensory threshold to heat was 48.1 ± 3.1°C in patients vs 44.7 ± 4.7°C in healthy subjects (P = 0.041). In contrast, patients and healthy subjects showed no overall differences in rectal sensory response to mechanical distension (P = 0.731) or rectal compliance (P = 0.990). Conclusions Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have higher sensory thresholds to heat stimulation in comparison to healthy subjects, but normal rectal sensation to mechanical distension and normal compliance. Therefore, treatment of carcinoid diarrhea should aim at prolonging gastrointestinal transit and decreasing secretion, rather than modifying rectal mechano-sensory function. PMID:26690884

  12. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  13. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J.; Pajak, Jacek T.; Pawelczyk, Iwona; Lange, Dariusz; Golka, Dariusz . E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika; Lorenc, Zbigniew

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  14. Comparison of digital rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges.

  15. Anorectal avulsion: Management of a rare rectal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rispoli, C.; Andreuccetti, J.; Iannone, L.; Armellino, M.; Rispoli, G.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Traumatic injuries of the rectum are unusual even though their treatment is challenging and often lead to high morbidity and mortality rate. PRESENTATION OF CASE This paper reports a rare case of complete rectal avulsion with multiple fracture and hemoperitoneum treated with a multistep approach in our department. DISCUSSION The anorectal avulsion is a rare rectal trauma; only few reports are available. Treatment key points of rectal trauma are: direct repair, diverting stoma and sacral drainage. CONCLUSION We reported a case of anorectal avulsion with complete detachment of external sphincter muscle. A multidisciplinary approach was mandatory in this kind of lesions. PMID:22554940

  16. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass.

    PubMed

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral. PMID:27683028

  17. Endorectal sonography in the evaluation of rectal and perirectal disease.

    PubMed

    St Ville, E W; Jafri, S Z; Madrazo, B L; Mezwa, D G; Bree, R L; Rosenberg, B F

    1991-09-01

    Endorectal sonography initially was developed for evaluation of the prostate and now has been adapted for evaluation of rectal and perirectal disease. We used endorectal sonography to evaluate a spectrum of diseases, including primary and recurrent rectal carcinoma, metastases, villous adenoma, leiomyosarcoma, endometriosis, sacrococcygeal teratoma, chordoma, retroperitoneal cystic hamartoma, pelvic lipomatosis, diverticulitis, and perirectal abscess. The technique has been useful in localization of perirectal abscesses and in sonographically guided biopsy of perirectal masses. Knowledge of normal sonographic anatomy of the rectum is essential in the evaluation of rectal and perirectal disease. In this essay, we describe the technique of endorectal sonography and illustrate the sonographic findings in a variety of diseases.

  18. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for Rectal Tumors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kunitake, Hiroko; Abbas, Maher A

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1983, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) has emerged as a safe and effective method to treat rectal lesions including benign tumors, early rectal cancer, and rectal fistulas and strictures. This minimally invasive technique offers the advantages of superior visualization of the lesion and greater access to proximal lesions with lower margin positivity and specimen fragmentation and lower long-term recurrence rates over traditional transanal excision. In addition, over two decades of scientific data support the use of TEM as a viable alternative to radical excision of the rectum with less morbidity, faster recovery, and greater potential cost savings when performed at specialized centers. PMID:22745615

  19. Approach of trans-rectal NIR optical tomography probing for the imaging of prostate with trans-rectal ultrasound correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Guan; Musgrove, Cameron; Bunting, Charles F.

    2008-02-01

    The trans-rectal implementation of NIR optical tomography makes it possible to assess functional status like hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in prostate non-invasively. Trans-rectal NIR tomography may provide tissue-specific functional contrast that is potentially valuable for differentiation of cancerous lesions from normal tissues. Such information will help to determine if a prostate biopsy is needed or can be excluded for an otherwise ambiguous lesion. The relatively low spatial resolution due to the diffuse light detection in trans-rectal NIR tomography, however, limits the accuracy of localizing a suspicious tissue volume. Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the clinical standard for guiding the positioning of biopsy needle owing to its resolution and convenience; nevertheless, TRUS lacks the pathognomic specificity to guide biopsy to only the suspicious lesions. The combination of trans-rectal NIR tomography with TRUS could potentially give better differentiation of cancerous tissue from normal background and to accurately localize the cancer-suspicious contrast obtained from NIR tomography. This paper will demonstrate the design and initial evaluation of a trans-rectal NIR tomography probe that can conveniently integrate with a commercial TRUS transducer. The transrectal NIR tomography obtained from this probe is concurrent with TRUS at matching sagittal imaging plane. This design provides the flexibility of simple correlation of trans-rectal NIR with TRUS, and using TRUS anatomic information as spatial prior for NIR image reconstruction.

  20. [The treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Alberda, Wijnand J; Verhoef, Cornelis; Nuyttens, Joost J; Rothbarth, Joost; Burger, Jacobus W A

    2015-01-01

    Its incidence has decreased in recent decades due to advances in the treatment of patients with primary rectal cancer, but LRRC still occurs in 6-10% of these patients. LRRC is often accompanied by severe, progressive pain and has a major impact on quality of life. Curative treatment is possible based on surgical resection combined with chemoradiotherapy. Radical resection is the most important prognostic factor in curative treatment. Neo-adjuvant systemic therapy may further improve outcomes in LRRC patients. Many patients are not eligible for surgical treatment due to the presence of metastases or irresectability of the local recurrence. These patients should receive optimal palliative care for the disabling pain. Radiotherapy is effective against local pain in around 75% of patients but the duration of palliation is limited.

  1. Novel oral suspensions: a review.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Phadke, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    An oral pharmaceutical suspension has been one of the most favorable dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients or patients unable to tolerate solid dosage forms. The liquid form is preferred because of the ease of swallowing and flexibility in the administration of doses. This emerging area of suspensions as applied to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article enlightening the vision of the readers towards pharmaceutical formulations including nanosuspensions, non-aqueous suspensions and modified release suspensions. The emphasis in the article focuses on the essential principles involved in the process of formation of different types of suspensions and their applications, since novel oral suspensions have potential to provide various strategy systems.

  2. Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

  3. Controls of maglev suspension systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study investigates alternative control designs of maglev vehicle suspension systems. Active and semi-active control law designs are introduced into primary and secondary suspensions of maglev vehicles. A one-dimensional vehicle with two degrees of freedom, to simulate the German Transrapid Maglev System, is used for suspension control designs. The transient and frequency responses of suspension systems and PSDs of vehicle accelerations are calculated to evaluate different control designs. The results show that active and semi-active control designs indeed improve the response of vehicle and provide an acceptable ride comfort for maglev systems.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1320 - Suspensions; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspensions; general. 416.1320 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1320 Suspensions; general. (a) When suspension is proper. Suspension of benefit payments is required when a recipient is alive but no longer meets...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1320 - Suspensions; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspensions; general. 416.1320 Section 416..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Suspensions and Terminations § 416.1320 Suspensions; general. (a) When suspension is proper. Suspension of benefit payments is required when a recipient is alive but no longer meets...

  6. Rectal wall sparing by dosimetric effect of rectal balloon used during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Teh, Bin S; Dong, Lei; McGary, John E; Mai, Wei-Yuan; Grant, Walter; Butler, E Brian

    2005-01-01

    The use of an air-filled rectal balloon has been shown to decrease prostate motion during prostate radiotherapy. However, the perturbation of radiation dose near the air-tissue interfaces has raised clinical concerns of underdosing the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric effects of an air-filled rectal balloon on the rectal wall/mucosa and prostate gland. Clinical rectal toxicity and dose-volume histogram (DVH) were also assessed to evaluate for any correlation. A film phantom was constructed to simulate the 4-cm diameter air cavity created by a rectal balloon. Kodak XV2 films were utilized to measure and compare dose distribution with and without air cavity. To study the effect in a typical clinical situation, the phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned on a Siemens DR CT scanner for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. A target object was drawn on the phantom CT images to simulate the treatment of prostate cancer. Because patients were treated in prone position, the air cavity was situated superiorly to the target. The treatment used a serial tomotherapy technique with the Multivane Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) in arc treatment mode. Rectal toxicity was assessed in 116 patients treated with IMRT to a mean dose of 76 Gy over 35 fractions (2.17-Gy fraction size). They were treated in the prone position, immobilized using a Vac-Loktrade mark bag and carrier-box system. Rectal balloon inflated with 100 cc of air was used for prostate gland immobilization during daily treatment. Rectal toxicity was assessed using modifications of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and late effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT) scales systems. DVH of the rectum was also evaluated. From film dosimetry, there was a dose reduction at the distal air-tissue interface as much as 60% compared with the same geometry without the air cavity for 15-MV photon beam and 2x2-cm field size. The dose beyond the

  7. Electrofiltration of Aqueous Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhang; Tan; Neoh; Tien

    2000-08-15

    Electrofiltration of hydrosols in fixed-bed filters was studied experimentally. The experimental variables examined included media type, electric field strength, and suspension pH values. The extent of particle removal was found to improve with the application of the electric field, and lower pH values favor particle collection. The filtrate quality displayed the transient behavior of increasing particle concentration with time. A simple model which assumes that the filter coefficient decreases linearly with the extent of deposition was developed and found capable of predicting the observed behavior. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. [Rectal prolapse revealing a tumor: The role of abdominal ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Bequet, E; Stiennon, L; Lhomme, A; Piette, C; Hoyoux, C; Rausin, L; Guidi, O

    2016-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is rare in children and usually benign. However, there are various diseases that can be associated with it, such as cystic fibrosis or other causes of increased abdominal pressure. Here, we review the various underlying conditions that pediatricians or pediatric gastroenterologists should consider in the case of rectal prolapse. We report on three cases of children with a rectal prolapse and intra-abdominal tumors. Current recommendations and practice do not include a systematic check via abdominal imaging in cases of rectal prolapse. However, in some situations, imaging is indicated to detect a possible expansive process. Thus, in the presence of recurrent prolapse or of associated urinary or neurological signs, imaging is justified so as to allow for an early diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms. Given its lack of radiation exposure and good sensitivity in children, ultrasound imaging is the first choice. PMID:27265581

  9. Refining Preoperative Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In the PROSPECT trial, patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy or neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, with chemoradiation reserved for nonresponders.

  10. Using rectal irrigation for faecal incontinence in children.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Clare

    Claire Bohr describes how she introduced rectal irrigation as a treatment for children with faecal incontinence who had failed to respond to conservative treatment. She won a Nursing Times Award in the continence care category for this service in 2008.

  11. High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

  12. [Rectal impalement with rupture of the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Wahnschaff, F; Gerstorfer, M; Roder, J

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old farmer who fell from a ladder onto the handle of a wheelbarrow and sustained a rectal impalement with rupture of the small intestine. After the clinical diagnostics an emergency laparotomy was carried out with primary suturing of the rectal perforation. Furthermore there were two perforations of the small intestine which were treated with an ileostomy. The replacement of the ileostomy was carried out after 7 weeks. PMID:21113567

  13. Laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Walter R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent published trials have failed to demonstrate that laparoscopic resection is not inferior to open resection of rectal cancer in terms of pathologic outcomes. However, there have been numerous studies showing the benefit of laparoscopic resection in terms of short-term complications and quality of life. Fewer complications and shorter hospital stays improve the chance of maintaining functional status, which is very important for the elderly population. Thus, laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer remains a viable option for the elderly.

  14. Magnetic Suspension Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin

    1998-01-01

    This Cooperative Agreement, intended to support focused research efforts in the area of magnetic suspension systems, was initiated between NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Old Dominion University (ODU) starting January 1, 1997. The original proposal called for a three-year effort, but funding for the second year proved to be unavailable, leading to termination of the agreement following a 5-month no-cost extension. This report covers work completed during the entire 17-month period of the award. This research built on work that had taken place over recent years involving both NASA LARC and the Principal Investigator (PI). The research was of a rather fundamental nature, although specific applications were kept in mind at all times, such as wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS), space payload pointing and vibration isolation systems, magnetic bearings for unconventional applications, magnetically levitated ground transportation and electromagnetic launch systems. Fundamental work was undertaken in areas such as the development of optimized magnetic configurations, analysis and modelling of eddy current effects, control strategies for magnetically levitated wind tunnel models and system calibration procedures. Despite the termination of this Cooperative Agreement, several aspects of the research work are currently continuing with alternative forms of support.

  15. Consolidation of colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Wei-Heng; Kim, Seong Il; Shih, Wan Y.; Aksay, I.A. ); Schilling, C.H. Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA )

    1990-08-01

    A key step in the processing of ceramics is the consolidation of powders into engineered shapes. Colloidal processing uses solvents (usually water) and dispersants to break up powder agglomerates in suspension and thereby reduce the pore size in a consolidated compact. However, agglomeration and particle rearrangement leading to pore enlargement can still occur during drying. Therefore, it is beneficial to consolidate the compact as densely as possible during the suspension stage. The consolidation techniques of pressure filtration and centrifugation were studied and the results are reported in this paper. In particular, the steady-state pressure- density relationship was studied, and information was obtained regarding the consolidation process, the microstructure, and the average density profile of consolidated cakes. Recently, we performed Monte Carlo simulations on a cluster-cluster aggregation model with restructuring, and found the exponential relationship between pressure and density is indeed the result of the breaking up of the fractal structural units. Furthermore, we calculated density profiles from the bottom to the top of the consolidated cakes by solving the local static force balance equation in the continuum particulate network. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  17. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  18. 48 CFR 3409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 3409.407... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 3409.407 Suspension....

  19. Diesel Technology: Steering and Suspension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roger; Scarberry, Terry; Tesch, Carl; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on steering and suspension are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Eleven units of instruction cover the following topics: chassis, tires, and wheels; steering; and suspension. The materials are based on the curriculum-alignment concept of first stating the objectives, then developing…

  20. TECHNICAL NOTE: Electroconductive magnetorheological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2006-12-01

    A magnetorheological suspension (MRS) is obtained by thermal decomposition of Fe2(CO)9 in mineral oil with stearic acid. For well-chosen values of the intensity of the magnetic field, the suspension becomes electroconductive. By addition of styrene acrylate copolymer iron oxide, MRSs are obtained with prescribed domains of electrical conductivity. The experimental results obtained are presented and discussed.

  1. Flow properties of concentrated suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, K.; Izumi, K.

    1984-01-01

    The viscosity and flow behavior of a concentrated suspension, with special emphasis on fresh concrete containing a superplasticizer, is analyzed according to Newton's law of viscosity. The authors interpreted Newton's law in a new way, and explain non-Newton flow from Newton's law. The outline of this new theory is given. Viscosity of suspensions, and the effect of dispersants are analyzed.

  2. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

  3. Electrorheology of nanofiber suspensions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluid, which can be transformed rapidly from a fluid-like state to a solid-like state under an external electric field, is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids. However, conventional ER fluids based on microparticles are subjected to challenges in practical applications due to the lack of versatile performances. Recent researches of using nanoparticles as the dispersal phase have led to new interest in the development of non-conventional ER fluids with improved performances. In this review, we especially focus on the recent researches on electrorheology of various nanofiber-based suspensions, including inorganic, organic, and inorganic/organic composite nanofibers. Our goal is to highlight the advantages of using anisotropic nanostructured materials as dispersal phases to improve ER performances. PMID:21711790

  4. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  5. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

  6. Pediatric Rectal Exam: Why, When, and How.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Susan R; Wald, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The digital rectal examination (DRE) is performed in children less often than is indicated. Indications for the pediatric DRE include diarrhea, constipation, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anemia. Less well-recognized indications may include abdominal mass, urinary symptoms, neurologic symptoms, urogenital or gynecologic symptoms, and anemia. Indeed, we believe that it should be considered part of a complete physical examination in children presenting with many different complaints. Physicians avoid this part of the physical examination in both children and adults for a number of reasons: discomfort on the part of the health care provider; belief that no useful information will be provided; lack of adequate training and experience in the performance of the DRE; conviction that planned "orders" or testing can obviate the need for the DRE; worry about "assaulting" a patient, particularly one who is small, young, and subordinate; anticipation that the exam will be refused by patient or parent; and concern regarding the time involved in the exam. The rationale and clinical utility of the DRE will be summarized in this article. In addition, the components of a complete pediatric DRE, along with suggestions for efficiently obtaining the child's consent and cooperation, will be presented. PMID:26739462

  7. Different optical spectral characteristics in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate observed by triple-band trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Slobodov, Gennady; Bunting, Charles F.; Piao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Different optical spectral characteristics were observed in a necrotic transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and a cystic lesion in the same canine prostate by triple-wavelength trans-rectal optical tomography under trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The NIR imager acquiring at 705nm, 785nm and 808nm was used to quantify both the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) and oxygen saturation (StO2) in the prostate. The TVT tumor in the canine prostate as a model of prostate cancer was induced in a 7-year old, 27 kg dog. A 2 mL suspension of 2.5x106 cells/mL of homogenized TVT cells recovered from an in vivo subcutaneously propagated TVT tumor in an NOD/SCID mouse were injected in the cranial aspect of the right lobe of the canine prostate. The left lobe of the prostate had a cystic lesion present before TVT inoculation. After the TVT homogenate injection, the prostate was monitored weekly over a 9-week period, using trans-rectal NIR and TRUS in grey-scale and Doppler. A TVT mass within the right lobe developed a necrotic center during the later stages of this study, as the mass presented with substantially increased [HbT] in the periphery, with an area of reduced StO2 less than the area of the mass itself shown on ultrasonography. Conversely, the cystic lesion presented with slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the lesion shown on ultrasound with oxygen-reduction inside and in the periphery of the lesion. There was no detectable change of blood flow on Doppler US in the periphery of the cystic lesion. The slightly increased [HbT] in the periphery of the cystic lesion was correlated with intra-lesional hemorrhage upon histopathologic examination.

  8. Rectal reservoir and sensory function studied by graded isobaric distension in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Akervall, S; Fasth, S; Nordgren, S; Oresland, T; Hultén, L

    1989-01-01

    The rectal expansion and concomitant sensory function on graded, isobaric, rectal distension within the interval 5-60 cm H2O was investigated in 36 healthy young volunteers. Anal pressure and electromyography (EMG) from the external anal sphincter were simultaneously recorded. Rectal distension caused an initial rapid expansion followed by transient, often repeated, reflex rectal contractions and a slow gradual increase of rectal volume. The maximal volume displaced by the first reflex rectal contraction was 18 (13) ml, which was less than 10% of the volume at 60 s. The pressure threshold for appreciation of rectal filling was 12 cm H2O (95% CL 5-15 cm H2O) and coincided with the threshold for rectoanal inhibition. Urge to defecate was experienced at 28 cm H2O (15-50 cm H2O) distension pressure, which was close to the threshold for maximal rectal contraction, also coinciding with the appearance of the external anal sphincter reflex. The interindividual variation of rectal volume on distension with defined pressures varied widely, indicating a considerable variation of rectal compliance in normal man. No correlation was found between rectal volume and sex or anthropometric variables. The relative variations in pressure thresholds for eliciting rectal sensation and rectoanal reflexes were less than the corresponding threshold volumes. It was concluded that the dynamic rectal response to distension reflects a well graded reflex adjustment ideal for a reservoir. PMID:2714682

  9. Suspension culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Birch, J R; Arathoon, R

    1990-01-01

    Mammalian cell suspension culture systems are being used increasingly in the biotechnology industry. This is due to their many advantages including simplicity and homogeneity of culture. Suspension systems are very adaptable (e.g., for microcarrier, microencapsulation, or other methods of culture). Their engineering is thoroughly understood and standardized at large scale, and automation and cleaning procedures are well established. Suspension systems offer the possibility of quick implementation of production protocols due to their ability to be scaled easily once the basic culture parameters are understood. The only main disadvantage of the suspension culture systems to date is their inapplicability for the production of human vaccines from either primary cell lines or from normal human diploid cell lines (Hayflick et al., 1987 and references therein). One of the great advantages of suspension culture is the opportunity it provides to study interactions of metabolic and production phenomena in chemostat or turbidostat steady-state systems. Furthermore, in suspension culture systems from which cell number and cell mass measurements are easy to obtain, rigorous and quantitative estimations of the effects of growth conditions or perturbations of metabolic homeostasis can be made. Such studies can speed up the development of optimal processes. With our increasing understanding of factors influencing expression in mammalian cells (Cohen and Levinson, 1988; Santoro et al., 1988) and the direct application of new methods in suspension culture (Rhodes and Birch, 1988), its usefulness and importance is likely to increase in the future. In this chapter, we have described some of the potential uses of the various suspension culture systems and have covered most of the established technology and literature. Due to the rapid developments and needs in the biotechnology industry and the versatility of suspension culture systems, it is probable that many more variations on this

  10. A simple hindlimb suspension apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, E.; Schultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a simple, inexpensive apparatus for application of the hindlimb suspension model to studies of the effects of unloading on mammalian physiology. Construction of a cage and suspension assembly is described using materials that can be obtained from most hardware stores. The design is kept simple for easy assembly and disassembly to facilitate cleaning and storage. The suspension assembly allows the animals full access to all portions of the floor area and provides an effective environment to study the effects of unloading.

  11. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:27416752

  12. Rectal Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Prezzi, D; Goh, V

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years progressively established itself as one of the most valuable modalities for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of rectal cancer and its use has largely focused on accurate morphological assessment. The potential of MRI, however, extends beyond detailed anatomical depiction: aspects of tissue physiology, such as perfusion, oxygenation and water molecule diffusivity, can be assessed indirectly. Functional MRI is rapidly evolving as a promising non-invasive assessment tool for tumour phenotyping and assessment of response to new therapeutic agents. In spite of promising experimental data, the evidence base for the application of functional MRI techniques in rectal cancer remains modest, reflecting the relatively poor agreement on technical protocols, image processing techniques and quantitative methodology to date, hampering routine integration into clinical management. This overview outlines the established strengths and the critical limitations of anatomical MRI in rectal cancer; it then introduces some of the functional MRI techniques and quantitative analysis methods that are currently available, describing their applicability in rectal cancer and reviewing the relevant literature; finally, it introduces the concept of a multi-parametric quantitative approach to rectal cancer.

  13. Lamellipodin-Deficient Mice: A Model of Rectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cassandra L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Shen, Zeli; Drees, Frauke; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Chen, Xiaowei; Gong, Guanyu; Nagar, Karan K.; Wang, Timothy C.; Gertler, Frank B.; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    During a survey of clinical rectal prolapse (RP) cases in the mouse population at MIT animal research facilities, a high incidence of RP in the lamellipodin knock-out strain, C57BL/6-Raph1tm1Fbg (Lpd-/-) was documented. Upon further investigation, the Lpd-/- colony was found to be infected with multiple endemic enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS). Lpd-/- mice, a transgenic mouse strain produced at MIT, have not previously shown a distinct immune phenotype and are not highly susceptible to other opportunistic infections. Predominantly male Lpd-/- mice with RP exhibited lesions consistent with invasive rectal carcinoma concomitant to clinically evident RP. Multiple inflammatory cytokines, CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations, and epithelial cells positive for a DNA damage biomarker, H2AX, were elevated in affected tissue, supporting their role in the neoplastic process. An evaluation of Lpd-/- mice with RP compared to EHS-infected, but clinically normal (CN) Lpd-/- animals indicated that all of these mice exhibit some degree of lower bowel inflammation; however, mice with prolapses had significantly higher degree of focal lesions at the colo-rectal junction. When Helicobacter spp. infections were eliminated in Lpd-/- mice by embryo transfer rederivation, the disease phenotype was abrogated, implicating EHS as a contributing factor in the development of rectal carcinoma. Here we describe lesions in Lpd-/- male mice consistent with a focal inflammation-induced neoplastic transformation and propose this strain as a mouse model of rectal carcinoma. PMID:27045955

  14. Rectal Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Prezzi, D; Goh, V

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years progressively established itself as one of the most valuable modalities for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of rectal cancer and its use has largely focused on accurate morphological assessment. The potential of MRI, however, extends beyond detailed anatomical depiction: aspects of tissue physiology, such as perfusion, oxygenation and water molecule diffusivity, can be assessed indirectly. Functional MRI is rapidly evolving as a promising non-invasive assessment tool for tumour phenotyping and assessment of response to new therapeutic agents. In spite of promising experimental data, the evidence base for the application of functional MRI techniques in rectal cancer remains modest, reflecting the relatively poor agreement on technical protocols, image processing techniques and quantitative methodology to date, hampering routine integration into clinical management. This overview outlines the established strengths and the critical limitations of anatomical MRI in rectal cancer; it then introduces some of the functional MRI techniques and quantitative analysis methods that are currently available, describing their applicability in rectal cancer and reviewing the relevant literature; finally, it introduces the concept of a multi-parametric quantitative approach to rectal cancer. PMID:26586163

  15. Voiding Dysfunction after Total Mesorectal Excision in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Heon; Noh, Tae Il; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Jae Young; Lee, Jeong Gu; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung Wook

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the voiding dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods This was part of a prospective study done in the rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery with TME between November 2006 and June 2008. Consecutive uroflowmetry, post-voided residual volume, and a voiding questionnaire were performed at preoperatively and postoperatively. Results A total of 50 patients were recruited in this study, including 28 male and 22 female. In the comparison of the preoperative data with the postoperative 3-month data, a significant decrease in mean maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume were found. In the comparison with the postoperative 6-month data, however only the maximal flow rate was decreased with statistical significance (P=0.02). In the comparison between surgical methods, abdominoperineal resection patients showed delayed recovery of maximal flow rate, voided volume, and post-voided residual volume. There was no significant difference in uroflowmetry parameters with advances in rectal cancer stage. Conclusions Voiding dysfunction is common after rectal cancer surgery but can be recovered in 6 months after surgery or earlier. Abdominoperineal resection was shown to be an unfavorable factor for postoperative voiding. Larger prospective study is needed to determine the long-term effect of rectal cancer surgery in relation to male and female baseline voiding condition. PMID:22087426

  16. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Dahl, Alv A.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik; Fossa, Sophie D.; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  17. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  18. [Indications for radiotherapy of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Winkler, R; Franke, H D; Dörner, A

    1990-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy complete each other in local control of suffering from rectal carcinoma. A radiotherapeutic effect on tumor is secured often. The adjuvant radiotherapy is the most interesting indication, though the most controversial as present too. Analysing all data and with experiences of an own irradiation study we have not any doubt that the indication is qualified for a combined therapy, if the therapeutic aim with priority is to prevent a local relapse as the most frequent and complained of form of therapeutic failure. In this problem, radical irradiation forms, as pre- and accumulating irradiation (sandwich-technique) and after-irradiation, render superior to an exclusive pre irradiation. In result of this study we practise a preirradiation of 25 Gy with immediately following operation and an accumulating irradiation to 50 Gy in proved high-risk-stage (T greater than or equal to 3 NoMo,Tx N1-3 Mo). If there is a primary local incurability by tumor invasion into the neighbourhood a pre-irradiation is done with 50 Gy and following explorative laparatomy within 4-6 weeks. Nearly 60% of these tumors become operable after that. Likewise we practise in unirradiated patients with locoregional tumor recurrence. Also here the extirpation quota of patients with general or systemic incurability, that a stoma construction is required in, we carry out a transanal tumor reduction and irradiate with 50 Gy after that. Especially this therapeutic principle has proved its worth in patients that are past eighty. Here with acceptable living quality and avoiding a stoma construction a survival can be reached that corresponds to the statistical survival of this stage of life. PMID:2101452

  19. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  20. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  1. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an...

  2. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  3. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  4. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Limitation, Suspension, or....705 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope. (1) A suspension by the Secretary removes a...

  5. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  6. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  7. 33 CFR 156.112 - Suspension order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension order. 156.112 Section... § 156.112 Suspension order. The COTP or OCMI may issue a suspension order to suspend transfer operations... OCMI is unable to verify compliance with the regulations through an inspection. A suspension order:...

  8. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspensions. 1710.45 Section 1710... Suspensions. (a) Suspension notice—prior to effective date. (1) If it appears to the Secretary that a... Secretary shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable time after...

  11. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705..., Suspension, or Termination of Lender or Third-party Servicer Eligibility and Disqualification of Lenders and Schools § 682.705 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope. (1) A suspension by the Secretary removes a...

  12. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  13. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  14. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  15. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  16. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  17. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  18. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or... out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall not be missing or damaged....

  19. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the..., using the procedures in § 223.143. However, the existence of a cause for suspension does not...

  20. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015...) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  1. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means...

  2. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  3. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  4. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension...

  5. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or... out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall not be missing or damaged....

  6. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an...

  7. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  8. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015...) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  9. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  10. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  11. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  12. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transactions and transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  14. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. Link to... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  15. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  16. 2 CFR 180.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending completion of an agency investigation and any... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 180.1015 Section 180.1015 Grants... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspensions. 1710.45 Section 1710... Suspensions. (a) Suspension notice—prior to effective date. (1) If it appears to the Secretary that a... Secretary shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable time after...

  18. Quantification of Organ Motion During Chemoradiotherapy of Rectal Cancer Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Irene; Hawkins, Maria; Hansen, Vibeke; Thomas, Karen; McNair, Helen; O'Neill, Brian; Aitken, Alexandra; Tait, Diana

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: There has been no previously published data related to the quantification of rectal motion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during standard conformal long-course chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the interfractional changes in rectal movement and dimensions and rectal and bladder volume using CBCT and to quantify the bony anatomy displacements to calculate the margins required to account for systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were acquired from 16 patients on the first 3 days of treatment and weekly thereafter. The rectum and bladder were outlined on all CBCT images. The interfraction movement was measured using fixed bony landmarks as references to define the rectal location (upper, mid, and low), The maximal rectal diameter at the three rectal locations was also measured. The bony anatomy displacements were quantified, allowing the calculation of systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Results: A total of 123 CBCT data sets were analyzed. Analysis of variance for standard deviation from planning scans showed that rectal anterior and lateral wall movement differed significantly by rectal location. Anterior and lateral rectal wall movements were larger in the mid and upper rectum compared with the low rectum. The posterior rectal wall movement did not change significantly with the rectal location. The rectal diameter changed more in the mid and upper than in the low rectum. No consistent relationship was found between the rectal and bladder volume and time, nor was a significant relationship found between the rectal volume and bladder volume. Conclusions: In the present study, the anterior and lateral rectal movement and rectal diameter were found to change most in the upper rectum, followed by the mid rectum, with the smallest changes seen in the low rectum. Asymmetric margins are warranted to ensure phase 2 coverage.

  19. Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Siu, Theo; Rutala, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Cornstarch suspensions are well known to exhibit strong shear thickening, and we show as a result that they must - and do - climb vertically vibrating rods and plates. This occurs because when the rod moves upward, it shears the suspension against gravity, and so the fluid stiffens, but when the rod moves downward, the suspension moves with gravity, and so the fluid is more compliant. This causes the fluid to be dragged up by the upstroke more than it is dragged down by the downstroke, effectively ratcheting the fluid up the rod every cycle. We show experimentally and computationally that this effect is paradoxically caused by gravity - and so goes away when gravity is removed - and we show that the suspension can be made to balance on the uphill side of an inclined rod in an analog of the inverted ``Kapitza pendulum,'' closely related to the recent report by Ramachandran & Nosonovsky, Soft Matter 10, 4633 (2014).

  20. NASA CSI suspension methods overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Cooley, Victor M.

    1989-01-01

    New suspension techniques will be necesary for ground testing the flexible spacecraft anticipated in NASA's future space activity. The most complex spacecraft involve nonlinear maneuvering (i.e., large angle slewing) with articulating substructures such as remote manipulating systems. The NASA control-structure interaction (CSI) ground test method team has begun researching and developing methodology to suspend the future class of spacecraft. This overview describes the work completed thus far. The research objective and technical approach will be presented first. Second, will be a suspension device overview followed by an assessment of existing hardware. Two different mechanical zero-spring-rate mechanisms will be compared for optimal performance. Next, will be a description of how existing hardware can be evolved to meet more general suspension requirements. A comparison of suspending articulating structures overhead vs underneath will follow. After a few experimental results from the zero-spring-rate mechanism/air suspension cart will be concluding remarks and future work.

  1. Stability of an electrodynamic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Alexei V.; Maslen, Eric H.; Gillies, George T.

    2002-09-01

    Previously, the authors have described a method of dynamically stabilized noncontact electromagnetic suspension of rotating bodies. The method makes use of the dynamic interaction between stationary and rotating sets of conductors and permanent magnets. The validity of this method has been demonstrated by building and testing a prototype in which noncontact suspension of a 3.2 kg rotor was achieved when it rotates at speeds above 18 Hz. A stability condition for that method of suspension was obtained with certain simplifying assumptions. One of these assumptions was that the inductive component of the stationary conductors is negligible. Here, we present modified stability conditions which take the inductance of the stationary conductors into consideration. One of the predicted effects is that nonzero inductance may cause significant reduction of the minimum stable levitation speed. Consequently, careful choice of the electrical properties of the stationary coils may significantly enhance the performance of the suspension.

  2. Smooth muscle pseudotumours: a potentially confusing artefact of rectal biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dankwa, E K; Davies, J D

    1988-01-01

    An artefactual smooth muscle lesion was found in seven of 500 consecutive rectal biopsy specimens. The lesions had the deceptive appearance of a genuine tumour although none of the patients with the lesion had presented with a rectal mucosal swelling. The morphology of the lesion and its poor reproducibility under experimental conditions suggested that it was an artefact of the biopsy procedure: it was easily reproduced in resected specimens of large bowel using punch or basket forceps but not when using flat forceps. The presence of the lesion seems to depend on the type of forceps used rather than on differences in deployment and seems to be caused by avulsion of the superficial part of the muscularis propria and its incorporation into the tissues included in rectal biopsy specimens. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 1 Fig 4 PMID:3045159

  3. Approach to concomitant rectal and uterine prolapse: case report.

    PubMed

    Karateke, Ateş; Batu, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Selçuk, Selçuk; Cam, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    The classic description of rectal prolapse is a protrusion of the rectum beyond the anus. Peaks of occurrences are noted in the fourth and seventh decades of life, and most patients (80-90%) are women. The condition is often concurrent with pelvic floor descent and prolapse of other pelvic floor organs, such as the uterus or the bladder. In this study, two cases having contraindication to general anesthesia with rectal and uterine prolapse are presented. These cases were operated on under local anesthesia with support of sedation by Leforte and Delorme's operation at the same time. In conclusion; pelvic floor disorders should be considered as a whole, and surgical correction of rectal prolapse and uterine prolapse may be done at the same time under local anesthesia with the support of sedation. Performance of these operations by experienced and trained pelvic reconstructive surgeons may be advocated.

  4. Concurrent Occurrence of Uterovaginal and Rectal Prolapse: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, UA; Ugwu, EO; Obi, SN; Nnagbo, JE

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant uterovaginal and rectal prolapse is an uncommon occurrence. Where laparoscopic equipment and skills are lacking, sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy can be accomplished by laparotomy, especially in women who desire to retain their uterus for either biological or psychological reasons. A 40-year-old primipara with a history of concomitant mass protruding from both her vagina and anus following a spontaneous unsupervised delivery at home. Following pelvic examination, a diagnosis of uterovaginal and rectal prolapse was made. In view of her parity and desire to retain her reproductive function, she was offered abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy with satisfactory postoperative recovery. In resource-limited settings with concomitant uterine and rectal prolapse, open abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy is an effective and safe alternative to Manchester operation in the absence of laparoscopic equipment and skills. PMID:26500795

  5. Emerging and Evolving Technology in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bosio, Raul M.; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has changed the way we manage many colon and rectal pathologies. Multiple techniques, from straight laparoscopic procedures, to hand-assisted and single-port techniques are available, requiring surgeons to go through various learning curves. Robotic surgery is a relatively novel technique in general surgery which appears to hold most promise for rectal resection. Laparoscopic rectal procedures are difficult, and even in experienced hands, conversion rates are around 17%. Robotic surgery may be a point of difference in these cases, despite a long learning curve and higher costs. This article will describe the role of robotics in colorectal surgery. Room set up, port placement, and docking strategies will be described for common procedures, with emphasis on a hybrid robotic low anterior resection. PMID:26491407

  6. A Review of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Ji; Ma, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Yan, Yanli; Xue, Chaofan; Hui, Beina; Liu, Rui; Ma, Hailin; Ren, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy not only can reduce tumor size and recurrence, but also increase the tumor resection rate and anus retention rate with very slight side effect. Comparing with preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy can further reduce the local recurrence rate and downstage. Middle and low rectal cancers can benefit more from neoadjuvant chemradiotherapy than high rectal cancer. It needs to refine the selection of appropriate patients and irradiation modes for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Different therapeutic reactions to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy affect the type of surgical techniques, hence calling for the need of much attention. Furthermore, many problems such as accurate staging before surgery, selection of suitable neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy method, and sensitivity prediction to preoperative radiotherapy need to be well settled. PMID:27489505

  7. Debarment and suspension. [of contractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The changing Government attitude toward contractor debarment and suspension is examined, with emphasis on the fact that the Government is more alert to fraud, waste, and abuse. Consideration is given to causes of debarment or suspension, procedures and due process hearings, settlement agreements, compliance programs, and recent related legislation. It is concluded that the change in the Government contracting environment in recent years should be sufficient incentive for contractors to monitor their operations more closely.

  8. Short term outcome of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Anwer, Mariyah; Qureshi, Muhammad Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the short term outcomes of effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Methods: It was a descriptive case series study of 31 consecutive patients of rectal prolapse in Colorectal division of Ward 2, Department of General surgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, from November 2009 to November 2015. These patients were admitted through outpatient department with complains of something coming out of anus, constipation and per rectal bleeding. All patients were clinically examined and baseline investigations were done. All patients underwent laparoscopic repair with ventral mesh placement on rectum. Results: Among 31 patients, mean age was 45 years range (20 - 72). While females were 14(45%) and males 17(55%). We observed variety of presentations, including solitary rectal ulcers (n=4) and rectocele (n=3) but full thickness rectal prolapse was predominant(n=24). All patients had laparoscopic repair with mesh placement. Average hospital stay was three days. Out of 31 patients, there was one (3.2%) recurrence. Port site minor infection in 3(9.7%) patients, while conversion to open approach was done in two (6.4%), postoperative ileus observed in two (6.4%) patients. one(3.2%) patient developed intractable back pain and mesh was removed six weeks after the operation. one(4.8%) patient complained of abdominal pain off and on postoperatively. No patient developed denovo or worsening constipation while constipation was improved in 21 patients (67%). Sexual dysfunction such as dysperunia in females and impotence in males was not detected in follow up. Conclusions: This study provides the limited evidence that nerve sparing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is safe and effective treatment of external and symptomatic internal rectal prolapse. It has better cosmetic and functional outcome as advantages of minimal access and comparable recurrence rate.

  9. Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, William R.; Hosford, Charles C.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

  10. Short term outcome of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Anwer, Mariyah; Qureshi, Muhammad Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the short term outcomes of effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Methods: It was a descriptive case series study of 31 consecutive patients of rectal prolapse in Colorectal division of Ward 2, Department of General surgery, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, from November 2009 to November 2015. These patients were admitted through outpatient department with complains of something coming out of anus, constipation and per rectal bleeding. All patients were clinically examined and baseline investigations were done. All patients underwent laparoscopic repair with ventral mesh placement on rectum. Results: Among 31 patients, mean age was 45 years range (20 - 72). While females were 14(45%) and males 17(55%). We observed variety of presentations, including solitary rectal ulcers (n=4) and rectocele (n=3) but full thickness rectal prolapse was predominant(n=24). All patients had laparoscopic repair with mesh placement. Average hospital stay was three days. Out of 31 patients, there was one (3.2%) recurrence. Port site minor infection in 3(9.7%) patients, while conversion to open approach was done in two (6.4%), postoperative ileus observed in two (6.4%) patients. one(3.2%) patient developed intractable back pain and mesh was removed six weeks after the operation. one(4.8%) patient complained of abdominal pain off and on postoperatively. No patient developed denovo or worsening constipation while constipation was improved in 21 patients (67%). Sexual dysfunction such as dysperunia in females and impotence in males was not detected in follow up. Conclusions: This study provides the limited evidence that nerve sparing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is safe and effective treatment of external and symptomatic internal rectal prolapse. It has better cosmetic and functional outcome as advantages of minimal access and comparable recurrence rate. PMID:27648031

  11. Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhou; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

  12. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    PubMed

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms.

  13. Intrarectal amifostine suspension may protect against acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K.; Menard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter . E-mail: guionp@mail.nih.gov; Simone, Nicole L.; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears; Godette, Denise J.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Sciuto, Linda C.; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Coleman, Jonathan; Pinto, Peter; Albert, Paul S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Our goal was to test the ability of intrarectal amifostine to limit symptoms of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: The first 18 patients received 1 g of intrarectal amifostine suspension placed 30-45 min before each radiation treatment. The following 12 patients received 2 g of amifostine. Total dose prescribed ranged from 66 to 76 Gy. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The suspension remained intrarectal during treatment and was expelled after treatment. For gastrointestinal symptoms, during treatment and follow-up, all patients had a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade recorded. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 6-24 months). With 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine, there was a nearly significant decrease in RTOG Grade 2 acute rectal toxicity. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18) compared with 0% (0/12) in the 2-g group (p = 0.06). No Grade 3 toxicity or greater occurred in this study. Conclusion: This trial suggests greater rectal radioprotection from acute effects with 2 g vs. 1 g amifostine suspension. Further studies should be conducted in populations at higher risk for developing symptomatic acute and late proctitis.

  14. Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: An Update in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jung Myun; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, robotic surgery for rectal cancer has rapidly gained acceptance among colorectal surgeons worldwide, with well-established safety and feasibility. The lower conversion rate and better surgical specimen quality of robotic compared with laparoscopic surgery potentially improves survival. Earlier recovery of voiding and sexual function after robotic total mesorectal excision is another favorable outcome. Long-term survival data are sparse with no evidence that robotic surgery offers major benefits in oncological outcomes. Although initial reports are promising, more rigorous scientific evaluation in multicenter, randomized clinical trials should be performed to definitely determine the advantages of robotic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:26875201

  15. Rectal foreign bodies: imaging assessment and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Pinto, Fabio; Mizio, Veronica Di; Panico, Maria Rita; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia

    2015-02-01

    The amount of patients presenting at the emergency hospitals with retained rectal foreign bodies appears recently to have increased. Foreign objects retained in the rectum may result from direct introduction through the anus (more common) or from ingestion. Affected individuals often make ineffective attempts to extract the object themselves, resulting in additional delay of medical care and potentially increasing the risk of complications. The goals of radiological patient assessment are to identify the type of object retained, its location, and the presence of associated complications. Plain film radiographs still play an important role in the assessment of retained rectal foreign bodies. PMID:25639182

  16. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  17. [The transphincteric approach excision of rectal villous adenomas].

    PubMed

    Qiu, H; Tang, W; Zhu, Y

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-four patients with rectal villous adenomas were operated on which posterior transphincteric approach. They had benign villous adenona in (13 patients), villous adenomas showing atypia (2), and villous adenomas developed malignancy (9). All the patients gained excellent results, except one with wounded infection after operation. No patient died at operation. No patient developed rectal fistula and incontinence of feces. The different methods of operation with excised villous adenoma of the rectum were discussed and compared. We conclude that the posterior transsphincteric approach is better than others. PMID:7555388

  18. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy for incarcerated rectal prolapse (Altemeier’s procedure)

    PubMed Central

    Sipahi, Mesut; Arslan, Ergin; Börekçi, Hasan; Aytekin, Faruk Önder; Külah, Bahadır; Banlı, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Perineal procedures have higher recurrence and lower mortality rates than abdominal alternatives for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Presence of incarceration and strangulation also influences treatment choice. Perineal rectosigmoidectomy is one of the treatment options in patients with incarceration and strangulation, with low mortality and acceptable recurrence rates. This operation can be performed especially to avoid general anesthesia in old patients with co-morbidities. We aimed to present perineal rectosigmoidectomy and diverting loop colostomy in a patient with neurological disability due to spinal trauma and incarcerated rectal prolapse. PMID:27528816

  19. Suspension biomechanics of swimming microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organisms play a vital role in many biological, medical and engineering phenomena. Some recent research efforts have demonstrated the importance of biomechanics in understanding certain aspects of micro-organism behaviours such as locomotion and collective motions of cells. In particular, spatio-temporal coherent structures found in a bacterial suspension have been the focus of many research studies over the last few years. Recent studies have shown that macroscopic properties of a suspension, such as rheology and diffusion, are strongly affected by meso-scale flow structures generated by swimming microbes. Since the meso-scale flow structures are strongly affected by the interactions between microbes, a bottom-up strategy, i.e. from a cellular level to a continuum suspension level, represents the natural approach to the study of a suspension of swimming microbes. In this paper, we first provide a summary of existing biomechanical research on interactions between a pair of swimming micro-organisms, as a two-body interaction is the simplest many-body interaction. We show that interactions between two nearby swimming micro-organisms are described well by existing mathematical models. Then, collective motions formed by a group of swimming micro-organisms are discussed. We show that some collective motions of micro-organisms, such as coherent structures of bacterial suspensions, are satisfactorily explained by fluid dynamics. Lastly, we discuss how macroscopic suspension properties are changed by the microscopic characteristics of the cell suspension. The fundamental knowledge we present will be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the behaviour of micro-organisms. PMID:19674997

  20. 33 CFR 158.178 - Actions during a suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE General Suspension... after the suspension becomes effective. (b) After the suspension is in effect, the COTP may—...

  1. Surgical Correction of Rectal Prolapse in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Wilding, Laura A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is a common clinical problem in laboratory mice. This condition may occur spontaneously, develop after genetic manipulations, result from infections with pathogens such as Citrobacter species, or arise secondary to experimental design such as colitis models. The current standard of care at our institution is limited to monitoring mice until tissue becomes ulcerated or necrotic; this strategy often leads to premature euthanasia of valuable animals prior to the study endpoint. Surgical correction of rectal prolapse is performed routinely and with minimal complications in larger species by using manual reduction with placement of a pursestring suture. In this report, we investigated whether the use of a pursestring suture was an effective treatment for mice with rectal prolapse. The procedure includes anesthetizing mice with isoflurane, manually reducing prolapsed tissue, and placing a pursestring suture of 4-0 polydioxanone. We have performed this procedure successfully in 12 mice. Complications included self-trauma, fecal impaction due to lack of defecation, and mutilation of the surgical site by cage mates. Singly housing mice for 7 d postoperatively, applying multimodal analgesia, and releasing the pursestring when indicated eliminated these complications. The surgical repair of rectal prolapses in mice is a minimally invasive procedure that resolves the clinical symptoms of affected animals and reduces the number of mice that are euthanized prematurely prior to the study endpoint.

  2. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  3. Visual diagnosis: Rectal foreign body: A primer for emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present a case that is occasionally seen within emergency departments, namely a rectal foreign body. After presentation of the case, a discussion concerning this entity is given, with practical information on necessity of an accurate and thorough history and removal of the object for clinicians. PMID:22152071

  4. The flexible implant in treatment of rectal carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Vider, M.; Lim, N.; Ditlow, R. Jr.; Au, F.; Gennaro, A.R.

    1982-07-01

    A modified technique for removable afterloading Iridium-192 implantation is described. Under local or general anesthesia, a series of flexible tygone tubes are introduced into all the tumor area in the rectum. This technique is especially suitable for palliation in high-risk, elderly patients. No rectal tube is necessary in this technique.

  5. Rectal angiolipoma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kacar, Sabite; Kuran, Sedef; Temucin, Tulay; Odemis, Bulent; Karadeniz, Nilufer; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2007-03-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare vascular variant of the benign lipomatous tumors and is generally seen in subcutaneous tissues. We report a 70-year-old female with abdominal distension not related to rectal small polypoid mass with peduncule described as angiolipoma by histologically, and review the literature.

  6. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  7. Influence of Rectal Decompression on Abdominal Symptoms and Anorectal Physiology following Colonoscopy in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Lei, Wei-Yi; Hung, Jui-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postcolonoscopy abdominal discomfort and bloating are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rectal decompression improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms and influenced anorectal physiology. Methods. In 15 healthy subjects, rectal distension was achieved by direct air inflation into the rectum by colonoscopy. Placement of rectal and sham tube was then performed in each subject on a separate occasion. The anorectal parameters and distension-induced abdominal symptoms were recorded. Results. Anorectal parameters were similar between placements of rectal tube and sham tube except for greater rectal compliance with rectal tube than with sham tube (P < 0.05). Abdominal pain and bloating were significantly reduced by rectal tube and sham tube at 1 minute (both P < 0.05) and 3 minutes (both P < 0.05). After placement of rectal tube, abdominal pain at 3 minutes correlated positively with first sensation (r = 0.53, P = 0.04), and bloating at 3 minutes also correlated positively with urge sensation (r = 0.55, P = 0.03). Conclusions. Rectal decompression with either rectal or sham tube improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms. Our study indicates that the mechanisms that improved abdominal symptoms by rectal decompression might be mediated by a central pathway instead of a peripheral mechanism.

  8. The Expression Level and Prognostic Value of Y-Box Binding Protein-1 in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ping-Wu; Feng, Gang; Xie, Gang; Wang, An-Qun; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to simultaneously evaluate the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in non-neoplastic rectal tissue and rectal cancer tissue, and to collect clinical follow-up data for individual patients. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the developmental functions and prognostic value of YB-1 in rectal cancer. We performed immunohistochemical studies to examine YB-1 expression in tissue samples from 80 patients with rectal cancer, 30 patients with rectal tubular adenoma, and 30 patients with rectitis. The mean YB-1 histological scores for rectal cancer, rectal tubular adenoma, and rectitis tissue specimens were 205.5, 164.3, and 137.7, respectively. Shorter disease-free and overall survival times were found in patients with rectal cancer who had higher YB-1 expression than in those with lower expression (38.2 months vs. 52.4 months, P = 0.013; and 44.4 months vs. 57.3 months, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results indicate that YB-1 expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in rectal tubular adenoma and rectitis tissue and that it may be an independent prognostic factor for rectal cancer. PMID:25790262

  9. Influence of Rectal Decompression on Abdominal Symptoms and Anorectal Physiology following Colonoscopy in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Lei, Wei-Yi; Hung, Jui-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Postcolonoscopy abdominal discomfort and bloating are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rectal decompression improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms and influenced anorectal physiology. Methods. In 15 healthy subjects, rectal distension was achieved by direct air inflation into the rectum by colonoscopy. Placement of rectal and sham tube was then performed in each subject on a separate occasion. The anorectal parameters and distension-induced abdominal symptoms were recorded. Results. Anorectal parameters were similar between placements of rectal tube and sham tube except for greater rectal compliance with rectal tube than with sham tube (P < 0.05). Abdominal pain and bloating were significantly reduced by rectal tube and sham tube at 1 minute (both P < 0.05) and 3 minutes (both P < 0.05). After placement of rectal tube, abdominal pain at 3 minutes correlated positively with first sensation (r = 0.53, P = 0.04), and bloating at 3 minutes also correlated positively with urge sensation (r = 0.55, P = 0.03). Conclusions. Rectal decompression with either rectal or sham tube improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms. Our study indicates that the mechanisms that improved abdominal symptoms by rectal decompression might be mediated by a central pathway instead of a peripheral mechanism. PMID:27651788

  10. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  11. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  12. Improved All-Terrain Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    Redesigned suspension system for all-terrain vehicle exhibits enhanced ability to negotiate sand and rocks. Improved six-wheel suspension system includes only two links on each side. Bogie tends to pull rear wheels with it as it climbs. Designed for rover vehicle for exploration of Mars, also has potential application in off-road vehicles, military scout vehicles, robotic emergency vehicles, and toys. Predecessors of suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354), "Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System" (NPO-17407), and "High-Clearance Six-Wheel Suspension" (NPO-17821).

  13. Factors affecting rectal temperature measurement using commonly available digital thermometers.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jonathan M; Streeter, Renee M; Torgerson, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95±0.05°C (mean±1 SE, n=53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5°C lower, 38.46±0.07°C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77±0.06°C; these are significantly higher than with the student's initial technique and closer to those obtained with a Cornell thermometer. In a series of 53 water bath tests, student owned thermometers recorded similar mean values to those of a traceable (reference) digital thermometer, Cornell mercury thermometer readings were 0.2°C higher. 10 individual digital thermometers were repeatedly tested against a traceable thermometer in a water bath, one was inaccurate. In a separate experiment a trained clinician tested the effect of angle of insertion of a digital thermometer on temperature readings and the affect was <0.1°C. We conclude that accurate temperature measurements using digital thermometers are only likely if the thermometer is inserted to the beginning of the window and the thermometer's accuracy is checked periodically.

  14. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1 : 3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:26521849

  15. Electrostatic Suspension Using Variable Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takaaki; Tsukada, Shinya; Ishino, Yuji; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi

    A new control system for electrostatic actuators was applied to electrostatic suspension. This control system was designed to use a variable capacitor connected with an electrostatic actuator in series. A high voltage was applied to this connection. The voltage applied to the actuator was controlled by varying the capacitance of the variable capacitor. An experimental apparatus was fabricated in order to study the controllability of electrostatic force using this control system. The experimental results show that electrostatic force can be controlled both statically and dynamically. Another experimental apparatus was fabricated for demonstrating the feasibility of electrostatic suspension. This apparatus was able to control the 3-DOF vertical motions of the suspended object. Non-contact suspension was achieved with the developed control system using variable capacitors.

  16. Gravitational Instability in Suspension Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpen, Ileana C.; Brady, John F.

    2002-01-01

    The gravity-driven flow of non-neutrally buoyant suspensions is shown to be unstable to spanwise perturbations when the shearing motion generates a density profile that increases with height. The instability is simply due to having heavier material over light. The wavelength of the perturbation is found to be on the order of the thickness of the suspension layer. The parameters important to the problem are the angle of inclination of the layer relative to gravity, the relative density difference between the particles and fluid, the ratio of the particle size to the suspension layer, and the bulk volume fraction of particles. An example showing the growth rate as a function of wave number is shown.

  17. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  18. Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.

  19. Airfoil flutter model suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel suspension system for testing flutter models under various loads and at various angles of attack is described. The invention comprises a mounting bracket assembly affixing the suspension system to the wind tunnel, a drag-link assembly and a compound spring arrangement comprises a plunge spring working in opposition to a compressive spring so as to provide a high stiffness to trim out steady state loads and simultaneously a low stiffness to dynamic loads. By this arrangement an airfoil may be tested for oscillatory response in both plunge and pitch modes while being held under high lifting loads in a wind tunnel.

  20. Turning Bacteria Suspensions into Superfluids.

    PubMed

    López, Héctor Matías; Gachelin, Jérémie; Douarche, Carine; Auradou, Harold; Clément, Eric

    2015-07-10

    The rheological response under simple shear of an active suspension of Escherichia coli is determined in a large range of shear rates and concentrations. The effective viscosity and the time scales characterizing the bacterial organization under shear are obtained. In the dilute regime, we bring evidence for a low-shear Newtonian plateau characterized by a shear viscosity decreasing with concentration. In the semidilute regime, for particularly active bacteria, the suspension displays a "superfluidlike" transition where the viscous resistance to shear vanishes, thus showing that, macroscopically, the activity of pusher swimmers organized by shear is able to fully overcome the dissipative effects due to viscous loss.

  1. Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...

  2. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  3. The Prognostic Value of Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Patients with Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Woo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Sung Jin; Park, Jong Kwon; Yu, Hyeon; Ahn, Min Sung; Bae, Ki Beom; Hong, Kwan Hee; Ji, Yong Il

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic influence of circumferential resection margin (CRM) status in extraperitoneal rectal cancer probably differs from that of intraperitoneal rectal cancer because of its different anatomical and biological behaviors. However, previous reports have not provided the data focused on extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the CRM status in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 248 patients were treated for extraperitoneal rectal cancer and enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Extraperitoneal rectal cancer was defined based on tumors located below the anterior peritoneal reflection, as determined intraoperatively by a surgeon. Cox model was used for multivariate analysis to examine risk factors of recurrence and mortality in the 248 patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence and mortality in 135 patients with T3 rectal cancer. CRM involvement for extraperitoneal rectal cancer was present in 29 (11.7%) of the 248 patients, and was the identified predictor of local recurrence, overall recurrence, and death by multivariate Cox analysis. In the 135 patients with T3 cancer, CRM involvement was found to be associated with higher probability of local recurrence and mortality. In extraperitoneal rectal cancer, CRM involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence and survival. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer is considered an indicator for (neo)adjuvant therapy rather than conventional TN status.

  4. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.

  5. Suspense at the Ballot Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Nat; Kretchmar, Matt

    2013-01-01

    In the popular television show "Survivor", the winner of a million-dollar prize is determined in a final election, where the votes are read aloud as the winner is announced. We hypothesize that the show's producers purposely alter the order of the ballots in order to build audience suspense. We test our hypothesis using the Poisson binomial…

  6. Modeling of curvilinear suspension flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Boulay, Fabienne

    1996-11-01

    The curvilinear parallel-plate and cone-and-plate rheometric flows of monodisperse noncolloidal suspensions have been modeled. Although nonuniform in shear rate, dotγ, the parallel-plate flow has been shown experimentally(A. W. Chow, S. W. Sinton, J. H. Iwayima & T. S. Stephens 1994 Phys. Fluids) 6, 2561. not to exhibit particle migration, contrary to predictions of prior suspension-flow modeling. Predictions of nonuniform particle volume fraction, φ, by the suspension-balance model(P. R. Nott & J. F. Brady 1994 J. Fluid Mech.) 275, 157. for parallel-plate and cone-and-plate flow without normal stress differences are presented. The ``nonmigration'' in parallel-plate flow may be attributed to bulk suspension normal stress differences: assuming the bulk stress has the form Σ ~ η dotγ Q(φ) with η the fluid viscosity, nonmigration is predicted for parallel-plate flow provided that Q_33 = (1/2) Q_11 at the bulk φ of interest, with 1 the flow direction and 3 the vorticity direction. Extending the model to include normal stress differences satisfying this requirement, a range of migration behavior is predicted for the cone-and-plate flow depending upon the ratio Q_11/Q_22.

  7. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, C.; Soto, R.

    2014-07-01

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies.

  8. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  9. Large gap magnetic suspension system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Eyssa, Y. M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a large gap magnetic suspension system is discussed. Some of the topics covered include: the system configuration, permanent magnet material, levitation magnet system, superconducting magnets, resistive magnets, superconducting levitation coils, resistive levitation coils, levitation magnet system, and the nitrogen cooled magnet system.

  10. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  11. Mathematics in Use: Suspension Bridges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginther, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the mathematics utilized in the design and construction of suspension bridges, in general, then illustrates these mathematical concepts by examining data associated with the Mackinac Bridge, which connects the two peninsulas of Michigan. Emphasizes the strong interest factor these gigantic structures have for students by attaching a sense…

  12. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  13. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning-a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates-is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates. PMID:27636496

  14. Casimir effect in swimmer suspensions.

    PubMed

    Parra-Rojas, C; Soto, R

    2014-07-01

    We show that the Casimir effect can emerge in microswimmer suspensions. In principle, two effects conspire against the development of Casimir effects in swimmer suspensions. First, at low Reynolds number, the force on any closed volume vanishes, but here the relevant effect is the drag by the flow produced by the swimmers, which can be finite. Second, the fluid velocity and the pressure are linear on the swimmer force dipoles, and averaging over the swimmer orientations would lead to a vanishing effect. However, being that the suspension is a discrete system, the noise terms of the coarse-grained equations depend on the density, which itself fluctuates, resulting in effective nonlinear dynamics. Applying the tools developed for other nonequilibrium systems to general coarse-grained equations for swimmer suspensions, the Casimir drag is computed on immersed objects, and it is found to depend on the correlation function between the rescaled density and dipolar density fields. By introducing a model correlation function with medium-range order, explicit expressions are obtained for the Casimir drag on a body. When the correlation length is much larger than the microscopic cutoff, the average drag is independent of the correlation length, with a range that depends only on the size of the immersed bodies.

  15. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1630 - Oxfendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxfendazole suspension. 520.1630 Section 520.1630... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1630 Oxfendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains: (1) 90.6 milligrams (mg) oxfendazole...

  20. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension....

  1. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension....

  2. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension....

  3. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  4. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  5. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  6. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a...

  7. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25... NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The guide... the interests of the Government. A full report of the facts attending each suspension will be made...

  8. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension....

  9. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension....

  10. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension....

  11. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS, 31 CFR 903.1-903.2 ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20...

  12. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  13. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  16. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Fine, Limitation, Suspension and Termination Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend...

  17. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  18. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  19. 45 CFR 1623.4 - Suspension procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension procedures. 1623.4 Section 1623.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.4 Suspension procedures. (a) When the Corporation has made a proposed determination,...

  20. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  1. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension....

  2. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension....

  3. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Fine, Limitation, Suspension and Termination Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend...

  4. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  5. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  6. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive Orders 12549 and 12689). Suspension of a recipient is... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670...

  7. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  8. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  9. 45 CFR 1623.4 - Suspension procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension procedures. 1623.4 Section 1623.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION SUSPENSION PROCEDURES § 1623.4 Suspension procedures. (a) When the Corporation has made a proposed determination,...

  10. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth in the FCCS, 31 CFR 903.1-903.2 ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20...

  11. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action...

  12. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  13. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  14. 29 CFR 4281.41 - Benefit suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benefit suspensions. 4281.41 Section 4281.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION... WITHDRAWAL Benefit Suspensions § 4281.41 Benefit suspensions. If the plan sponsor determines that the plan...

  15. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  16. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension....

  17. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  18. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis...

  19. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  20. 29 CFR 4281.41 - Benefit suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benefit suspensions. 4281.41 Section 4281.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION... WITHDRAWAL Benefit Suspensions § 4281.41 Benefit suspensions. If the plan sponsor determines that the plan...

  1. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits...

  2. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxibendazole suspension. 520.1640 Section 520.1640... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1640 Oxibendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 10 percent oxibendazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000069 in §...

  4. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension....

  5. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action...

  6. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  7. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  8. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  9. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  10. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  11. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension....

  12. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension....

  13. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension....

  14. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  15. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  16. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  17. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  18. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  19. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  20. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension....

  1. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  2. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension....

  3. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  4. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  5. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by...

  6. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension....

  7. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  8. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a...

  9. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suspended, in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a...

  10. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  12. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  13. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  14. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension....

  15. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxibendazole suspension. 520.1640 Section 520.1640... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1640 Oxibendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 10 percent oxibendazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000069 in §...

  16. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension....

  17. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension....

  18. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension....

  19. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension....

  20. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  1. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  2. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  3. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  4. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  5. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency...

  6. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension....

  7. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension....

  8. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  9. 12 CFR 367.7 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspensions. 367.7 Section 367.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SUSPENSION AND EXCLUSION OF CONTRACTOR AND TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS § 367.7 Suspensions. (a) The Ethics Counselor...

  10. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation for procurement contracts (48 CFR part 9... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal...

  11. Alternatives to Suspensions: Rationale and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Jenna K.; Dowdy, Erin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Rime, W. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Suspensions are often used as an individual disciplinary consequence in attempts to reduce problem behaviors in the future. However, suspensions have shown to be less effective for students with specific behavioral challenges and problems. When examining suspensions in the context of behaviorist and social-ecological learning theories, suspending…

  12. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension....

  13. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  14. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  15. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  16. Flow properties of suspensions rich in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, W. P.; Gay, E. C.; Nelson, P. A.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical evaluation of flow properties of fluids carrying high concentrations of solids in suspension relates suspension viscosity to physical properties of the solids and liquids, and provides a means for predicting flow behavior. A technique for calculating a suspensions flow rates is applicable to the design of pipelines.

  17. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pressure regulator valve shall not allow air into the suspension system until at least 55 psi is in the... greater than 3 psi in a 5-minute time period when the vehicle's air pressure gauge shows normal operating pressure. (g) Air suspension exhaust controls. The air suspension exhaust controls must not have...

  18. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure regulator valve shall not allow air into the suspension system until at least 55 psi is in the... greater than 3 psi in a 5-minute time period when the vehicle's air pressure gauge shows normal operating pressure. (g) Air suspension exhaust controls. The air suspension exhaust controls must not have...

  19. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pressure regulator valve shall not allow air into the suspension system until at least 55 psi is in the... greater than 3 psi in a 5-minute time period when the vehicle's air pressure gauge shows normal operating pressure. (g) Air suspension exhaust controls. The air suspension exhaust controls must not have...

  20. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pressure regulator valve shall not allow air into the suspension system until at least 55 psi is in the... greater than 3 psi in a 5-minute time period when the vehicle's air pressure gauge shows normal operating pressure. (g) Air suspension exhaust controls. The air suspension exhaust controls must not have...

  1. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pressure regulator valve shall not allow air into the suspension system until at least 55 psi is in the... greater than 3 psi in a 5-minute time period when the vehicle's air pressure gauge shows normal operating pressure. (g) Air suspension exhaust controls. The air suspension exhaust controls must not have...

  2. Part A: Hydrocarbon Suspension in Slush Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sindt, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of preparing suspensions of a hydrocarbon in slush hydrogen for nuclear fuel element corrosion inhibition in rocket engines were investigated. Suspensions were prepared using approximately 5000 ppm by mass of methane, ethane, or cyclopropane in slush hydrogen. The suspensions were stable in the slush, but the hydrocarbons settled out of the liquid melt.

  3. Engineering of Novel Biocolloid Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. A.; Rodges, S.; Hiddessen, A.; Weitz, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions are materials with a variety of uses from cleaners and lubricants to food, cosmetics, and coatings. In addition, they can be used as a tool for testing the fundamental tenets of statistical physics. Colloidal suspensions can be synthesized from a wide variety of materials, and in the form of monodisperse particles, which can self-assemble into highly ordered colloidal crystal structures. As such they can also be used as templates for the construction of highly ordered materials. Materials design of colloids has, to date, relied on entropic self-assembly, where crystals form as result of lower free energy due to a transition to order. Here, our goal is to develop a completely new method for materials fabrication using colloidal precursors, in which the self-assembly of the ordered colloidal structures is driven by a highly controllable, attractive interaction. This will greatly increase the range of potential structures that can be fabricated with colloidal particles. In this work, we demonstrate that colloidal suspensions can be crosslinked through highly specific biological crosslinking reactions. In particular, the molecules we use are protein-carbohydrate interactions derived from the immune system. This different driving force for self-assembly will yield different and novel suspensions structures. Because the biological interactions are heterotypic (A binding to B), this chemical system can be used to make binary alloys in which the two colloid subpopulations vary in some property - size, density, volume fraction, magnetic susceptibility, etc. An additional feature of these molecules which is unique - even within the realm of biological recognition - is that the molecules bind reversibly on reasonable time-scales, which will enable the suspension to sample different configurations, and allow us to manipulate and measure the size of the suspension dynamically. Because of the wide variety of structures that can be made from these novel

  4. Dose Constraint for Minimizing Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding Following Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Rectal Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of 457 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ohashi, Toshio; Toya, Kazuhito; Seki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kayo; Kaneda, Tomoya; Saito, Shiro; Nishiyama, Toru; Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rectal tolerance to Grade 2 rectal bleeding after I-125 seed brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), based on the rectal dose-volume histogram. Methods and Materials: A total of 458 consecutive patients with stages T1 to T3 prostate cancer received combined modality treatment consisting of I-125 seed implantation followed by EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prescribed doses of brachytherapy and EBRT were 100 Gy and 45 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively. The rectal dosimetric factors were analyzed for rectal volumes receiving >100 Gy and >150 Gy (R100 and R150) during brachytherapy and for rectal volumes receiving >30 Gy to 40 Gy (V30-V40) during EBRT therapy in 373 patients for whom datasets were available. The patients were followed from 21 to 72 months (median, 45 months) after the I-125 seed implantation. Results: Forty-four patients (9.7%) developed Grade 2 rectal bleeding. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), R100 (p = 0.002), and V30 (p = 0.001) were identified as risk factors for Grade 2 rectal bleeding. The rectal bleeding rate increased as the R100 increased: 5.0% (2/40 patients) for 0 ml; 7.5% (20/267 patients) for >0 to 0.5 ml; 11.0% (11/100 patients) for >0.5 to 1 ml; 17.9% (5/28 patients) for >1 to 1.5 ml; and 27.3% (6/22 patients) for >1.5 ml (p = 0.014). Grade 2 rectal bleeding developed in 6.4% (12/188) of patients with a V30 {<=}35% and in 14.1% (26/185) of patients with a V30 >35% (p = 0.02). When these dose-volume parameters were considered in combination, the Grade 2 rectal bleeding rate was 4.2% (5/120 patients) for a R100 {<=}0.5 ml and a V30 {<=}35%, whereas it was 22.4% (13/58 patients) for R100 of >0.5 ml and V30 of >35%. Conclusion: The risk of rectal bleeding was found to be significantly volume-dependent in patients with prostate cancer who received combined modality treatment. Rectal dose-volume analysis is a practical method for predicting the risk of development of

  5. Characteristics of Students Who Reenroll after Serving a Disciplinary Suspension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimpson, Matthew T.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if students who reenroll following a disciplinary suspension had significant common characteristics. Gender, GPA at time of suspension, class status at time of suspension, type of violation(s) that resulted in suspension, number of disciplinary incidents prior to suspension, and length of suspension were…

  6. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Yasuyuki Kariya, Shuji Nakatani, Miyuki Yoshida, Rie Kono, Yumiko Kan, Naoki Ueno, Yutaka Komemushi, Atsushi Tanigawa, Noboru

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  7. Anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh for rectal prolapse and incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sainio, A P; Halme, L E; Husa, A I

    1991-10-01

    Seventeen selected patients (mean age, 74 years)--14 with rectal prolapse and 3 with persisting anal incontinence after previous operations--underwent high anal encirclement with polypropylene mesh. There was no operative mortality. Prolapse recurred in 2 (15 percent) of the 13 patients followed up for 6 months or more (mean, 3.5 years). Three (27 percent) of the 11 patients with associated anal incontinence improved functionally, as did the three operated on for persisting incontinence, but only one patient regained normal continence. No breakage, cutting out, or infection related to the mesh was observed. Because of the risk of fecal impaction encountered in three of our patients, the procedure is not advocated for severely constipated patients. Despite the somewhat disappointing results regarding restoration of continence, we find this method useful in patients with rectal prolapse who are unfit for more extensive surgery, in controlling the prolapse to an acceptable degree. PMID:1914725

  8. Clinical results of abdominal rectopexy for rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K M; Matikainen, M

    1991-01-01

    Abdominal Marlex-mesh rectopexy was used for surgical treatment of rectal prolapse in 54 consecutive patients. Anal incontinence was observed in 43 patients (80%) before surgical treatment. The degree of anal incontinence was more severe in women as compared with men. Operative treatment corrected the pathologic anatomy effectively as only one recurrent prolapse developed. At the follow-up examination three patients had symptomless anal mucosal prolapse during maximal straining. 75% of the incontinent patients regained continence for faeces and the rest had some improvement in continence. Seventeen patients (31%) had postoperative constipation, that required lactulose treatment. In conclusion, abdominal Marlex-mesh rectopexy can be recommended as safe and effective treatment for rectal prolapse, despite some patients developing constipation and some remaining incontinent. PMID:1759794

  9. Personalized surgery for rectal tumours: the patient's opinion counts.

    PubMed

    Audisio, R A; Filiberti, A; Geraghty, J G; Andreoni, B

    1997-01-01

    In recent times there have been many important changes in the surgical management of rectal cancer. The general thrust of these changes has been towards a less invasive approach with preservation of intestinal continuity and avoidance of the psychological sequelae of a stoma. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that profound sexual and autonomic dysfunction can be associated with abdominoperineal resection. This paper highlights these issues and the conflict between performing an adequate oncological procedure and reducing the incidence of postoperative psychological morbidity. It outlines the great changes there have been in surgical technique and their relevance to psychological problems after surgery for rectal cancer. The need for auditing psychological morbidity when assessing the outcome of surgical series is emphasised, as is the importance of involving the patient in the medical decision making.

  10. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: exploring possible management options.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Turker; Canbay, Emel; Yamaner, Sumer; Gulluoglu, Mine; Bugra, Dursun

    2011-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare condition with various causes that results in ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical findings, diagnosis, and outcomes of treatment in patients with SRUS. Between 1992 and 2006, a retrospective review was undertaken for all patients diagnosed with SRUS. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with SRUS. Among patients with paradoxic rectal spasm (PRS), lesions disappeared in 1 of 3 given applied biofeedback treatment, and in 2 of 4 injected with Botulinum toxin (Botox). Twenty-three patients underwent appropriate surgical treatment. Overall, postoperative improvement was seen in 18 patients (78.2%). In conclusion, every patient with SRUS must be assessed for causative disease. Treatment should include conservative approaches such as Botox injection; in patients with pelvic floor disorders, surgical treatment should be considered.

  11. Wild Banana Seed Phytobezoar Rectal Impaction Causing Intestinal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Heng, Sophia Si Ling; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Tan, Yew Eng; Chong, Hock Chin

    2016-08-01

    Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification. PMID:27574355

  12. [Novel techniques in the treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Rautio, Tero; Kairaluoma, Matti; Sand, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the eighth and tenth most common kind of cancer in men and women, respectively, with an increasing frequency of occurrence. Together with cancer of the large intestine it forms the third most common cancer entity. Surgical therapy is the most important form of treatment of rectal cancer; in combination with adjuvant therapy it will cure a significant proportion of the patients and provide relief for tumor-induced hemorrhagic and obstructive symptoms. The operation has usually been conducted as an open surgery with the use of simple instruments. In recent times, the operative techniques have become more versatile, and mini-invasive techniques have resulted in quicker recovery of the patients from the operation. PMID:27483632

  13. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  14. Efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 μg rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

  15. Delorme's operation and sphincteroplasty for rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pescatori, M; Interisano, A; Stolfi, V M; Zoffoli, M

    1998-01-01

    Clinical and manometric results of Delorme's operation and sphincteroplasty were assessed retrospectively in patients undergoing this procedure for fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. A series of 33 patients (11 males, 22 females; aged 18-83 years, mean 59) with external rectal prolapse were treated by Delorme's operation between 1989 and 1996. Mean follow-up was 39 months (range 7-84). Sphincteroplasty was associated in 12 cases with severe fecal incontinence due to striated muscle defects. Good results were achieved in 27 patients (79%); prolapse recurrence was observed in 6 (21%), the mean recurrence time being 9 months (range 1-24 months). There were no postoperative deaths. Minor complications occurred in 15 patients. Changes in preoperative and postoperative manometric patterns were as follows (mean +/- SEM): voluntary contraction from 59 +/- 6.9 to 66 +/- 7.1 mmHg (P = 0.05), resting tone from 33 +/- 5 to 32 +/- 4.3 mmHg, rectal sensation from 59 +/- 5 to 61 +/- 5.2 ml of air (n.s.). A solitary rectal ulcer syndrome was detected in five patients. The histological pattern demonstrated pathological changes in 40% of cases. Fecal incontinence was resolved in 6 of 20 cases (30%) and chronic constipation in 4 of 9 (44%). Failure (n = 3) was related primarily to postoperative sepsis. The incontinence score showed a mean improvement of 35% decreasing, from 4.5 +/- 0.39 to 2.9 +/- 0.44 after surgery (P < 0.01). In conclusion, Delorme's procedure did not lead to constipation and improved anal continence when associated with sphincteroplasty.

  16. Rectal prolapse in children: a study of 71 cases

    PubMed Central

    Askarpour, Shahnam; Peyvasteh, Mehran; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Mooghehi-Nezhad, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prolapse of the rectum is the herniation of the rectum through the anus, which may be categorised as mucosal or complete. Aim To evaluate the clinical manifestation, treatment, and surgical complications of children with rectal prolapse over a 6-year period. Material and methods This study was carried out on children aged < 14 years who were admitted or referred for rectal prolapse that failed to respond after medical treatment in Imam Khomeini and Abouzar Children's Hospital. Duration of the study was 6 years starting in March 2002. These cases were referred after failure of medical and conservative treatment. Age, sex, clinical manifestation, and type of procedure were recorded. Analysis was done using SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). The χ2 test was used for comparison. Results Seventy-one cases were included in this study. Of these cases, 50 (70.4%) were male and 21 (29.6%) were female (p < 0.0001). Mean age of cases was 4.97 ±3.42 years (range: 2 days to 13 years). Of the male cases, 38% were in the age range of 3–6 years. In female cases, 57.1% were in the range of 1.5–3 years. Of all 71 cases, injection sclerotherapy was done for 50 (70.43%) for the first time. Twenty-one cases had history of injection sclerotherapy and 16 (22.53%) were treated by perineal surgery, and 5 (7.04%) had abdominal surgery. One case experienced recurrent rectal prolapse (1.40%) following injection sclerotherapy. Conclusions In girls, more than half of the cases were in the age range 1.5–3 years. Among male cases, 38% were in the age range of 1.5–3 years. The results of treatment of rectal prolapse in our hospitals was similar to that seen in developed countries. PMID:26557942

  17. Changing approaches to rectal prolapse repair in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Poylin, Vitaliy; Bensley, Rodney; Nagle, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The abdominal approach to rectal prolapse is associated with lower rates of recurrence but a higher chance of complications and has been traditionally reserved for younger patients. However, longer life expectancy and wider use of laparoscopic techniques necessitates another look at the abdominal approach in older patients. Methods: This was a retrospective review of data from patients undergoing abdominal repair of rectal prolapse between 2005 and 2011. Results: Forty-six abdominal repairs (laparoscopic or open suture rectopexy, sigmoidectomy and rectopexy and low anterior resection) were performed during the study period. Twenty-nine repairs (63%) were performed in patients under the age of 70 (average age 51) and 17 (37%) in patients older than 70 (average age 76; range 71–89). Most of the cases performed during the initial 3 years of the study were via laparotomy. However, in the last 4 years, the laparoscopic approach was used in 83% of younger patients and 69% of older patients. Average length of stay was 2.6 days for younger and 3.8 days for older patients. Both groups had similar rates of re-admission: 20% vs 23%. The rate of wound infection was higher in the younger patients (5% vs nil). However, rates of urinary tract infection, two instances (10%) vs four (30%), urinary retention, one instance (5%) vs two (15.4%), ileus, one instance (5%) vs two (15.4%) were higher in the older group. Conclusion: Wider use of laparoscopy has precipitated a change in the approach to rectal prolapse in older patients. Although associated with a slightly higher rate of post-operative complications, the abdominal approach to rectal prolapse is feasible, safe and effective in patients older than 70 years. PMID:24759966

  18. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the 'gold standard.' However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers-a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer-with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets.

  19. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  20. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the 'gold standard.' However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers-a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer-with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  1. Local staging of rectal cancer: the current role of MRI

    PubMed Central

    Rogalla, Patrik; Taupitz, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of powerful gradient coil systems and high-resolution surface coils, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently extended its role in the staging of rectal cancer. MRI is superior to endorectal ultrasound, the most widely used staging modality in patients with rectal tumors, in that it visualizes not only the intestinal wall but also the surrounding pelvic anatomy. The crucial advantage of MRI is not that it enables exact T-staging but precise evaluation of the topographic relationship of a tumor to the mesorectal fascia. This fascia is the most important anatomic landmark for the feasibility of total mesorectal excision, which has evolved into the standard operative procedure for the resection of cancer located in the middle or lower third of the rectum. MRI is currently the only imaging modality that is highly accurate in predicting whether or not it is likely that a tumor-free margin can be achieved and thus provides important information for planning of an effective therapeutic strategy, especially in patients with advanced rectal cancer. PMID:17008990

  2. Critical appraisal of laparoscopic vs open rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Winson Jianhong; Chew, Min Hoe; Dharmawan, Angela Renayanti; Singh, Manraj; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tang, Choong Leong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term clinical and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic rectal resection (LRR) and the impact of conversion in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: An analysis was performed on a prospective database of 633 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection. Patients were compared in three groups: Open surgery (OP), laparoscopic surgery, and converted laparoscopic surgery. Short-term outcomes, long-term outcomes, and survival analysis were compared. RESULTS: Among 633 patients studied, 200 patients had successful laparoscopic resections with a conversion rate of 11.1% (25 out of 225). Factors predictive of survival on univariate analysis include the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.016), together with factors such as age, ASA status, stage of disease, tumor grade, presence of perineural invasion and vascular emboli, circumferential resection margin < 2 mm, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival benefit of laparoscopic surgery was no longer significant on multivariate analysis (P = 0.148). Neither 5-year overall survival (70.5% vs 61.8%, P = 0.217) nor 5-year cancer free survival (64.3% vs 66.6%, P = 0.854) were significantly different between the laparoscopic group and the converted group. CONCLUSION: LRR has equivalent long-term oncologic outcomes when compared to OP. Laparoscopic conversion does not confer a worse prognosis. PMID:27358678

  3. [Causes of local recurrence after curative surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Hôhn, József; Varga, László; Baradnay, Gellért; Simonka, Zsolt; Géczi, Tibor; Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; Maráz, Anikó; Kahán, Zsuzsa; Balogh, Adám

    2003-01-01

    The rate of local recurrence (LR) has been 20-40% after resective surgery for rectal cancer by the traditional - Miles or Dixon - operative technics. The authors performed curative resection in 358 patients with rectal cancer in a 10 year period (01.01.1990 - 31.12.2000) in the Surgical Department of Szeged University. Since 01.01.1996 the authors changed this type of surgery for the Heald technics (total mesorectal excision - TME - with sharp dissection, using the UltraCision device) for the surgical treatment of middle or lower third rectal cancer. To compare the results of the two procedures, the authors analysed their material in two periods: Period I: 01.01.1991 - 31.12.1992: 62 patients operated on with the traditional operative technics; LR 15% within 2 years after surgery. Period II: 01.01.1997 - 31.12.1998: 78 patients operated on with the Heald technics (TME with sharp dissection); LR 6.4% within 2 years after surgery. Based on their results, the authors found that the modern operative technics by Heald, used in the second period of the study, was a relevant factor decreasing LR from 15% to 6.4%, while the gender, age of the patients, ratio of the abdominoperineal extirpation versus anterior resection (APRE/AR) and the free margin of more than 3 cm proved to be irrelevant.

  4. Ostomies in rectal cancer patients: what is their psychosocial impact?

    PubMed

    Kenderian, S; Stephens, E K; Jatoi, A

    2014-05-01

    The resection of a low-lying rectal cancer can lead to the creation of an ostomy to discharge fecal material. In view of this reconfiguration of anatomy and life-changing modification of daily bodily functions, it is not surprising that a rapidly growing literature has examined ostomy patients' psychosocial challenges. The current study was designed (1) to systematically review the published literature on these psychosocial challenges and (2) to explore, in a single-institution setting, whether medical oncologists appear to acknowledge the existence of an ostomy during their post-operative evaluations of rectal cancer patients. This systematic review identified that social isolation, sleep deprivation; financial concerns; sexual inhibition; and other such issues are common among patients. Surprisingly, however, in our review of 66 consecutive rectal cancer patients, in 17%, the ostomy was not mentioned at all in the medical record during the first medical oncology visit; and, in one patient, it was never mentioned at all during months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Even in the setting of ostomy complications, the ostomy was not always mentioned. This study underscores the major psychosocial issues cancer patients confront after an ostomy and suggests that healthcare providers of all disciplines should work to remain sensitive to such issues.

  5. HOSPITAL VARIATION IN SPHINCTER PRESERVATION FOR ELDERLY RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer in elderly patients. Methods Using SEER-Medicare linked data, we identified 4,959 stage I–III rectal cancer patients over age 65 diagnosed from 2000–2005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. Results The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly rectal cancer patients. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which, combined, explained 31% of procedure variation. Conclusions Receipt of local excision is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. PMID:24750983

  6. Endocavitary irradiation for rectal cancer and villous adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalic, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    Endocavitary irradiation has been used for rectal adenocarcinoma and villous adenoma at St. Joseph's Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin since 1978. The 52 patients treated since that time include 32 patients with adenocarcinoma, 19 patients with villous adenoma, and 1 patient with an adenomatous polyp and associated atypia. The average age of these patients (70.5 years) was a full decade older than the average age of all rectal cancer patients. The treatment was administered by a superficial contact machine with most patients receiving 80 Gy over four treatments in a period of 1.5 months. The overall local recurrence rate was 24% in the cancer group and 32% in the villous adenoma group. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year determinate disease-free survival rates were 90.4%, 78.6%, 74.2% and 80.4%; 60.3%, 45.2% for invasive adenocarcinoma and villous adenoma patients, respectively. There was no mortality and very little morbidity associated with the treatment. It is concluded that endocavitary irradiation is an effective alternative to surgery for the treatment of rectal cancer in selected cases. However, villous adenomas do not respond as well. Better results may be obtained for this group of patients by higher doses than were used in this study.

  7. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5... (diazepam rectal gel) (DIASTAT), 5 milligrams (mg)/milliliter (mL), 10 mg/2 mL, 15 mg/3 mL, and 20 mg/4 mL... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for diazepam rectal gel, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/2 mL,...

  8. Limited segmental rectal resection in the treatment of deeply infiltrating rectal endometriosis: 10 years’ experience from a tertiary referral unit

    PubMed Central

    English, James; Sajid, Muhammad S.; Lo, Jenney; Hudelist, Guy; Baig, Mirza K.; Miles, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The management of symptomatic rectal endometriosis is a challenging condition that may necessitate limited stripping or limited segmental anterior rectal resection (LSARR) depending upon the extent and severity of the disease. Objective. To report the efficacy of LSARR in terms of pain, quality of life and short- and long-term complications—in particular, those pertaining to bowel function. Methods. The case notes of all patients undergoing LSARR were reviewed. The analysed variables included surgical complications, overall symptomatic improvement rate, dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, and dyschezia. Chronic pain was measured using a visual analogue scale. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Bowel symptoms were assessed using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) questionnaire. Results. Seventy-four women who underwent LSARR by both open and laparoscopic approaches were included in this study. Sixty-nine (93.2%) women reported improvement in pain and the same percentage would recommend the similar procedure to a friend with the same problem. Approximately 42% of women who wished to conceive had at least one baby. The higher frequency of defecation was a problem in the early post-operative period but this settled in later stages without influencing the quality of life score. Post-operative complications were recorded in 14.9% of cases. Conclusions. LSARR for rectal endometriosis is associated with a high degree of symptomatic relief. Pain relief achieved following LSARR does not appear to degrade with time. As anticipated, some rectal symptoms persist in few patients after long-term follow-up but LSARR is nonetheless still associated with a very high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:25146341

  9. Rectal corticosteroids versus alternative treatments in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J K; Irvine, E J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clear strategies to optimise the use of corticosteroids in ulcerative colitis are lacking. AIM: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine critically the role of rectal corticosteroids in the management of active distal ulcerative colitis. METHODS: All reported randomised controlled trials were retrieved by searching the Medline and EMBASE databases and the bibliographies of relevant studies. Trials which met inclusion criteria were assessed for scientific rigour. Data were extracted by two independent observers according to predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Of 83 trials retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios (POR) showed conventional rectal corticosteroids and rectal budesonide to be clearly superior to placebo. In seven trials, rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was significantly better than conventional rectal corticosteroids for inducing remission of symptoms, endoscopy, and histology with POR of 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.41), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.28-3.20), respectively. Rectal budesonide was of comparable efficacy to conventional corticosteroids but produced less endogenous cortisol suppression. Side effects, although inconsistently reported, were generally minor. A cost comparison of rectal preparations showed 5-ASA to be less expensive than corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal 5-ASA is superior to rectal corticosteroids in the management of distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:9245932

  10. Solitary rectal ulcer: the place of biofeedback and surgery in the treatment of the syndrome.

    PubMed

    Binnie, N R; Papachrysostomou, M; Clare, N; Smith, A N

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with the solitary rectal ulcer syndrome were studied, the majority of whom presented with fresh blood per rectum and a rectal ulcer, mucorrhoea, or a varying degree of rectal prolapse. Fourteen patients were treated conservatively or with surgery and had a high rate of recurrence of the solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. Seventeen patients were treated with biofeedback for the associated obstructed defecation (anismus) either before or immediately after surgery with a lower recurrence rate. The final symptomatic cure rate was similar in both groups but 15 episodes of recurrence requiring further surgery were encountered in the non-biofeedback group compared to 4 recurrences in the biofeedback group.

  11. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  12. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  13. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  14. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  15. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  16. Electrorheology for smart automotive suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Winkler, C. B.; Ervin, R. D.; Filisko, F. E.; Venhovens, P. J.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of the work reported was to demonstrate the suitability of electrorheological (ER) technology for adaptive control of suspension forces on tracked and wheeled vehicles. The mechanical shear strength properties of ER fluids change in response to the application of an electric field. The change is very rapid and fully reversible. This property was used to create an automotive suspension damper whose resistive force is readily controlled by an external electrical signal. The device was applied in a semiactive suspension system for the Army's high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). The work reported covers a range of development tasks including definition of the semiactive control algorithm, ER fluid formulation, design and fabrication of an ER damper, design of an electrical control circuit, creation of a quarter-HMMWV test stand for the simulation of ride vibrations, laboratory measurement of the ER-damped performance characteristics over a range of physically simulated operating conditions, and computer simulation of the quarter-HMMWV system. The research demonstrated that an ER damper and appropriate control circuits could out-perform the conventional hydraulic shock absorber, but that various complexities tend to impede broad application of electrorheology in automotive devices.

  17. Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics: Brownian Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchio, Adolfo J.; Brady, John F.

    2001-11-01

    A new Stokesian Dynamics (SD) algorithm for Brownian suspensions is presented. This implementation is based on the recently developed Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics (ASD) simulation method(Sierou, A and Brady, J. F.; J. Fluid Mech., accepted for publication.) for non-Brownian particles. As in ASD, the many-body long-range hydrodynamic interactions are computed using Fast Fourier Transforms and the resistance matrix is inverted iteratively, in order to keep the computational cost of O(N log N). A fast method for computing the Brownian forces acting on the particles is applied by splitting them into near-field and far-field contributions. For the near-field part the forces can be represented as a sum of pairwise contributions with a cost of O(N); and for the far-field part using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation for the inverse of the square root of the mobility matrix results in an order O(N^1.25 log N) computational cost. The overall scaling of the method is roughly of O(N^1.25 log N) and makes possible the simulation of larger systems, necessary for studying dynamical properties and/or polydispersity effects in colloidal suspensions. Also a faster approximate method is presented in which the far-field hydrodynamic contribution to the Brownian forces are treated in a mean-field-like fashion. The accuracy of the approximation is discussed, and results for the dynamics and rheology of Brownian suspensions are presented.

  18. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  19. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea

  20. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  1. Factors predictive of persistent or recurrent Crohn's disease in excluded rectal segments.

    PubMed

    Guillem, J G; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C; Schoetz, D J

    1992-08-01

    The fate of the excluded rectal segment after surgery for Crohn's colitis remains poorly defined. To determine prognostic factors relating to the fate of the rectal segment, records of 47 patients who underwent creation of an excluded rectal segment were studied. Disease developed in 33 patients (70 percent) in the excluded rectal segment by five years; 24 patients (51 percent) had completion proctectomy by 2.4 years; and 9 patients (19 percent) retained a rectum with disease at a median follow-up period of five years (range, 2-13 years). At a median follow-up time of six years (range, 2-21 years), 14 patients were without clinical disease. The three groups were equivalent with respect to sex, duration of preoperative disease, indication for operation, distribution of disease, and histologic involvement of the proximal rectal margin. The median age of patients in the proctectomy group at diagnosis tended to be younger than that of patients with a retained excluded rectal segment (22, 30, and 31 years for patients having proctectomy, patients with a diseased excluded rectal segment, and patients with a normal excluded rectal segment, respectively). Neither initial involvement of the terminal ileum nor endoscopic inflammatory changes seen in the rectum predicted eventual disease of the excluded rectal segment. However, initial perianal disease complicating Crohn's colitis was predictive of persistent excluded rectal segment disease and often required proctectomy. Therefore, because the presence of perianal disease and Crohn's colitis predicts persistent or recurrent excluded rectal segment disease, primary total proctocolectomy or early completion proctectomy may be indicated in this subgroup of patients.

  2. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-05-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  3. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  4. Large angle magnetic suspension text fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1995-01-01

    In lieu of a final report for this project for the period 1 April 1995 through 31 October 1995, a compilation of three reports are included herein. The three reports are: (1) 'Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Magnetic Suspension and Vernier Pointing System', (2) 'Influence of Eddy Currents on the Dynamic Characteristics of Magnetic Suspensions and Magnetic Bearings', and (3) 'Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Magnetic Suspension and Vernier Pointing System'.

  5. Causes and outcomes of emergency presentation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Comber, Harry; Sharp, Linda; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Haase, Trutz; Johnson, Howard; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Emergency presentation of rectal cancer carries a relatively poor prognosis, but the roles and interactions of causative factors remain unclear. We describe an innovative statistical approach which distinguishes between direct and indirect effects of a number of contextual, patient and tumour factors on emergency presentation and outcome of rectal cancer. All patients diagnosed with rectal cancer in Ireland 2004-2008 were included. Registry information, linked to hospital discharge data, provided data on patient demographics, comorbidity and health insurance; population density and deprivation of area of residence; tumour type, site, grade and stage; treatment type and optimality; and emergency presentation and hospital caseload. Data were modelled using a structural equation model with a discrete-time survival outcome, allowing us to estimate direct and mediated effects of the above factors on hazard, and their inter-relationships. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty patients were included in the analysis. Around 12% had emergency presentations, which increased hazard by 80%. Affluence, private patient status and being married reduced hazard indirectly by reducing emergency presentation. Older patients had more emergency presentations, while married patients, private patients or those living in less deprived areas had fewer than expected. Patients presenting as an emergency were less likely to receive optimal treatment or to have this in a high caseload hospital. Apart from stage, emergency admission was the strongest determinant of poor survival. The factors contributing to emergency admission in this study are similar to those associated with diagnostic delay. The socio-economic gradient found suggests that patient education and earlier access to endoscopic investigation for public patients could reduce emergency presentation.

  6. New approach to adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, M.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Kramer, S.

    1980-02-01

    A sandwich technique of adjuvant radiotherapy was used to treat twenty-three patients with rectal cancer. In this technique, low dose preoperative irradiation (500 rad in one treatment) was given to all patients followed by immediate surgery (usually an A-P resection); on the basis of histopathological findings, patients with stage B/sub 2/ and C rectal cancer were selectively given 4500 rad post-operative irradiation in 5 weeks. Nine patients had early lesions (stage A and B/sub 1/) and did not receive postoperative irradiation. Thirteen patients had stage B/sub 2/ and C disease and hence received the full course of postoperative irradiation. One patient was found to have liver metastasis at the time of surgery, and hence received only palliative therapy. Follow-up of these twenty-three patients ranges from 10 months to 24 months with a median follow-up of 15 months. Treatment was well-tolerated with few side effects. Only two of the twenty-two patients who were treated for cure have failed to date. Both patients had stage C/sub 2/ disease; one patient developed an anterior abdominal wall recurrence in the surgical scar 3 months post-treatment and the second patient developed brain and bone metastases. No patients have failed in the pelvis. We feel this technique of adjuvant therapy is a logical approach to the treatment of rectal cancer and has potential for improving survival. The rationale for this approach to adjuvant radiotherapy is discussed together with implications for survival.

  7. Causes and outcomes of emergency presentation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Comber, Harry; Sharp, Linda; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Haase, Trutz; Johnson, Howard; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Emergency presentation of rectal cancer carries a relatively poor prognosis, but the roles and interactions of causative factors remain unclear. We describe an innovative statistical approach which distinguishes between direct and indirect effects of a number of contextual, patient and tumour factors on emergency presentation and outcome of rectal cancer. All patients diagnosed with rectal cancer in Ireland 2004-2008 were included. Registry information, linked to hospital discharge data, provided data on patient demographics, comorbidity and health insurance; population density and deprivation of area of residence; tumour type, site, grade and stage; treatment type and optimality; and emergency presentation and hospital caseload. Data were modelled using a structural equation model with a discrete-time survival outcome, allowing us to estimate direct and mediated effects of the above factors on hazard, and their inter-relationships. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty patients were included in the analysis. Around 12% had emergency presentations, which increased hazard by 80%. Affluence, private patient status and being married reduced hazard indirectly by reducing emergency presentation. Older patients had more emergency presentations, while married patients, private patients or those living in less deprived areas had fewer than expected. Patients presenting as an emergency were less likely to receive optimal treatment or to have this in a high caseload hospital. Apart from stage, emergency admission was the strongest determinant of poor survival. The factors contributing to emergency admission in this study are similar to those associated with diagnostic delay. The socio-economic gradient found suggests that patient education and earlier access to endoscopic investigation for public patients could reduce emergency presentation. PMID:27087482

  8. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and pathological complete response in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Linda; Fichera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The management of rectal cancer has evolved significantly in the last few decades. Significant improvements in local disease control were achieved in the 1990s, with the introduction of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Level 1 evidence has shown that, with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) the rates of local recurrence can be lower than 6% and, as a result, neoadjuvant CRT currently represents the accepted standard of care. This approach has led to reliable tumor down-staging, with 15–27% patients with a pathological complete response (pCR)—defined as no residual cancer found on histological examination of the specimen. Patients who achieve pCR after CRT have better long-term outcomes, less risk of developing local or distal recurrence and improved survival. For all these reasons, sphincter-preserving procedures or organ-preserving options have been suggested, such as local excision of residual tumor or the omission of surgery altogether. Although local recurrence rate has been stable at 5–6% with this multidisciplinary management method, distal recurrence rates for locally-advanced rectal cancers remain in excess of 25% and represent the main cause of death in these patients. For this reason, more recent trials have been looking at the administration of full-dose systemic chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting (in order to offer early treatment of disseminated micrometastases, thus improving control of systemic disease) and selective use of radiotherapy only in non-responders or for low rectal tumors smaller than 5 cm. PMID:26290512

  9. Preoperative infusional chemoradiation therapy for stage T3 rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, T.A.; Skibber, J.M.; Ajani, J.A.

    1995-07-15

    To evaluate preoperative infusional chemoradiation for patients with operable rectal cancer. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy using infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (300 mg/m{sup 2}/day) together with daily irradiation (45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks) was administered to 77 patients with clinically Stage T3 rectal cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound confirmed the digital rectal exam in 63 patients. Surgery was performed approximately 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation therapy and included 25 abdominoperineal resections and 52 anal-sphincter-preserving procedures. Posttreatment tumor stages were T1-2, N0 in 35%, T3, N0 in 25%, and T1-3, N1 in 11%; 29% had no evidence of tumor. Local tumor control after chemoradiation was seen in 96% (74 out of 77); 2 patients had recurrent disease at the anastomosis site and were treated successfully with abdominoperineal resection. Overall, pelvic control was obtained in 99% (76 out of 77). The survival after chemoradiation was higher in patients without node involvement than in those having node involvement (p = n.s.). More patients with pathologic complete responses or only microscopic foci survived than did patients who had gross residual tumor (p = 0.07). The actuarial survival rate was 83% at 3 years; the median follow-up was 27 months, with a range of 3 to 68 months. Acute, perioperative, and late complications were not more numerous or more severe with chemoradiation therapy than with traditional radiation therapy (XRT) alone. Excellent treatment response allowed two-thirds of the patients to have an anal-sphincter-sparing procedure. Gross residual disease in the resected specimen indicates a poor prognosis, and therapies specifically targeting these patients may improve survival further. 22 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia Karagiannis, Georgios Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  11. Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.

    PubMed

    Igari, Yui; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno's method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henssge's parameter determination (Henssge's method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno's method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge's method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno's method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge's method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno's method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances.

  12. Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John M. Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of solid liquid suspensions

    DOEpatents

    Panetta, Paul D.

    2010-06-22

    Using an ultrasonic field, properties of a solid liquid suspension such as through-transmission attenuation, backscattering, and diffuse field are measured. These properties are converted to quantities indicating the strength of different loss mechanisms (such as absorption, single scattering and multiple scattering) among particles in the suspension. Such separation of the loss mechanisms can allow for direct comparison of the attenuating effects of the mechanisms. These comparisons can also indicate a model most likely to accurately characterize the suspension and can aid in determination of properties such as particle size, concentration, and density of the suspension.

  14. Techniques and technology evolution of rectal cancer surgery: a history of more than a hundred years.

    PubMed

    Lirici, Marco Maria; Hüscher, Cristiano G S

    2016-10-01

    History of rectal cancer surgery has shown a continuous evolution of techniques and technologies over the years, with the aim of improving both oncological outcomes and patient's quality of life. Progress in rectal cancer surgery depended on a better comprehension of the disease and its behavior, and also, it was strictly linked to advances in technologies and amazing surgical intuitions by some surgeons who pioneered in rectal surgery, and this marked a breakthrough in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Rectal surgery with radical intent was first performed by Miles in 1907 and the procedure he developed, abdomino-perineal resection, became a gold standard for many years. In the following years and over the last century other procedures were introduced which became new gold standards: Hartmann's procedure, anterior rectal resection, total mesorectal excision (TME); the last one, developed by Heald in 1982, is the present gold standard treatment of rectal cancer. At the same time, new technologies were developed and introduced into the clinical practice, which enhanced results of surgery and even made possible performing new operations: leg-rests, stapling devices, instruments, appliances and platforms for laparoscopic surgery and transanal rectal surgery. In more recent years the transanal approach to TME has been introduced, which might improve oncologic results of surgery of the rectum. Ongoing randomized studies, future systematic reviews and metanalyses will show whether the transanal approach to TME will become a new gold standard.

  15. Rectal ulcer with an elusive diagnosis: all that ulcers is not Crohn disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...

  16. Endoscopic and imaging appearance after injection of an ano-rectal bulking agent

    PubMed Central

    Papafragkakis, Haris; Changela, Kinesh; Bhatia, Taruna; Ona, Mel A; Malieckal, Anju; Paleti, Vani; Fuksbrumer, Moshe S; Anand, Sury

    2014-01-01

    The use of hyaluronic acid and dextranomer (Solesta, Salix) injection in the anal canal is an emerging modality in the treatment of fecal incontinence. However, little is known regarding the endoscopic and radiological appearance following injection of this ano-rectal bulking agent. We report computed tomography and endoscopic findings after hyaluronic acid/dextranomer injection in the ano-rectal area. PMID:25031792

  17. Laparoscopic Rectopexy for Rectal Prolapse: Will it be the Gold Standard?

    PubMed

    Shastri-Hurst, N; McArthur, D R

    2014-12-01

    A review of the current literature is presented regarding the surgical management of full thickness rectal prolapse, comparing laparoscopic rectopexy with open abdominal operations and perineal procedures. Outcome measures include length of stay, short- and long-term outcomes and financial burdens. Current evidence suggests that laparoscopic rectopexy as treatment for full thickness rectal prolapse is a safe alternative to the other options.

  18. Clarifying margins in the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer: the MERCURY experience.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Daniels, I R; Moran, B J; Wotherspoon, A; Brown, G

    2006-11-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence Study (MERCURY) was an observational prospective study involving 11 European centres, to evaluate equivalence between magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in measuring depth of tumour invasion beyond the bowel and involvement of the circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer specimens. PMID:17018303

  19. Late rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: incidence and management.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jack; Swanson, David A; Levy, Lawrence B; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Bruno, Teresa L; Frank, Steven J

    2009-05-01

    This review of the literature on late rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy indicated that it is a highly effective treatment modality for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer but can cause chronic radiation proctitis. The most common manifestation of chronic radiation proctitis was anterior rectal wall bleeding, which often occurred within the first 2 years after brachytherapy. It is interesting to note that the rates of late rectal morbidity appear to have declined over time, which may reflect improvements in implantation techniques and imaging. Rectal biopsy as part of the workup to evaluate rectal bleeding can lead to rectal fistula and the need for colostomy, a rare but major complication. The authors recommend 1) screening colonoscopy before brachytherapy for patients who have not had a screening colonoscopy within the preceding 3 years to rule out colorectal malignancies and, thus, facilitate conservative management should rectal bleeding occur; 2) lifestyle modifications during treatment to limit exposure of the rectum to radiation; and 3) conservative management for rectal bleeding that occurs within 2 years after brachytherapy. Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  20. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  1. Development of a Self-contained, Indwelling Rectal Temperature Probe for Cattle Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A device was developed to automatically monitor rectal temperature (RT) of cattle for application in research settings. Compared with manual measurement of rectal temperature, this device decreases labor and time requirements, and allows data collection without the influence of animal handling or re...

  2. SwiftLase: a new technology for char-free ablation in rectal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, David A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe layer-by-layer char-free ablation of hemorrhoids and other rectal lesions at very low CO2 laser power levels with a miniature `SwiftLaser' optomechanical flashscanner. Increased speed with excellent control, very shallow thermal damage, and less postoperative pain are the main advantages of the flashscan technology in rectal surgery.

  3. Magnetic suspension options for spacecraft inertia-wheel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Design criteria for spacecraft inertia-wheel suspensions are listed. The advantages of magnetic suspensions over other suspension types for spacecraft inertia-wheel applications are cited along with the functions performed by magnetic suspension. The common designs for magnetic suspensions are enumerated. Materials selection of permanent magnets and core materials is considered.

  4. A case of rectal Dieulafoy's ulcer and successful endoscopic sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, J; Taniai, K; Kojima, K; Kenmotsu, M; Takai, K; Okabe, T; Tanaka, N

    2000-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented a massive hematochezia 7 days after sigmoidectomy. Repeated colonoscopy and angiography failed to locate the site of bleeding and Hartman's operation was performed. Rebleeding from the rectum on the day of operation occurred and pulsate arterial bleeding with minimal surrounding ulcer 1 cm above the pectinate line was observed. Screlotherapy with ethanol and electro coagulation was successfully performed to achieve permanent hemostasis. The importance of detailed rectal examination and an awareness of this clinical entity in life-threatening lower intestinal bleeding is discussed. PMID:11132922

  5. [Laparoscopic Resection Rectopexy for the Treatment of External Rectal Prolapse].

    PubMed

    Axt, S; Falch, C; Müller, S; Kirschniak, A; Glatzle, J

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic resection rectopexy is one of the surgical options for the treatment of external rectal prolapse. A standardised and reproducible procedure for this operation is a decisive advantage for such cases. The operation can be divided in 11 substeps, so-called nodal points, which must be reached before further progress can be made and simplify the operation by dividing the procedure into substeps. This manuscript and the accompanying film demonstrate the standardised laparoscopic resection rectopexy as taught in the "Surgical Training Center Tübingen," and performed at the University Hospital of Tübingen.

  6. A case of rectal Dieulafoy's ulcer and successful endoscopic sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, J; Taniai, K; Kojima, K; Kenmotsu, M; Takai, K; Okabe, T; Tanaka, N

    2000-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented a massive hematochezia 7 days after sigmoidectomy. Repeated colonoscopy and angiography failed to locate the site of bleeding and Hartman's operation was performed. Rebleeding from the rectum on the day of operation occurred and pulsate arterial bleeding with minimal surrounding ulcer 1 cm above the pectinate line was observed. Screlotherapy with ethanol and electro coagulation was successfully performed to achieve permanent hemostasis. The importance of detailed rectal examination and an awareness of this clinical entity in life-threatening lower intestinal bleeding is discussed.

  7. Tumeur stromale rectale: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Rejab, Haitham; Kridis, Wala Ben; Ben Ameur, Hazem; Feki, Jihene; Frikha, Mounir; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales sont des tumeurs mésenchymateuses peu fréquentes. Elles sont localisées préférentiellement eu niveau de l'estomac. La localisation rectale reste rare. A un nouveau cas de tumeur stromale du rectum ainsi qu'une bref revue de la littérature, on se propose d’étudier les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare. PMID:25120863

  8. Experiment pointing with magnetic suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A need has been identified for a payload auxilliary pointing system onboard the Space Shuttle which provides sub-arcsecond stability in the Shuttle disturbance environment. This paper describes such a pointing system, presently being developed by Sperry Flight Systems for the NASA Langley Research Center. At the core of the design is a non-contacting magnetic suspension which provides a high degree of isolation between payload and carrier. Design concepts and control laws will be discussed. Also, test results from full-scale protoflight hardware and planned system refinements will be presented.

  9. Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Selective Preenrichment Increases Yield of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, C.; Willemsen, L. E.; Verkade, E.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the added value of selective preenrichment for the detection of rectal carriage of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). ESBL-E rectal carriage was identified in 4.8% of hospitalized patients, and 25.9% of ESBL-E rectal carriers were identified with selective preenrichment only. PMID:25994164

  10. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-22

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  11. Melanocytic Nevus on the Rectal Mucosa Removed Using Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Min; Shin, Yoon Ji; Sim, Ju Sung; Lee, Beon Jae; Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-07-01

    Melanocytic nevus is the benign proliferation of melanocytes. The most common location of melanocytic nevus is the skin of the extremities; however, there are few case reports of melanocytic nevus at the rectal mucosa. No prior case of malignant melanoma from melanocytic nevus at the rectal mucosa has been reported; therefore, it is unclear whether resection should be performed or close observation is sufficient. However, the potential malignant transformation of melanocytic nevus should be considered, including melanocytic nevus on the rectum. Melanocytic nevus of the skin can be removed by surgical excision; however, due to rare incidence on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, the optimal treatment for rectal melanocytic nevus remains controversial. Here, we report the first case of melanocytic nevus on the rectal mucosa that was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case report provides useful information about the optimal management of rectal melanocytic nevus.

  12. Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome in Children: A Report of Six Cases

    PubMed Central

    Urgancı, Nafiye; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2013-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare, benign disorder in children that usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. The underlying etiology is not well understood, but it is secondary to ischemic changes and trauma in the rectum associated with paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and the external anal sphincter muscles; rectal prolapse has also been implicated in the pathogenesis. This syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings, but SRUS often goes unrecognized or is easily confused with other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, amoebiasis, malignancy, and other causes of rectal bleeding such as a juvenile polyps. SRUS should be suspected in patients experiencing rectal discharge of blood and mucus in addition to previous disorders of evacuation. We herein report six pediatric cases with SRUS. PMID:24312719

  13. Visual diagnosis: 12-year-old girl with constipation and rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Srinath, Arvind; Wendel, Danielle; Bond, Geoffrey; Lowe, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Rectal duplication cysts are rare, thought to be due to defects in embryologic development, and often associated with other structural abnormalities. Clues to the existence of a rectal cyst are mainly due to bowel compression and presence of ectopic gastric mucosa within the cyst, leading to rectal bleeding. The diagnosis of a rectal duplication cyst requires a high index of suspicion. Confirming the diagnosis can be difficult based on the location of the cyst. Efforts to confirm the diagnosis include digital rectal examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and Meckel scan. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, especially because of the cyst’s potential for malignant transformation. Because of the cyst’s proximal location to the nerves innervating the anal canal and sphincters, surgical resection can lead to fecal incontinence. PMID:24488834

  14. High-dose-rate pre-operative endorectal brachytherapy for patients with rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    High-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT) is an image guided brachytherapy treatment for patients with rectal cancer. It is based on tumor imaging with magnetic resonance in particular, which is used to choose eligible patients and improve tumor visualization. Treatment planning is performed using 3D CT simulation and treatment planning. The treatment is given on an outpatient basis and requires minimal local anesthesia. The validation of the technique was carried out through a preoperative study and is now explored as part of a radical treatment for early rectal cancer or as a boost modality. We describe technical aspects of the HDREBT and we discuss the ongoing institutional review board approved studies exploring the clinical applications of this treatment modality for patients with rectal cancer: 1) as a neoadjuvant treatment for patients with operable rectal tumor; 2) as a option to improve local control in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer but with previous pelvic radiation. PMID:26034500

  15. Methylene blue injection into the rectal artery as a simple method to improve lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Märkl, Bruno; Kerwel, Therese G; Wagner, Theodor; Anthuber, Matthias; Arnholdt, Hans M

    2007-07-01

    Adequate lymph node assessment in colorectal cancer is crucial for prognosis estimation and further therapy stratification. However, there is still an ongoing debate on required minimum lymph node numbers and the necessity of advanced techniques such as immunohistochemistry or PCR. It has been proven in several studies that lymph node harvest is often inadequate under routine analysis. Lymph nodes smaller than 5 mm are especially concerning as they can carry the majority of metastases. These small, but affected lymph nodes may escape detection in routine analysis. Therefore, fat-clearing protocols and sentinel techniques have been developed to improve accuracy of lymph node staging. We describe a novel and simple method of ex vivo methylene blue injection into the superior rectal artery of rectal cancer specimens, which highlights lymph nodes and makes them easy to detect during manual dissection. Initially, this method was developed for proving accuracy of total mesorectal excision. We performed a retrospective study comparing lymph node recovery of 12 methylene blue stained and an equal number of unstained cases. Lymph node recovery differed significantly with average lymph node numbers of 27+/-7 and 14+/-4 (P<0.001) for the methylene blue and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference was found in size groups between 1 and 4 mm causing a shift in size distribution toward smaller nodes. Metastases were confirmed in 21 and 19 lymph nodes occurring in five and four cases, respectively. Hence, we conclude that methylene blue injection technique improves accuracy of lymph node staging by heightening the lymph node harvest in rectal resections. In our experience, it is a very simple time and cost effective method that can be easily established under routine circumstances.

  16. YpT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Sun, Wen-jie; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic T1-2N0 rectal cancer shows an excellent prognosis without preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation. However, oncologic outcome of ypT1-2N0 remains unclear and undetermined. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the survival of ypT1-2 and pT1-2 rectal cancer patients after radical resection and identify risk factors of ypT1-2 rectal cancer in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered rectal cancer patients. The results showed that ypT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer and mucinous/signet-ring cancer and less than 12 lymph nodes retrieval were two risk factors in ypT1-2 patients. These results suggest that ypT1-2 patients with one or two risk factors may benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26517674

  17. Photomixing of chlamydomonas rheinhardtii suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervaux, Julien; Capellazzi Resta, Marina; Abou, Bérengère; Brunet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii is a fast swimming unicellular alga able to bias its swimming direction in gradients of light intensity, an ability know as phototaxis. We have investigated experimentally both the swimming behavior of individual cells and the macroscopic response of shallow suspensions of these micro-organisms in response to a localized light source. At low light intensity, algae exhibit positive phototaxis and accumulate beneath the excitation light. In weakly concentrated thin layers, the balance between phototaxis and cell motility results in steady symmetrical patterns compatible with a purely diffusive model using effective diffusion coefficients extracted from the analysis of individual cell trajectories. However, at higher cell density and layer depth, collective effects induce convective flows around the light source. These flows disturb the cell concentration patterns which spread and may then becomes unstable. Using large passive tracer particles, we have characterized the velocity fields associated with this forced bioconvection and their dependence on the cell density and layer depth. By tuning the light distribution, this mechanism of photo-bioconvection allows a fine control over the local fluid flows, and thus the mixing efficiency, in algal suspensions.

  18. Migrational Instabilities in Particle Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, Joe D.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with an instability arising from the shear-induced migration of particles in dense suspensions coupled with a dependence of viscosity on particle concentration. The analysis summarized here treats the inertialess (Re = O) linear stability of homogeneous simple shear flows for a Stokesian suspension model of the type proposed by Leighton and Acrivos (1987). Depending on the importance of shear-induced migration relative to concentration-driven diffusion, this model admits short-wave instability arising from wave-vector stretching by the base flow and evolving into particle-depleted shear bands. Moreover, this instability in the time-dependent problem corresponds to loss of ellipticity in the associated static problem (Re = O, Pe = O). While the isotropic version of the Leighton-Acrivos model is found to be stable with their experimentally determined parameters for simple shear, it is known that the stable model does not give a good quantitative description of particle clustering in the core of pipe flow (Nott and Brady 1994). This leads to the conjecture that an appropriate variant on the above model could explain such clustering as a two-phase bifurcation in the base flow.

  19. Massive rectal bleeding distant from a blunt car trauma.

    PubMed

    Gruden, E; Ragot, E; Arienzo, R; Revaux, A; Magri, M; Grossin, M; Leroy, C; Msika, S; Kianmanesh, R

    2010-09-01

    Mesenteric trauma is one of the possible injuries caused by the use of seat belts in case of motor vehicle crash. We report here a rare case of rectal bleeding by rupture of a mesosigmoid haematoma. An emergent laparotomy revealed a mesosigmoid haematoma with a centimetric rectal perforation. The wearing of safety belts added some specific blunt abdominal trauma, which directly depends on lap-and-sash belts. Mesenteric injuries are found out up to 5% of blunt abdominal traumas. "Seat belt mark" leads the surgical team to strongly suspect an intra-abdominal trauma. When "seat belt mark" sign is found, in patients with mild to severe blunt car injuries, CT-scan has to be realised to eliminate intra-abdominal complications, including mesenteric and mesosigmoid ones. In case of proved mesenteric haematoma associated to intestinal bleeding, a surgical treatment must be considered as first choice. Conservative approach remains possible in stable patients but surgical exploration remains necessary in unstable patients with active bleeding. PMID:20638207

  20. [Palliative Care for Rectal Cancer Complicated with Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kei; Muto, Takaaki

    2015-11-01

    Medical advancements have led to an increase in the number of elderly people. However, standard treatments may sometimes be difficult to use in elderly people. Here, we report the case of an elderly patient with rectal and gastric cancer who refused radical surgery. The patient was an 83-year-old man who had type-2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricemia, mitral valve regurgitation, and mild dementia. Furthermore, he was blind in both eyes owing to glaucoma. He first visited our hospital in 2005. In 2010, he was diagnosed with anemia, but he refused a thorough examination; however, he did consent to take iron supplements. In July 2011, he consulted our hospital for symptoms of frequent diarrhea, and agreed to an examination. After colonoscopy, he was diagnosed with rectal cancer that was becoming obstructive. There were no metastases to other organs, but he was also diagnosed with gastric cancer. As he and his family refused radical surgery, a stoma was constructed. After the operation, he received palliative care but died in September 2013. PMID:26805335

  1. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer - Biobanking of Preoperative Tumor Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Peter; Nietert, Manuel; Gusky, Linda; Kitz, Julia; Conradi, Lena C.; Müller-Dornieden, Annegret; Schüler, Philipp; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Rüschoff, Josef; Ströbel, Philipp; Grade, Marian; Liersch, Torsten; Beißbarth, Tim; Ghadimi, Michael B.; Sax, Ulrich; Gaedcke, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany. The cellular content of tumor, mucosa, stroma, necrosis and the amount of isolated DNA and RNA as well as the RNA integrity number (RIN) as quality parameters were evaluated. A high RNA yield (p = 2.75e–07) and the content of tumor (p = 0.004) is significantly associated to high RIN-values, whereas a high content of mucosa (p = 0.07) shows a trend and a high amount of necrosis (p = 0.01) is significantly associated with RNA of poor quality. Correlating biopsies from Goettingen and the cooperating centers showed comparable tumor content results. By taking small sized biopsies we could assess a clear correlation between a good RNA quality and a high amount of RNA and tumor cells. These results also indicate that specimens collected at different centers are of comparable quality. PMID:27752113

  2. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50-79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were followed 1995-2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.86 and 0.88, 0.80-0.96) and rectal cancer (0.83, 0.72-0.96 and 0.89, 0.80-1.00), compared to never users. Transdermal estrogen-only therapy implied more protection than oral administration, while no significant influence was found of regimen, progestin type, nor of tibolone. The benefit of HT was stronger for long-term hormone users; and hormone users were at lower risk of advanced stage of colorectal cancer, which seems supportive for a causal association between hormone therapy and colorectal cancer. PMID:26758900

  3. Neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Keisuke; Nagino, Masato

    2016-02-01

    We reviewed the history and the current status of neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in Western countries and Japan. The introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) and preoperative radiotherapy (RT) were treatment revolutions that resulted in improved local control after curative resection for rectal cancer. However, local relapses still occur, even in the era of TME, and remain a cause of recurrence worldwide. The high rate of distant metastasis after curative resection remains a problem. Furthermore, the introduction of newly developed cytotoxic agents into the LARC treatment strategy continues to be an ongoing challenge. Shifting part of an adjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) regimen to the preoperative period is a promising strategy. Currently, various novel methods, such as induction CTx, consolidation CTx, concomitant administration with RT, and neoadjuvant CTx without RT, have been attempted worldwide. Although some strategies have shown favorable short-term outcomes, the long-term efficacy of the treatments needs be evaluated. At the same time, we must investigate clinical and/or molecular biomarkers to predict the therapeutic effects of each treatment, which is the fastest route to providing ideal personalized therapy for patients with LARC.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Irinotecan Suppository for Rectal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Haiyang; Zhu, Yuping; Li, Dechuan

    2014-01-01

    Irinotecan suppository was prepared using the moulding method with a homogeneous blend. A sensitive and specific fluorescence method was developed and validated for the determination of irinotecan in plasma using HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered and rectal administered in rabbits was investigated. Following a single intravenous dose of irinotecan (50 mg/kg), the plasma irinotecan concentration demonstrated a bi-exponential decay, with a rapid decline over 15 min. Cmax, t1/2, AUC0–30h and AUC0-∞ were 16.1 ± 2.7 g/ml, 7.6 ± 1.2 h, 71.3 ± 8.8 μg·h/ml and 82.3 ± 9.5 μg·h/ml, respectively. Following rectal administration of 100 mg/kg irinotecan, the plasma irinotecan concentration reached a peak of 5.3 ± 2.5 μg/ml at 4 h. The AUC0–30h and AUC0-∞ were 32.2 ± 6.2 μg·h/ml and 41.6 ± 7.2 μg·h/ml, respectively. It representing ∼50.6% of the absolute bioavailability. PMID:24596626

  5. Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Resection for Mid and Low Rectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Bulent; Yuksel, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The current study was conducted to determine whether robotic low anterior resection (RLAR) has real benefit over laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) in terms of surgical and early oncologic outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 35 RLARs and 28 LLARs, performed for mid and low rectal cancers, from January 2013 through June 2015. Results: A total of 63 patients were included in the study. All surgeries were performed successfully. The clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Compared with the laparoscopic group, the robotic group had less intraoperative blood loss (165 vs. 120 mL; P < .05) and higher mean operative time (252 vs. 208 min; P < .05). No significant differences were observed in the time to flatus passage, length of hospital stay, and postoperative morbidity. Pathological examination of total mesorectal excision (TME) specimens showed that both circumferential resection margin and transverse (proximal and distal) margins were negative in the RLAR group. However, 1 patient each had positive circumferential resection margin and positive distal transverse margin in the LLAR group. The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 27 in the RLAR group and 23 in the LLAR group. Conclusions: In our study, short-term outcomes of robotic surgery for mid and low rectal cancers were similar to those of laparoscopic surgery. The quality of TME specimens was better in the patients who underwent robotic surgery. However, the longer operative time was a limitation of robotic surgery. PMID:27081292

  6. Pilot Study of a Clinical Pathway Implementation in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; López-Lara, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rectal cancer is a highly prevalent disease which needs a multidisciplinary approach to be treated. The absence of specific protocols implies a significant and unjustifiable variability among the different professionals involved in this disease. The purpose is to develop a clinical pathway based on the analysis process and aims to reduce this variability and to reduce unnecessary costs. Methods: We created a multidisciplinary team with contributors from every clinical area involved in the diagnosis and treatment in this disease. We held periodic meetings to agree on a protocol based on the best available clinical practice guidelines. Once we had agreed on the protocol, we implemented its use as a standard in our institution. Every patient older than 18 years who was diagnosed with rectal cancer was considered a candidate to be treated via the pathway. Results: We evaluated 48 patients during the course of this study. Every parameter measured was improved after the implementation of the pathway, except the proportion of patients with 12 nodes or more analysed. The perception that our patients had about this project was very good. Conclusions: Clinical pathways are needed to improve the quality of health care. This kind of project helps reduce hospital costs and optimizes the use of limited resources. On the other hand, unexplained variability is also reduced, with consequent benefits for the patients. PMID:21151842

  7. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-11-27

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes.

  8. Rectal prolapse: a search for the "best" operation.

    PubMed

    Azimuddin, K; Khubchandani, I T; Rosen, L; Stasik, J J; Riether, R D; Reed, J F

    2001-07-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal operative treatment for full-thickness rectal prolapse. We describe our experience in the management of procidentia and evaluate our current practice for improvement of results. The medical records of patients undergoing surgery for rectal prolapse between 1989 to 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 36 perineal proctosigmoidectomies (PPSs) and 29 abdominal procedures [17 anterior resections (ARs) and 12 Ripstein procedures (RPs)] were performed during the 10-year period. Patients undergoing PPS were significantly older and had more comorbidities. Mean operating time and length of hospital stay were shorter for the PPS group. Early and late postoperative complication rates were also significantly lower in the PPS group. Six patients (16%) in the PPS group developed recurrence at a mean follow-up of 50 months. Operation under general anesthesia or removal of a longer segment of prolapsed bowel did not reduce recurrence after PPS. No full-thickness recurrence was noted after AR or RP. We conclude that abdominal procedures (AR and RP) have the lowest recurrence but at a significantly higher cost in terms of complications. PPS is a valuable option in selected patients and can be performed with minimal morbidity and a relatively low recurrence rate. PMID:11450773

  9. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management. PMID:27795811

  10. 36 CFR 296.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  11. 32 CFR 229.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  12. 32 CFR 229.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  13. 18 CFR 1312.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for...

  14. 43 CFR 7.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  15. 18 CFR 1312.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  16. 18 CFR 1312.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for...

  17. 18 CFR 1312.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for...

  18. 43 CFR 7.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.10 Suspension and revocation of permits. (a) Suspension or revocation for... failed after notice under this section to correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit....

  19. 18 CFR 1312.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for...

  20. 43 CFR 7.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.10 Suspension and revocation of permits. (a) Suspension or revocation for... failed after notice under this section to correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit....

  1. 43 CFR 7.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.10 Suspension and revocation of permits. (a) Suspension or revocation for... failed after notice under this section to correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit....

  2. 32 CFR 229.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.10 Suspension and... section to correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation...

  3. 36 CFR 296.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for...

  4. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  5. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Secretary shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable time after the... the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which to request a... effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Secretary has reasonable grounds...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Secretary shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable time after the... the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which to request a... effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Secretary has reasonable grounds...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respect, the Director shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable... deficiencies cited in the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which... proceedings to suspend an effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Director...

  9. 12 CFR 1010.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respect, the Director shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable... deficiencies cited in the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which... proceedings to suspend an effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Director...

  10. 24 CFR 1710.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Secretary shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable time after the... the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which to request a... effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Secretary has reasonable grounds...

  11. 12 CFR 1010.45 - Suspensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respect, the Director shall so advise the developer, by issuing a suspension notice, within a reasonable... deficiencies cited in the notice. (3) Upon receipt of a suspension notice, the developer has 15 days in which... proceedings to suspend an effective Statement of Record may be issued to a developer if the Director...

  12. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  15. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adequately correct the deficiency which led to the initiation of the suspension proceeding. (9) The... section as well as any showing that the recipient has adequately corrected the deficiency which led to the... adequately corrected the deficiency which led to the suspension and that repetition is not...

  16. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adequately correct the deficiency which led to the initiation of the suspension proceeding. (9) The... section as well as any showing that the recipient has adequately corrected the deficiency which led to the... adequately corrected the deficiency which led to the suspension and that repetition is not...

  17. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has materially failed to comply and remains out of compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant,...

  18. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has materially failed to comply and remains out of compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant,...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transactions covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension. 1404.1015 Section 1404.1015 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION...

  20. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... covered under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 1) for a temporary period, pending... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT)...