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Sample records for rectal temperature blood

  1. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  2. Effects of multiple concurrent stressors on rectal temperature, blood acid-base status, and longissimus muscle glycolytic potential in market-weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M J; Ellis, M; Anderson, D B; Curtis, S E; Keffaber, K K; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Murphy, C M; Peterson, B A

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-four market-weight (130.0 +/- 0.65 kg) barrows (n = 16) and gilts (n = 48) were used in a split-plot design with a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) handling intensity (gentle vs. aggressive), 2) transport floor space (0.39 vs. 0.49 m(2)/pig), and 3) distance moved during handling (25 vs. 125 m) to determine the effects of multiple concurrent stressors on metabolic responses. For the handling intensity treatment, pigs were moved individually approximately 50 m through a handling course with either 0 (gentle) or 8 (aggressive) shocks from an electric goad. Pigs were loaded onto a trailer and transported for approximately 1 h at floor spaces of either 0.39 or 0.49 m(2)/pig. After transport, pigs were unloaded, and the distance moved treatment was applied; pigs were moved 25 or 125 m through a handling course using livestock paddles. Rectal temperature was measured, and blood samples (to measure blood acid-base status) were collected 2 h before the handling intensity treatment was applied and immediately after the distance moved treatment was applied. A LM sample to measure glycolytic potential was collected after the distance moved treatments on a subset of 32 pigs. There were handling intensity x distance moved interactions (P < 0.05) for several blood acid-base measurements. In general, there was no effect of distance moved on these traits when pigs were previously handled gently. However, when pigs were previously handled aggressively, pigs moved 125 compared with 25 m had greater (P < 0.05) blood lactate and less (P < 0.05) blood pH, bicarbonate, and base-excess. Pigs transported at 0.39 compared with 0.49 m(2)/pig had a greater (P < 0.01) increase in creatine kinase values; however, transport floor space did not affect any other measurements. Data were analyzed by the number of stressors (the aggressive handling, restricted transport floor space, and 125-m distance moved treatments) experienced by each pig (0, 1, 2, or 3). As the number of

  3. Study between axillary and rectal temperature measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, R B; Shamo'on, H I

    2007-01-01

    We compared axillary and rectal temperatures in 216 patients to assess the reliability of axillary temperature for determining fever in children under 14 years of age. Beyond the neonatal period, the mean rectal temperature was significantly higher than the axillary temperature. The sensitivity of axillary temperature in detecting fever was 87.5% among neonates but only 46% among older children. Axillary temperature correlated well with rectal temperature in neonates but not older children. There was no direct mathematical relationship between axillary and rectal temperature. Axillary temperature should be taken in neonates as it is less hazardous; rectal temperature should be used beyond this age.

  4. Consumption of oxygen and blood flow during exercise and recovery phase evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy and its relationship to skin forehead, quadriceps, tympanic, and rectal temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Pujol, P.; Drobnic, F.; Galilea, P.; Riera, J.; Pons, V.; Banquells, M.; Ruiz, O.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of oxygen in the human vastus medialis muscle and the tympanic, skin forehead, quadriceps, and rectal temperatures has been investigated during exercise test and post-exercise with non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy, infrared thermometer, and an array of four thermistors, respectively. During exercise time rectal temperature was not recorded, before exercise basal values were obtained, and after exercise all the data for two hours were recorded. The signals from near-infrared spectroscopy have been studied by analogy to forced vibration and viscously damped free vibration. Other models have been used to evaluate the temperatures. The time necessary for the reoxygenation signal to cross the baseline during the post exercise period was from 30 min to over 100 min. The peak of pH values was 5 min post-exercise and to arrive at basal levels needed 25 min to more than 40 min. The peak of rectal temperature starts around 20 - 30 min post-exercise remaining 25 - 40 min at the same value, starting to slip down slowly at variable intervals of several minutes requiring over two hours to arrive at basal levels. The data obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy and skin quadriceps, rectal temperatures confirm that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied.

  5. [Electronic rectal temperature measurement. A clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Ottesen, S; Nielsen, F T; Lund, H

    1993-05-24

    Rectal measurement of body temperature with an electronic device (Ivac) was compared to measurement with mercury thermometers in 157 adult patients on a medical ward. The electronic thermometers were less accurate, giving 3.6 times as many febrile patients. This was reduced to 1.6 after thermometer calibration. It is necessary to make regular calibrations of Ivac thermometers.

  6. [Repeatability of measurements of the rectal temperature and comparison of vaginal and rectal temperature in puerperal sows].

    PubMed

    Stiehler, T; Heuwieser, W; Pfützner, A; Voigtsberger, R; Burfeind, O

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum diseases of sows are economically important in the pig industry. They affect animal health and welfare of sows and piglets. Measuring rectal temperature in sows post partum is a commonly used diagnostic method to early detection of infectious diseases. The study consisted of five parts. The objective of the first four parts was to evaluate the influence of different factors on the measurements of rectal temperature (e.g. investigator, thermometer, penetration depth of the thermometer). The secondary objective of this study was to validate the application of a temperature logger to continuously measure vaginal temperature. Thirty sows on the first day postpartum were used in the first four parts of the study. Rectal temperature was measured repeatedly by one investigator, by different investigators, with different thermometers and at different penetration depths. For the fifth part of the study 21 sows on the first day postpartum were used. A temperature logger was inserted in the vagina for a duration of 6 hours. Additionally, rectal temperature was measured. The data showed that rectal temperature can be measured repeatably (mean ± standard deviation = 38.7 ± 0.1 °C, coefficient of variation = 0.2%). Different investigators or thermometers resulted in low differences (0.0 °C and 0.1 °C). The penetration depth of the thermometer influenced the result (difference of 0.4 °C between 5 and 10 cm). Rectal and vaginal temperatures, measured in 21 sows, were highly correlated (r = 0.80, p < 0.01) with a mean difference of 0.3 °C. Rectal temperature measurement can be regarded as a repeatable diagnostic method. The measurement should be standardized (type of thermometer, penetration depth). The measurement of vaginal temperature with a data logger in early puerperal sows is a possible means for a continuous and non-invasive monitoring of body temperature.

  7. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Comparison between rectal and infrared skin temperature in the newborn.

    PubMed

    De Curtis, Mario; Calzolari, Flaminia; Marciano, Alessandra; Cardilli, Viviana; Barba, Gianvincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The reliability of measurement of body temperature using a new infrared skin thermometer was evaluated in 107 newborns. The use of the device was associated with low operator-related variability and acceptable limits of agreement with the temperature measured with a rectal mercury thermometer. Use of the infrared skin thermometer is a comfortable and reliable way of measurement of body temperature in newborns.

  9. Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subrata; Donn, Steven M; Bhagat, Indira; Dechert, Ronald E; Barks, John D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored whole-body cooling concurrently by both esophageal and rectal probes. Esophageal temperature was significantly higher compared with simultaneous rectal temperature during cooling, with a temperature gradient ranging from 0.46 to 1.03°C (median, 0.8°C; IQR, 0.6-0.8°C). During rewarming, this temperature difference disappeared.

  10. Factors affecting rectal temperature measurement using commonly available digital thermometers.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Jonathan M; Streeter, Renee M; Torgerson, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Rectal temperature measurement is an essential part of physical examination of cattle and some physiological experiments. Modern digital thermometers are often used to measure rectal temperatures by students; this study describes their reliability and appropriate use. Students measured rectal temperature on 53 occasions using their personal digital thermometer and techniques gained from previous instruction, rectal temperature was also measured by an experienced person using a Cornell mercury thermometer completely inserted in the rectum. Cornell mercury thermometers values were 38.95±0.05°C (mean±1 SE, n=53). Student rectal temperature measurements using their initial technique were nearly 0.5°C lower, 38.46±0.07°C. After receiving instruction to insert the digital thermometer to the window, student obtained values were 38.77±0.06°C; these are significantly higher than with the student's initial technique and closer to those obtained with a Cornell thermometer. In a series of 53 water bath tests, student owned thermometers recorded similar mean values to those of a traceable (reference) digital thermometer, Cornell mercury thermometer readings were 0.2°C higher. 10 individual digital thermometers were repeatedly tested against a traceable thermometer in a water bath, one was inaccurate. In a separate experiment a trained clinician tested the effect of angle of insertion of a digital thermometer on temperature readings and the affect was <0.1°C. We conclude that accurate temperature measurements using digital thermometers are only likely if the thermometer is inserted to the beginning of the window and the thermometer's accuracy is checked periodically.

  11. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  12. Effect of ulcerative colitis and smoking on rectal blood flow.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, E D; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Rhodes, J

    1990-01-01

    Rectal blood flow was measured by laser doppler flowmetry over 60 minutes in eight patients with colitis in remission and eight healthy male non-smokers. Ten smokers were also examined on two occasions, one of which included smoking a cigarette. Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in smokers. All subjects showed a pronounced fall in rectal blood flow in the first 30 minutes and patients with colitis had significantly higher values compared with smokers (p less than 0.002; p less than 0.04) and non-smokers (p less than 0.007; p less than 0.002) during the first and second 30 minutes respectively. Values in smokers and non-smokers were similar, but smoking a cigarette was associated with a significant fall in blood flow (p less than 0.04) and this change was inversely related to the rise in plasma nicotine concentration (r = -0.63; p less than 0.05). The findings may be relevant to the association between colitis and the smoking history. PMID:2210447

  13. Hypothalamic, rectal, and muscle temperatures in exercising dogs - Effect of cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.

  14. Hypothalamic, rectal, and muscle temperatures in exercising dogs - Effect of cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.

  15. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  16. Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.

    PubMed

    Igari, Yui; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno's method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henssge's parameter determination (Henssge's method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno's method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge's method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno's method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge's method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno's method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of rectal and ambient temperatures and humidity on conception rates.

    PubMed

    Zakari, A Y; Molokwu, E C; Osori, D I

    1981-09-01

    One hundred and thirteen inseminations were performed for which rectal temperatures were taken at the time of inseminations. Climatological factors were also recorded daily. Pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation was carried out 3 months post-insemination. Pregnancy rates for all services were related to selected climatological measurements and rectal temperatures. The results obtained indicate that elevated rectal temperature, mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures and relative humidity were detrimental to conception. The effect of the climatological factor on conception is compounded by feed scarcity during the dry periods of the year.

  18. Detection of OXA-370 directly from rectal swabs and blood culture vials using an immunochromatographic assay.

    PubMed

    Nodari, Carolina Silva; Gales, Ana Cristina; Barth, Afonso Luís; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of OXA-48 K-SeT assay for detecting OXA-370 directly from spiked rectal swabs and blood culture vials. The limit of detection of this test was 10(4)UFC/mL for rectal swabs. Detection of the OXA-370-producing isolates was successfully achieved directly from positive blood culture vials independent of growing conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of zinc and/or iron deficiency on rectal temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Konomi, Aki; Yokoi, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    O'Dell et al. reported that rectal temperature was decreased by zinc deficiency in rats. However, it is not known whether a combined deficiency of zinc and iron affects rectal temperature. Forty 4-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into four dietary treatment groups of 10 rats each for the 4-wk study: zinc-deficient group (4.5 mg Zn and 35 mg Fe/kg diet; -Zn), iron-deficient group (30 mg Zn/kg diet, no supplemental iron; -Fe), zinc/iron-deficient group (4.5 mg Zn/kg diet, no supplemental iron; -Zn-Fe), and control group (AIN-93G; Cont). At d 24-27, the rectal temperature was determined. The rectal temperature of the -Zn group was significantly lower than the Cont group. The rectal temperature of the -Zn-Fe group was similar to that of the Cont group, although thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxin concentrations were the lowest in the -Zn-Fe group among all groups. The pattern of the plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations across groups was similar to rectal temperature. Although observation of the rectal temperature is not conclusive, the balance between zinc and iron intake seems to determine the body temperature set point. These results suggest that the thermogenic effect of thyroid hormones is not thought to influence the paradoxical maintenance of rectal temperature in combined deficiency of zinc and iron.

  20. Development of a Self-contained, Indwelling Rectal Temperature Probe for Cattle Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A device was developed to automatically monitor rectal temperature (RT) of cattle for application in research settings. Compared with manual measurement of rectal temperature, this device decreases labor and time requirements, and allows data collection without the influence of animal handling or re...

  1. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marlos G.; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A.; Aquino, Monally C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably. PMID:21731094

  2. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin, and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bae, David D; Brown, P Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-06-18

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin, and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (approximately 0.6 degrees C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs.

  3. Seasonal variations in rectal temperature of Yankasa sheep.

    PubMed

    Igono, M O; Molokwu, E C; Aliu, Y O

    1983-06-01

    From measurements of rectal temperature (Tre) at 06:00h (06:00Tre) and at 14:00h (14:00Tre), meteorological stress was determined in six Yankasa ewes in terms of per cent rise of 14:00Tre over 06:00Tre reference values during the harmattan and hot-dry seasons. Absolute and mean Tre values were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the harmattan than the hot-dry season. In both seasons, mean 14:00Tre was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than 06:00Tre. The mean diurnal difference between 14:00Tre and 06:00Tre, i.e. delta Tre was about 1 degrees C during the harmattan but ranged between 0.5 and 0.7 degrees C during the hot-dry season. All animals were observed to shiver during harmattan nights.

  4. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n = 55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60 min to 35 ± 1°C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0 h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66 h. After 66 h the ambient temperature was increased within 30 min to 41 ± 1°C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ΔTn (ΔT6, ΔT18, ΔT30, ΔT42, ΔT54 and ΔT66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ΔTT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ΔTn as well as ΔTT (rΔ T 18  = -0.28 and rΔ TT  = -0.31, respectively, P < 0.05; rΔT30  = -0.36, rΔ T 42  = -0.38, rΔT54  = -0.56, P < 0.01). Importantly, pullets with low ΔT18 showed a longer HSST (256.0 ± 208.4 min) than those with high ΔT18 (HSST = 123.7 ± 78.3 min). This observation suggested that the ΔT18 or early increment of RT under heat stress might be considered as a reliable indicator for evaluation of heat resistance in chickens. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Duru, Chika O; Akinbami, Felix O; Orimadegun, Adebola E

    2012-06-25

    Tympanic thermometry has come as a suitable alternative to traditional thermometry because of its safety and ease of use. However, it is still yet to gain wide acceptance in African settings due to conflicting results on its accuracy, thus rectal thermometry remains the gold standard in the newborn. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. Rectal and tympanic temperatures were measured simultaneously in 300 consecutive term neonates between the ages of 37 and 42 weeks gestation using mercury-in-glass and the Infrared tympanic thermometers respectively. Paired t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Using rectal thermometry as gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of tympanic thermometry at various rectal temperature cut-offs were determined. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were constructed and the Areas Under the Curves (AUC) were compared. The mean rectal temperature (37.34±0.55°C) was significantly higher than the mean tympanic temperature (37.25 ± 0.56°C) (p<0.001) with a mean difference of 0.09 °C±0.24 °C (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12). There was a strong positive correlation between the two measurements (r=0.9; p<0.001). Tympanic thermometry showed sensitivities ranging from 65% to 86% and specificities of 95% to 99% at rectal temperature cut-offs of 37.5°C to 38°C. The positive and negative predictive values of the tympanic temperatures at the various temperature cut-offs ranged from 82% to 93% and 80% to 98% respectively. Accuracy was noted to increase with higher temperatures as shown by the Receiver Operating Curves with the highest accuracy at the temperature cut-off of 38°C and AUC of 0.91. The sensitivity of tympanic thermometry was relatively low in detecting rectal temperatures despite the good correlation and agreement between them. The specificities and predictive values of tympanic temperatures in

  6. Agreement between rectal and vaginal temperature measured with temperature loggers in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Vishal; Burfeind, Onno; Maeder, Britta; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    The overall objective of this study was to evaluate agreement between rectal (RT) and vaginal temperature (VT) measured with the same temperature loggers in dairy cows. Three experiments were conducted. The study began with a validation in vitro of 24 temperature loggers comparing them to a calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometer as a reference method. The association and agreement between the 24 temperature loggers with the reference method was r=0.996 (P<0.001) with a negligible coefficient of variance (0.005) between the loggers. In-vivo temperature loggers were tested in 11 healthy post-partum cows (Experiment 2) and 12 early post-partum cows with greater body temperature (Experiment 3). Temperature loggers were set to record VT and RT at 1-min intervals. To prevent rectal and vaginal straining and potential expulsion of temperature logger an epidural injection of 2.5 ml of 2% Procain was administered. Association between RT and VT was r=0.92 (P<0.001; Experiment 2) and r=0.94 (P<0.001; Experiment 3) with a negligible difference of -0.1 and 0.01 °C. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between RT and VT for healthy and early post-partum cows with greater body temperature in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore the intra-class correlation coefficient between RT and VT measured with identical loggers within cows of Experiments 2 and 3 also demonstrated greater agreements (P<0.001). Therefore, continuous VT monitoring with temperature loggers can be used as a measure of body temperature in dairy cows.

  7. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  8. Rectal Instillation of Cold Fluids for Targeted Temperature Management After Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Markota, Andrej; Fluher, Jure; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2017-07-14

    The optimal method of temperature management after cardiac arrest remains unknown. Methods that are most effective are usually invasive and expensive. Noninvasive methods are not as effective and obstruct access to the patient. Temperature management via rectal cooling offers some potential advantages in survivors of cardiac arrest, namely, relatively large volumes of temperature-controlled fluids can be instilled, access to the patient is not obstructed, and fluid overload can be ameliorated by removal of a fraction of instilled fluid. We used rectal cooling in a 72-year-old male comatose survivor of cardiac arrest with an initial body temperature of 36.8°C. We instilled 3000 mL of normal saline at 4°C in 75 minutes, and ∼2000 mL of effluent fluid was removed via gravity at 105 minutes after instillation. At 135 minutes, temperature decreased to a minimum of 35.2°C. No leakage was observed. Standard procedures (insertion of central venous and arterial catheters, electrocardiography, echocardiography, chest radiography) were performed with a rectal catheter in situ. At 210 minutes after instillation, the catheter was removed and there were no clinical signs of rectal injury after removal. To conclude, rectal instillation of cold fluids resulted in a significant decrease of body temperature and we observed no major side effects. Fluid overloading was avoided by removing effluent fluid. Additional studies are needed if this technique is to gain more widespread use.

  9. Prognostic value of rectal temperature at hospital admission in client-owned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Toth, Giulia; Selleri, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether rectal temperature at hospital admission, independently or in conjunction with other parameters, was associated with all-cause mortality in client-owned rabbits. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. ANIMALS 316 client-owned rabbits consecutively hospitalized in an exotics-only animal hospital. PROCEDURES Rectal temperature of each hospitalized rabbit was measured at admission. Individual variables, including survival up to 1 week after hospital discharge, were recorded. Univariate, multivariate, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS Rabbits with hypothermia at admission had a risk of death before or within 1 week after hospital discharge 3 times that of rabbits without hypothermia (relative risk, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.17 to 4.39). For each 1°C (1.8°F) decrease in admission rectal temperature, the odds of death were doubled (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.69 to 2.64). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the finding. Older age, suspected presence of a systemic disease, and presence of gastrointestinal stasis were also significantly associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Rectal temperature was easily measured in rabbits and was a major predictor of death in the present patient cohort. Because of its association with death in both healthy and diseased rabbits in this study, rectal temperature should always be measured during physical examination of rabbits. Treatment of hypothermia in client-owned rabbits requires further research.

  10. Rectal Mucosal Microvascular Blood Supply Increase Is Associated with Colonic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Roy, Hemant K.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Kim, Young; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Ruderman, Sarah; Stoyneva, Valentina; Goldberg, Michael J.; Bianchi, Laura K.; Yen, Eugene; Kromine, Alexey; Jameel, Mohammed; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopic examination has proven effective in both detecting and preventing colorectal cancer; however, only about a quarter of eligible patients undergo screening. Even if the compliance rate increased, limited endoscopic capacity and cost would be prohibitive. There is a need for an accurate method to target colonoscopy to those most at risk of harboring colonic neoplasia. Exploiting field carcinogenesis seems to be a promising avenue. Our group recently reported that an early increase in blood supply (EIBS) is a reliable marker of field carcinogenesis in experimental models. We now investigate whether in situ detection of EIBS in the rectum can predict neoplasia elsewhere in the colon. Experimental Design We developed a novelpolarization-gated spectroscopy fiber-optic probe that allows depth-selective interrogation of microvascular blood content. Using the probe, we examined the blood content in vivo from the rectal mucosa of 216 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy. Results Microvascular blood content was increased by ~ 50% in the endoscopically normal rectal mucosa of patients harboring advanced adenomas when compared with neoplasia-free patients irrespective of lesion location. Demographic factors and nonneoplastic lesions did not confound this observation. Logistic regression using mucosal oxyhemoglobin concentration and patient age resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 82%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 for the detection of advanced adenomas. Conclusions Increased microvascular blood supply in the normal rectal mucosa is associated with the presence of clinically significant neoplasia elsewhere in the colon, supporting the development of rectal EIBS as a colon cancer risk-stratification tool. PMID:19383816

  11. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat stress affects production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for body temperature might help to decrease the effects of heat stress on those traits. Objectives of the current study were a) to estimate genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows under heat stress cond...

  12. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic selection for body temperature regulation during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Present objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows reared in free stall barns und...

  13. Short communication: repeatability of measures of rectal temperature in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burfeind, O; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; Heuwieser, W

    2010-02-01

    Although taking body temperature by rectal thermometer is the method most commonly used to identify sick cows in the postpartum period, no data on the repeatability of this measure are available. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate variability of rectal temperatures in dairy cows considering different factors (intra- and interinvestigator repeatability, different thermometers, penetration depth into the rectum, and defecation). High coefficients of correlation (r=0.98) and small differences between values of rectal temperatures (observer A=39.3+/-1.0 degrees C and observer B=39.4+/-1.0 degrees C) provide evidence that rectal temperature was a repeatable measure in dairy cows. Testing was carried out using 4 different digital thermometers: GLA M750 (GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA), MTI8101 (SES Scala Electronics, Stahnsdorf, Germany), MT1831 (Microlife AG, Widnau, Switzerland) and Domotherm TH1 (Uebe Medical GmbH, Wertheim, Germany). Thermometers were inserted into the rectum to a certain depth (GLA M750 and MTI8101=11.5cm; MT1831=8.4cm; Domotherm TH1=7.7cm) and a measure was finished when a visual or acoustic signal was emitted by the thermometer. The measures could be influenced by the procedure itself (up to 0.5 degrees C), type of thermometer (up to 0.3 degrees C), and the penetration depth (11.5cm or 6.0cm in one of the experiments) into the rectum (up to 0.4 degrees C difference between a penetration depth of 11.5cm and 6.0cm in one of the experiments). Differences in rectal temperature before and after defecation were minor (<0.1 degrees C). These results indicate that some care is required in generalizing rectal measures of body temperature.

  14. Serial temperature monitoring and comparison of rectal and muscle temperatures in immobilized free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    vdB Morkel, Peter; Miller, Michele; Jago, Mark; Radcliffe, Robin W; du Preez, Pierre; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Taft, Arthur; Nydam, Daryl; Gleed, Robin D

    2012-03-01

    Control of body temperature is critical to a successful anesthetic outcome, particularly during field immobilization of wild animals. Hyperthermia associated with exertion can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications such as organ damage (including myopathy) and death. Methods for monitoring core body temperature must accurately reflect the physiologic status of the animal in order for interventions to be effective. The goal of this preliminary study was to compare serial rectal and muscle temperatures in field-immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and evaluate a possible association. Twenty-four free-ranging black rhinoceros were immobilized between February and March of 2010 in Ethosha National Park, Namibia. Pairwise comparisons showed a correlation of 0.73 (95% CI; 0.70-0.75) between rectal and muscle temperature measurements. Results from a multivariable model indicate that muscle temperature readings were, on average, 0.46 degrees C (95% CI; 0.36-0.57 degrees C) higher than rectal temperatures while adjusting for repeated measurements on the same rhinoceros, effect of duration of immobilization, and effect of ambient temperature on rhinoceroses' temperature readings. As immobilization time increased, muscle and rectal temperature values within an individual rhinoceros tended to equilibrate. The overall temperatures decreased by an average of 0.00059 degrees C/min (95% CI; -0.0047 to -0.0035 degrees C/min; P = 0.779). As the ambient temperature at time of immobilization increased by 1 degree C, the average rhinoceros temperature increased by 0.09 degrees C (95% CI; 0.06-0.11 degrees C, P < 0.0001). Higher body temperature creates a potential for cellular damage leading to complications that include myopathy. Methods for monitoring rectal, muscle, and ambient temperatures should be incorporated into anesthetic monitoring protocols for large ungulates, particularly under field conditions.

  15. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of early postmortem intervals by a multiple regression analysis using rectal temperature and non-temperature based postmortem changes.

    PubMed

    Honjyo, Kohji; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

    2005-10-01

    Five general methods based on rectal temperature and a multiple regression analysis using rectal temperature and non-temperature based postmortem changes were applied to 212 postmortem cases of within 24h postmortem (PM) intervals. Non-temperature based postmortem changes of rigidity, hypostasis and corneal turbidity were numerically categorized and used with rectal temperatures as four statistical variables in the multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficient values between true and calculated postmortem intervals were 0.78-0.82 in the five general methods based on rectal temperature. The multiple regression analysis produced a multiple correlation coefficient value of 0.89 and according to the error ranges of the PM intervals, 72% of the cases were estimated within the error of +/-1.0 h and 92% within +/-5.0 h. Although assessments of non-temperature based PM changes are mostly subjective and have a wide variation, the present study demonstrated a usefulness of non-temperature based PM changes in the estimation of PM intervals.

  17. Comparison of tympanic membrane and rectal temperatures of anesthetized fallow deer (Dama dama)

    PubMed

    Drew, M L

    1998-09-01

    Paired tympanic membrane and rectal temperatures were compared for 103 female fallow deer (Dama dama) after short-term anesthesia to determine if tympanic temperature was a reliable indicator of hyperthermia associated with handling stress. Each deer was restrained in a drop-floor chute, anesthetized by i.v. injection of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride, and removed from the chute. After a short procedure was completed, i.m. antibiotics and i.v. yohimbine hydrochloride were given to each deer. Temperature measurements were obtained during recovery from anesthesia, approximately 10 min after initial restraint. Mean tympanic temperature (38.6 degrees C +/- 0.7 degrees C; range 37.4-40.8 degrees C) was significantly lower than mean rectal temperature (40.1 degrees C +/- 0.8 degrees C; range 37.5-42.0 degrees C) [corrected]. One animal had rectal and tympanic temperatures of 42.0 degrees C and 40.8 degrees C, respectively, but regained normal body temperature after cooling measures were applied. Tympanic membrane temperature measurement may provide a method for evaluation of body temperature by separating retained body heat caused by exertion from critical elevations in core body temperature associated with clinical disease or capture stress.

  18. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  19. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C.

  20. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M.; Shmon, Cindy L.; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp® ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp® sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and −0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and −1.1°C. PMID:25320380

  1. Age-related changes of serum mitochondrial uncoupling 1, rumen and rectal temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Arfuso, Francesca; Rizzo, Maria; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    Thermoregulatory processes are induced not only by exposure to cold or heat but also by a variety of physiological situations including age, fasting and food intake that result in changes in body temperature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in serum mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), rumen temperature (TRUMEN) and rectal temperature (TRECTAL) values between adult and kids goats. Ten adult male Maltese goats aged 3-5 years old (Group A) and 30 male kids, raised for meat, were enrolled in this study. The kids were equally divided into 3 groups according to their age: Group B included kids aged 3 months, Group C included kids aged 4 months and Group D included kids aged 5 months. Blood samples and measurements of TRUMEN and TRECTAL were obtained from each animal. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to evaluate the effect of age on the studied parameters. Statistically significant higher serum UCP1 levels (P<0.001) were found in Group A as compared to Groups B, C and D. Higher TRUMEN values (P<0.001) were found in Group A than in Groups B, C and D, and in Group B than in Groups C and D. Group A showed lower TRECTAL values (P<0.001) than Groups B, C and D. The Pearson's Correlation test was applied to assess significant relationship among studied parameters showing a statistically significant negative correlation between the values of TRECTAL and serum UCP1 in all studied Groups (P<0.001). These results indicate that goats have good control of body temperature suggesting that further details about the thermogenic capacity and the function of UCP1 in kids and adult goats are worth exploring.

  2. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  3. Diagnostic value of rectal temperature of African cattle of variable coat colour infected with trypanosomes and tick-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Magona, J W; Walubengo, J; Olaho-Mukani, W; Jonsson, N N; Eisler, M C

    2009-03-23

    Diagnosis of major endemic bovine parasitic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa such as trypanosomosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and cowdriosis is increasingly relying on clinical diagnosis due to deterioration of veterinary services and laboratory facilities. Pyrexia is a common clinical feature of aforementioned diseases whose detection relies on measurement of rectal temperature. The research undertaken in this study was aimed at assessing the effects of diurnal changes and variable coat colour of indigenous Nkedi Zebu cattle on the diagnostic value of rectal temperature under tropical conditions. The results revealed that variation in rectal temperature was significantly influenced by time of day it was taken and by the coat colour of the Nkedi Zebu cattle (P<0.001). Rectal temperature experienced diurnal changes: steadily rising to reach a peak at 17.00h before declining. The mean rectal temperature of unhealthy cattle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the healthy ones only between 13.00 and 17.00h of the day. During which period the proportion of unhealthy cattle having a rectal temperature of 39.4 degrees C or higher was significantly higher than that of healthy ones (P<0.001). Regarding the variable coat colour of indigenous breeds, rectal temperature among cattle of different coat colours was significantly different (P<0.05). In conclusion it is important to consider diurnal changes in rectal temperature and differences due to variable coat colour of indigenous African breeds when measuring rectal temperature for assessing pyrexia, during clinical diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis and tick-borne diseases that are endemic in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Temperature measurement in pediatrics: a comparison of the rectal method versus the temporal artery method.

    PubMed

    Bahorski, Jessica; Repasky, Terri; Ranner, Donna; Fields, Ally; Jackson, Michelle; Moultry, Lucy; Pierce, Karen; Sandell, Mary

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between temperature readings obtained using two different electronic temperature devices: one measuring temporal artery temperature (TAT) and one measuring rectal temperature (RT). A comparative single-group design was used with each participant acting as his or her control. The sample consisted of 47 pediatric patients between 3 and 36 months of age. Data analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between TAT and RT; however, concerns related to statistical significance versus clinical significance are discussed.

  5. Change in intraoperative rectal temperature influencing erectile dysfunction following transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Chun-Hou; Wan, Kong-Sang; Lee, Wen-Kai; Jeng, Huey-Sheng; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Ko, Ming-Chung

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the relationship between changes in intraoperative rectal temperature and erectile function in patients who have undergone transurethral resection of the prostate. Eighty-six potential patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia-induced lower urinary tract symptoms were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1-small prostates (<40 ml) and group 2-large prostates (≥ 40 ml), as determined by transrectal ultrasound measurement. The intraoperative rectal temperature was evaluated using a transrectal thermosensor and the differences between the highest intra- and preoperative temperatures were recorded. The erectile function at baseline, at three months and at one-year postoperatively was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Intraoperative rectal temperature differences were 0.54 ± 0.24°C for group 1 (n=45) and 0.44 ± 0.20°C for group 2 (n=41), (p=0.04). The IIEF-5 scores for group1 and group 2 were, respectively, 20.9 ± 1.6 and 20.6 ± 1.6 at baseline (p=0.32), 17.3 ± 2.9 and 18.7 ± 3.2 (p=0.037) at 3 months, 17.9 ± 2.7 and 18.7 ± 3.0 (p=0.17) at 1 year postoperatively. The deterioration of erectile function at 3 months post-operatively was observed for both groups. The percentage of retrograde ejaculation between two groups was not significantly different (p=0.33) at 1 year postoperatively. Our study revealed that a higher intraoperative rectal temperature difference caused by transurethral resection of the prostate might affect the postoperative erectile function, particularly in patients with a small prostate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Arterial vs. rectal temperature in ponies: rest, exercise, CO2 inhalation, and thermal stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, L G; Forster, H V; Kaminski, R P

    1986-10-01

    We assessed in ponies the adequacy of using rectal (Tre) rather than arterial temperature (Tar) under conditions common to ventilatory control experiments, i.e., CO2 breathing, thermal stress, and particularly exercise. We were interested in whether, and to what extent, Tar-Tre differences could lead to errors in arterial blood gas corrections. At control environmental temperatures (Ta) of 5 degrees C in the winter and 21 degrees C in the summer, Tar and Tre (37.1 degrees C) did not differ (P greater than 0.05). Elevating winter or summer Ta by 10-18 degrees C for 2-days or lowering summer Ta by 9 degrees C (2-days) did not change Tar or Tre (P greater than 0.05). Furthermore, elevating inspired PCO2 to 42 Torr for 15 min did not alter Tar or Tre from control (P greater than 0.05). During treadmill exercise, at 1.8 mph 5% grade, Tar and Tre did not change significantly (P greater than 0.05) from rest by 11 min of work. At 3 mph 5% grade, Tar increased progressively by 0.3 degrees C (P less than 0.05) while Tre tended to increase 0.1 degree C by 11 min. During moderate exercise at 6 mph 5% grade, Tar increased 0.9 degree C (P less than 0.05) while Tre increased 0.25 degree C (P less than 0.05). Finally, by 6 min of heavy exercise at 8 mph 20% grade, Tar increased 2 degrees C (P less than 0.05) while Tre increased 0.5 degree C (P less than 0.05). The Tar-Tre differences during the latter three work loads were statistically significant (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Automatic continuous monitoring of rectal temperature using a button-type thermo data logger.

    PubMed

    Kanetake, Jun; Kanawaku, Yoshimasa; Funayama, Masato

    2006-07-01

    We performed automatic continuous monitoring of rectal and ambient temperatures using button-type thermo data loggers in autopsy cases. The button-type data loggers have a battery-powered memory that can record 2048 temperature readings. The measurement intervals and other initial settings are determined by computer software, and the measurements were taken at 5-min intervals for this study. At autopsy, the data loggers were retrieved and recorded temperature graphs were produced. This study obtained three representative cases. In one case, the button-type data logger was not discharged regardless of how the body was moved after the device was inserted into the rectum. In two other cases, the cooling curves of the rectal temperature readings clearly followed changes in ambient cooling conditions. The advantages of the tested devices are their small size (diameter, 17.4 mm; thickness, 5.9 mm) and ease of insertion into the rectum, requiring no special skills. Many temperature-based algorithms to determine time of death have been developed, and as a matter of course, the temperature values must be accurate and reliable. Ensuring the validity of each temperature reading requires continuous data from an internal data logger. A button-type data logger is ideal for this purpose.

  8. Comparison of reticular and rectal core body temperatures in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bewley, J M; Einstein, M E; Grott, M W; Schutz, M M

    2008-12-01

    The Phase IV Cattle Temperature Monitoring System (CTMS; Phase IV Engineering Inc., Boulder, CO) marketed by MaGiiX (MaGiiX Inc., Post Falls, ID) uses a passive bolus equipped with a temperature sensor, a panel reader placed at a parlor entrance or exit to query the bolus, and a software package to collect, analyze, and view data. The biologically inert bolus resides in the cow's reticulum and is queried each time the cow passes the reader. Reticular temperature (RETT) and rectal temperature (RECT) were recorded simultaneously in the milking parlor exit lane in 4 consecutive milkings in each of 4 seasons, totaling 16 measurements per cow. The RETT were obtained by using the phase IV CTMS, whereas the RECT were obtained manually with a GLA M750 thermometer (GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA). Data were edited to remove RETT likely to have been affected by a recent drinking bout. For the 2,042 observations used in analyses, means (+/-SD) were 39.28 (+/-0.41), 38.83 (+/-0.36), and 0.45 (+/-0.33) for RETT, RECT, and the difference between RETT and RECT, respectively. The RETT and RECT were strongly correlated (r = 0.645). The relationship between RETT and RECT varied by season, milking, housing system, and parity. Because dairy producers and veterinarians are accustomed to viewing rectal temperatures, equations to adjust reticular temperatures to a rectal-based scale may increase the utility of the phase IV CTMS. The resulting conversion equations were RECT = 19.23 + 0.496(RETT) for the a.m. milking and RECT = 15.88 + 0.587(RETT) for the p.m. milking.

  9. The predicting value of postoperative body temperature on long-term survival in patients with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huichuan; Luo, Yanxin; Peng, Hui; Kang, Liang; Huang, Meijin; Luo, Shuangling; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Zihuan; Wang, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between postoperative body temperature and prognosis in patients with rectal cancer. Five hundred and seven patients with stage I to III rectal cancers were enrolled in the current study. Basal body temperature (BBT, measured at 6 am) and maximal body temperature (MBT) on each day after surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two equal groups according to the median of BBT and MBT at each day. The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with low D0-MBT (<37.4 °C) had lower 3-year DFS [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.56 (95 % CI 1.08-2.24, P = 0.017)] as well as OS [adjusted HR 1.72 (95 % CI 1.05-2.82, P = 0.032)] rate as compared to those with high D0-MBT (>37.4 °C). In the subset of 318 patients with T3 stage tumor and the subgroup of 458 patients without blood transfusion as well, low D0-MBT continues to be an independent predictor of DFS/OS with an adjusted HR equal to 1.48 (95 % CI 1.02-2.24, P = 0.046)/1.68 (95 % CI 1.04-2.99, P = 0.048) and 1.45 (95 % CI 1.02-2.13, P = 0.048)/1.59 (95 % CI 1.01-2.74, P = 0.049), respectively. In addition, we found that patients have higher risk of 1-year recurrence if those were exhibiting low preoperative BBT (<36.6 °C) (17 vs. 10 %, P = 0.034). Low body temperature (D0-MBT < 37.4 °C) after surgery was an independent predictor of poor survival outcomes in patients with rectal cancer.

  10. A randomized comparison of rectal misoprostol with syntometrine on blood loss in the third stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Harriott, J; Christie, L; Wynter, S; DaCosta, V; Fletcher, H; Reid, M

    2009-06-01

    a) To compare the clinical effect of rectal misoprostol with intramuscular syntometrine in reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour b) to determine the severity and incidence of side effects of both drugs and c) to measure blood loss, patient tolerance and acceptance of rectal misoprostol. One hundred and forty parturients were randomly allocated to receive intramuscular syntometrine (syntocinon 10 IU + ergometrine 0.5 mg) or rectal misoprostol 400 microg within five minutes of the delivery of the anterior shoulder Blood loss was measured by the use of a plastic collection drape. Additional oxytocic therapy was instituted for uterine atony or if blood loss was in excess of one litre. There was no significant difference in patient demographics of each treatment group (Table 1). There was no difference in mean duration of the third stage of labour (8.4 +/- 14 min vs 7.8 +/- 6.6 min). The mean blood loss from those parturients receiving misoprostol (180.1 +/- 120 mls) was not significantly different (p = 0.5) from those receiving syntometrine (197 +/- 176.97 mls) for the active management of the third stage of labour Treatment with syntometrine was associated with a significant elevation of post-partum systolic blood pressure compared with misoprostol treatment (mean increase 0.57 +/- 18.79 mmHg vs -1.43 +/- 14.17 mmHg, (mean +/- SD), p < 0.04). Rectal misoprostol was well tolerated in 88.5% of participants, 11.4% reported that insertion was uncomfortable, of which 2.8% reported that they would have preferred parenteral drug administration. The clinical effect of rectal misoprostol and intramuscular syntometrine were not different at the doses used in the active management of the third stage of labour in this study. Rectal misoprostol was well tolerated by the patients and had a low side effect profile. Blood loss assessment using the blood collection drape is of invaluable benefit in resource-poor settings.

  11. Rectal temperature changes and oxygen toxicity in dogs treated in a monoplace chamber.

    PubMed

    Shmalberg, Justin; Davies, Wendy; Lopez, Stacy; Shmalberg, Danielle; Zilberschtein, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen treatments are increasingly administered to pet dogs, using veterinary-specific monoplace chambers. The basic physiologic responses, chamber performance and oxygen toxicity rates have not yet been evaluated in dogs in a clinical setting. As a result, a series of consecutive 45-minute, 2-atmospheres absolute (atm abs) hyperbaric treatments with 100% oxygen were evaluated in a veterinary rehabilitation center (n = 285). 65 dogs with a mean body weight of 21 ± 15 kg (1.4-71 kg) were treated with an average of four sessions each. The mean rectal temperature of canine patients decreased 0.07 degrees C (0.1 degrees F) during treatments (p = 0.04). Intra-chamber temperature and humidity both increased: +1.0 degrees C (1.7 degrees F, p < 0.0001) and +5.7% (p < 0.0001), respectively. The mean maximal oxygen concentration measured before depressurization of the veterinary-specific commercial chamber was 98.0 ± 0.9%. No strong correlations (r > 0.75) were identified between body weights, body condition scores, maximal oxygen concentrations, starting or ending rectal temperature, chamber humidity and chamber temperature. Oxygen toxicity was not observed during the observational period. Patients were most commonly treated for intervertebral disc disease (n = 16 dogs) and extensive traumatic wounds (n = 10 dogs), which represented a large number of the total study sessions (19% and 16%, respectively).

  12. [Determination of the time of death by measurement of rectal temperature of corpses suspended in water].

    PubMed

    Henssge, C; Brinkmann, B; Püschel, K

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-nine corpses were subdivided into three groups. Normally from the 3rd h post mortem on, they were suspended undressed in a tub holding 1,000 l in nearly still water of temperatures approximately 20 degrees, 10 degrees and 0 degrees C. The rectal temperature was measured, normally until the 33rd h post mortem. Time of death was calculated by means of the mathematical analytical two-exponential formula suggested by Marshall and Hoare (1962), in the version used by Brown and Marshall (1974). The adapting parameters of the formula were standardized according to the principle of Henssge (1979, 1981) and related to standardization by adjusting factors to body weight stated for standard values of cooling, i.e., undressed corpses in calm air. After termination of the post mortem temperature plateau, it was found that undressed corpses suspended in water of temperatures of approximately 20 degrees and 10 degrees C cool as quickly as undressed corpses of half the body mass in calm air of the same temperatures. As to the duration of the post mortem temperature plateau in water suspension time from the time of death, it may only be indirectly concluded that it is linked to the subsequent speed of cooling in the same way which is well known in the case of air cooling. Statistical standard values are given concerning the differences between the computed and the real times of death. Unexpectedly, the experiments in water at approximately 0 degrees C yielded distinctly slighter temperature which were especially marked at rectal temperatures up to approximately 11 degrees C in corpses of great body mass and small body surface in proportion to and equally, without regard to body mass. As an explanation of this, a decrease in the thermal conductivity of the subcutaneous adipose tissue in connection with a decrease in tissue temperature is discussed.

  13. Fortran Program to Predict Rectal Temperature and Heart Rate Response of a Person Working in MOPP-4 (Mission-Oriented Protective Posture - Level 4).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    initial rest/acclimatization period, (min) 30.00 min HIGH Thermal stress limit, rectal temperature , (OF) 102.50 OF LOW Recovery cessation determinant...AD-A168 326 FORTRAN PROGRAM TO PREDICT RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND HEART /I RATE RESPONSE OF A (U) HUMAN ENGINEERING LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD P G...Technical Note 4-86 FORTRAN PROGRAM TO PREDICT RECTAL TEMPERATURE AND HEART RATE RESPONSE OF A PERSON WORKING IN MOPP-4 Phillip G. Harnden April 1986

  14. How hot is too hot? Live-trapped gray wolf rectal temperatures and 1-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of physically restrained and anesthetized wolves to thermoregulate is lessened and could lead to reduced survival, yet no information is available about this subject. Therefore, we analyzed rectal temperatures related to survival 1 year post-capture from 173 adult (non-pup) gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in modified foot-hold traps for radiocollaring during June–August, 1988–2011, in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota, USA. The maximum observed rectal temperature (“maxtemp,” ° F, ° C) in each wolf during capture (x = 104.0, 40.0; SD = 2.0, 1.1; min. = 95.9, 35.5; max. = 108, 42.2) was not a significant predictor of survival to 1 year post-capture. Although no weather or morphometric variable was a significant predictor of maxtemps, wolves initially anesthetized with ketamine–xylazine rather than telazol®–xylazine averaged higher maxtemps. This information does not fully address possible effects of high body temperatures related to live-capture and handling of wolves, but it does provide a useful waypoint for future assessments of this relationship and a reassurance to wildlife practitioners that the maxtemps observed in our study did not appear to affect 1-year survival.

  15. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the body temperature rise during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of heat-dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence from variations in plasma volume.-

  16. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the body temperature rise during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of heat-dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence from variations in plasma volume.-

  17. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  18. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  19. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds on rectal temperature in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Sugimoto, Y; Kamei, C

    1995-12-01

    Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds on rectal temperature were studied in mice. Histamine (0.1-1.0 mu g) and histidine (500-1,000 mg/kg) caused a dose-related hypothermia. H1 agonist, 2-methylhistamine and 2-thiazolylethylamine also displayed a dose-dependent hypothermia. In addition, H2 agonists, 4-methylhistamine and dimaprit elicited a decrease in body temperature. Preinjection of not only H1-antagonists (diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine) but also H2 antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine) abolished histamine-induced hypothermia. Either intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injection of thioperamide, a histamine H3 antagonist, showed hypothermia. The hypothermic effect produced by intracerebroventricular injection of thioperamide was significantly blocked by (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective H3 agonist. In addition, the effect induced by thioperamide was inhibited by H1 and H2 antagonists, indicating that the H3 receptor also participates in histamine-induced hypothermia.

  20. Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  1. Further studies on the hydrolysis of salicyluric acid in intestinal microorganisms and prolonged blood concentration of salicylic acid following rectal administration of salicyluric acid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Shiota, H; Haraguchi, Y; Sasaki, H; Shibasaki, J

    1988-01-01

    The blood concentrations of salicyluric acid and salicylic acid following intracecal and rectal administration of salicyluric acid were determined in rabbits. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration. After rectal administration, a small amount of salicyluric acid was absorbed in intact form. The rest was rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, which was subsequently absorbed. The blood concentration of salicylic acid was maintained at 1.3-1.8 micrograms/ml from 2 to 12 h. Three doses of salicyluric acid were administered rectally. The peak level of salicyluric acid increased with dose. However, salicylic acid concentration in the blood following administration of salicyluric acid at 10.0 mg/kg (salicylic acid equivalent) was not double that observed following administration of salicyluric acid at 5.0 mg/kg (salicylic acid equivalent). It appears that a larger amount of salicyluric acid in the rectal lumen may have saturated the glycine deconjugation system.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic radiation (bright light, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, infrared radiation) on the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lerchl, Alexander; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at < 30 lux, 18 degrees C, and < 50 dBA. In the experimental sessions, either light (1500 lux), magnetic field (16.7 Hz, 0.2 mT), or infrared radiation (65 degrees C) was applied from 5 pm to 1 am. Salivary melatonin level was determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were continuously recorded. Melatonin synthesis was completely suppressed by light but resumed thereafter. The nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate were delayed. The magnetic field had no effect. Infrared radiation elevated rectal temperature and heart rate. Only bright light affected the circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate, however, differently thus causing a dissociation, which might enhance the adverse effects of shiftwork in the long run.

  3. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Schutz, J S; Carroll, J A; Gasbarre, L C; Shelton, T A; Nordstrom, S T; Hutcheson, J P; Van Campen, H; Engle, T E

    2012-06-01

    Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 ± 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), and IFN-γ (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for CONT calves to have greater IL-4 concentrations. By design, control calves had greater (P < 0.01) fecal egg counts during the experiment. All calves developed antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 by d 15 postvaccination. On d 88, all calves were challenged with IBRV and blood samples were obtained on d 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 98, 99, and 103. All calves had increased rectal temperatures during the final 7 d of the IBRV challenge. However, the CONT group had

  4. Intracellular Tenofovir and Emtricitabine Anabolites in Genital, Rectal, and Blood Compartments from First Dose to Steady State.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sharon M; Chen, Xinhui; Meditz, Amie L; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Gardner, Edward M; Predhomme, Julie A; Clayton, Carolyn; Austin, Gregory; Palmer, Brent E; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Klein, Brandon; Kerr, Becky J; Guida, L Anthony; Rower, Caitlin; Rower, Joseph E; Kiser, Jennifer J; Bushman, Lane R; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and emtricitabine-triphosphate (FTC-TP), the active anabolites of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), and emtricitabine (FTC) in blood, genital, and rectal compartments was determined in HIV-positive and seronegative adults who undertook a 60-day intensive PK study of daily TDF/FTC (plus efavirenz in HIV positives). Lymphocyte cell sorting, genital, and rectal sampling occurred once per subject, at staggered visits. Among 19 HIV-positive (3 female) and 21 seronegative (10 female) adults, TFV-DP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) accumulated 8.6-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.2-10] from first-dose to steady-state concentration (Css) versus 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.5-1.9) for FTC-TP. Css was reached in ∼11 and 3 days, respectively. Css values were similar between HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals. Css TFV-DP in rectal mononuclear cells (1,450 fmol/10(6) cells, 898-2,340) was achieved in 5 days and was >10 times higher than PBMC (95 fmol/10(6) cells, 85-106), seminal cells (22 fmol/10(6) cells, 6-79), and cervical cells (111 fmol/10(6) cells, 64-194). FTC-TP Css was highest in PBMC (5.7 pmol/10(6) cells, 5.2-6.1) and cervical cells (7 pmol/10(6) cells, 2-19) versus rectal (0.8 pmol/10(6) cells, 0.6-1.1) and seminal cells (0.3 pmol/10(6) cells, 0.2-0.5). Genital drug concentrations on days 1-7 overlapped with estimated Css, but accumulation characteristics were based on limited data. TFV-DP and FTC-TP in cell sorted samples were highest and achieved most rapidly in CD14(+) compared with CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD19(+) cells. Together, these findings demonstrate cell-type and tissue-dependent cellular pharmacology, preferential accumulation of TFV-DP in rectal mononuclear cells, and rapid distribution into rectal and genital compartments.

  5. Microarray profiling of mononuclear peripheral blood cells identifies novel candidate genes related to chemoradiation response in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Palma, Pablo; Cuadros, Marta; Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Olmedo, Carmen; Cano, Carlos; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Blanco, Armando; Bueno, Pablo; Ferrón, J Antonio; Medina, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative chemoradiation significantly improves oncological outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer. However there is no effective method of predicting tumor response to chemoradiation in these patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells have emerged recently as pathology markers of cancer and other diseases, making possible their use as therapy predictors. Furthermore, the importance of the immune response in radiosensivity of solid organs led us to hypothesized that microarray gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells could identify patients with response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Thirty five 35 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were recruited initially to perform the study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before neaodjuvant treatment. RNA was extracted and purified to obtain cDNA and cRNA for hybridization of microarrays included in Human WG CodeLink bioarrays. Quantitative real time PCR was used to validate microarray experiment data. Results were correlated with pathological response, according to Mandard´s criteria and final UICC Stage (patients with tumor regression grade 1-2 and downstaging being defined as responders and patients with grade 3-5 and no downstaging as non-responders). Twenty seven out of 35 patients were finally included in the study. We performed a multiple t-test using Significance Analysis of Microarrays, to find those genes differing significantly in expression, between responders (n = 11) and non-responders (n = 16) to CRT. The differently expressed genes were: BC 035656.1, CIR, PRDM2, CAPG, FALZ, HLA-DPB2, NUPL2, and ZFP36. The measurement of FALZ (p = 0.029) gene expression level determined by qRT-PCR, showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Gene expression profiling reveals novel genes in peripheral blood samples of mononuclear cells that could predict responders and non-responders to chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced

  6. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  7. Control of rectal gland secretion by blood acid-base status in the intact dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Munger, R Stephen; Thompson, Jill; Shuttleworth, Trevor J

    2007-05-14

    In order to address the possible role of blood acid-base status in controlling the rectal gland, dogfish were fitted with indwelling arterial catheters for blood sampling and rectal gland catheters for secretion collection. In intact, unanaesthetized animals, isosmotic volume loading with 500 mmol L-1 NaCl at a rate of 15 mL kg-1 h-1 produced a brisk, stable rectal gland secretion flow of about 4 mL kg-1 h-1. Secretion composition (500 mmol L-1 Na+ and Cl-; 5 mmol L-1 K+; <1 mmol L-1 Ca2+, Mg2+, SO(4)2-, or phosphate) was almost identical to that of the infusate with a pH of about 7.2, HCO3- mmol L-1<1 mmol L-1 and a PCO2 (1 Torr) close to PaCO2. Experimental treatments superimposed on the infusion caused the expected disturbances in systemic acid-base status: respiratory acidosis by exposure to high environmental PCO2, metabolic acidosis by infusion of HCl, and metabolic alkalosis by infusion of NaHCO3. Secretion flow decreased markedly with acidosis and increased with alkalosis, in a linear relationship with extracellular pH. Secretion composition did not change, apart from alterations in its acid-base status, and made negligible contribution to overall acid-base balance. An adaptive control of rectal gland secretion by systemic acid-base status is postulated-stimulation by the "alkaline tide" accompanying the volume load of feeding and inhibition by the metabolic acidosis accompanying the volume contraction of exercise.

  8. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories about the relation of blood electrolytes and exercise to thermoregulation in man are reviewed. It is shown that the elevation of body temperature during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of the heat dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence of variations in plasma volume.

  9. Blood electrolytes and exercise in relation to temperature regulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories about the relation of blood electrolytes and exercise to thermoregulation in man are reviewed. It is shown that the elevation of body temperature during physical exercise is a regulated process and is not due to a failure of the heat dissipating mechanisms. Core and skin temperatures do not provide sufficient information to account for the control of sweating during exercise. Evidence is presented that suggests an association between equilibrium levels of rectal temperature and the osmotic concentration of the blood with essentially no influence of variations in plasma volume.

  10. Influence of weather conditions on milk production and rectal temperature of Holsteins fed two levels of concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabuga, J. D.; Sarpong, K.

    1991-12-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows in 2nd lactation were allocated randomly, six each, to two feeding treatments: high concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 2 kg milk produced) and low concentrate (1 kg dairy concentrate to 4 kg milk produced) from 7 to 106 days postcalving. Forage and water were provided adalibitum. Milk and butter fat yields and rectal temperatures were examined in relation to 9 weather variables (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index (THI), radiation, wind velocity and mean temperature of the previous day). Averages for milk yield, fat yield and rectal temperature were respectively 20.4 kg, 0.7 kg and 38.9°C for the high concentrate treatment and 18.4 kg, 0.6 kg and 38.6°C for the low concentrate treatment. Weather conditions accounted for 5.6%, 0.8% and 10.8% of the day to day variation in milk yield, fat yield and rectal remperature, respectively, for the high concentrate group and 29.4%, 9.7% and 0.6%, respectively, for the low concentrate group. Only measures of ambient temperature, especially mean temperature, were closely associated with these traits.

  11. Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Forsberg, Christina; Wahren, Lis Karin

    2002-06-01

    Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women: a systematic literature review The purpose of this study was to investigate normal body temperature in adult men and women. A systematic review of data was performed. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and manually from identified articles reference lists. Studies from 1935 to 1999 were included. Articles were classified as (1) strong, (2) fairly strong and (3) weak evidence. When summarizing studies with strong or fairly strong evidence the range for oral temperature was 33.2-38.2 degrees C, rectal: 34.4-37.8 degrees C, tympanic: 35.4- 37.8 degrees C and axillary: 35.5-37.0 degrees C. The range in oral temperature for men and women, respectively, was 35.7-37.7 and 33.2-38.1 degrees C, in rectal 36.7-37.5 and 36.8-37.1 degrees C, and in tympanic 35.5-37.5 and 35.7-37.5 degrees C. The ranges of normal body temperature need to be adjusted, especially for the lower values. When assessing body temperature it is important to take place of measurement and gender into consideration. Studies with random samples are needed to confirm the range of normal body temperature with respect to gender and age.

  12. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zanghi, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland–Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3–0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  13. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise.

    PubMed

    Zanghi, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  14. Infrared thermography of the udder surface of dairy cattle: characteristics, methods, and correlation with rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Moritz; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Seemueller, Andrea; Petzl, Wolfram; Klee, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermograms of the caudal udder surface were taken of five healthy cows before and after inoculation of Escherichia coli into the right hind quarter. Images in clinically normal udder quarters from cows without fever (CN) were compared with those post inoculation when cows had fever (⩾ 39.5°C) and showed elevation of somatic cell counts (⩾ 400,000 cells/mL) in the inoculated quarter (CM). Using graphic software tools, different geometric analysis tools (GATs: polygons, rectangles, lines) were set within the thermographic images. The following descriptive parameters (DPs) were employed: minimum value ('min'), maximum value ('max'), range ('max-min'), and arithmetic mean ('am'). Surface temperatures in group CN were between 34.1°C ('polygons'/'min') and 37.9°C ('polygons'/'max'), and in group CM between 34.5°C ('polygons'/'min') and 40.0°C ('polygons'/'max'). The greatest differences in the temperatures between CN and CM (2.06°C) were found in 'polygons' and 'rectangles' using 'max'. The smallest coefficient of variation in triplicate determinations was found in GAT 'polygons' with DP 'max' (Tmax) (0.15%), and the relationship to the rectal body temperature (Tr) could be described by Tr=5.68+0.874*Tmax. The results show that significant changes can be displayed best using the GAT 'polygons' and the DP 'max'. These methods should be considered for automated monitoring of udder health in dairy cows.

  15. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  16. Validity of Core Temperature Measurements at 3 Rectal Depths During Rest, Exercise, Cold-Water Immersion, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C; Hughes, Lexie E; Long, Blaine C; Adams, William M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-04-01

      No evidence-based recommendation exists regarding how far clinicians should insert a rectal thermistor to obtain the most valid estimate of core temperature. Knowing the validity of temperatures at different rectal depths has implications for exertional heat-stroke (EHS) management.   To determine whether rectal temperature (Trec) taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, or 15 cm from the anal sphincter provides the most valid estimate of core temperature (as determined by esophageal temperature [Teso]) during similar stressors an athlete with EHS may experience.   Cross-sectional study.   Laboratory.   Seventeen individuals (14 men, 3 women: age = 23 ± 2 years, mass = 79.7 ± 12.4 kg, height = 177.8 ± 9.8 cm, body fat = 9.4% ± 4.1%, body surface area = 1.97 ± 0.19 m(2)).   Rectal temperatures taken at 4 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm from the anal sphincter were compared with Teso during a 10-minute rest period; exercise until the participant's Teso reached 39.5°C; cold-water immersion (∼10°C) until all temperatures were ≤38°C; and a 30-minute postimmersion recovery period. The Teso and Trec were compared every minute during rest and recovery. Because exercise and cooling times varied, we compared temperatures at 10% intervals of total exercise and cooling durations for these periods.   The Teso and Trec were used to calculate bias (ie, the difference in temperatures between sites).   Rectal depth affected bias (F2,24 = 6.8, P = .008). Bias at 4 cm (0.85°C ± 0.78°C) was higher than at 15 cm (0.65°C ± 0.68°C, P < .05) but not higher than at 10 cm (0.75°C ± 0.76°C, P > .05). Bias varied over time (F2,34 = 79.5, P < .001). Bias during rest (0.42°C ± 0.27°C), exercise (0.23°C ± 0.53°C), and recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C) was less than during cooling (1.72°C ± 0.65°C, P < .05). Bias during exercise was less than during postimmersion recovery (0.65°C ± 0.35°C, P < .05).   When EHS is suspected, clinicians should insert the flexible rectal

  17. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  18. Comparison of Gastrointestinal and Rectal Temperatures During Recovery After a Warm-Weather Road Race

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M.; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  It has been well established that gastrointestinal temperature (TGI) tracks closely with rectal temperature (TREC) during exercise. However, the field use of TGI pills is still being examined, and little is known about how measurements obtained using these devices compare during recovery after exercise in warm weather. Objective:  To compare TGI and TREC in runners who completed an 11.3-km warm-weather road race and determine if runners with higher TGI and TREC present with greater passive cooling rates during recovery. Design:  Cross-sectional study. Setting:  Field. Patients or Other Participants:  Thirty recreationally active runners (15 men, 15 women; age = 39 ± 11 years, weight = 68.3 ± 11.7 kg, body fat = 19.2% ± 5.0%). Main Outcome Measure(s):  The TGI and TREC were obtained immediately after the race and during a 20-minute passive rest at the 2014 Falmouth Road Race (heat index = 26.2°C ± 0.9°C). Temperatures were taken every 2 minutes during passive rest. The main dependent variables were mean bias and limits of agreement for TGI and TREC, using Bland-Altman analysis, and the 20-minute passive cooling rates for TGI and TREC. Results:  No differences were evident between TGI and TREC throughout passive rest (P = .542). The passive cooling rates for TGI and TREC were 0.046 ± 0.031°C·min−1 and 0.060 ± 0.036°C·min−1, respectively. Runners with higher TGI and TREC at the start of cooling had higher cooling rates (R = 0.682, P < .001 and R = 0.54, P = .001, respectively). The mean bias of TGI during the 20-minute passive rest was −0.06°C ± 0.56°C with 95% limits of agreement of ±1.09°C. Conclusions:  After participants completed a warm-weather road race, TGI provided a valid measure of body temperature compared with the criterion measure of TREC. Therefore, TGI may be a viable option for monitoring postexercise-induced hyperthermia, if the pill is administered prophylactically. PMID:27186918

  19. Comparison of Gastrointestinal and Rectal Temperatures During Recovery After a Warm-Weather Road Race.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-05-01

    It has been well established that gastrointestinal temperature (TGI) tracks closely with rectal temperature (TREC) during exercise. However, the field use of TGI pills is still being examined, and little is known about how measurements obtained using these devices compare during recovery after exercise in warm weather. To compare TGI and TREC in runners who completed an 11.3-km warm-weather road race and determine if runners with higher TGI and TREC present with greater passive cooling rates during recovery. Cross-sectional study. Field. Thirty recreationally active runners (15 men, 15 women; age = 39 ± 11 years, weight = 68.3 ± 11.7 kg, body fat = 19.2% ± 5.0%). The TGI and TREC were obtained immediately after the race and during a 20-minute passive rest at the 2014 Falmouth Road Race (heat index = 26.2°C ± 0.9°C). Temperatures were taken every 2 minutes during passive rest. The main dependent variables were mean bias and limits of agreement for TGI and TREC, using Bland-Altman analysis, and the 20-minute passive cooling rates for TGI and TREC. No differences were evident between TGI and TREC throughout passive rest (P = .542). The passive cooling rates for TGI and TREC were 0.046 ± 0.031°C·min(-1) and 0.060 ± 0.036°C·min(-1), respectively. Runners with higher TGI and TREC at the start of cooling had higher cooling rates (R = 0.682, P < .001 and R = 0.54, P = .001, respectively). The mean bias of TGI during the 20-minute passive rest was -0.06°C ± 0.56°C with 95% limits of agreement of ±1.09°C. After participants completed a warm-weather road race, TGI provided a valid measure of body temperature compared with the criterion measure of TREC. Therefore, TGI may be a viable option for monitoring postexercise-induced hyperthermia, if the pill is administered prophylactically.

  20. Oral administration of D-aspartate, but not L-aspartate, depresses rectal temperature and alters plasma metabolites in chicks.

    PubMed

    Erwan, Edi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nagasawa, Mao; Goda, Ryosei; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-25

    L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and D-aspartate (D-Asp) are physiologically important amino acids in mammals and birds. However, the functions of these amino acids have not yet been fully understood. In this study, we therefore examined the effects of L-Asp and D-Asp in terms of regulating body temperature, plasma metabolites and catecholamines in chicks. Chicks were first orally administered with different doses (0, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mmol/kg body weight) of L- or D-Asp to monitor the effects of these amino acids on rectal temperature during 120 min of the experimental period. Oral administration of D-Asp, but not of L-Asp, linearly decreased the rectal temperature in chicks. Importantly, orally administered D-Asp led to a significant reduction in body temperature in chicks even under high ambient temperature (HT) conditions. However, centrally administered D-Asp did not significantly influence the body temperature in chicks. As for plasma metabolites and catecholamines, orally administered D-Asp led to decreased triacylglycerol and uric acid concentrations and increased glucose and chlorine concentrations but did not alter plasma catecholamines. These results suggest that oral administration of D-Asp may play a potent role in reducing body temperature under both normal and HT conditions. The alteration of plasma metabolites further indicates that D-Asp may contribute to the regulation of metabolic activity in chicks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of feed energy density and a formulated additive on rumen and rectal temperature in hanwoo steers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Shim, Kwanseob; Lee, A-Leum; Oh, Seong-Jin; Yang, Jinho; Ryu, Chaehwa; Kim, Young-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Chae, Jung-Il; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower

  2. The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Shim, Kwanseob; Lee, A-Leum; Oh, Seong-Jin; Yang, Jinho; Ryu, Chaehwa; Kim, Young-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Chae, Jung-Il; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower

  3. High-performance size-based microdevice for the detection of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood in rectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Jia, Chunping; Huang, Ting; Sheng, Weiqi; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Honglian; Jing, Fengxiang; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Since individualized therapy becomes more and more important in the treatment of rectal cancer, an accurate and effective approach should be established in the clinical settings to help physicians to make their decisions. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), originated from either primary or metastatic cancer, could provide important information for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. However, the implication and development of CTCs are limited due to the extreme rarity of these tumor cells. In this study we fabricated a simple and high-performance microfluidic device, which exploited numerous filtered microchannels in it to enrich the large-sized target tumor cells from whole blood. A very high CTC capture efficiency (average recovery rate: 94%) was obtained in this device at the optimum flow rate of 0.5 mL/h and channel height of 5 µm. Additionally, we used this device for detecting CTCs in 60 patients with rectal cancer. The CTC counts of rectal cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects. Furthermore, the CTC counts detected by this device were significantly higher than those by EpCAM bead-based method for rectal cancer patients with various stage. Especially, for localized rectal cancer patients, the positive rates of samples with more than 3 CTCs per 5 mL blood by use of microdevice vs. EpCAM-based ones were 100% vs. 47%, respectively. Thus, this device provides a new and effective tool for accurate identification and measurement of CTCs in patients with rectal cancer, and has broad potential in clinical practice.

  4. An analysis of the effect of thermometer type and make on rectal temperature measurements of cattle, horses and sheep.

    PubMed

    Hine, L; Laven, R A; Sahu, S K

    2015-05-01

    To compare the variation in rectal temperature measurement by digital, mercury and ethanol thermometers in cattle, horses and sheep. Seven different makes of thermometer (four digital, two mercury, and one ethanol; (n=27) were tested individually in a calibrated water bath to identify whether there was an effect of thermometer make on recorded temperature. In addition, rectal temperatures of four cattle, four sheep and four horses were recorded using the same thermometers, by seven persons, with each person being assigned to one thermometer make. In the water bath test, mean temperature was affected by thermometer make (p<0.001) and ranged from 38.0°C for the Digital Large Animal thermometer to 38.3°C, which was recorded by the Rapid Digital thermometer and the three makes of capillary thermometer. There was an interaction between species and make of thermometer (p<0.001). In sheep, the lowest mean temperature was recorded using the Capillary Small Animal thermometer (39.2°C) and the highest using the alcohol thermometer (mean 40.4°C). In cows and horses, the highest mean temperatures were recorded by the alcohol thermometer (38.6 and 38.9°C, respectively), and the lowest by the Rapid Digital thermometer (37.7 and 36.3°C, respectively). Over all species, the Rapid Digital (mean difference 0.89 (95% CI=0.71-1.08)°C) and Genia Digiflash (mean difference 0.61 (95% CI=0.42-0.81)°C) both recorded lower temperatures than the reference thermometer (Capillary Small Animal). The alcohol thermometer recorded higher temperatures than all other thermometers (mean difference 0.55 (95% CI=0.35-0.74)°C compared with reference). There were differences in variance between thermometer types (p<0.001), with the Rapid Digital having the highest (SD 1.47) and the Capillary Small Animal the lowest (SD 0.53). Make of thermometer can influence rectal temperature measurements. In this study, digital thermometers generally recorded lower temperatures than mercury thermometers and

  5. Aural Canal, Esophageal, and Rectal Temperatures During Exertional Heat Stress and the Subsequent Recovery Period

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Lemire, Bruno B.; Jay, Ollie; Kenny, Glen P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The measurement of body temperature is crucial for the initial diagnosis of exertional heat injury and for monitoring purposes during a subsequent treatment strategy. However, little information is available about how different measurements of body temperature respond during and after exertional heat stress. Objective: To present the temporal responses of aural canal (Tac), esophageal (Tes), and rectal (Tre) temperatures during 2 different scenarios (S1, S2) involving exertional heat stress and a subsequent recovery period. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four healthy volunteers, with 12 (5 men, 7 women) participating in S1 and 12 (7 men, 5 women) participating in S2. Intervention(s): The participants exercised in the heat (42°C, 30% relative humidity) until they reached a 39.5°C cut-off criterion, which was determined by Tre in S1 and by Tes in S2. As such, participants attained different levels of hyperthermia (as determined by Tre) at the end of exercise. Participants in S1 were subsequently immersed in cold water (2°C) until Tre reached 37.5°C, and participants in S2 recovered in a temperate environment (30°C, 30% relative humidity) for 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured Tac, Tes, and Tre throughout both scenarios. Results: The Tes (S1  =  40.19 ± 0.41°C, S2  =  39.50 ± 0.02°C) was higher at the end of exercise compared with both Tac (S1  =  39.74 ± 0.42°C, S2  =  38.89 ± 0.32°C) and Tre (S1  =  39.41 ± 0.04°C, S2  =  38.74 ± 0.28°C) (for both comparisons in each scenario, P < .001). Conversely, Tes (S1  =  36.26 ± 0.74°C, S2  =  37.36 ± 0.34°C) and Tac (S1  =  36.48 ± 1.07°C, S2  =  36.97 ± 0.38°C) were lower compared with Tre (S1  =  37.54 ± 0.04°C, S2  =  37.78 ± 0.31°C) at the end of both scenarios (for both comparisons in each scenario, P < .001). Conclusions: We

  6. Reproducibility of 2D and 3D fractal analysis techniques for the assessment of spatial heterogeneity of regional blood flow in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Bal; Banerjee, Debasish; Khan, Aftab; Simcock, Ian; Stirling, J James; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Goh, Vicky

    2012-06-01

    To characterize the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fractal properties of rectal cancer regional blood flow assessed by using volumetric helical perfusion computed tomography (CT) and to determine its reproducibility. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Ten prospective patients (eight men, two women; mean age, 72.3 years) with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent two repeated volumetric helical perfusion CT studies (four-dimensional adaptive spiral mode, 11.4-cm z-axis coverage) without intervening treatment within 24 hours, with regional blood flow derived by using deconvolution analysis. Two-dimensional and 3D fractal analyses of the rectal tumor were performed, after segmentation from surrounding structures by using thresholding, to derive fractal dimension and fractal abundance. Reproducibility was quantitatively assessed by using Bland-Altman statistics. Two-dimensional and 3D lacunarity plots were also generated, allowing qualitative assessment of reproducibility. Statistical significance was at 5%. Mean blood flow was 63.50 mL/min/100 mL ± 8.95 (standard deviation). Good agreement was noted between the repeated studies for fractal dimension; mean difference was -0.024 (95% limits of agreement: -0.212, 0.372) for 2D fractal analysis and -0.024 (95% limits of agreement: -0.307, 0.355) for 3D fractal analysis. Mean difference for fractal abundance was -0.355 (95% limits of agreement: -0.869, 1.579) for 2D fractal analysis and -0.043 (95% limits of agreement: -1.154, 1.239) for 3D fractal analysis. The 95% limits of agreement were narrower for 3D than 2D analysis. Lacunarity plots also visually confirmed close agreement between repeat studies. Regional blood flow in rectal cancer exhibits fractal properties. Good reproducibility was achieved between repeated studies with 2D and 3D fractal analysis.

  7. Blood temperature profiles of diving elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia-induced reductions in metabolic rate have been proposed to suppress metabolism and prolong the duration of aerobic metabolism during dives of marine mammals and birds. To determine whether core hypothermia might contribute to the repetitive long-duration dives of the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris, blood temperature profiles were obtained in translocated juvenile elephant seals equipped with a thermistor and backpack recorder. Representative temperature (the y-intercept of the mean temperature vs. dive duration relationship) was 37.2 degrees C +/- 0.6 degrees C (n=3 seals) in the extradural vein, 38.1 degrees C +/- 0.7 degrees C (n = 4 seals) in the hepatic sinus, and 38.8 degrees +/- 1.6 degrees C (n = 6 deals) in the aorta. Mean temperature was significantly though weakly negatively related to dive duration in all but one seal. Mean venous temperatures of all dives of individual seals ranged between 36 degrees and 38 degrees C, while mean arterial temperatures ranged between 35 degrees and 39 degrees C. Transient decreases in venous and arterial temperatures to as low as 30 degrees -33 degrees C occurred in some dives >30 min (0.1% of dives in the study). The lack of significant core hypothermia during routine dives (10-30 min) and only a weak negative correlation of mean temperature with dive duration do not support the hypothesis that a cold-induced Q(10) effect contributes to metabolic suppression of central tissues during dives. The wide range of arterial temperatures while diving and the transient declines in temperature during long dives suggest that alterations in blood flow patterns and peripheral heat loss contribute to thermoregulation during diving.

  8. [Effects of heat and cool-producing needling manipulations on rectal temperature and serum endotoxin content in endotoxin-induced heat syndrome rabbits].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Yan; Yang, Jie; Feng, Yue; Yang, Shen-Qiao

    2012-08-01

    To observe the effect of traditional manipulations of "Shaoshanhuo" (heat-producing needling) and "Toutianliang"(cool-producing needling) on body temperature and serum endotoxin level in heat syndrome rabbits. Twenty-four Japanese rabbits were randomly divided into control, model, Shaoshanhuo and Toutianliang groups. Heat-syndrome model was established by subcutaneous injection of bacterium coli endotoxin solution (40 microg/mL, 2 mL/kg). Heat-producing and cool-producing needling was applied to bilateral "Quchi" (LI 11) for 5 min, respectively. Rectal temperature was detected by using a thermometer, and serum endotoxin content assayed by using Limulus Ameboyte Lysate kit (luminescence measuring). In comparison with the control group, both rectal temperature and serum endotoxin levels were increased significantly in the model group (P < 0.01). While compared to the model group, the rectal temperature and serum endotoxin levels were down-regulated considerably in both Shaoshanhuo and Toutianliang groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The effect of the Toutianliang group was obviously superior to that of the Shaoshanhuo group in reducing serum endotoxin content (P < 0.01). Both heat-producing needling and cool-producing needling can lower rectal temperature and serum endotoxin levels in heat-syndrome rabbits, and the effect of cool-producing needling is relatively better in reducing endotoxin content.

  9. Effect of modafinil on plasma melatonin, cortisol and growth hormone rhythms, rectal temperature and performance in healthy subjects during a 36 h sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Brun, J; Chamba, G; Khalfallah, Y; Girard, P; Boissy, I; Bastuji, H; Sassolas, G; Claustrat, B

    1998-06-01

    Modafinil is an alerting substance which has been used successfully to treat narcolepsy. Nothing is known about its effect on hormone secretions. For this purpose, eight healthy young men were enrolled in a double blind trial to test the effects of modafinil on daily plasma melatonin, cortisol and growth hormone (GH) rhythms. Blood was sampled for hormone assays, every hour during the daytime and every 30 min during the nighttime. In addition, rectal temperature and mental performances were determined during the study which comprised 3 sessions, two weeks apart: a 24 h control session including a night with sleep (S1) and two 48 h sessions S2 and S3 with a sleep-deprived night (N1) followed by a recovery night (N2). Modafinil (300 mg x 2) or placebo were randomly attributed during N1 at 22 h and 8 h. As expected, performance was improved after modafinil administration and body temperature was maintained or increased. Plasma melatonin and cortisol profiles were similar after modafinil and placebo administration. The levels observed during the recovery and the control nights (N2) displayed no difference. For GH, during both sleep deprived nights, secretion was dramatically reduced compared with the control one, although the number of secretory episodes was unchanged. These data show that the alerting property of modafinil is not related to an alteration of hormone profiles and suggest that the acute modafinil administration is devoid of short-term side-effects.

  10. Changes in skin and rectal temperature in lactating buffaloes provided with showers and wallowing during hot-dry season.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anjali; Singh, Mahendra

    2008-04-01

    Twelve Murrah buffaloes in second or third parity during early lactation (50-70 days) were selected from the Institute's herd. All the buffaloes were kept under loose housing system and were provided ad lib green maize fodder and water to drink during 30 days experiment during the month of August-September. The buffaloes were divided into two groups of six each. Showering group (SG) buffaloes were kept under water showers from 11:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M., while wallowing group (WG) buffaloes were allowed to wallow in a water pond during the same time. Physiological responses viz. rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR) and skin temperature (ST) were recorded before (8.00 A.M.) and after (4.00 P.M.) showers or wallowing. Skin temperature at different sites i.e. trunk, forehead, udder, udder vein, and neck regions was measured. Skin and rectal temperature of both the groups were non significant in morning but varied (P < 0.01) in the evening. Skin temperature measured at all the sites was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in wallowing buffaloes than the showering group. Further, skin temperature of neck, head, udder, udder vein and RT varied (P < 0.01) in SG and WG buffaloes during periods of study. The significant changes in all the parameters of study further support the evidence on effective cooling of skin by wallowing in comparison to water showers. The correlation data indicated a positive correlation of maximum air temperature with RT in SG but correlation was non-significant in WG. RT was positively correlated with ST in SG (P < 0.05) and WG (P < 0.01). The pooled data analysis of both groups also indicated a positive correlation of maximum temperature with RT (P < 0.05). The morning respiration and pulse rate non-significantly varied in both group, however, in the evening, the respiration rate and pulse rate was more (P < 0.01) in SG in comparison to WG. No adverse effect of wallowing or shower treatment on mastitis incidence and general

  11. Genetic assessment of rectal temperature and coat score in Brahman, Angus, and Romosinuano crossbred and straightbred cows and calves under subtropical summer conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to characterize rectal temperature and coat score under subtropical North American summer conditions for straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle, to estimate heterosis and breed direct and maternal effects in a subset of those, and to estim...

  12. Effects of 2 commercially-available 9-way killed vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H M; Atkins, G; Willows, B; McGregor, R

    2001-01-01

    Veterinarians and farmers employing multivalent killed vaccines in lactating dairy cows have reported transient losses in milk production. Few studies have quantified this loss. In this report, effects of 2 commercially available 9-way vaccines on milk production and rectal temperature are examined. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare changes in milk production and rectal temperature over time between treatment groups. There was a significant (P < 0.01) interaction among treatment and time when comparing vaccine- and placebo-treated animals. When pretreatment milk production (or days in milk) and pretreatment rectal temperature were considered, respectively, as covariates, a significant (P < 0.05) depression of milk production and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in rectal temperature were observed one day following injection. These effects were small and short-lived. The stage of lactation, level of milk production, and choice of product may be used as decision-making tools to decrease milk production losses in vaccine-candidate cows. PMID:11665428

  13. Optimizing Mouse Surgery with Online Rectal Temperature Monitoring and Preoperative Heat Supply. Effects on Post-Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Holderied, Alexander; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature affects outcomes of tissue injury. We hypothesized that online body core temperature recording and selective interventions help to standardize peri-interventional temperature control and the reliability of outcomes in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). We recorded core temperature in up to seven mice in parallel using a Thermes USB recorder and ret-3-iso rectal probes with three different protocols. Setup A: Heating pad during ischemia time; Setup B: Heating pad from incision to wound closure; Setup C: A ventilated heating chamber before surgery and during ischemia time with surgeries performed on a heating pad. Temperature profile recording displayed significant declines upon installing anesthesia. The profile of the baseline experimental setup A revealed that <1% of the temperature readings were within the target range of 36.5 to 38.5°C. Setup B and C increased the target range readings to 34.6 ± 28.0% and 99.3 ± 1.5%, respectively. Setup C significantly increased S3 tubular necrosis, neutrophil influx, and mRNA expression of kidney injury markers. In addition, using setup C different ischemia times generated a linear correlation with acute tubular necrosis parameters at a low variability, which further correlated with the degree of kidney atrophy 5 weeks after surgery. Changing temperature control setup A to C was equivalent to 10 minutes more ischemia time. We conclude that body temperature drops quickly in mice upon initiating anesthesia. Immediate heat supply, e.g. in a ventilated heating chamber, and online core temperature monitoring can help to standardize and optimize experimental outcomes. PMID:26890071

  14. Optimizing Mouse Surgery with Online Rectal Temperature Monitoring and Preoperative Heat Supply. Effects on Post-Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Julian A; Schäfer, Hannah; Holderied, Alexander; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature affects outcomes of tissue injury. We hypothesized that online body core temperature recording and selective interventions help to standardize peri-interventional temperature control and the reliability of outcomes in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). We recorded core temperature in up to seven mice in parallel using a Thermes USB recorder and ret-3-iso rectal probes with three different protocols. Setup A: Heating pad during ischemia time; Setup B: Heating pad from incision to wound closure; Setup C: A ventilated heating chamber before surgery and during ischemia time with surgeries performed on a heating pad. Temperature profile recording displayed significant declines upon installing anesthesia. The profile of the baseline experimental setup A revealed that <1% of the temperature readings were within the target range of 36.5 to 38.5°C. Setup B and C increased the target range readings to 34.6 ± 28.0% and 99.3 ± 1.5%, respectively. Setup C significantly increased S3 tubular necrosis, neutrophil influx, and mRNA expression of kidney injury markers. In addition, using setup C different ischemia times generated a linear correlation with acute tubular necrosis parameters at a low variability, which further correlated with the degree of kidney atrophy 5 weeks after surgery. Changing temperature control setup A to C was equivalent to 10 minutes more ischemia time. We conclude that body temperature drops quickly in mice upon initiating anesthesia. Immediate heat supply, e.g. in a ventilated heating chamber, and online core temperature monitoring can help to standardize and optimize experimental outcomes.

  15. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    Diazepam rectal gel is used in emergency situations to stop cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) in people who are ... Diazepam comes as a gel to instill rectally using a prefilled syringe with a special plastic tip. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  16. Oral administration of a medium containing both D-aspartate-producing live bacteria and D-aspartate reduces rectal temperature in chicks.

    PubMed

    Do, P H; Tran, P V; Bahry, M A; Yang, H; Han, G; Tsuchiya, A; Asami, Y; Furuse, M; Chowdhury, V S

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the rectal temperature of young chicks of the oral administration of a medium that contained both live bacteria that produce D-aspartate (D-Asp) and D-Asp. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks were subjected to chronic oral administration of either the medium (containing live bacteria and 2.46 μmol D-Asp) or water from 7 to 14 d of age. Plasma-free amino acids as well as mitochondrial biogenic gene expression in the breast muscle were analysed. In Experiment 2, 7-d-old chicks were subjected to acute oral administration of the above medium or of an equimolar amount of D-Asp to examine their effect on changes in rectal temperature. In Experiment 3, after 1 week of chronic oral administration of the medium, 14-d-old chicks were exposed to either high ambient temperature (HT; 40 ± 1°C, 3 h) or control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30 ± 1°C, 3 h) to monitor the changes in rectal temperature. 3. Chronic, but not acute, oral administration of the medium significantly reduced rectal temperature in chicks, and a chronic effect also appeared under HT conditions. 4. Chronic oral administration of the medium significantly reduced the mRNA abundance of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) in the breast muscle, but led to a significant increase in avian adenine nucleotide translocator (avANT) mRNA in the same muscle. 5. (a) These results indicate that the medium can reduce body temperature through the decline in avUCP mRNA expression in the breast muscle that may be involved in reduced mitochondrial proton leaks and heat production. (b) The increase in avANT further suggests a possible enhancement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis.

  17. The prognostic impact of preoperative blood monocyte count in pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Weiwei; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kaiyun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    It remains controversial whether adjuvant therapy should be delivered to pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Thus identification of patients at high risk is of particular importance. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the absolute peripheral blood monocyte count can stratify the pathological T3N0M0M0 rectal cancer patients in survival. A total of 270 pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision-principle radical resection were included. The optimal cut-off value of preoperative monocyte count was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival and disease-free survival between low- and high-monocyte were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. The optimal cut-off value for monocyte count was 595 mm(3). In univariate analysis, patients with monocyte counts higher than 595/mm(3) had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (79.2 vs 94.2 %, P = 0.006) and disease-free survival (67.8 vs 86.0 %, P < 0.001). With adjustment for the known covariates, monocyte count remained to be associated with poor overall survival (HR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.27-5.10; P = 0.008) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.48-4.69; P = 0.001). Additionally, the significant association of monocyte count with disease-free survival was hardly influenced in the subgroup analysis, whereas this correlation was restricted to the males and patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (<5 μg/L), tumor grade II, and with adjuvant therapy. High preoperative monocyte count is independently predictive of worse survival of pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might be considered for patients with high-monocyte count.

  18. Hydrolysis of salicyluric acid in intestinal microorganisms and prolonged blood concentration of salicylic acid following rectal administration of salicyluric acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Shiota, H; Sasaki, H; Shibasaki, J

    1988-09-01

    The blood concentrations of salicyluric acid and salicylic acid following oral, intravenous, intracecal and rectal administration of salicyluric acid were determined in rats. After oral administration of salicyluric acid, salicyluric acid was rapidly absorbed. Salicylic acid was detected at low concentration. Following intravenous administration of salicyluric acid, salicyluric acid was detected in the blood and was rapidly eliminated. A trace amount of salicylic acid was detected, suggesting that systemic deconjugation of glycine was involved. Furthermore, in vitro incubation of salicyluric acid with contents of the gut showed that the major source of the hydrolysis was the hind gut. Immediate and very extensive salicylic acid formation in the cecum was found following intracecal administration of salicyluric acid. The blood concentration of salicylic acid was maintained at 2.6-4.0 micrograms/ml from 4 to 12 h following rectal administration of salicyluric acid (10 mg/kg: salicylic acid equivalent). Species difference in the metabolic fate of salicyluric acid in rats and rabbits reported previously is discussed.

  19. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  20. Comparison of rectal and aural core body temperature thermometry in hyperthermic, exercising individuals: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Robert; Glaviano, Neal; Negishi, Naoki; Casa, Douglas J; Hertel, Jay

    2012-01-01

    To compare mean differences in core body temperature (T(core)) as assessed via rectal thermometry (T(re)) and aural thermometry (T(au)) in hyperthermic exercising individuals. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in English from the earliest entry points to August 2009 using the search terms aural, core body temperature, core temperature, exercise, rectal, temperature, thermistor, thermometer, thermometry, and tympanic. Study Selection: Original research articles that met these criteria were included: (1) concurrent measurement of T(re) and T(au) in participants during exercise, (2) minimum mean temperature that reached 38°C by at least 1 technique during or after exercise, and (3) report of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Nine articles were included, and 3 independent reviewers scored these articles using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (mean = 5.1 ± 0.4). Data were divided into time periods pre-exercise, during exercise (30 to 180 minutes), and postexercise, as well as T(re) ranges <37.99°C, 38.00°C to 38.99°C, and >39.00°C. Means and standard deviations for both measurement techniques were provided at all time intervals reported. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled and weighted mean differences between T(re) and T(au). The T(re) was conclusively higher than the T(au) pre-exercise (mean difference [MD] = 0.27°C, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15°C, 0.39°C), during exercise (MD = 0.96°C, 95% CI = 0.84°C, 1.08°C), and postexercise (MD = 0.71°C, 95% CI = 0.65°C, 0.78°C). As T(re) measures increased, the magnitude of difference between the techniques also increased with an MD of 0.59°C (95% CI = 0.53°C, 0.65°C) when T(re) was <38°C; 0.79°C (95% CI = 0.72°C, 0.86°C) when T(re) was between 38.0°C and 38.99°C; and 1.72°C (95% CI = 1.54°, 1.91°C) when T(re) was >39.0°C. The T(re) was consistently greater than T(au) when T(core) was measured in hyperthermic individuals

  1. Comparison of Rectal and Aural Core Body Temperature Thermometry in Hyperthermic, Exercising Individuals: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Robert; Glaviano, Neal; Negishi, Naoki; Casa, Douglas J.; Hertel, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare mean differences in core body temperature (Tcore) as assessed via rectal thermometry (Tre) and aural thermometry (Tau) in hyperthermic exercising individuals. Data Sources: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in English from the earliest entry points to August 2009 using the search terms aural, core body temperature, core temperature, exercise, rectal, temperature, thermistor, thermometer, thermometry, and tympanic. Study Selection: Original research articles that met these criteria were included: (1) concurrent measurement of Tre and Tau in participants during exercise, (2) minimum mean temperature that reached 38°C by at least 1 technique during or after exercise, and (3) report of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Data Extraction: Nine articles were included, and 3 independent reviewers scored these articles using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (mean  =  5.1 ± 0.4). Data were divided into time periods pre-exercise, during exercise (30 to 180 minutes), and postexercise, as well as Tre ranges <37.99°C, 38.00°C to 38.99°C, and >39.00°C. Means and standard deviations for both measurement techniques were provided at all time intervals reported. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled and weighted mean differences between Tre and Tau. Data Synthesis: The Tre was conclusively higher than the Tau pre-exercise (mean difference [MD]  =  0.27°C, 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  0.15°C, 0.39°C), during exercise (MD  =  0.96°C, 95% CI  =  0.84°C, 1.08°C), and postexercise (MD  =  0.71°C, 95% CI  =  0.65°C, 0.78°C). As Tre measures increased, the magnitude of difference between the techniques also increased with an MD of 0.59°C (95% CI  =  0.53°C, 0.65°C) when Tre was <38°C; 0.79°C (95% CI  =  0.72°C, 0.86°C) when Tre was between 38.0°C and 38.99°C; and 1.72°C (95% CI  =  1.54°, 1.91°C) when Tre was >39.0°C. Conclusions

  2. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5% probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5% probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  3. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  4. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-13

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  5. Effect of summer heat environment on body temperature, estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cow.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masashi

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of summer heat environment on estrous cycles and blood antioxidant levels in Japanese Black cows. A total of 13 non-lactating Japanese Black cows (summer: 9, winter: 4) were examined. Body temperature was measured rectally and intravaginally using a thermometer and data logger, respectively. Estrous behavior was monitored using a radiotelemetric pedometer that recorded walking activity. Rectal temperatures were higher during summer than winter (P<0.001). There was an acute increase in vaginal temperature at the onset of estrus during winter but such an increase was not observed during summer. Walking activity during estrus decreased dramatically in the summer compared to the winter. Duration of estrous cycle was longer in summer (23.4 days, P<0.05) than winter (21.5 days), and the subsequent rise in progesterone concentrations following estrus tended to be delayed in summer. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in peripheral blood cells was higher during summer (P<0.05), while the levels of superoixde dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione were lower (P<0.05). These results indicate that high ambient temperature during summer increases both body temperature and oxidative stress, and also reduces signs of estrus in Japanese Black cows. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Diurnal and Seasonal Fluctuations in Rectal Temperature, Respiration and Heart Rate of Pack Donkeys in a Tropical Savannah Zone

    PubMed Central

    AYO, Joseph O.; DZENDA, Tavershima; OLAIFA, Folashade; AKE, Stephen A.; SANI, Ismaila

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study was designed to determine diurnal and seasonal changes in basic physiologic responses of donkeys adapted to the tropical Savannah. The rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) of six male Nubian pack donkeys, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity and heat index of the experimental site were concurrently recorded hourly, from 06:00 h to 18:00 h (GMT +1), for three days, spread 1 week apart, during the cold-dry (harmattan), hot-dry and humid (rainy) seasons, in an open grazing field. Values of the physiologic parameters recorded during the morning (06:00 h–11:00 h) were lower (P<0.001) than those obtained in the afternoon (12:00 h–15:00 h) and evening (16:00 h–18:00 h) hours in all seasons, but the robustness of the diurnal rhythm differed (P<0.05) between seasons. Many diurnal hourly DBT mean values recorded during the harmattan and hot-dry seasons fell outside the established thermoneutral zone for tropically-adapted donkeys, while those obtained during the rainy season were within the zone, indicating that the dry seasons were more thermally stressful to the donkeys than the humid season. Overall mean RT dropped (P<0.05) during the harmattan season. The RR rose, while HR dropped (P<0.001) during the hot-dry season. In conclusion, daytime and season had profound influence on RT, RR and HR of the donkeys, therefore, diurnal and seasonal variations should be taken into account during clinical evaluation before reaching conclusion on health status and fitness for work in donkeys. PMID:24834007

  7. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate of pack donkeys in a tropical savannah zone.

    PubMed

    Ayo, Joseph O; Dzenda, Tavershima; Olaifa, Folashade; Ake, Stephen A; Sani, Ismaila

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine diurnal and seasonal changes in basic physiologic responses of donkeys adapted to the tropical Savannah. The rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) of six male Nubian pack donkeys, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity and heat index of the experimental site were concurrently recorded hourly, from 06:00 h to 18:00 h (GMT +1), for three days, spread 1 week apart, during the cold-dry (harmattan), hot-dry and humid (rainy) seasons, in an open grazing field. Values of the physiologic parameters recorded during the morning (06:00 h-11:00 h) were lower (P<0.001) than those obtained in the afternoon (12:00 h-15:00 h) and evening (16:00 h-18:00 h) hours in all seasons, but the robustness of the diurnal rhythm differed (P<0.05) between seasons. Many diurnal hourly DBT mean values recorded during the harmattan and hot-dry seasons fell outside the established thermoneutral zone for tropically-adapted donkeys, while those obtained during the rainy season were within the zone, indicating that the dry seasons were more thermally stressful to the donkeys than the humid season. Overall mean RT dropped (P<0.05) during the harmattan season. The RR rose, while HR dropped (P<0.001) during the hot-dry season. In conclusion, daytime and season had profound influence on RT, RR and HR of the donkeys, therefore, diurnal and seasonal variations should be taken into account during clinical evaluation before reaching conclusion on health status and fitness for work in donkeys.

  8. Comparison of Esophageal, Rectal, and Gastrointestinal Temperatures During Passive Rest After Exercise in The Heat: The Influence of Hydration.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-08-24

    It is unknown how valid esophageal, rectal, and gastrointestinal temperatures (TES, TRE, and TGI) compare after exercise-induced hyperthermia in various hydration states. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between TES, TRE, and TGI during passive rest following exercise-induced hyperthermia under two different hydration states: euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HY). Randomized-crossover design. Controlled laboratory setting. Nine recreationally active male participants (mean±SD; age, 24±4; height, 177.3±9.9cm; body mass, 76.7±11.6kg; body fat, 14.7±5.8%). Participants completed two trials (EU and HY) consisting of a bout of treadmill exercise (a 10 minute walk ranging 4.8-7.2km·hr(-1) at a 5% grade followed by a 20 minute jog ranging 8.0-12.1km·hr(-1) at a 1% grade) in a hot environment (ambient temperature, 39.3±1.0°C; relative humidity, 37.6±6.0%; wet bulb globe temperature, 31.3±1.5°C) followed by passive rest. Root mean squared difference (RMSD) was used to compare the variance of temperature readings at corresponding time points for TRE vs TGI, TRE vs TES, and TGI vs TES in EU and HY. RMSD values were compared using three-way repeated measures ANOVA. Post hoc analysis of significant main effects was done using Tukey's HSD with significance set at p<0.05. RMSD values (°C) for all device comparisons were significantly different in EU (TRE-TGI, 0.11±0.12; TRE-TES, 1.58±1.01; TGI-TES, 2.04±1.19) than HY (TRE-TGI, 0.22±0.28; TRE-TES, 1.27±0.61; TGI-TES, 1.16±0.76) (p<0.01). Across the 45-minute bout of passive rest, there were no differences in TRE, TGI and TES between EU and HY trials (p=0.468). During passive rest after exercise in the heat, TRE and TGI were in good agreement when tracking body temperature, with a better agreement appearing in those maintaining a state of euhydration versus those who became hypohydrated during exercise; however, this small difference does not appear to be of clinical significance.

  9. Temperature dependence of near-infrared spectra of whole blood.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Paul; Charlier, Jean-Luc; Willcox, Tim; Warman, Guy; McGlone, Andrew; Künnemeyer, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence (30 to 40 degrees C) of near-infrared spectra (500 to 1100 nm) of whole human blood, including red blood cells with intact physiological function, is investigated. Previous studies have focused on hemoglobin solutions, but the operation of red blood cells is critically dependent on intact cell membranes to perform normal oxygen transport and other physiological functions. Thus measurements of whole blood are more directly related to changes that occur in vivo. In addition to the response of hemoglobin to temperature in the spectra, a temperature response from water in the plasma is also detected. The temperature response of the water absorption at 960 nm is approximately ten times smaller than the temperature response of the oxyhemoglobin component in the blood at 610 nm. However, it is the most significant temperature effect between 800 and 1000 nm. This work will aid the precision and understanding of full spectrum near-infrared measurements on blood.

  10. RAG2−/−γc−/− Mice Transplanted with CD34+ Cells from Human Cord Blood Show Low Levels of Intestinal Engraftment and Are Resistant to Rectal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Ursula; Baenziger, Stefan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schlaepfer, Erika; Gehre, Nadine; Regenass, Stephan; Brunner, Thomas; Speck, Roberto F.

    2008-01-01

    Rectal transmission is one of the main routes of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To efficiently study transmission mechanisms and prevention strategies, a small animal model permissive for rectal transmission of HIV is mandatory. We tested the susceptibility of RAG2−/−γc−/− mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to rectal infection with HIV. We rectally exposed these humanized mice to cell-free and cell-associated HIV. All mice remained HIV negative as assessed by plasma viral load. The same mice infected intraperitoneally showed high levels of HIV replication. In the gut-associated lymphatic tissue, we found disproportionately smaller numbers of human cells than in other lymphoid organs. This finding may explain the observed resistance to rectal transmission of HIV. To increase the numbers of local HIV target cells and the likelihood of HIV transmission, we treated mice with different proinflammatory stimuli: local application of interleukin-1β, addition of seminal plasma to the inoculum, or induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate. These procedures attracted some human leukocytes, but the transmission rate was still very low. The humanized mice showed low levels of human engraftment in the intestinal tract and seem to be resistant to rectal transmission of HIV, and thus they are an unsuitable model for this application. PMID:18842716

  11. Determination of body heat storage: how to select the weighting of rectal and skin temperatures for clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Two methods of estimating body heat storage were compared under differing conditions of clothing and acclimation to heat. Sixteen male subjects underwent 6 consecutive days or two 6-day periods, separated by a 1-day rest period of heat acclimation, exercising 60 min.day-1 at 45%-55% of maximal aerobic power in a hot, dry environment (dry bulb temperature 40 degrees C; relative humidity 30%; and wind speed 0.3 m.s-1). Before and after acclimation, the subjects entered the same environment, wearing either normal light combat clothing or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents; they walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m.s-1, 0% slope continuously (n = 11 for normal clothing) or as repeated 15-min bouts of exercise followed by 15-min sitting rest (n = 5 for normal clothing and n = 16 for protective clothing). Average exposure times were 147 min (preacclimation) and 150 min (postacclimation) for continuous exercise and 150 min (both pre- and postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing normal clothing, and 103 min (preacclimation) and 116 min (postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing protective clothing. Heat storage was determined calorimetrically (from heat gains and heat losses) and thermometrically [using various weightings of rectal temperature (Tre) and mean skin temperature (Tsk)]. There were only minor (<5%) differences in estimated heat storage, whether calculations used a single specific heat (3.47 kJ.kg-1.degree C-1) or a value computed according to the subject's body composition. When wearing normal clothing, a formula with an invariant relative weighting for Tre to Tsk of 4:1 provided the best thermometric estimate of heat storage. When wearing protective clothing, the invariant relative weighting of 4:1 underestimated heat storage by 2%-12%; underestimation was attenuated by using respective relative weightings for a thermoneutral and hot environment of 2:1 and 2:1 or 4:1 and 9:1 before acclimation and 4

  12. Relationship among eye temperature measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of...

  13. Experiments on effects of an intermittent 16.7-Hz magnetic field on salivary melatonin concentrations, rectal temperature, and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela

    2002-03-01

    The present experiments concerned the hypothesis that an intermittent, strong and extremely low frequency magnetic field reduces salivary melatonin levels and delays consecutively the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Twelve healthy young men (18-25 years) participated in three randomly permuted sessions, which were performed as constant routines. The participants kept a strict bed rest over 26 h, air temperature was 20 degrees C, illumination < 30 lx, and sound level < 50 dBA. Salivary melatonin levels were determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were registered continuously throughout. An intermittent magnetic field was administered in one session from 6 p.m. to 2 a.m. at 16.7 Hz, 0.2 mT and alternating on/off-periods of 15 s. This situation was compared with a control session without any additional stress. Another session was performed to determine the participants' ability to respond to a well-known melatonin-suppressing stress, namely bright light (1,500 lx, 10 p.m.-2 a.m.). Bright light inhibited melatonin synthesis in all 12 participants and delayed the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. The only significant alteration that was associated with exposure to the magnetic field was a delay in the heart rate nadir, which was not mediated by an accordingly altered melatonin profile. The fact that the circadian rhythm of only the heart rate was altered indicates an internal dissociation which might constitute a health risk in the long run and needs to be investigated more extensively.

  14. Interrelationships in lactating Holsteins of rectal and skin temperatures, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, body weight, and feed efficiency in summer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Umphrey, J E; Moss, B R; Wilcox, C J; Van Horn, H H

    2001-12-01

    Thirty-two lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a 91-d experiment in Auburn, Alabama, during summer to determine whether rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rates are repeatable and interrelated and whether whole cottonseed or calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ) affected milk production or its constituents. Treatments were (I) control, (II) I plus 10.4% whole cottonseed, (III) I plus 2.6% Megalac, and (IV) I plus 5.2% whole cottonseed plus 1.3% Megalac. Data included 358 to 2644 measurements analyzed as a split-plot design of experiment. Only milk protein percentage and protein-to-fat ratio were significantly affected by dietary treatment. Milk protein percentage was depressed by dietary fat additions, especially by the combination of whole cottonseed and Megalac. Within lactation repeatabilities for milk, fat, protein, and SCM yields ranged from 0.44 to 0.66; two percentages and protein to fat ratio, 0.21 to 0.32; feed efficiency, 0.18; dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight, 0.98 and 0.84; rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rate, 0.001 to 0.055. Partial and simple correlations were similar in sign and magnitude. Noteworthy were partial correlations between milk yield and DMI, 0.367; milk yield and rectal temperature, -0.135; milkyield and respiration rate, 0.102. Skin temperature was unrelated to other variables. Respiration rate was correlated with DMI, 0.270. Results should help researchers designing future experiments involving these responses to predict the number of measures needed to detect differences.

  15. Universal temperature-dependent normalized optoacoustic response of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Liopo, Anton; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    We found and interpreted the universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic (photoacoustic) response (ThOR) in blood; the normalized ThOR is invariant with respect to hematocrit at the hemoglobin's isosbestic point. The unique compartmentalization of hemoglobin, the primary optical absorber at 805 nm, inside red blood cells (RBCs) explains the effect. We studied the temperature dependence of Gruneisen parameter in blood and aqueous solutions of hemoglobin and for the first time experimentally observed transition through the zero optoacoustic response at temperature T0, which was proved to be consistent for various blood samples. On the other hand, the hemoglobin solutions demonstrated linear concentration function of the temperature T0. When this function was extrapolated to the average hemoglobin concentration inside erythrocytes, the temperature T0 was found equivalent to that measured in whole and diluted blood. The obtained universal curve of blood ThOR was validated in both transparent and light scattering media. The discovered universal optoacoustic temperature dependent blood response provides foundation for future development of non-invasive in vivo temperature monitoring in vascularized tissues and blood vessels.

  16. Aerobically trained individuals have greater increases in rectal temperature than untrained ones during exercise in the heat at similar relative intensities.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Estevez, Emma; Ortega, Juan F

    2010-07-01

    To determine if the increases in rectal temperature (T(REC)) during exercise in the heat at a given percent of VO2peak depend on a subject's aerobic fitness level. On three occasions, 10 endurance-trained (Tr) and 10 untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak: 60 +/- 6 vs. 44 +/- 3 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-dry environment (36 +/- 1 degrees C; 25 +/- 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). At the same percent of VO2peak, on average, Tr had 28 +/- 5% higher heat production but also higher skin blood flow (29 +/- 3%) and sweat rate (20 +/- 7%; P = 0.07) and lower skin temperature (0.5 degrees C; P < 0.05). Pre-exercise T(REC) was lower in the Tr subjects (37.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 37.6 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05) but similar to the UTr at the end of 40 and 60% VO2peak trials. Thus, exercise T(REC) increased more in the Tr group than in the UTr group (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C at 40% VO2peak and 1.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C at 60% VO2peak; P < 0.05). At 80% VO2peak not only the increase in T(REC) (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C) but also the final T(REC) was larger in Tr than in UTr subjects (39.15 +/- 0.1 vs. 38.85 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05). During exercise in the heat at the same relative intensity, aerobically trained individuals have a larger rise in T(REC) than do the untrained ones which renders them more hyperthermic after high-intensity exercise.

  17. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  18. Temperature-dependent regulation of blood distribution in snakes.

    PubMed

    Amiel, Joshua J; Chua, Beverly; Wassersug, Richard J; Jones, David R

    2011-05-01

    Regional control of blood flow is often suggested as a mechanism for fine thermoregulatory adjustments in snakes. However, the flow of blood to different body regions at various temperatures has never been visualized to confirm this mechanism. We used (99m)technetium-labelled macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA), a radioactive tracer, to follow the flow of blood through the bodies of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) near their thermal maxima and minima. We injected snakes with(99m)Tc-MAA at cold (6-8°C) and hot (27-32°C) temperatures and imaged them using a gamma scanner. At cold ambient temperatures, snakes significantly reduced the blood flow to their tails and significantly increased the blood flow to their heads. Conversely, at hot ambient temperatures, snakes significantly increased the blood flow to their tails and significantly reduced the blood flow to their heads. This confirms that snakes are able to use differential blood distribution to regulate temperature. Our images confirm that snakes use regional control of blood flow as a means of thermoregulation and that vasomotor control of vascular beds is likely to be the mechanism of control.

  19. Cold-Water Immersion and the Treatment of Hyperthermia: Using 38.6°C as a Safe Rectal Temperature Cooling Limit

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Daniel; Lemire, Bruno B.; Casa, Douglas J.; Kenny, Glen P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cold-water immersion is recommended for the immediate field treatment of exertional heat stroke. However, concerns exist over potential overcooling of hyperthermic individuals during cold-water immersion. Objective: To evaluate the recommendation that removing previously hyperthermic individuals from a cold-water bath at a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.6°C would attenuate overcooling. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 6 men and 4 women (age  =  22 ± 3 years, height  =  172 ± 10 cm, mass  =  67.8 ± 10.7 kg, body fat percentage  =  17.1% ± 4.5%, maximum oxygen consumption  =  59.3 ± 8.7 mL·kg−1·min−1). Intervention(s): After exercising at an ambient temperature of 40.0°C for 38.5 ± 9.4 minutes, until Tre reached 39.5°C, participants were immersed in a 2.0°C circulated water bath until Tre decreased to either 37.5°C or 38.6°C. Subsequently, participants were removed from the water bath and recovered for 20 minutes at an ambient temperature of 25°C. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rectal and esophageal temperatures were measured continuously during the immersion and recovery periods. Results: Because of the experimental design, the overall time of immersion was greater during the 37.5°C trial (16.6 ± 5.7 minutes) than the 38.6°C trial (8.8 ± 2.6 minutes) (t9  =  −4.740, P  =  .001). During the recovery period after cold-water immersion, both rectal (F1,9  =  50.540, P < .001) and esophageal (F1,6  =  20.365, P  =  .007) temperatures remained greater in the 38.6°C trial than in the 37.5°C trial. This was evidenced by low points of 36.47°C ± 0.70°C and 37.19°C ± 0.71°C for rectal temperature (t9  =  2.975, P  =  .016) and of 35.67°C ± 1.27°C and 36.72°C ± 0.95°C for esophageal temperature (t6  =  3.963, P  =  .007) during the recovery period of the 37.5°C and

  20. Cold-water immersion and the treatment of hyperthermia: using 38.6°C as a safe rectal temperature cooling limit.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Lemire, Bruno B; Casa, Douglas J; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-01-01

    Cold-water immersion is recommended for the immediate field treatment of exertional heat stroke. However, concerns exist over potential overcooling of hyperthermic individuals during cold-water immersion. To evaluate the recommendation that removing previously hyperthermic individuals from a cold-water bath at a rectal temperature (T(re)) of 38.6°C would attenuate overcooling. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. Participants included 6 men and 4 women (age  =  22 ± 3 years, height  =  172 ± 10 cm, mass  =  67.8 ± 10.7 kg, body fat percentage  =  17.1% ± 4.5%, maximum oxygen consumption  =  59.3 ± 8.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). After exercising at an ambient temperature of 40.0°C for 38.5 ± 9.4 minutes, until T(re) reached 39.5°C, participants were immersed in a 2.0°C circulated water bath until T(re) decreased to either 37.5°C or 38.6°C. Subsequently, participants were removed from the water bath and recovered for 20 minutes at an ambient temperature of 25°C. Rectal and esophageal temperatures were measured continuously during the immersion and recovery periods. Because of the experimental design, the overall time of immersion was greater during the 37.5°C trial (16.6 ± 5.7 minutes) than the 38.6°C trial (8.8 ± 2.6 minutes) (t(9)  =  -4.740, P  =  .001). During the recovery period after cold-water immersion, both rectal (F(1,9)  =  50.540, P < .001) and esophageal (F(1,6)  =  20.365, P  =  .007) temperatures remained greater in the 38.6°C trial than in the 37.5°C trial. This was evidenced by low points of 36.47°C ± 0.70°C and 37.19°C ± 0.71°C for rectal temperature (t(9)  =  2.975, P  =  .016) and of 35.67°C ± 1.27°C and 36.72°C ± 0.95°C for esophageal temperature (t(6)  =  3.963, P  =  .007) during the recovery period of the 37.5°C and 38.6°C trials, respectively. Immersion for approximately 9 minutes to a rectal temperature cooling limit of 38.6°C negated

  1. Quality of red blood cells isolated from umbilical cord blood stored at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhurova, Mariia; Akabutu, John; Acker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product.

  2. Quality of Red Blood Cells Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Stored at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhurova, Mariia; Akabutu, John; Acker, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product. PMID:24089645

  3. The different effects of black and white Vietnamese Aodai folk costumes on rectal temperature and heart rate in women walking intermittently in hot and sunny environment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M H; Tokura, H

    2000-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether there is any difference in the rectal temperature and heart rate between women wearing black or white Aodai folk costume and walking intermittently in natural sunlight. The experiment was performed in the field outside buildings in Hanoi, Vietnam, between May and June, 1998. The only difference was in the colour (black or white) of clothing other physical characteristics, like materials, thickness, weight and so on, were nearly identical. Air temperature was around 39 degrees C, globe temperature around 52 degrees C and sun radiation reached 1010 W.m-2. Eight young female students (aged 20 years) participated in the experiment. They sat quietly on a chair inside the building for the first 30 min. Then they walked for 20 min at their ordinary walking speed in the sun, and rested for 10 min in the shade. This schedule was repeated three times. The main results are summarised as follows: (1) Rectal temperature was significantly lower in the black than in the white Aodai; (2) Clothing microclimate temperature at frontal chest level was also significantly lower in the black Aodai; (3) Heart rate was significantly lower in the black than in the white Aodai; (4) Clothing surface and inside temperatures measured at frontal chest level were significantly higher in the black than in the white Aodai. These results strongly suggest that the black Aodai could reduce heat strain more effectively than the white one. The physiological mechanism may result from more effective ventilation between skin and clothing in the black Aodai, due to higher temperature inside and outside this garment.

  4. INCREASES IN CORE TEMPERATURE COUNTERBALANCE EFFECTS OF HEMOCONCENTRATION ON BLOOD VISCOSITY DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE IN THE HEAT

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653

  5. Assessment for predicting parturition in mares based on prepartum temperature changes using a digital rectal thermometer and microchip transponder thermometry device.

    PubMed

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Endo, Yoshiro; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in body temperature before parturition using a wireless temperature monitoring device (WTMD) and to evaluate the usefulness of body temperature measurements using a digital rectal thermometer (DRT) and a microchip transponder thermometry device (MTTD) for predicting parturition in mares. The body temperatures using a WTMD at 0 hr and -1 hr were significantly different from those at the same time on Days 1-5 (P<0.01). The temperature differences between the morning of Day 0 and at -3 hr, -2 hr, -1 hr and 0 hr using the DRT and MTTD showed a significant drop compared with the temperature differences between the morning and evening of Days 1-5 (P<0.05). Furthermore, when the cutoff value of the temperature differences between the morning and other times was set to ≤0, the sensitivities of the DRT and MTTD in the evening of Day 0 and at -3 hr were 43% and 100% and 71% and 86%, respectively. The results suggested that monitoring the body temperature differences between morning and within 3 hr before the time of parturition is a valuable method for predicting parturition in mares. Conversely, this method would be more useful in predicting parturition when used in combination with other observations such as the mammary gland size and waxing of the teat ends because it has nearly a 20% probability of false-positive results prior to the day of parturition.

  6. Rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, E T; Levine, J F; Coggins, L

    1987-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was transmitted by rectal inoculation of BLV-infective whole blood into cattle and sheep. Two cows and 2 sheep each were given 500 ml and 50 ml of blood, respectively, by rectal infusion. Two sheep which served as positive controls each were given 1 ml of the same blood, IV. All animals became seropositive to BLV by postinoculation week 5. Although relatively large volumes of blood were used for rectal inoculation, a base line for infectivity was established for the rectal route.

  7. Social ecological predictors of prostate-specific antigen blood test and digital rectal examination in black American men.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, V. Diane; Montgomery, Susanne B.; Herring, R. Patti; Gardner, Robert W.; Stokols, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black American men continue to suffer disproportionately from epidemically higher rates of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that complex reasons for persistently higher death rates of prostate cancer in this group are steeped in social factors associated with health access. METHODS: We utilized data from the It's All About U prostate cancer prevention study among black men to investigate: 1) what social ecological factors were predictive of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examinations (DRE); 2) if black men were aware of prostate cancer screening and, if screening was available, would they take the PSA and DRE? Quantitative cross-sectional data from a cohort of 276 black men with no diagnosis of prostate cancer were analyzed to identify characteristics, beliefs, practices and attitudes of this group toward prostate cancer screening. We created a social ecological model to examine which social factors (i.e., environmental, personal, person/environment interplay, black culture and institutional policy) were predictive of PSA and DRE, PSA only and DRE only. To reduce data and identify data patterns, factor analyses (tested for reliability by calculating Cronbach alpha scores) were performed. Variables were standardized with Z scores and analyzed with predictive analytic software technology (SPSS, version 12). A multivariate binary logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of PSA and DRE. RESULTS: A significant predictor of both PSA and DRE was the physician's direct prostate cancer communication message (P<0.010). Significant correlations exist in PSA and DRE outcomes with a physician's engaging communication style (P<0.012), encouragement to screen (P<0.001) and sharing prostate cancer information (P<0.001); as was men understanding the serious risk of prostate cancer (P<0.001), culture (P<0.004), positive interaction with healthcare staff, significant other(s) and providers (P<0.001), and environmental dimensions

  8. Red blood cells radial dispersion in blood flowing through microchannels: The role of temperature.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Diana; Rodrigues, Raquel O; Faustino, Vera; Yaginuma, Tomoko; Exposto, José; Lima, Rui

    2016-07-26

    The behavior of suspensions of individual blood cells, such as red blood cells (RBCs), flowing through microvessels and microfluidic systems depend strongly on the hematocrit (Hct), microvessel topology and cell properties. Although it is well known that blood rheological properties are temperature dependent, to the best of our knowledge no work has studied the role of the temperature on the RBCs dispersion. A powerful way to investigate this latter effect is through a high-speed video microscopy system, which provides detailed flow measurements of each individual RBC. Hence, the effect of temperature on the RBCs dispersion flowing through a 100μm glass capillary was examined by means of a confocal micro-PTV system. Hundreds of labeled RBCs were tracked at moderate Hct (12%) and at four different temperatures, i.e., 25°C, 32°C, 37°C and 42°C. The results yielded an enhancement of the RBCs diffusion as the temperature increases. Hence, our findings show that RBCs radial dispersion is temperature dependent and as a result the temperature should not be ignored in future blood flow studies. We believe that this finding is important for a better understanding of blood mass transport mechanisms under both physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the roles of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Matthew M; Hodges, Gary J; McGarr, Gregory W; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-07-01

    We sought to isolate the contributions of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow (SkBF), and to examine the interaction between local- and reflexive-mechanisms of SkBF control. Forearm SkBF was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry in eight males and eight females during normothermia and hyperthermia (+1.2°C rectal temperature). Mean experimental forearm temperature was manipulated in four, 5min blocks between neutral (A: 33.0°C) and warm (B: 38.5°C) in an A-B-A-B fashion during normothermia, and B-A-B-A during hyperthermia. Mean control forearm skin temperature was maintained at ~33°C. Finally, local heating to 44°C was performed on both forearms to elicit maximal SkBF. Data are presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), calculated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial pressure. No sex differences were observed in any CVC measures (P>0.05). During normothermia, increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C elevated CVC by 42±8%max (d=3.1, P<0.001). Subsequently decreasing experimental forearm temperature back down to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 36±7%max (d=2.5, P<0.001). Finally, the second increase in experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 25±6%max (d=1.9, P<0.0001). During hyperthermia, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 6±1%max (d=0.5, P<0.001). Increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 4±2%max (d=0.4, P<0.001). Finally, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 8±2%max (d=0.7, P<0.001). Compared to normothermia, CVC responses to local temperature changes during hyperthermia were almost abolished (normothermia: d=1.9-3.1; hyperthermia: d=0.4-0.7). These data indicate that local temperature drives SkBF during normothermia, while reflexive mechanisms regulate SkBF during hyperthermia.

  10. Human whole-blood oxygen affinity: effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Zwart, A; Kwant, G; Oeseburg, B; Zijlstra, W G

    1984-08-01

    phe effect of temperature changes on human whole-blood O2 affinity was measured in the blood of six healthy donors over almost the entire O2 saturation (SO2) range (1-99%). The results showed that temperature has no influence on the shape of the O2 dissociation curve, implying that the temperature coefficient (delta log PO2/delta T) is independent of SO2. Simultaneous measurements of the total (proton) Haldane factor (delta[HbH]/[delta HbO2]) at the five temperatures under study (22, 27, 32, 37, and 42 degrees C) revealed that this factor depends on temperature. The liberation of protons from hemoglobin appeared to be linear with respect to changes in SO2. We therefore conclude that the (proton) Bohr factor (H+ factor) is dependent on temperature over the entire SO2 range in the same way as previously described for SO2 = 50%. The exothermic oxygenation reaction in whole blood was accompanied by a heat evolution (delta HO2) of 42.7 kJ/mol (monomeric) hemoglobin.

  11. [Modification of placenta blood serum proteins under low temperature effect].

    PubMed

    Fal'ko, O V; Zemlianskikh, N G; Lipina, O V; Prokopiuk, O S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in environmental physical and chemical factors upon freeze-thawing and low temperature storage of biological samples can result in impairments of protein structures. This work specifies spontaneous and diamide-induced protein aggregations of placenta blood serum stored at -20 degrees and -196 degrees C during 2 years with SDS-PAGE. It was shown that storage of placenta blood serum at low temperatures did not cause any quantitative and qualitative changes in fraction distribution of proteins denatured with SDS in comparison to the native samples which were not frozen. Application of beta-mercaptoethanol revealed that placenta blood serum proteins upon freeze-thawing did not form spontaneous aggregates linked by disulphide bridges. Oxidation of amino acid sulfhydryl groups induced by diamide and accompanied by high molecular aggregate formation proved to be a quite effective way for indirect estimation of structural changes in protein upon low temperature effects. In samples thawed after low temperature storage the protein aggregation with 4 microM diamide was significantly higher than in native serum. These discrepancies between native and frozen-thawed samples are stipulated by impairments of protein structure under low temperature and increased in accessibility of reactive SH-groups of proteins for oxidation with diamide. Structural changes in placenta blood serum proteins, which caused by low temperatures and revealed by elevated sensibility to diamide-induced aggregate formation, did not depend on temperature (-20 degrees and -196 degrees C) and storage terms (2 years and 3 weeks). They reflect protein reaction to freeze-thawing processes and could be sequence of ice crystal formation which takes place in unprotected media.

  12. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  13. Dielectric properties of blood: an investigation of temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Jaspard, F; Nadi, M

    2002-08-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters (permittivity and conductivity) of blood. The measuring system, composed of an impedancemeter (HP 4291 A), an open-ended coaxial line and a temperature controlling set, was designed for dielectric measurement in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 1 GHz. Measurements were performed on ex vivo blood of humans and animals (cow and sheep). The results obtained show the weak sensibility and a change of sign of the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity (about 0.3% degrees C(-1) at 1 MHz and -0.3% degrees C(-1) at 1 GHz). The conductivity presents a more significant variation (of the order of 1% degrees C(-1) over the whole operating frequency range.

  14. Prediction of rectal temperature using non-invasive physiologic variable measurements in hair pregnant ewes subjected to natural conditions of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (P<0.01; r=0.59-0.67) with RT. The adjusted equation which best predicted RT (P<0.01; Radj(2)=56.15%; CV=0.65%) included as predictors RF and head and belly temperatures. Comparison of predicted and observed values for RT indicates a suitable agreement (P<0.01) between them with moderate accuracy (Radj(2)=56.15%) when RT was calculated with the adjusted equation. In general, the final equation does not violate any assumption of multiple regression analysis. The RT in heat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rate determination in phosphorylation of shark rectal Na,K-ATPase by ATP: temperature sensitivity and effects of ADP.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, F

    1999-01-01

    Phosphorylation of shark rectal Na,K-ATPase by ATP in the presence of Na(+) was characterized by chemical quench experiments and by stopped-flow RH421 fluorescence. The appearance of acid-stable phosphoenzyme was faster than the rate of fluorescence increase, suggesting that of the two acid-stable phosphoenzymes formed, RH421 exclusively detects formation of E(2)-P, which follows formation of E(1)-P. The stopped-flow RH421 fluorescence response to ATP phosphorylation was biphasic, with a major fast phase with k(obs) approximately 90 s(-1) and a minor slow phase with a k(obs) of approximately 9 s(-1) (20 degrees C, pH 7.4). The observed rate constants for both the slow and the fast phase could be fitted with identical second-degree functions of the ATP concentration with apparent binding constants of approximately 3.1 x 10(7) M(-1) and 1. 8 x 10(5) M(-1), respectively. Increasing [ADP] decreased k(obs) for the rate of the RH421 fluorescence response to ATP phosphorylation. This could be accounted for by the reaction of ADP with the initially formed E(1)-P followed by a conformational change to E(2)-P. The biphasic stopped-flow RH421 responses to ATP phosphorylation could be simulated, assuming that in the absence of K(+) the highly fluorescent E(2)-P is slowly transformed into the "K(+)-insensitive" E'(2)-P subconformation forming a side branch of the main cycle. PMID:10423438

  16. In vitro adhesion of K88ac+ Escherichia coli to Peyer's patch and peripheral blood lymphocytes, buccal and rectal epithelial cells or intestinal epithelial brush borders of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Valpotić, I; Runnels, P L; Moon, H W

    1989-08-01

    Escherichia coli adhesion assays were conducted using isolated porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes, Peyer's patch lymphocytes, rectal epithelial cells or brush borders, buccal epithelial cells and brush borders from small intestinal epithelial cells. The cells and brush borders were tested for their ability to bind K88-piliated enterotoxigenic E. coli Strain M1823B (K88ac) and E. coli Strain 1476 (K-12, K88ac). Comparison of adhesive phenotypes of 37 weaned pigs as determined by the adhesion assay with small intestinal brush borders and the adherence of K88ac+ enterotoxigenic E. coli to peripheral blood lymphocytes, Peyer's patch lymphocytes and rectal epithelial cells or brush borders, revealed no correlation. In vitro adhesion of K88ac-bearing E. coli was always negative with buccal epithelial cells. K88ac strains varied in their ability to adhere to lymphocytes and rectal epithelial cells or brush borders, indicating that the mechanism of adherence is unrelated to K88-mediated adhesion observed in animals that had the receptors on small-intestinal epithelial-cell brush borders. The non-piliated control E. coli Strain 123 adhered to fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes, and less intensively to frozen-thawed peripheral blood lymphocytes or Peyer's patch lymphocytes. It was concluded that none of the cell types or brush borders, except small-intestinal epithelial-cell brush borders, could be used as targets for phenotyping pigs for the presence of the K88 receptors that have been associated with adhesion and colonization of K88+ enterotoxigenic E. coli in the porcine small intestine.

  17. GABA-mediated effects of some taurine derivatives injected i.c.v. on rabbit rectal temperature and gross motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Frosini, M; Ricci, L; Saponara, S; Palmi, M; Valoti, M; Sgaragli, G

    2006-05-01

    Some synthetic taurine analogues, namely ethanolamine-O-sulphate (EOS), N,N-dimethyltaurine (DMT), N,N,N-trimethyltaurine (TMT) and 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP) were shown to interact with rabbit brain GABA(A)- or GABA(B)-receptors, while (+/-)piperidine-3-sulfonic acid (PSA) inhibited the activity of rabbit brain 4-aminobutyrate transaminase. This suggests that they behave like direct/indirect GABA agonists or GABA antagonists and affect thermoregulation and gross motor behaviour (GMB) which are under GABA control. In the present study micromole (1.2-48) amounts of these compounds were i.c.v. injected in conscious, restrained rabbits while monitoring rectal temperature (RT), ear skin temperature (EST) and GMB. AEP, EOS, DMT and TMT induced a dose-related hyperthermia, ear vasoconstriction and excitation of GMB, while PSA induced a dose-related hypothermia, ear vasodilation and inhibition of GMB. EOS antagonized in a dose-related fashion hypothermia induced by 60 nmol THIP, a GABA(A) agonist, while AEP, DMT and TMT counteracted that induced by 8 nmol R(-)Baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist. In conclusion, EOS and AEP, DMT, TMT seem to act as GABA(A) and GABA(B) antagonists, respectively, while PSA behaves like an indirect GABA agonist, all affecting the central mechanisms which drive rabbit thermoregulation.

  18. Laparoscopic versus robotic rectal resection for rectal cancer in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ramiro; Anaya, Daniel A; Li, Linda T; Orcutt, Sonia T; Balentine, Courtney J; Awad, Samir A; Berger, David H; Albo, Daniel A; Artinyan, Avo

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal cancer resection remains controversial. We compared the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic vs robotic rectal cancer resection in a high-risk Veterans Health Administration population. Patients who underwent minimally invasive rectal cancer resection were identified from an institutional colorectal cancer database. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between robotic and laparoscopic groups. The robotic group (n = 13) did not differ significantly from the laparoscopic group (n = 59) with respect to baseline characteristics except for a higher rate of previous abdominal surgery. Robotic patients had significantly lower tumors, more advanced disease, a higher rate of preoperative chemoradiation, and were more likely to undergo abdominoperineal resection. Robotic rectal resection was associated with longer operative time. There were no differences in blood loss, conversion rates, postoperative morbidity, lymph nodes harvested, margin positivity, or specimen quality between groups. The robotic approach for rectal cancer resection is safe with similar postoperative and oncologic outcomes compared with laparoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Association of Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose, and Temperature With Neurological Outcome After Childhood Stroke.

    PubMed

    Grelli, Kimberly N; Gindville, Melissa C; Walker, C Haley; Jordan, Lori C

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, no evidence-based guidelines are available for the best medical management of blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and temperature in pediatric patients after arterial ischemic stroke. To determine the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and temperature in pediatric patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke and to explore any association between these measures and neurological outcome. We performed a retrospective review of children aged 29 days to 18 years with their first arterial ischemic stroke between January 2009 and December 2013 at a tertiary academic children's hospital. Ninety-eight children with stroke were identified by an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code search and medical record review. Blood pressure, blood glucose, and temperature data were collected for 5 days after the stroke. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure at or above the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height for 2 consecutive recordings and 2 consecutive days. Hypotension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure below the fifth percentile for age, sex, and height for 2 consecutive recordings. Hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or greater. Morbidity and mortality at 3 months were documented. Data analyses were performed from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. Abnormal blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and fever in the setting of arterial ischemic stroke. The a priori outcome measure was poor clinical outcome, defined as a Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure score of 1 or greater, which represents a moderate neurological deficit. The median (interquartile range) age of the 98 children was 6.0 (0.6-14.3) years, and 58 (59.2%) were male. Hypertension was present in 64 (65.3%), hypotension in 67 (68.4%), hyperglycemia in 17 (18.1%), and fever in 37 (37.8%). The strongest association with poor neurological outcome was an infarct size of 4% or greater of

  20. Hemoglobin dynamics in red blood cells: correlation to body temperature.

    PubMed

    Stadler, A M; Digel, I; Artmann, G M; Embs, J P; Zaccai, G; Büldt, G

    2008-12-01

    A transition in hemoglobin behavior at close to body temperature has been discovered recently by micropipette aspiration experiments on single red blood cells (RBCs) and circular dichroism spectroscopy on hemoglobin solutions. The transition temperature was directly correlated to the body temperatures of a variety of species. In an exploration of the molecular basis for the transition, we present neutron scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of hemoglobin dynamics in whole human RBCs in vivo. The data reveal a change in the geometry of internal protein motions at 36.9 degrees C, at human body temperature. Above that temperature, amino acid side-chain motions occupy larger volumes than expected from normal temperature dependence, indicating partial unfolding of the protein. Global protein diffusion in RBCs was also measured and the findings compared favorably with theoretical predictions for short-time self-diffusion of noncharged hard-sphere colloids. The results demonstrated that changes in molecular dynamics in the picosecond time range and angstrom length scale might well be connected to a macroscopic effect on whole RBCs that occurs at body temperature.

  1. Hemoglobin Dynamics in Red Blood Cells: Correlation to Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, A. M.; Digel, I.; Artmann, G. M.; Embs, J. P.; Zaccai, G.; Büldt, G.

    2008-01-01

    A transition in hemoglobin behavior at close to body temperature has been discovered recently by micropipette aspiration experiments on single red blood cells (RBCs) and circular dichroism spectroscopy on hemoglobin solutions. The transition temperature was directly correlated to the body temperatures of a variety of species. In an exploration of the molecular basis for the transition, we present neutron scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of hemoglobin dynamics in whole human RBCs in vivo. The data reveal a change in the geometry of internal protein motions at 36.9°C, at human body temperature. Above that temperature, amino acid side-chain motions occupy larger volumes than expected from normal temperature dependence, indicating partial unfolding of the protein. Global protein diffusion in RBCs was also measured and the findings compared favorably with theoretical predictions for short-time self-diffusion of noncharged hard-sphere colloids. The results demonstrated that changes in molecular dynamics in the picosecond time range and angstrom length scale might well be connected to a macroscopic effect on whole RBCs that occurs at body temperature. PMID:18708462

  2. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  3. A Computer Program to Predict Energy Cost, Rectal Temperature, and Heart Rate Response to Work, Clothing, and Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    temperature and heart rate response to work , environment , and clothing. The report defines the mathematical basis of the program and presents a brief guide for its use with the HP9810A programmable calculator.

  4. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Wang, Jinwei; Tian, Jun; Tang, Xun; Yu, Canqing; Marshall, Roger J; Chen, Dafang; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Lv, Jun; Lee, Liming; Hu, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range) was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  5. Rectal temperature in the first five hours after hypoxia-ischaemia critically affects neuropathological outcomes in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas; Hobbs, Catherine; Falck, Mari; Brun, Anne Charlotte; Løberg, Else Marit; Thoresen, Marianne

    2017-03-13

    Hyperthermia after hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in newborn infants is associated with worse neurological outcomes. Loss of thermoregulation may also be associated with greater injury. In the postnatal-day 7 (P7) rat, the effect of 5h of graded hyperthermia (38°C or 39°C) immediately after unilateral HI was compared to normothermia (NT, 37°C), and therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32°C). Early (negative geotaxis) and late (staircase test) behavioural testing was performed, as well as neuropathology scoring in adulthood. Separately, P7 rats were exposed to HI, and individual nesting temperatures monitored before analysis of neuropathology at P14. Mortality increased as temperature was increased from 38°C (0%) to 39°C (50%) after HI. Hyperthermia also resulted in early behavioural deficits compared to NT animals. In adulthood, pathology scores in the thalamus, basal ganglia, cortex, and hippocampus increased as post-hypoxic temperature increased above NT. Significant global neuroprotection was seen in the TH group. However, no significant difference was seen between HI groups in the staircase test. One hour after HI, the core temperature of pups was inversely correlated with global pathology scores at P14. Early temperature is a significant determinant of injury after experimental HI. Spontaneous decreases in core temperature after HI may confound neuroprotection studies.Pediatric Research (2017); doi:10.1038/pr.2017.51.

  6. Rectal temperature responses of donkeys administered with ascorbic acid and subjected to load carrying (packing) during the harmattan season in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Minka, Ndazo Salka

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of 4-h load carrying (packing) on donkeys administered with ascorbic acid (AA) during the harmattan season. Six donkeys administered orally with ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing served as experimental animals, while six others given only distilled water served as control animals. The rectal temperature (RT) of each donkey and dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) of the research pen were recorded at 0600 hours pre-packing; while post-packing, the values were obtained at 1430, 1600 and 1800 hours. The DBT values (ranges) recorded before, during and after packing were 13.7 ± 1.3 °C (11-15 °C), 28.4 ± 1.0 °C (22.7-30.3 °C) and 30.6 ± 3.0 °C (19.8-45 °C), respectively. The highest temperature-humidity index (THI) of 83.4 ± 6.9 was obtained at 1430 hours after packing, and the value decreased to 64.2 ± 5.8 at 1800 hours. The thermal environmental conditions were outside the thermoneutral zone for the donkeys. The RT values recorded immediately after packing did not differ (P > 0.05) in experimental and control donkeys; but at 1600 and 1800 hours, values obtained in control donkeys (38.48 ± 0.12 and 38.12 ± 0.12 °C, respectively) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those recorded in experimental donkeys (38.16 ± 0.14 and 37.85 ± 0.14 °C, respectively). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid reduced the rise in RT due to packing and may be of value in the amelioration of adverse effects of heat stress associated with work in donkeys.

  7. Measurement of body temperature in 300 dogs with a novel noncontact infrared thermometer on the cornea in comparison to a standard rectal digital thermometer.

    PubMed

    Kreissl, Hannah; Neiger, Reto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of obtaining body temperatures in dogs with a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) on the cornea compared with a rectal digital thermometer (RDT). Prospective single center study. University teaching hospital. Three hundred dogs presented with low, normal, or high body temperatures. Three body temperature readings were measured by an RDT and by an NCIT on the cornea of the left eye by 2 investigators (experienced and inexperienced). Results obtained by the 2 methods were compared. Median body temperature measured by the experienced investigator with the RDT and the NCIT were 38.3°C (range 35.5°C-41.1°C; 95% CI: 38.2-38.4°C) and 37.7°C (35.9°C-40.1°C; 95% CI: 37.7°C-37.9°C), respectively. Measurement of RDT as well as of NCIT correlated well between both investigators (rRDT = 0.94; rNCIT = 0.82; respectively, P < 0.001 for both methods). Mean RDT and NCIT-temperature correlated poorly (r = 0.43; P < 0.001) when taken by the experienced investigator and even less by the nonexperienced investigator (r = 0.38; P < 0.001). Repeatability of the NCIT revealed an unsatisfactory value (0.24°C) compared to RDT measurement (0.12°C). Agreement between both devices in measuring low, normal, and high values, calculated by Cohens-Kappa, was unsatisfactory (к = 0.201; P < 0.001). Calculating the receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the best threshold for fever (defined as RDT temperature >39.0°C) showed an area under the curve of 0.76. Mean discomfort score was significantly lower using NCIT compared to RDT measurement (P < 0.001). There was poor agreement between body temperatures obtained by RDT and NCIT. The corneal NCIT measurement tends to underrecognize hypothermic and hyperthermic conditions. Although the use of the NCIT yields faster results and is significantly more comfortable for the dog than the RDT measurement, it cannot be recommended in dogs at this time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  8. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) induced changes in body temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine. Purebred Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS...

  9. Combined effects of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on diurnal variations in rectal temperature of Black Harco pullets subjected to heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2016-06-01

    The experiment was performed with the aim of determining the effect of co-administration of antioxidant vitamins, retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on rectal temperature (RT) fluctuations in pullets during the hot-dry season in Nigeria. Forty-eight Black Harco pullets, aged 16 weeks and weighing 1.5 ± 0.03 kg were divided by simple random sampling into two groups, consisting of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets. The RTs of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets were measured hourly for 3 days, 3 days apart, from 06:00 to 19:00 h (GMT + 1) with a standard clinical thermometer. The treated pullets were administered individually with the vitamins orally in water, while the control pullets were given only water. The lowest hourly RT of 40.9 ± 0.04 °C was obtained in treated pullets at 06:00 h, while the highest value of 41.1 ± 0.01 °C was recorded from 17:00 to 19:00 h (P < 0.001). In control pullets, the RT rose significantly from 41.0 ± 0.03 °C at 06:00 h to the maximum value of 41.6 ± 0.04 °C at 15:00 h (P < 0.001). The pullets co-administered with retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol had consistently lower RT values than those of control pullets, especially during the hot hours of the day, from 13:00 to 17:00 h. It is concluded that co-administration of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, by preventing a rise in body temperature, ameliorated heat stress, and may enhance productivity of pullets reared under unfavourable, thermal environment conditions.

  10. Current concepts in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, James W; Smallwood, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    The history of rectal cancer management informs current therapy and points us in the direction of future improvements. Multidisciplinary team management of rectal cancer will move us to personalized treatment for individuals with rectal cancer in all stages.

  11. Effect of floor surface temperature on blood flow and skin temperature in the foot.

    PubMed

    Song, G-S

    2008-12-01

    A total of 16 healthy college students participated as subjects to elucidate the hypothesis that blood flow and skin temperature in foot are affected by the floor surface temperature. The floor surface temperature was controlled by varying the temperature of water (tw) flowing underneath the floor, and it ranged from tw 15 to 40 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals. The blood flow rate was measured in the dorsal right toe, and skin temperatures were measured for 60 min at 8 points: the neck, right scapular, left hand, right shin, left bottom of the toe, right instep, left finger, and rectum. The blood flow rate in the foot tissue was increased until the foot skin temperature warmed up to 34 degrees C (P = 0.000). The final skin temperatures on the bottom of the toe were 19.4 +/- 2.44 degrees C for tw 15 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.45 degrees C for tw 20 degrees C, 24.8 +/- 2.80 degrees C for tw 25 degrees C, 27.7 +/- 2.13 degrees C for tw 30 degrees C, 30.6 +/- 2.06 degrees C for tw 35 degrees C, 33.2 +/- 1.45 degrees C for tw 40 degrees C, 34.2 +/- 1.55 degrees C for tw 45 degrees C, and 35.2 +/- 1.65 degrees C for tw 50 degrees C. Considering blood flow and comfort, the partial floor heating system is suggested and the recommended floor surface temperature range is 27-33 degrees C. A warm floor surface can serve to satisfy occupants when the ambient temperature maintained at 20 degrees C which represents an energy conscious temperature. A warm floor can induce high blood perfusion in the feet and consequently improve an occupant's health by treating many vascular-related disorders. Even in a well-insulated residential building, a partially heated floor system could prevent overheating while providing surface warmth.

  12. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Eren, Eryiğit; Demiralay, Ebru; Işıklar, İclal; Demirağ, Alp; Moray, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction.

  13. Technical note: unsafe rectal temperature measurements due to delayed warming of the thermocouple by using a condom. An issue concerning the estimation of the postmortem interval by using Henßge's nomogram.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Meurs, Joris; Boertjes, Janine; Duijst, Wilma

    2016-03-01

    In some cases, in the Netherlands, an additional layer is being added to the thermocouple, used to measure the rectal temperature in medicolegal death investigations. Because of this deviation from the standard method, questions arose regarding the accuracy and precision of the measured temperature. Therefore, a cooling experiment was carried out on a round body made of agar with an average thermal conductivity of 0.454 W/(m °C) while measuring the temperature with and without an additional layer around the thermocouple for three different starting temperatures: 36, 30, and 27 °C. The results show a significant difference between the measured values for the first 5 min when comparing with and without the additional layer. Further, a decrease in precision is present within the first minutes when using an additional layer. Therefore, it is concluded that it is best to measure the rectal temperature without an additional layer around the thermocouple and caution should be taken when measuring with an additional layer.

  14. Combined effects of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on diurnal variations in rectal temperature of Black Harco pullets subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2016-06-16

    The experiment was performed with the aim of determining the effect of co-administration of antioxidant vitamins, retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on rectal temperature (RT) fluctuations in pullets during the hot-dry season in Nigeria. Forty-eight Black Harco pullets, aged 16 weeks and weighing 1.5 ± 0.03 kg were divided by simple random sampling into two groups, consisting of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets. The RTs of 28 treated and 20 control Black Harco pullets were measured hourly for 3 days, 3 days apart, from 06:00 to 19:00 h (GMT + 1) with a standard clinical thermometer. The treated pullets were administered individually with the vitamins orally in water, while the control pullets were given only water. The lowest hourly RT of 40.9 ± 0.04 °C was obtained in treated pullets at 06:00 h, while the highest value of 41.1 ± 0.01 °C was recorded from 17:00 to 19:00 h (P < 0.001). In control pullets, the RT rose significantly from 41.0 ± 0.03 °C at 06:00 h to the maximum value of 41.6 ± 0.04 °C at 15:00 h (P < 0.001). The pullets co-administered with retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol had consistently lower RT values than those of control pullets, especially during the hot hours of the day, from 13:00 to 17:00 h. It is concluded that co-administration of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, by preventing a rise in body temperature, ameliorated heat stress, and may enhance productivity of pullets reared under unfavourable, thermal environment conditions.

  15. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail. PMID:26034724

  16. A rectal neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, Modesto J; Muñoz Agel, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of gastric and rectal carcinoids is increasing. This is probably due to endoscopic screening. The prognosis is primarily dependent upon tumor size, aggressiveness (pathology, Ki-67), metastatic disease and stage. However, neuroendocrine carcinoma usually behaves as an adenocarcinoma.

  17. Bladder urothelial carcinoma extending to rectal mucosa and presenting with rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Aneese, Andrew M; Manuballa, Vinayata; Amin, Mitual; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-01-01

    An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL (iron saturation = 8.4%, indicating iron-deficiency-anemia). Abdominopelvic-CT-angiography revealed focal wall thickening at the bladder neck; a mass containing an air cavity replacing the normal prostate; and adjacent rectal invasion. Colonoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated, oozing, multinodular, friable, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass in anterior rectal wall, at the usual prostate location. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of colonoscopic biopsies of the mass revealed poorly-differentiated-carcinoma of urothelial origin. At visceral angiography, the right-superior-rectal-artery was embolized to achieve hemostasis. The patient subsequently developed multiple new metastases and expired 13 mo post-embolization. Comprehensive literature review revealed 16 previously reported cases of rectal involvement from bladder urothelial carcinoma, including 11 cases from direct extension and 5 cases from metastases. Patient age averaged 63.7 ± 9.6 years (all patients male). Rectal involvement was diagnosed on average 13.5 ± 11.8 mo after initial diagnosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Symptoms included constipation/gastrointestinal obstruction-6, weight loss-5, diarrhea-3, anorexia-3, pencil thin stools-3, tenesmus-2, anorectal pain-2, and other-5. Rectal examination in 9 patients revealed annular rectal constriction-6, and rectal mass-3. The current patient had the novel presentation of daily bright red blood per rectum coating the stools simulating

  18. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P < 0.05) in insulated group (32.26 ± 0.19(o)C) than in control group (30.58 ± 0.18(o)C), and the difference between rectal and testicular (deduced from SSMT) temperatures was 1.12 °C; in the other times of the evaluation this difference was between 2.91 and 4.25 °C in IN group. Scrotal superficies mean temperature was reestablished 24 hours after IN. Rectal temperature and EAMT presented correlation (r = 0.59; P < 0.0001). There was time-by-treatment interaction for total sperm (P = 0.0038) and progressive motility (P = 0.01), abnormal spermatozoa (P < 0.0001), membranes integrity (P < 0.0001), induced

  19. Rectal imaging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vining, D J

    1998-09-01

    Rectal imaging has evolved substantially during the past 25 years and now offers surgeons exquisite anatomic detail and physiologic information. Dynamic cystoproctography, helical computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging, and immunoscintigraphy have become standards for the diagnosis of rectal disease, staging of neoplasia, and survey of therapeutic results. The indications, limitations, and relative costs of current imaging methods are reviewed, and advances in imaging technology that promise future benefits to colorectal surgeons are introduced.

  20. Storage temperature effects on blood orange fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, P; Bellomo, S E; Intelisano, S

    2001-07-01

    Orange fruits of two blood varieties (Tarocco and Moro) were stored at 8 degrees C and 22 degrees C for 85 and 106 days, respectively, and analyzed periodically for standard quality parameters (total soluble solids, total acidity, ascorbic acid, juice yield, and rind color) and sensory influencing parameters (anthocyanins, and total and free hydroxycinnamic acids). A decrease in total acidity (TA) and juice yield during storage was observed for both cultivars; total soluble solids (TSS) increased only in the Tarocco oranges stored at 8 degrees C. The increase in TSS observed for Tarocco and the simultaneous decrease in TA in both varieties resulted in a higher maturity index (TSS/TA) for the two cultivars. No loss of vitamin C was noted in Tarocco orange at either temperature, whereas a sharp reduction in vitamin C occurred in the first 50 days of storage for Moro. A significant increase in anthocyanin content was observed in Tarocco and Moro stored at 8 degrees C. Overlong storage induces extensive hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic derivatives to free acids in Moro orange and these, in turn, could develop the malodorous vinylphenols.

  1. Brain and arterial blood temperatures of free-ranging oryx ( Oryx gazella).

    PubMed

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    We used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain and arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for up to 15 days in four free-ranging oryx ( Oryx gazella) in their natural habitat. Globe temperatures exceeded 45 degrees C and average peak radiant heat load was 800 W.m(-2). Arterial blood temperature exhibited a moderate amplitude nychthemeral rhythm of 1.8+/-0.3 degrees C (mean +/-SD). The amplitude of the nychthemeral rhythm was not influenced by variations in ambient heat load. Average brain temperature exceeded carotid arterial blood temperature by 0.29 degrees C but there was a range of body temperatures over which the brain could be up to 0.4 degrees C cooler or 0.5 degrees C warmer than arterial blood. At high body temperatures (>39.5 degrees C) at rest, three of the animals tended to maintain the brain cooler than arterial blood. During exercise the brain was always warmer than arterial blood. The slope of the regression line relating brain temperature to carotid blood temperature was less than one. At short time scales of 5-20 min, brain temperature varied significantly more than did carotid blood temperature. We attribute part of the variability in brain temperature to transient stress responses and the influence of sympathetic activation attenuating selective brain cooling. We conclude that, contrary to the widely cited postulate, the carotid rete does not protect the brain during hyperthermia. Oryx also do not show adaptive heterothermy and, over short time intervals, have a brain temperature more variable than carotid blood temperature.

  2. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. Unexplained rectal blood loss in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome].

    PubMed

    van den Born, B J H; Koopmans, R P; Fliers, E; Hart, W

    2002-04-13

    A 55-year-old woman, known with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1, had rectal bleeding and later haematemesis but colonoscopy and gastroduodenoscopy revealed no abnormalities. Due to the normal results for serum gastrin concentration, gastroduodenoscopy and CT scanning of the pancreas, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome was considered to be less likely. Yet the diagnosis could be established on the basis of persistent symptoms and a positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. The patient was treated with high doses of a proton pump inhibitor and temporary tube feeding due to weight loss. Follow-up will take place at the endocrinology outpatients' department. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a relatively common feature of patients with MEN-1. The diagnosis and localisation of the gastrinoma can be difficult: serum gastrin concentrations can be normal and the sensitivity of CT scanning is low. The primary aim of treating gastrinoma is to control gastric acid hypersecretion by means of high doses of a proton pump inhibitor. The question as to whether surgery is indicated remains controversial.

  3. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  4. Respiratory properties of blood and arterial blood gases in the tegu lizard: effects of temperature and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Wood, S C; Glass, M L; Andersen, N A; Heisler, N

    1987-01-01

    The effects of body temperature and hypercapnia (7% inspired CO2) on arterial blood gases, plasma pH, and the characteristics of the blood oxygen dissociation curve were determined in Tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). Arterial pH fell from 7.59 to 7.50 when body temperature was increased from 25 to 35 degrees C. The pH/temperature coefficient (delta pH/delta t = -0.009 U/degrees C) was half of that predicted on the basis of 'constant relative alkalinity' and the alphastat hypothesis. The fall in plasma pH resulted from a decrease in plasma [HCO3-], and a rise in plasma Pco2. The O2 affinity of Tegu blood, expressed by the partial pressure at half saturation (P50), decreased with temperature in vitro from 42.3 to 49.6 torr at pH 7.4. The apparent enthalpy (delta H = -3.1 kcal/mol) is about 1/4 of that of human blood. In vivo, the arterial blood oxygen saturation decreased from 89% at 25 degrees to 82% at 35 degrees C. Arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 71 torr as expected from the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. During environmental hypercapnia (7% CO2, 21% O2, 72% N2 inspired concentrations), arterial pH decreased to 7.28. Arterial O2 saturation remained constant and arterial Po2 increased from 61 to 85 torr due to the right-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. The comparatively small effect of changes in temperature on the oxygen affinity of Tegu blood (directly according to the delta H value, and indirectly via changes in blood pH) results in a relatively small right shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, and accordingly in relatively high arterial and tissue Po2 values also at higher temperatures.

  5. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  6. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  7. Rectal Diclofenac Versus Rectal Paracetamol: Comparison of Antipyretic Effectiveness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sarami, Golbahareh; Rangraz, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is the most common complaint in pediatric medicine and its treatment is recommended in some situations. Paracetamol is the most common antipyretic drug, which has serious side effects such as toxicity along with its positive effects. Diclofenac is one of the strongest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, which has received little attention as an antipyretic drug. Objectives This study was designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of the rectal form of Paracetamol and Diclofenac. Patients and Methods This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 children aged six months to six years old. One group was treated with rectal Paracetamol suppositories at 15 mg/kg dose and the other group received Diclofenac at 1 mg/kg by rectal administration (n = 40). Rectal temperature was measured before and one hour after the intervention. Temperature changes in the two groups were compared. Results The average rectal temperature in the Paracetamol group was 39.6 ± 1.13°C, and 39.82 ± 1.07°C in the Diclofenac group (P = 0.37). The average rectal temperature, one hour after the intervention, in the Paracetamol and the Diclofenac group was 38.39 ± 0.89°C and 38.95 ± 1.09°C, respectively (P = 0.02). Average temperature changes were 0.65 ± 0.17°C in the Paracetamol group and 1.73 ± 0.69°C in the Diclofenac group (P < 0.001). Conclusions In the first one hour, Diclofenac suppository is able to control the fever more efficient than Paracetamol suppositories. PMID:26889398

  8. Intracerebral temperature alterations associated with focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Chang, Jong Hee; Rothman, Steven M

    2002-12-01

    Because focal seizures produce an increase in local cerebral metabolism and blood flow, we wanted to determine whether they might lead to changes in brain temperature. We induced focal neocortical seizures by microinjection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) into the rat motor cortex. The temperature on the dura immediately over the injection site, or 8 mm away, was measured with a thermocouple and in some experiments relative blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. In animals that did not receive 4-AP, brain and rectal temperature remained fairly constant at 33.5 and 37.2 degrees C, respectively, over a 2 h monitoring period. In animals treated with 4-AP, brain temperature over the seizure focus rose an average of 0.3 degrees C, within a few seconds of seizure onset, while rectal temperature remained constant. The seizure-induced temperature rise was preceded by an increase in cortical blood flow. The temperature, but not blood flow, was also elevated 8 mm away from the seizure focus. When blood flow was increased independently of neuronal activity, by elevating pCO(2), brain temperature also rose by about 0.3 degrees C. Focal seizures in anesthetized rats produce a small, but statistically significant increase in local brain temperature, as a result of increased blood flow that brings brain temperature closer to body temperature. In humans, seizures could actually cause a reduction in brain temperature, because brain temperature is normally higher than body temperature.

  9. Incisions for cochlear implant flaps and superficial skin temperature. Skin temperature/blood circulation in CI flaps.

    PubMed

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Sievert, Uwe; Graumüller, Sylke; Wild, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Healing and integration of a cochlear implant is largely influenced by good blood circulation in the covering skin, which, on the other hand, is closely correlated to skin temperature. Measuring superficial flap temperatures by thermography is an easy way to get some clues about the corresponding blood supply. These data should allow some implications for the design of skin flaps in cochlear implant surgery. In 15 patients thermography was carried out prior to and after cochlear implantation, using the Agema 550 Thermovision system. It was evident, that the anatomic courses of the major superficial arteries were represented by areas of increased temperature. The pattern of temperature distribution may allow some conclusions concerning site and shape of surgical incisions. From our data we concluded, that most types of incisions do not interfere too much with the arterial blood supply. However, some types like the extended retroauricular C-incision may eventually cause problems. Our data suggest, that the straight or slightly curved vertical retroauricular incision causes the least impairment of blood circulation. After surgery, directly along the incisions (and later along the scars) temperature was diminished, indicating reduced blood circulation. In our series, the thickness of the implant did not impede blood circulation significantly. So far, we could not examine patients with local circulation disorders. Probably local scars, skin atrophies, angiopathies etc. may present typical patterns of temperature distribution, which require individual design of skin flaps. Thermography is an easy method which can give impressions of local blood circulation in skin flaps. If the courses of the major arteries and their branches are respected, blood circulation within the flap should not be problematic. Thermography is likely to help designing optimal flaps in cases with impeded blood circulation e.g. by pre-existing scar formations.

  10. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kolkhorst, Fred W; DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    Our interest was to quantify the role of sweat gland activation on the maintenance of skin temperature during mild exercise in the heat. Seven days of tap-water iontophoresis decreased the number of active sweat glands by 72% which significantly increased forearm skin temperature and blood flow during mild exercise (70 W) in the heat (32 degrees C). Skin temperature of the treated forearm was 0.5 degrees C warmer (P=0.049); skin blood flow in the treated forearm was 13% higher than the control arm (P=0.021). These results illustrate the importance of sweat evaporation on skin temperature and blood flow during exercise.

  11. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  13. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  14. Measurement of temperature decrease caused by blood flow in focused ultrasound irradiation by thermal imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Hatano, Yuichi; Mori, Yashunori; Shen, Rakushin; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to estimate the local temperature changes caused by a thick blood vessel, the temperature distribution in a tissue phantom with a thick blood vessel during focused ultrasound irradiation was measured by a thermal imaging method. The blood flow rate in the simulated blood vessel was varied and the relationship between flow rate and temperature decrease was examined. The phantom using the thermal imaging method is divided into two parts, and the increases in temperature distribution as a function of blood flow rate are measured using a thermocamera under constant ultrasound irradiation. The irradiation conditions of ultrasound waves were a central frequency of 1 MHz, a wave number length of 200 cycles, and a duty ratio of 0.2. The irradiation duration was 5 min, and the ultrasound intensity I SPTA was 36 W/cm2. The amount of temperature decrease caused by the cooling effect of blood flow increased with the blood flow rate and it became constant at a certain threshold of blood flow rate. The threshold of blood flow rate is about 250 ml/min.

  15. [Changes in palmar skin blood flow, perfusion index and temperature during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy].

    PubMed

    Asano, Maiko; Tanaka, Motoshige; Kusaka, Hitomi; Sakai, Masato; Minami, Toshiaki

    2010-12-01

    In endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS), it is required to perform accurate cautery of the sympathetic trunk. Monitoring of palmar skin blood flow and temperature has been used to assess the efficacy of ETS. This study investigated whether Perfusion Index (PI) is useful in assessing palmar skin blood flow and temperature in ETS. We studied 5 patients (1 man, 4 women) with palmar hyperhidrosis who had undergone a total of 10 ETS procedures. We measured skin blood flow, temperature and PI during ETS and evaluated the results. Significant correlations were found between increases in skin blood flow and PI after ETS in cases with the palmar skin temperature just before ETS of below 35 degrees C. In these cases, we can substitute increases in PI with increases in skin blood flow during ETS.

  16. Effect of Acupuncture Manipulations at LI4 or LI11 on Blood Flow and Skin Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture induces physiological changes, and patients have reported warm or cool sensations with "Burning Fire" (BF) or "Penetrating Cool" (PC) manipulations. This study aimed to evaluate whether these techniques had distinct effects on skin temperature and blood flow and to examine whether skin temperature correlated with blood flow. The participants were 25 healthy volunteers, each receiving acupuncture manipulations on points LI4 and LI11 bilaterally. Skin temperatures and blood flow were recorded continuously on both arms. The study found that acupuncture significantly increased skin temperature on the needling arm by 0.3514°C on average, but decreased it on the contralateral arm by 0.2201°C on average. Blood flow decreased significantly in both arms during needling (-3.4% and -5.97% for the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides, respectively), but the changes in skin temperature did not correlate with the changes in blood flow. Furthermore, these changes were not significantly different between acupuncture techniques and acupuncture points. In conclusion, acupuncture changes local skin temperature and blood flow independent of the manipulation technique. Moreover, blood flow may not be affected by the increased temperature on the needling arm. These results help to verify traditional Chinese medicine concepts and may help in establishing standards for acupuncture treatments.

  17. Rectal contrast increases rectal dose during vaginal cuff brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Rovirosa, Angeles; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Arenas, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of rectal dose on rectal contrast use during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). A retrospective review of gynecology patients who received some brachytherapy fractions with and without rectal contrast was carried out. Rectal contrast was instilled at the clinician's discretion to increase rectal visibility. Thirty-six pairs of CT scans in preparation for brachytherapy were analyzed. Pairs of CTs were segmented and planned using the same parameters. The rectum was always defined from 1 cm above the cylinder tip up to 1.5 cm below the last activated dwell source position. An individual plan was computed at every VCB fraction. A set of values (Dmax, D(0.1cc), D(1cc), and D(2cc)) derived from dose-volume histograms were extracted and compared according to the rectal status. Rectal volume was 26.7% larger in the fractions with rectal contrast. Such an increase in volume represented a significant increase from 7.7% to 10.4% in all parameters analyzed except Dmax dose-volume histogram. Avoiding rectal contrast is a simple way of decreasing the rectal dose parameters of VCB, which would mean a better therapeutic ratio. Results also suggest that action directed at maintaining the rectum empty might have the same effect. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of flow rate and temperature on transmembrane blood pressure drop in an extracorporeal artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Park, M; Costa, E L V; Maciel, A T; Barbosa, E V S; Hirota, A S; Schettino, G de P; Azevedo, L C P

    2014-11-01

    Transmembrane pressure drop reflects the resistance of an artificial lung system to blood transit. Decreased resistance (low transmembrane pressure drop) enhances blood flow through the oxygenator, thereby, enhancing gas exchange efficiency. This study is part of a previous one where we observed the behaviour and the modulation of blood pressure drop during the passage of blood through artificial lung membranes. Before and after the induction of multi-organ dysfunction, the animals were instrumented and analysed for venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using a pre-defined sequence of blood flows. Blood flow and revolutions per minute (RPM) of the centrifugal pump varied in a linear fashion. At a blood flow of 5.5 L/min, pre- and post-pump blood pressures reached -120 and 450 mmHg, respectively. Transmembrane pressures showed a significant spread, particularly at blood flows above 2 L/min; over the entire range of blood flow rates, there was a positive association of pressure drop with blood flow (0.005 mmHg/mL/minute of blood flow) and a negative association of pressure drop with temperature (-4.828 mmHg/(°Celsius). These associations were similar when blood flows of below and above 2000 mL/minute were examined. During its passage through the extracorporeal system, blood is exposed to pressure variations from -120 to 450 mmHg. At high blood flows (above 2 L/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure becomes unpredictable and highly variable. Over the entire range of blood flows investigated (0-5500 mL/min), the drop in transmembrane pressure was positively associated with blood flow and negatively associated with body temperature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Acute and chronic influence of temperature on red blood cell anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F B; Wang, T; Brahm, J

    2001-01-01

    Unidirectional (36)Cl(-) efflux via the red blood cell anion exchanger was measured under Cl(-) self-exchange conditions (i.e. no net flow of anions) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and red-eared freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta to examine the effects of acute temperature changes and acclimation temperature on this process. We also evaluated the possible adaptation of anion exchange to different temperature regimes by including our previously published data on other animals. An acute temperature increase caused a significant increase in the rate constant (k) for unidirectional Cl(-) efflux in rainbow trout and freshwater turtle. After 3 weeks of temperature acclimation, 5 degrees C-acclimated rainbow trout showed only marginally higher Cl(-) transport rates than 15 degrees C-acclimated trout when compared at the same temperature. Apparent activation energies for red blood cell Cl(-) exchange in trout and turtle were lower than values reported in endothermic animals. The Q(10) for red blood cell anion exchange was 2.0 in trout and 2.3 in turtle, values close to those for CO(2) excretion, suggesting that, in ectothermic animals, the temperature sensitivity of band-3-mediated anion exchange matches the temperature sensitivity of CO(2) transport (where red blood cell Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange is a rate-limiting step). In endotherms, such as man and chicken, Q(10) values for red blood cell anion exchange are considerably higher but are no obstacle to CO(2) transport, because body temperature is normally kept constant at values at which anion exchange rates are high. When compared at constant temperature, red blood cell Cl(-) permeability shows large differences among species (trout, carp, eel, cod, turtle, alligator, chicken and man). Cl(-) permeabilities are, however, remarkable similar when compared at preferred body temperatures, suggesting an appropriate evolutionary adaptation of red blood cell anion exchange function to the different thermal niches occupied

  20. Temperature dependence of blood viscosity in frogs and turtles: effect on heat exchange with environment.

    PubMed

    Langille, B L; Crisp, B

    1980-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the viscosity of blood from frogs and turtles has been assessed for temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C. Viscosity of turtles' blood was, on average, reduced from 3.50 +/- 0.16 to 2.13 +/- 0.10 cP between 10 and 30 degrees C, a decline of 39%. Even larger changes in viscosity were observed for frogs' blood with viscosity falling from 4.55 +/- 0.32 to 2.55 +/- 0.25 cP over the same temperature range, a change of 44%. Blood viscosity was highly correlated with hematocrit in both species at all temperatures. Viscosity of blood from both frogs and turtles showed a large standard deviation at all temperatures and this was attributed to large individual-to-individual variations in hematocrit. Turtles heat faster than they cool, regardless of whether tests are performed at temperatures above or below the range of thermal preference. The effect of temperature dependence of blood viscosity on heating and cooling rates is demonstrated.

  1. Bioavailabilities of rectal and oral methadone in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ola; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2004-01-01

    Aims Rectal administration of methadone may be an alternative to intravenous and oral dosing in cancer pain, but the bioavailability of the rectal route is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the absolute rectal bioavailability of methadone with its oral bioavailability in healthy humans. Methods Seven healthy subjects (six males, one female, aged 20–39 years) received 10 mg d5-methadone-HCl rectally (5 ml in 20% glycofurol) together with either d0-methadone intravenously (5 mg) or orally (10 mg) on two separate occasions. Blood samples for the LC-MS analyses of methadone and it's metabolite EDDP were drawn for up to 96 h. Noninvasive infrared pupillometry was peformed at the same time as blood sampling. Results The mean absolute rectal bioavalability of methadone was 0.76 (0.7, 0.81), compared to 0.86 (0.75, 0.97) for oral administration (mean (95% CI)). Rectal absorption of methadone was more rapid than after oral dosing with Tmax values of 1.4 (0.9, 1.8) vs. 2.8 (1.6, 4.0) h. The extent of formation of the metabolite EDDP did not differ between routes of administration. Single doses of methadone had a duration of action of at least 10 h and were well tolerated. Conclusions Rectal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption, a high bioavailability and long duration of action. No evidence of presystemic elimination was seen. Rectal methadone has characteristics that make it a potential alternative to intravenous and oral administration, particularly in cancer pain and palliative care. PMID:15255797

  2. Comparison of the preventive analgesic effect of rectal ketamine and rectal acetaminophen after pediatric tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Heidari, S Morteza; Mirlohi, S Zahra; Hashemi, S Jalal

    2012-03-01

    There is a little data about rectal administration of Ketamine as a postoperative analgesic, so we compared the efficacy of rectal ketamine with rectal acetaminophen, which is applied routinely for analgesia after painful surgeries like tonsillectomy. In this single-blinded comparative trial, we enrolled 70 children undergoing elective tonsillectomy, and divided them randomly in two groups. Patients received rectal ketamine (2 mg / kg) or rectal acetaminophen (20 mg / kg) at the end of surgery. The children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain scale was used to estimate pain in children. Also the vital signs, Wilson sedation scale, and side effects in each group were noted and compared for 24 hours. The ketamine group had a lower pain score at 15 minutes and 60 minutes after surgery in Recovery (6.4 ± 0.8, 7.4 ± 1 vs. 7.1 ± 1.2, 7.8 ± 1.2 in the acetaminophen group, P < 0.05) and one hour and two hours in the ward (7.2 ± 0.7, 7 ± 0.5 vs. 7.9 ± 1.2, 7.5 ± 1.2 in the acetaminophen group, P < 0.05), with no significant differences till 24 hours. Dreams and hallucinations were not reported in the ketamine group. Systolic blood pressure was seen to be higher in the ketamine group (104.4 ± 7.9 vs. 99.8 ± 7.7 in the acetaminophen group) and nystagmus was reported only in the ketamine group (14.2%). Other side effects were equivalent in both the groups. With low complications, rectal ketamine has analgesic effects, especially in the first hours after surgery in comparison with acetaminophen, and it can be an alternative analgesic with easy administration in children after tonsillectomy.

  3. Phase I Study of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil for Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  4. [Fatal intoxication following rectal instillation of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D; Werp, J

    1990-01-01

    A 62-year old man who had been living on a remote farm was found dead in his bed. Inserted in his rectum was a synthetic flexible tube filled with brandy (43 vol. %) and connected to a bicycle pump. Samples taken during autopsy from 3 different parts of the body showed ethanol concentrations from 4.87% to 5.35% in the blood and 6.73% in the urine. The ethanol concentrations in the small and large intestine were considerably higher (more than 29%) than in the stomach (9%). The decreased had a tumor as large as a tennis ball on the base of his tongue, almost completely filling the oropharynx, making swallowing very difficult, which probably was the reason of the rectal instillation of alcohol. The report deals with this unusual case of rectal alcohol instillation, and with the different ethanol and congener alcohol concentrations in the body fluids.

  5. Measurement of the temperature-dependent threshold shear-stress of red blood cell aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Yong-Jin; Shin, Sehyun

    2009-09-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is becoming an important hemorheological parameter, which typically exhibits temperature dependence. Quite recently, a critical shear-stress was proposed as a new dimensional index to represent the aggregative and disaggregative behaviors of RBCs. The present study investigated the effect of the temperature on the critical shear-stress that is required to keep RBC aggregates dispersed. The critical shear-stress was measured at various temperatures (4, 10, 20, 30, and 37 °C) through the use of a transient microfluidic aggregometry. The critical shear-stress significantly increased as the blood temperature lowered, which accorded with the increase in the low-shear blood viscosity with the lowering of the temperature. Furthermore, the critical shear-stress also showed good agreement with the threshold shear-stress, as measured in a rotational Couette flow. These findings assist in rheologically validating the critical shear-stress, as defined in the microfluidic aggregometry.

  6. Temperature evolution in tissues embedded with large blood vessels during photo-thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Kahlen, Franz J; Das, Sarit K

    2014-04-01

    During laser-assisted photo-thermal therapy, the temperature of the heated tissue region must rise to the therapeutic value (e.g., 43°C) for complete ablation of the target cells. Large blood vessels (larger than 500 micron in diameter) at or near the irradiated tissues have a considerable impact on the transient temperature distribution in the tissue. In this study, the cooling effects of large blood vessels on temperature distribution in tissues during laser irradiation are predicted using finite element based simulation. A uniform flow is assumed at the entrance and three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer equations in the tissue region and the blood region are simultaneously solved for different vascular models. A volumetric heat source term based on Beer-Lambert law is introduced into the energy equation to account for laser heating. The heating pattern is taken to depend on the absorption and scattering coefficients of the tissue medium. Experiments are also conducted on tissue mimics in the presence and absence of simulated blood vessels to validate the numerical model. The coupled heat transfer between thermally significant blood vessels and their surrounding tissue for three different tissue-vascular networks are analyzed keeping the laser irradiation constant. A surface temperature map is obtained for different vascular models and for the bare tissue (without blood vessels). The transient temperature distribution is seen to differ according to the nature of the vascular network, blood vessel size, flow rate, laser spot size, laser power and tissue blood perfusion rate. The simulations suggest that the blood flow through large blood vessels in the vicinity of the photothermally heated tissue can lead to inefficient heating of the target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative values of blood flow through the human forearm, hand, and finger as functions of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search was made to obtain values of human forearm, hand and finger blood flow as functions of environmental temperature. The sources used include both government and laboratory reports and the research presented in the open literature. An attempt was made to review many of the more quantitative noninvasive determinations and to collate the results in such a way as to yield blood flow values for each body segment as continuous functions of temperature. A brief review of the various ways used to measure blood flow is included along with an abstract of each work from which data was taken.

  8. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was

  9. Comparison of non-contact infrared thermometry and rectal thermometry in cats.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Kelly R; Levy, Julie K; Tucker, Sylvia J

    2016-10-01

    Body temperature is commonly used for assessing health and identifying infectious diseases in cats. Rectal thermometry, the most commonly used method, is stressful, invasive and time consuming. Non-contact infrared thermometry (NIRT) has been used with mixed success to measure temperature in humans and other species. The purpose of this study was to determine if NIRT measurements were comparable to rectal temperature measurements or, if not highly correlated, could at least identify cats in the hypothermic or hyperthermic range in need of further evaluation. From a total of six NIRT devices and 15 anatomic sites, three devices and three sites (pinna, gingiva and perineum) with the highest correlation to rectal temperature were selected for further study. Measurements were made in 188 adult cats housed indoors at animal shelters, veterinary clinics and private homes across a wide range of body temperatures and compared with rectal temperatures. Bland-Altman analysis revealed poor agreement between NIRT and rectal thermometry. The mean NIRT measurements ranged from 0.7-1.3°C below the mean rectal measurements, but the effect was not consistent; NIRT measurements tended to exceed rectal measurements in hypothermic cats and fall below rectal measurements in normothermic and hyperthermic cats. The accuracy of temperature measurements using NIRT devices is not reliable for clinical use in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  11. Overnight, room temperature hold of whole blood followed by 42-day storage of red blood cells in additive solution-7.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Larry J; Cancelas, Jose A; Maes, Lou Ann; Rugg, Neeta; Whitley, Pamela; Herschel, Louise; Siegal, Alan H; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Hess, John R; Zia, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Overnight, room temperature hold (ONH) of whole blood before component processing offers several benefits. This study evaluated the storage and in vivo recovery characteristics of ONH red blood cells (RBCs) stored in additive solution-7 (AS-7). We conducted a three-center, three-arm evaluation of a new blood collection system with AS-7 compared to leukoreduced RBCs processed within 8 hours and stored in AS-1 (control). Whole blood (500 ± 50 mL) from healthy research subjects (n = 240) was held at room temperature 0 to 2 hours, 6 to 8 hours, or ONH (18-24 hr) before component processing and storage at 1 to 6 °C. RBCs were evaluated on Days 42 and 56 with a panel of in vitro assays. Subsets of the AS-7-stored RBCs were evaluated for (51) Cr 24-hour in vivo recovery and long-term survival. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in ONH RBCs were not different than AS-7 RBCs prepared within 8 hours. ATP was higher in the ONH group on Day 42 than control, and ATP was maintained in all AS-7 groups through Day 56. ONH units had 0.36 ± 0.14% on Day 42 hemolysis (60/60 < 0.8%), and 0.54 ± 0.22% on Day 56 (10/60 > 0.8%, 2/60 > 1%). In vivo recoveries of stored RBCs were not different between the AS-7 arms at 42 days (p = 0.16; 27/27 ONH units > 75%), but the Day 56 ONH was significantly less than ONH on Day 42 (p = 0.008; 7/28 < 75%). Overnight hold of whole blood at room temperature before component processing meets current regulatory requirements when RBCs are stored up to 42 days in AS-7. © 2014 AABB.

  12. [Instant effect of temperature on the oxygen carrying capacity of single living intact red blood cell].

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-can; Li, Xiao-kun; Huang, Yao-xiong

    2005-04-01

    The instant effect of temperature on the absorption spectra of the hemoglobin in single living intact red blood cells was investigated, by employing a highly sensitive fast multi-channel micro-spectrophotometer system to perform non-invasive, in situ, real time measurements on the cells. It was found that both the heights and position of the specific peaks in the absorption spectra of intercellular hemoglobin were changed with temperature, indicating that the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells varies with temperature. The correlations of the structure and concentration as well as the function of hemoglobin, and the molecular mechanism were also discussed.

  13. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  14. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  15. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  16. Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel A.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Pereira, Marcos H.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. Conclusions/Significance R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs. PMID:17895973

  17. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05), the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05). Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05). In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3) increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05), and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05). In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  18. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L.; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery. PMID:27532039

  19. The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Dietary Protein and Fat on Blood Gas, Hematologic Serum Chemistry, and Body Temperature Before and After Exercise in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Ober, John; Gillette, Robert L; Angle, Thomas Craig; Haney, Pamela; Fletcher, Daniel J; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Optimal dietary protocols for the athletic canine are often defined by requirements for endurance athletes that do not always translate into optimal dietary interventions for all canine athletes. Prior research studying detection dogs suggests that dietary fat sources can influence olfaction; however, as fat is added to the diet the protein calories can be diminished potentially resulting in decreased red blood cell counts or albumin status. Optimal macronutrient profile for detection dogs may be different considering the unique work they engage in. To study a calorically low protein: high fat (18:57% ME), high protein: high fat (27:57% ME), and high protein: low fat (27:32% ME) approach to feeding, 17 dogs were provided various diets in a 3 × 3 cross over design. Dogs were exercised on a treadmill and blood was taken pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, 10- and 20-min post-exercise to assess complete blood count, serum chemistry, blood gases, and cortisol; as well as rectal and core body temperature. Exercise induced a decrease in serum phosphorus, potassium, and increases in non-esterified fatty acids and cortisol typical of moderate exercise bouts. A complete and balanced high protein: high-fat diet (27:57% ME) induced decreases in serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase. Corn oil top dressed low protein: high-fat diet (18:57% ME) induced a slightly better thermal recovery than a complete and balanced high protein: high fat diet and a high protein: low fat (27%:32% ME) diet suggesting some mild advantages when using the low protein: high fat diet that warrant further investigation regarding optimal protein and fat calories and thermal recovery.

  20. Critical re-appraisal of blood component quality after overnight hold of whole blood outside current room temperature limits.

    PubMed

    Bontekoe, I J; van der Meer, P F; de Korte, D

    2017-02-01

    According to European guidelines, the temperature of whole blood (WB) has to be maintained at 20-24°C until processing within 24 h, but in blood bank practice, WB is frequently held at temperatures between 18-25°C. We aimed to assess the impact of these small temperature deviations on the quality of the blood components. After rapid cooling, 7 WB units were held overnight at 18°C and 8 units at 25°C, reflecting worst case holding conditions, and separated into a red cell concentrate (RCC), plasma and buffy coat (BC). RCCs were filtered at test temperature and stored for 42 days at 2-6°C. BCs were processed to single-BC platelet concentrates (sPC) and stored up to Day 8 at 20-24°C. After overnight hold at 18°C, 2,3-DPG in WB decreased by 34 ± 9%, while at 25°C the decrease was 82 ± 6%. Accordingly, the 2,3-DPG levels in the RCCs in the 25°C group were significantly lower than in the 18°C group (2·2 ± 1·4 vs. 10·4 ± 2·9 μmol/g Hb). RCCs and sPCs in the 25°C group showed higher initial lactate levels and lower pH compared to the 18°C group, but these differences levelled off at the end of storage. RCCs showed small differences in ATP levels and haemolysis. Plasma in both groups showed comparable Factor VIII:C levels. The temperature of WB during overnight hold strongly affects initial 2,3-DPG levels of RCCs and supports the maintenance of temperature limits between 20 and 24°C. Other in vitro effects of the temperature deviations were small and of no practical relevance. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Influence of indoor and outdoor temperatures on the fingertip blood flow rate.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup

    2014-07-01

    A total of 58 healthy subjects participated to elucidate the influence of indoor and outdoor temperatures on blood flow. After walking outdoors for 20 min, the blood flow rate of a subject was measured. The subject then entered a classroom and studied for 120 min, and afterwards, the blood flow rate was measured again. The subjects were exposed to outdoor temperature ranging from -2.5 to 33.7°C. During the summer, the average blood flow rate after walking outdoors was 45.95 ± 25.790 TPU (tissue perfusion units); after the class, this decreased to 36.14 ± 21.837 TPU (p<0.05). During the autumn, the blood flow rate decreased from 27.69 ± 12.334 TPU to 12.47 ± 12.255 TPU (p<0.001). When the outside air temperature was below 3°C, the blood flow rate indoors increased significantly from 6.74 ± 3.540 TPU to 13.95 ± 11.522 TPU (p<0.05). In a comfortable and healthy environment, the blood flow rate was not constant but fluctuated between 15 TPU and 40 TPU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature-dependent haemolytic propensity of CPDA-1 stored red blood cells vs whole blood - Red cell fragility as donor signature on blood units.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Anastasiadi, Alkmini T; Karadimas, Dimitrios G; Zeqo, Redisa A; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Pappa, Olga D; Papatzitze, Olga A; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Papassideri, Issidora S; Antonelou, Marianna H; Kriebardis, Anastasios G

    2017-09-01

    To preserve cellular integrity and avoid bacterial growth, storage and transfer of blood and blood products follow strict guidelines in terms of temperature control. We evaluated the impact of ineligible warming of whole blood donations on the quality of blood components. One-hundred and twenty units of whole blood (WB) from eligible blood donors were collected in CPDA-1 and stored at 4±2 °C. During shipment to the blood processing centre, a gradual warming up to 17 °C was recorded within a period of less than eight hours. The warmed units were processed to packed red blood cells (PRBCs) or stored as WB units at 4±2 °C. In-bag haemolysis, osmotic fragility (mean corpuscular fragility, MCF) and bacterial growth were assessed in blood and blood components throughout the storage period. Normal basal and early storage levels of haemolysis were recorded in both PRBC and WB units. Thereafter, PRBCs exhibited higher average in-bag haemolysis and MCF index compared to the WB units throughout the storage. Moreover, 14.3 and 52.4% of the PRBC units exceeded the upper permissible limit of 0.8% haemolysis at the middle (1.220±0.269%) or late (1.754±0.866%) storage period, respectively. MCF index was similar in all PRBCs at the middle of storage but significantly lower in the non-haemolysed compared to the haemolysed units of PRBCs on the last days. The fragility of stored RBCs was proportional to the donor-related values of day 2 samples (r=0.861, p<10(-32)). In the qualified PRBCs, MCF was correlated with haemolysis at every time point of the storage period (r=0.332, p<0.050). Bacterial growth was detected by blood culture in two units of PRBCs. Transient, gradient warming of whole blood from 4 to 17 °C led to increased incidence of in-bag haemolysis in PRBC but not in WB units. Haemolysis is a multi-parametric phenotype of stored blood, and MCF is a donor-related and highly dynamic measure that can, in part, predict the storage lesion.

  3. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  4. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  5. Influence of blood flow and millimeter wave exposure on skin temperature in different thermal models.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    2009-01-01

    Recently we showed that the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was not adequate to quantify mm wave heating of the skin at high blood flow rates. To do so, it is necessary to incorporate an "effective" thermal conductivity to obtain a hybrid bioheat equation (HBHE). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between non-specific tissue blood flow in a homogeneous unilayer model and dermal blood flow in multilayer models providing that the skin surface temperatures before and following mm wave exposure were the same. This knowledge could be used to develop multilayer models based on the fitting parameters obtained with the homogeneous tissue models. We tested four tissue models consisting of 1-4 layers and applied the one-dimensional steady-state HBHE. To understand the role of the epidermis in skin models we added to the one- and three-layer models an external thin epidermal layer with no blood flow. Only the combination of models containing the epidermal layer was appropriate for determination of the relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows giving the same skin surface temperatures. In this case we obtained a linear relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows. The presence of the fat layer resulted in the appearance of a significant temperature gradient between the dermis and muscle layer which increased with the fat layer thickness.

  6. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P < 0.001). Compared with non-scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  7. Red blood cell as a universal optoacoustic sensor for non-invasive temperature monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) temperature imaging could provide improved spatial resolution and temperature sensitivity as compared to other techniques of non-invasive thermometry used during thermal therapies for safe and efficient treatment of lesions. However, accuracy of the reported optoacoustic methods is compromised by biological variability and heterogeneous composition of tissues. We report our findings on the universal character of the normalized temperature dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) in blood, which is invariant with respect to hematocrit at the isosbestic point of hemoglobin. The phenomenon is caused by the unique homeostatic compartmentalization of blood hemoglobin exclusively inside erythrocytes. On the contrary, the normalized ThOR in aqueous solutions of hemoglobin showed linear variation with respect to its concentration and was identical to that of blood when extrapolated to the hemoglobin concentration inside erythrocytes. To substantiate the conclusions, we analyzed optoacoustic images acquired from the samples of whole and diluted blood as well as hemoglobin solutions during gradual cooling from +37 to −15 °C. Our experimental methodology allowed direct observation and accurate measurement of the temperature of zero optoacoustic response, manifested as the sample's image faded into background and then reappeared in the reversed (negative) contrast. These findings provide a framework necessary for accurate correlation of measured normalized optoacoustic image intensity and local temperature in vascularized tissues independent of tissue composition. PMID:25316928

  8. Red blood cell as a universal optoacoustic sensor for non-invasive temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2014-09-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) temperature imaging could provide improved spatial resolution and temperature sensitivity as compared to other techniques of non-invasive thermometry used during thermal therapies for safe and efficient treatment of lesions. However, accuracy of the reported optoacoustic methods is compromised by biological variability and heterogeneous composition of tissues. We report our findings on the universal character of the normalized temperature dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) in blood, which is invariant with respect to hematocrit at the isosbestic point of hemoglobin. The phenomenon is caused by the unique homeostatic compartmentalization of blood hemoglobin exclusively inside erythrocytes. On the contrary, the normalized ThOR in aqueous solutions of hemoglobin showed linear variation with respect to its concentration and was identical to that of blood when extrapolated to the hemoglobin concentration inside erythrocytes. To substantiate the conclusions, we analyzed optoacoustic images acquired from the samples of whole and diluted blood as well as hemoglobin solutions during gradual cooling from +37 to -15 °C. Our experimental methodology allowed direct observation and accurate measurement of the temperature of zero optoacoustic response, manifested as the sample's image faded into background and then reappeared in the reversed (negative) contrast. These findings provide a framework necessary for accurate correlation of measured normalized optoacoustic image intensity and local temperature in vascularized tissues independent of tissue composition.

  9. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  10. Temperature and CO2 Effects on Blood O2 Equilibria in Northern Squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cech, Joseph J.; Castleberry, Daniel T.; Hopkins, Todd E.

    1994-01-01

    In vitro blood O2 equilibrium curves were constructed at 9, 15, 18, and 21 °C from temperature-acclimated northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis. At low (<1 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 133.32 Pa), P50s generally showed variable increases with temperature from 3.6 mm Hg at 9 °C to 8.7 mm Hg at 21 °C, leading to whole-blood temperature effects (ΔH, kilocalories per mole O2) ranging from a low +4.4 at 15–18 °C to a peak −21.2 at 18–21 °C. High- (7.6 mm Hg) conditions decreased blood pH and increased P50s at each temperature (Bohr factor). Bohr factors (Φ) ranged from −0.46 at 21 °C to −0.70 at 18 °C. Considered together, ΔH and Φ values suggest an optimal temperature range of 15–18 °C for hemoglobin O2 loading and unloading in northern squawfish. Nonbicarbonate buffer values ranged from −10.04 at 21 °C to −14.13 at 9 °C. Overall, the high O2 affinities and hyperbolic blood O2 equilibrium curves of northern squawfish resemble those of other large cyprinids (e.g., common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tench, Tinca tinca, Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus) indicating a better ability to tolerate hypoxic environments than sympatric rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. High northern squawfish blood O2 capacities and Φs suggest high aerobic capacity, especially at temperatures <21 °C.

  11. Activation of scleral cold thermoreceptors by temperature and blood flow changes.

    PubMed

    Gallar, Juana; Acosta, M Carmen; Belmonte, Carlos

    2003-02-01

    To study the response of scleral cold receptors located in areas of the eye unexposed to temperature and blood flow changes. In anesthetized cats, the neural activity was recorded from single, cold-sensory fibers of the ciliary nerves innervating the sclera and limbus. Controlled temperature changes of the receptive field were performed with a contact thermode. Ocular blood flow reductions were obtained by occluding the ipsilateral common carotid artery for 30 to 60 seconds with a compressor placed around the artery. Local blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Temperature was measured with a microprobe introduced in the subscleral space. Ocular sympathetic stimulation was performed with a pair of silver electrodes placed on the preganglionic cervical sympathetic trunk. To induce local hypoxia, N(2) was applied on the scleral surface with a specially designed chamber. For systemic hypoxia the breathing air was replaced with a gas mixture containing 10% O(2) in N(2). Sensory nerve fibers identified as cold receptors exhibited ongoing nerve activity in bursts at 35 degrees C and responded to cooling pulses applied to their receptive fields with an increase in the impulse discharge that reached a peak and decayed gradually to a lower level. When temperature was reduced from 35 degrees C to 34 degrees C, frequency increased monotonically with decreasing temperature of the sclera. Between 35 degrees C and 30 degrees C, peak and mean frequencies were roughly proportional to temperature of the sclera. The characteristics of burst discharges also depended on scleral temperature. Electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk induced a decrease in blood flow and temperature and evoked an increase in the firing frequency of cold-sensory fibers that was proportional to the frequency of stimulating pulses. Carotid occlusion also elicited an increase of the discharge of cold thermoreceptor fibers that occurred in parallel with a decrease in blood flow

  12. Frontal subcutaneous blood flow, and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures during scalp cooling in normal man.

    PubMed

    Bülow, J; Friberg, L; Gaardsting, O; Hansen, M

    1985-10-01

    Cooling of the scalp has been found to prevent hair loss following cytostatic treatment, but in order to obtain the hair preserving effect the subcutaneous temperature has to be reduced below 22 degrees C. In order to establish the relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures during cooling and rewarming and to measure the effect of scalp cooling on subcutaneous scalp blood flow, subcutaneous blood flow and epi- and subcutaneous temperatures were measured in the frontal region at the hairline border before and during cooling with a cooling helmet, during spontaneous rewarming of the cooling helmet and after removal of the rewarmed helmet in 10 normal subjects. Subcutaneous blood flow was reduced to about 25% of the postcooling control level during cooling. The flow was constantly reduced until the subcutaneous temperature exceeded 30-32 degrees C. A linear relationship between epicutaneous and subcutaneous temperatures could be demonstrated with the regression equation: s = 0.9 c + 4.9 (r = 0.99). In eight of the 10 subjects the subcutaneous temperature could be reduced below 22 degrees C with the applied technique. It is concluded that the hair preserving effect of scalp cooling during cytostatic treatment is mainly due to the metabolic effect of cooling, and only to a minor extent due to the flow reducing effect.

  13. Evaluation of the robotic approach concerning pitfalls in rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baukloh, J K; Reeh, M; Spinoglio, G; Corratti, A; Bartolini, I; Mirasolo, V M; Priora, F; Izbicki, J R; Gomez Fleitas, M; Gomez Ruiz, M; Perez, D R

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility and advantages of robotic rectal surgery (RRS) in comparison to conventional open or laparoscopic rectal resections have been postulated in several reports. But well-known challenges and pitfalls of minimal invasive rectal surgery have not been evaluated by a prospective, multicenter setting so far. Aim of this study was to analyze the perioperative outcome of patients following RRS especially in regard to the pitfalls such as obesity, male patients and low tumors by a European multicenter setting. This prospective study included 348 patients undergoing robotic surgery due to rectal cancer in six major European centers. Clinicopathological parameters, morbidity, perioperative recovery and short-term outcome were analyzed. A total of 283 restorative surgeries and 65 abdominoperineal resections were carried out. The conversion rate was 4.3%, mean blood loss was 191 ml, and mean operative time was 315 min. Postoperative complications with a Clavien-Dindo score >2 were observed in 13.5%. Obesity and low rectal tumors showed no significant higher rates of major complications or impaired oncological parameters. Male patients had significant higher rates of major complications and anastomotic leakage (p = 0.048 and p = 0.007, respectively). RRS is a promising tool for improvement of rectal resections. The well-known pitfalls of minimal-invasive rectal surgery like obesity and low tumors were sufficiently managed by RRS. However, RRS showed significantly higher rates of major complications and anastomotic leakage in male patients, which has to be evaluated by future randomized trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Lumped-parameter tissue temperature-blood perfusion model of a cold-stressed fingertip.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1996-05-01

    A lumped-parameter model of a fingertip is presented. The semispherical model includes the effects of heat storage, heat exchange with the environment, and heat transport by blood perfusion. The thermal insulation on the surface of the fingertip is represented by the overall heat transfer coefficient that is calculated by common engineering formulas. The model is solved analytically for the simple case of constant blood perfusion rate. The general case of variable blood perfusion rates is solved by an Euler finite difference technique. At this stage, the model does not include active control mechanisms of blood perfusion. Thus the effects of cold-induced vasodilatation have to be superimposed and are modeled by symmetrical triangular waveforms because these were found to best depict the behavior of fingers exposed to cold environments. Results of this model were compared with experimental data obtained in two separate studies. One included 60-min infrared thermograms of the dorsal surface of bare hands of sedentary subjects horizontally suspended on a fish net in a 0 degree C environment. Another study, on gloved finger temperatures, involved 0 and -6.7 degrees C environments. Fingertip (nail bed) temperatures of both these studies were compared with model predictions. Blood perfusion rates were assumed and adjusted within physiologically reasonable limits. Comparison of measured and computed temperature records showed very good conformity in both cases studied.

  15. Comparison of blood flow to the cutaneous temperature and redness after topical application of benzyl nicotinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Ute; Kaiser, Marco; Koscielny, Jürgen; Schuetz, Rijk; Meinke, Martina C.; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    The topical application of drugs, such as nicotinates, affects cutaneous blood flow. Such a biological response, which is dependent on the drug and the individual, can be measured noninvasively using laser Doppler flowmetry. We illustrate the kinetics of vasodilation caused by topically applied benzyl nicotinate using a new frequency-selective laser Doppler flowmeter. This flowmeter measures the blood flow in the superficial dermal plexus and the deeper lying larger capillaries simultaneously and indirectly by determining the flow velocity. Both sets of data are compared with the skin temperature and redness. Four biological parameters are measured consecutively on a skin area treated with gel containing benzyl nicotinate and on an untreated control area. A linear relationship between both blood flows is observed. However, no correlation is obtained between the microcirculation with either the cutaneous temperature or the redness. These results indicate the transport of the drug in the blood from the upper to the deeper capillaries. Cutaneous temperature and redness are unsuitable parameters to measure the kinetics of the blood flow after topical application of drugs.

  16. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Discussion Canine

  17. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Karen M; Serrano, Leslie; Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Canine EDTA whole blood samples cool most

  18. From blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals to brain temperature maps.

    PubMed

    Sotero, Roberto C; Iturria-Medina, Yasser

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for converting Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) images to brain temperature maps, based on the idea that disproportional local changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as compared with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO₂) during functional brain activity, lead to both brain temperature changes and the BOLD effect. Using an oxygen limitation model and a BOLD signal model, we obtain a transcendental equation relating CBF and CMRO₂ changes with the corresponding BOLD signal, which is solved in terms of the Lambert W function. Inserting this result in the dynamic bioheat equation describing the rate of temperature changes in the brain, we obtain a nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that depends on the BOLD response, which is solved numerically for each brain voxel. Temperature maps obtained from a real BOLD dataset registered in an attention to visual motion experiment were calculated, obtaining temperature variations in the range: (-0.15, 0.1) which is consistent with experimental results. The statistical analysis revealed that significant temperature activations have a similar distribution pattern than BOLD activations. An interesting difference was the activation of the precuneus in temperature maps, a region involved in visuospatial processing, an effect that was not observed on BOLD maps. Furthermore, temperature maps were more localized to gray matter regions than the original BOLD maps, showing less activated voxels in white matter and cerebrospinal fluid.

  19. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperature checked

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-02749 (5 May 1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. has his blood pressure and temperature checked prior to his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) mission, the first American manned spaceflight. The attending physician is Dr. William K. Douglas. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  20. Appraisal of Collection Techniques and Storage Temperatures on Turkey Plasma Cholinesterase Levels and Blood Glutathione Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Fuller, G. W.; Friars, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of different blood collection procedures, various storage temperatures and durations of storage on the levels of plasma cholinesterase and whole blood glutathione in turkeys were investigated. Collection of blood through vacutainers yielded satisfactory results. Whereas the plasma cholinesterase activity remained unchanged even after three weeks of storage at -17.8°C., blood glutathione concentration was unaffected only when the samples were stored at -28.9°C for the three weeks. The range of mean activity was from 4.64 to 4.71 ΔpH/hour x 10 for cholinesterase and from 44.85 to 47.91 mgm/100 ml for glutathione. PMID:4242775

  1. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors.

  2. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology.

  3. OmniGen-AF alters rectal temperature (RT) and leukocyte profiles in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) following acute activation of the stress axis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 162±1 days in milk)...

  4. Effects of Heat Wave on Body Temperature and Blood Pressure in the Poor and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Byungok; Choi, Kyusik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the acute effects of heat stress on body temperature and blood pressure of elderly individuals living in poor housing conditions. Methods Repeated measurements of the indoor temperature, relative humidity, body temperature, and blood pressure were conducted for 20 elderly individuals living in low-cost dosshouses in Seoul during hot summer days in 2010. Changes in the body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) according to variations in the indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA controlling for age, sex, alcohol, and smoking. Results Average indoor and outdoor temperatures were 31.47℃ (standard deviation [SD], 0.97℃) and 28.15℃ (SD, 2.03℃), respectively. Body temperature increased by 0.21℃ (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.26℃) and 0.07℃ (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.10℃) with an increase in the indoor and outdoor temperature of 1℃. DBP decreased by 2.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05 to 4.05 mmHg), showing a statistical significance, as the indoor temperature increased by 1℃, while it increased by 0.20 mmHg (95% CI, -0.83 to 1.22 mmHg) as outdoor temperature increased by 1℃. SBP decreased by 1.75 mmHg (95% CI, -1.11 to 4.61 mmHg) and 0.35 mmHg (95% CI, -1.04 to 1.73 mmHg), as the indoor and outdoor temperature increased by 1℃, respectively. The effects of relative humidity on SBP and DBP were not statistically significant for both indoor and outdoor. Conclusions The poor and elderly are directly exposed to heat waves, while their vital signs respond sensitively to increase in temperature. Careful adaptation strategies to climate change considering socioeconomic status are therefore necessary. PMID:22888472

  5. Effects of heat wave on body temperature and blood pressure in the poor and elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Soyeon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Byungok; Choi, Kyusik

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the acute effects of heat stress on body temperature and blood pressure of elderly individuals living in poor housing conditions. Repeated measurements of the indoor temperature, relative humidity, body temperature, and blood pressure were conducted for 20 elderly individuals living in low-cost dosshouses in Seoul during hot summer days in 2010. Changes in the body temperature, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) according to variations in the indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA controlling for age, sex, alcohol, and smoking. Average indoor and outdoor temperatures were 31.47℃ (standard deviation [SD], 0.97℃) and 28.15℃ (SD, 2.03℃), respectively. Body temperature increased by 0.21℃ (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.26℃) and 0.07℃ (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.10℃) with an increase in the indoor and outdoor temperature of 1℃. DBP decreased by 2.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05 to 4.05 mmHg), showing a statistical significance, as the indoor temperature increased by 1℃, while it increased by 0.20 mmHg (95% CI, -0.83 to 1.22 mmHg) as outdoor temperature increased by 1℃. SBP decreased by 1.75 mmHg (95% CI, -1.11 to 4.61 mmHg) and 0.35 mmHg (95% CI, -1.04 to 1.73 mmHg), as the indoor and outdoor temperature increased by 1℃, respectively. The effects of relative humidity on SBP and DBP were not statistically significant for both indoor and outdoor. The poor and elderly are directly exposed to heat waves, while their vital signs respond sensitively to increase in temperature. Careful adaptation strategies to climate change considering socioeconomic status are therefore necessary.

  6. Variation of forearm, hand, and finger blood flow indices with ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Forearm, hand, and finger blood flow (impedance) changes are measured by impedance rheography on seven healthy male subjects aged 20-35 yr during exposure to ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 46 C. All observations are made in an environmental chamber at a dew point temperature of 13 + or - 0.25 C. It is shown that impedance rheography is suitable for quantifying peripheral circulatory responses to thermal stress. The measured blood flow indices are found to be consistent with previously reported values for the forearm, hand, and fingers obtained using air or water displacement plethysmography. In particular, the more distal body segments exhibit relatively larger vasomotor responses to changes in ambient temperature than do the more proximal body segments.

  7. Temperature correction of arterial blood-gas parameters: A comparative review of methodology.

    PubMed

    Andritsch, R F; Muravchick, S; Gold, M I

    1981-09-01

    The need for accurate clinical diagnosis and appropriate intervention requires that a modern blood-gas laboratory have the means to correct for significant discrepancies between patient temperature and the temperature at which in vitro blood samples are analyzed. Recent advances in mini- and microcomputer technology permit application of any or all of the correction formulas above at modest cost and minimal inconvenience (See the Appendix). An expanded program for a TI-59 desk-top calculator and P-100C printer which gives labeled hard-copy readout of temperature-corrected pH, PCO2, PO2, and hemoglobin saturation values, as well as bicarbonate concentration and in vivo base excess is in daily clinical use in our operating room and is available from the authors upon request.

  8. Wavelet-based correlations of skin temperature and blood flow oscillations.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, Sergey; Morozov, Matvey; Frick, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The wavelet transform-based correlation analysis has been used to study skin temperature fluctuations caused by periodic changes in blood flow resulting from oscillations in vasomotor smooth muscle tone. We considered two cases, one in which temperature measurements and blood flow recordings by laser Doppler flowmetry are made simultaneously and another in which two temperature signals are measured concurrently. Twelve healthy subjects participated in our study. The gapped wavelet technique was used to suppress artifacts caused by boundary effects. Simultaneous recordings of skin temperature fluctuations and the signal of the laser Doppler flowmeter provided correlation coefficients essentially exceeding the values obtained for noise signals within three spectral ranges corresponding to myogenic (0.05-0.14 Hz), neurogenic (0.02-0.05 Hz), and endothelial (0.0095-0.02 Hz) regulation mechanisms. Within the frequency range from 0.14 to 2 Hz the values of the correlation function are compatible with the values of noise correlations. The same results were obtained for two concurrently measured temperature signals. Reduction in the amplitude of temperature fluctuations and in the level of correlations with the frequency arises because the skin has the properties of a low-frequency filter. As temperature fluctuations propagate their amplitude decays as an exponential function of frequency. Hence small oscillations in the spectral range reflecting the influence of heartbeat and respiration cannot be distinguished from external thermal noise.

  9. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  10. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Urgancı, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2013-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare, benign disorder in children that usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. The underlying etiology is not well understood, but it is secondary to ischemic changes and trauma in the rectum associated with paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and the external anal sphincter muscles; rectal prolapse has also been implicated in the pathogenesis. This syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings, but SRUS often goes unrecognized or is easily confused with other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, amoebiasis, malignancy, and other causes of rectal bleeding such as a juvenile polyps. SRUS should be suspected in patients experiencing rectal discharge of blood and mucus in addition to previous disorders of evacuation. We herein report six pediatric cases with SRUS.

  11. Anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in blood oranges during postharvest storage at different low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Lourdes; Alquézar, Berta; Marques, Viviani V; Peña, Leandro

    2017-12-15

    Blood oranges require low temperature for anthocyanin production. We have investigated the activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in the pulp of Moro blood and Pera blond oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) stored at either 4 or 9°C after harvesting. Both temperatures stimulated anthocyanin accumulation in blood but not in blond oranges. Nonetheless, blood orange fruits stored at 9°C reached a darker purple coloration, higher anthocyanin contents and enhanced upregulation of genes from the flavonoid pathway in the pulp and juice than those kept at 4°C. Our results indicated that dihydroflavonol channeling toward anthocyanin production was boosted during the storage at 9°C compared to 4°C, providing more leucoanthocyanidins to enzymes downstream in the pathway. Finally, despite both low temperatures stimulated the expression of key transcription factors likely regulating the pathway, their expression profiles could not explain the differences observed at 9 and 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C

    2017-05-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-value<0.05). An attenuation of the skin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Micromachined lab-on-a-tube sensors for simultaneous brain temperature and cerebral blood flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-Ming; Hartings, Jed A; Wu, Zhizhen; Cheyuo, Cletus; Wang, Ping; LeDoux, David; Shutter, Lori A; Ramaswamy, Bharat Ram; Ahn, Chong H; Narayan, Raj K

    2012-08-01

    This work describes the development of a micromachined lab-on-a-tube device for simultaneous measurement of brain temperature and regional cerebral blood flow. The device consists of two micromachined gold resistance temperature detectors with a 4-wire configuration. One is used as a temperature sensor and the other as a flow sensor. The temperature sensor operates with AC excitation current of 500 μA and updates its outputs at a rate of 5 Hz. The flow sensor employs a periodic heating and cooling technique under constant-temperature mode and updates its outputs at a rate of 0.1 Hz. The temperature sensor is also used to compensate for temperature changes during the heating period of the flow sensor to improve the accuracy of flow measurements. To prevent thermal and electronic crosstalk between the sensors, the temperature sensor is located outside the "thermal influence" region of the flow sensor and the sensors are separated into two different layers with a thin-film Copper shield. We evaluated the sensors for accuracy, crosstalk and long-term drift in human blood-stained cerebrospinal fluid. These in vitro experiments showed that simultaneous temperature and flow measurements with a single lab-on-a-tube device are accurate and reliable over the course of 5 days. It has a resolution of 0.013 °C and 0.18 ml/100 g/min; and achieves an accuracy of 0.1 °C and 5 ml/100 g/min for temperature and flow sensors respectively. The prototype device and techniques developed here establish a foundation for a multi-sensor lab-on-a-tube, enabling versatile multimodality monitoring applications.

  14. Rhesus macaque rectal and duodenal tissues exhibit B-cell sub-populations distinct from peripheral blood that continuously secrete antigen-specific IgA in short-term explant cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Demberg, Thorsten; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A.; Xiao, Peng; Tuero, Iskra; Venzon, David; Weiss, Deborah; Treece, James; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly obvious that evaluation of a vaccine aimed at preventing HIV infection should include assessment of induced immunity at mucosal sites of viral entry. Among the most salient immune responses are viral-specific antibodies. A recent report on IgA-secreting plasma cells in human duodenal explants prompted us to examine similar duodenal and rectal biopsies of rhesus macaques, a key animal model for pre-clinical HIV/SIV vaccine studies, and characterize the local resident B-cells. Here we report that non-human primate rectal explants possess similar levels of B-cells as duodenal explants. We characterize the antibody isotype expression on mucosal memory B-cells and show for the first time that the B-cell memory subsets of the duodenum and rectum are distinct from those of PBMC, not only by essentially lacking CD27+ cells, as previously reported for uninfected macaques (Titanji et al., 2010), but also in being mostly IgD−. SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques had fewer total IgA-secreting cells in rectal tissue compared to naïve macaques. As expected, the fractions of B-cells with surface expression of IgA were dominant in the rectal and duodenal explants whereas in PBMC IgG surface expression was dominant among IgD− B-cells. Mucosal antibody secreting cells were found to be predominantly plasma cells/plasma blasts based on their lack of response to stimulation. Importantly, short-term culture of rectal explants of SIV- and SHIV-positive animals led to secretion of Env-specific IgA into the culture supernatant which could be easily measured by ELISA. Collection of such culture supernatant over several days allows for accumulation of mucosal antibody in amounts that should enable antibody purification, characterization, and use in functional assays. Rectal explants can be readily obtained and unequivocally identify the mucosal tissue as the source of antibody. Overall they facilitate evaluation of mucosal vaccines. PMID:24374153

  15. Temperature field formed inside a blood vessel under the action of pulsed laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, L. G.; Zheltov, G. I.

    2007-10-01

    A model that simulates the dynamics of the temperature field formed by pulsed laser radiation inside a biological structure containing blood vessels is developed. The threshold conditions of denaturation of vessel walls and subsequent blocking the blood flow are determined based on the thermochemical concept. The possibility of application of a pulsed modulation of the radiation for increasing the homogeneity of coagulation of vessel walls and reducing the risk of damage of tissues caused by the phase transition is considered. The modulation frequency range of radiation that ensures the realization of this effect is determined.

  16. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  17. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental.

  18. Modelling Cerebral Blood Flow and Temperature Using a Vascular Porous Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blowers, Stephen; Thrippleton, Michael; Marshall, Ian; Harris, Bridget; Andrews, Peter; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Macro-modelling of cerebral blood flow can assist in determining the impact of temperature intervention to reduce permanent tissue damage during instances of brain trauma. Here we present a 3D two phase fluid-porous model for simulating blood flow through the capillary region linked to intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vasculature porous (VaPor) model simulates both flow and energy balances, including heat from metabolism, using a vasculature extracted from MRI data which are expanded upon using a tree generation algorithm. Validation of temperature balance has been achieved using rodent brain data. Direct flow validation is not as straight forward due to the method used in determining regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In-vivo measurements are achieved using a tracer, which disagree with direct measurements of simulated flow. However, by modelling a virtual tracer, rCBF values are obtained that agree with those found in literature. Temperature profiles generated with the VaPor model show a reduction in core brain temperature after cooling the scalp not seen previously in other models.

  19. Temperature-dependent Physical Properties of a HIFU Blood Mimicking Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L.; Herman, Bruce A.; Wear, Keith A.

    2009-04-01

    A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed and characterized in a temperature dependent manner for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene micro-spheres, nylon particles, gellan gum and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including frequency dependent ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were characterized as a function of temperature (20° C to 70° C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. The attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2 MHz-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm-1 MHz-1 in the 20° C to 70° C range as has been reported for human blood. All the other temperature dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make the BMF a useful HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices.

  20. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P < 0.05), plasma ATP (r 2 = 0.94; P < 0.05) and limb V˙O2 (r 2 = 0.99; P < 0.05). During incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central

  1. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  2. AS-7 improved in vitro quality of red blood cells prepared from whole blood held overnight at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Veale, Margaret F; Healey, Geraldine; Sran, Amrita; Payne, Katherine A; Zia, Majid; Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2015-01-01

    Extended room temperature (RT) hold of whole blood (WB) may affect the quality of red blood cell (RBC) components produced from these donations. The availability of better RBC additive solutions (ASs) may help reduce the effects. A new AS, AS-7 (SOLX, Haemonetics Corporation), was investigated for improved in vitro quality of RBCs prepared from WB held overnight at RT. Sixteen WB units were held for 21.4 hours ± 40 minutes at 22°C on cooling plates before processing. Each pair of ABO-matched WB units were pooled, divided into a WB filter pack containing saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (control) and a LEUKOSEP WB-filter pack containing SOLX, and processed according to manufacturer's instructions. RBCs were stored at 2 to 6°C and sampled weekly until expiry. Glycophorin A (GPA+) and annexin V-binding microparticles (MPs) were quantitated using flow cytometry. Osmotic fragility, intracellular pH (pHi), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and routine quality variables were measured. Adhesion of RBCs to human endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated by flow perfusion under low shear stress (0.5 dyne/cm(2) ), similar to low blood flow in microvessels. ATP and 2,3-DPG levels were improved for SOLX-RBCs. SOLX-RBCs maintained higher pHi, increased resistance to hypotonic stress, and reduced numbers of GPA+ MPs. No significant difference was observed between annexin V binding to MPs or adhesion of RBCs to ECs under shear stress. SOLX-stored RBCs showed increased osmotic resistance, pHi, and reduced GPA+ MPs and together with higher ATP and 2,3-DPG levels demonstrated improved in vitro RBC quality measures during 42 days of storage. © 2014 AABB.

  3. Abdominosacral resection for locally recurring rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Filiberto; Gronchi, Alessandro; Corbellini, Carlo; Milione, Massimo; Leo, Ermanno

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate feasibility and outcome of abdominal-sacral resection for treatment of locally recurrent rectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS A population of patients who underwent an abdominal-sacral resection for posterior recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum at the National Cancer Institute of Milano, between 2005 and 2013, is considered. Retrospectively collected data includes patient characteristics, treatment and pathology details regarding the primary and the recurrent rectal tumor surgical resection. A clinical and instrumental follow-up was performed. Surgical and oncological outcome were investigated. Furthermore an analytical review of literature was conducted in order to compare our case series with other reported experiences. RESULTS At the time of abdomino-sacral resection, the mean age of patients was 55 (range, 38-64). The median operating time was 380 min (range, 270-480). Sacral resection was performed at S2/S3 level in 3 patients, S3/S4 in 3 patients and S4/S5 in 4 patients. The median operating time was 380 ± 58 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1750 mL (range, 200-680). The median hospital stay was 22 d. Overall morbidity was 80%, mainly type II complication according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Microscopically negative margins (R0) is obtained in all patients. Overall 5-year survival after first surgical procedure is 60%, with a median survival from the first surgery of 88 ± 56 mo. The most common site of re-recurrence was intrapelvic. CONCLUSION Sacral resection represents a feasible approach to posterior rectal cancer recurrence without evidence of distant spreading. An accurate staging is essential for planning the best therapy. PMID:28070232

  4. Changes in rectal temperature and ECoG spectral power of sensorimotor cortex elicited in conscious rabbits by i.c.v. injection of GABA, GABAA and GABAB agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Frosini, Maria; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2003-01-01

    In order to ascertain whether both GABAA and GABAB, or only GABAB receptors, directly modulate thermoregulation in conscious rabbits, GABAA/GABAB agonist and antagonist agents were injected intracerebroventricularly in conscious rabbits while monitoring changes in rectal temperature (RT), gross motor behaviour (GMB) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) power spectra (ps) from sensorimotor cortices. GABA (48 μmol), nipecotic acid (50 nmol), THIP (60 nmol), muscimol (18 nmol) and baclofen (8 nmol) induced hypothermia (−ΔRTmax values of 1.70±0.1, 1.4±0.2, 1.0±0.4, 1.1±0.2 and 1.6±0.3°C, respectively), accompanied by inhibition of GMB and ECoG synchronization. THIP increased ps at δ frequency band (1.1−3.3 Hz), while GABA, nipecotic acid, muscimol and baclofen did the same at both δ and θ (4.6−6.5 Hz) frequency bands. ECoG ps changes were concomitant or even preceded hypothermia. Bicuculline (1.8 nmol) induced hyperthermia (ΔRTmax 1.2±0.5°C) and slight excitation of GMB, while CGP35348 (1.2 μmol) did not affect RT nor GMB. Both compounds did not affect ECoG ps. Bicuculline potentiated muscimol-induced hypothermia, inhibition of GMB and synchronization of ECoG, while CGP35348 fully antagonized these effects. In conclusion, the present results, while confirming the prevailing role of GABAB, also outline a direct involvement of GABAA receptors in the central mechanisms of thermoregulation. Ascending inhibition towards discrete cortical areas controlling muscular activity and thermogenesis may result from GABA receptor activation in neurones proximal to the ventricles, thus contributing to hypothermia, although hypothermia-induced reduction of neuronal activity of these cortical areas cannot be ruled out. PMID:14662729

  5. Bacterial growth in red blood cell units exposed to uncontrolled temperatures: challenging the 30-minute rule.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Arcos, S; Perkins, H; Kou, Y; Mastronardi, C; Kumaran, D; Taha, M; Yi, Q-L; McLaughlin, N; Kahwash, E; Lin, Y; Acker, J

    2013-08-01

    The '30-min rule' requires discarding red blood cells (RBCs) exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for >30 min to ensure safe RBC transfusion. This study was aimed at determining whether multiple room temperature (RT) exposures promote bacterial growth. Pooled and split RBC units were inoculated with ~1 CFU/ml of Serratia marcescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus epidermidis. Control units remained in storage, while test units were exposed to RT for six 30-min or three 60-min intervals. Bacterial concentrations and endotoxin levels were determined after each exposure and at 42 days of storage. RBC core temperature and RT were monitored in mock units with Escort iLog temperature loggers. A mixed model was used for statistical analyses. Red blood cell core temperature reached 10.7 ± 0.4°C and 14.2 ± 0.2°C during 30- and 60-min exposures, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis and E. coli did not grow in either control or exposed RBCs. Yersinia enterocolitica concentration and endotoxin levels were similar in both control and test units. Serratia marcescens concentration and endotoxin levels were higher in exposed units; however, differences between units exposed for 30 min or 60 min were not observed. There is no added risk to RBC safety by increasing RT exposures to 60 min with each removal from storage for up to a total of 3 h during RBC shelf life. Therefore, extending the 30-min limitation in RBCs exposed to uncontrolled temperatures to 60 min should be considered by regulatory agencies. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Vertebrate blood cell volume increases with temperature: implications for aerobic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply at higher temperatures, and thus greater aerobic activity, remain unclear. Here we show that the total volume of red blood cells in the body increases exponentially with temperature across vertebrates, after controlling for effects of body size and taxonomy. These changes are accompanied by increases in relative heart mass, an indicator of aerobic activity. The results point to one way vertebrates may increase oxygen supply to meet the demands of greater activity at higher temperatures. PMID:24765580

  7. Pharmacokinetics of a CCR5 inhibitor in rhesus macaques following vaginal, rectal and oral application

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, R. Karl; Lowry, Deborah; Boyd, Peter; Geer, Leslie; Veazey, Ronald S.; Goldman, Laurie; Klasse, P. J.; Shattock, Robin J.; Moore, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study measured and compared the pharmacokinetics of CMPD167, a small molecule antiretroviral CCR5 inhibitor with potential as an HIV microbicide, following vaginal, rectal and oral administration in rhesus macaques. Methods A vaginal hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel, a rectal HEC gel, a silicone elastomer matrix-type vaginal ring and an oral solution, each containing CMPD167, were prepared and administered to rhesus macaques pretreated with Depo-Provera. CMPD167 concentrations in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue (ring only), rectal fluid and blood plasma were quantified by HPLC–mass spectrometry. Results CMPD167 concentrations measured in rectal fluid, vaginal fluid and blood plasma were highly dependent on both the route of administration and the formulation type. Although rectal and vaginal fluid concentrations were highest when CMPD167 was administered locally (via either gel or ring), lower concentrations of the drug were also measured in these compartments following administration at the remote mucosal site or orally. CMPD167 levels in the vaginal and rectal fluid following oral administration were relatively low compared with local administration. Conclusions The study provides clear evidence for vaginal–rectal and rectal–vaginal drug transfer pathways and suggests that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with CMPD167 may be less efficacious at preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1 than topically applied products. PMID:24381072

  8. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Matthew Brothers, R; Diller, Kenneth R

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC-skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy.

  9. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC–skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  10. Effect of temperature and some added compounds on the stability of blood orange marmalade.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Fabio; Muratore, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Jams and marmalades are often wrongly believed to be stable products, as the degradation of pigments such as anthocyanins, browning reactions, and the formation of sugar degradation products may occur during storage. The paper aims at studying some of the degradation reactions occurring in blood orange marmalade stored at 20 °C and 35 °C. The addition of natural (tea extract) and naturally occurring (ascorbic acid, cysteine, gallic acid) compounds to marmalade was addressed at investigating the possible effect on retarding such phenomena. Results highlight the dependence of anthocyans and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) levels on the storage temperature. Marmalades added with cysteine, unlike the samples added with phenol compounds, showed higher anthocyans and lower HMF levels just after processing, together with a reduced anthocyan loss kinetics and a slowdown of HMF formation during storage at both temperatures. Transformation of blood oranges into marmalade represents an alternative to fresh market in periods when the high availability of the citrus causes the collapse of prices. Blood orange marmalade is characterized by a high nutritional value, however, it is not widely distributed yet. Its storability is limited by color and organoleptic changes that influence consumers' acceptance. The optimization of blood orange marmalade preparation could help producers improve storability and widen distribution. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Scott T.; Trangmar, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the hemodynamic adjustments to direct passive heat stress within the leg's major arterial and venous vessels and compartments remains unclear. Fifteen healthy young males were tested during exposure to either passive whole body heat stress to levels approaching thermal tolerance [core temperature (Tc) + 2°C; study 1; n = 8] or single leg heat stress (Tc + 0°C; study 2; n = 7). Whole body heat stress increased perfusion and decreased oscillatory shear index in relation to the rise in leg temperature (Tleg) in all three major arteries supplying the leg, plateauing in the common and superficial femoral arteries before reaching severe heat stress levels. Isolated leg heat stress increased arterial blood flows and shear patterns to a level similar to that obtained during moderate core hyperthermia (Tc + 1°C). Despite modest increases in great saphenous venous (GSV) blood flow (0.2 l/min), the deep venous system accounted for the majority of returning flow (common femoral vein 0.7 l/min) during intense to severe levels of heat stress. Rapid cooling of a single leg during severe whole body heat stress resulted in an equivalent blood flow reduction in the major artery supplying the thigh deep tissues only, suggesting central temperature-sensitive mechanisms contribute to skin blood flow alone. These findings further our knowledge of leg hemodynamic responses during direct heat stress and provide evidence of potentially beneficial vascular alterations during isolated limb heat stress that are equivalent to those experienced during exposure to moderate levels of whole body hyperthermia. PMID:26823344

  12. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources ASCRS Textbook, 3rd Edition CARSEP® CREST® Case Study Listserv International Colon and Rectal Societies and Organizations ... Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery CARSEP® Members Case Study Listserv CREST® Young Surgeons Listserv Quality Assessment and ...

  13. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. Warren; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

  14. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... following tests may be used: Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) test : A laboratory test in ... blocking the hepatic artery (the main artery that supplies blood to the liver) and injecting anticancer drugs ...

  15. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

  16. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  17. Body and brain temperature coupling: the critical role of cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joseph J. H.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of deep-brain and body-core temperature were performed on rats to determine the influence of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on brain temperature regulation under static and dynamic conditions. Static changes of CBF were achieved using different anesthetics (chloral hydrate, CH; α-chloralose, αCS; and isoflurane, IF) with αCS causing larger decreases in CBF than CH and IF; dynamic changes were achieved by inducing transient hypercapnia (5% CO2 in 40% O2 and 55% N2). Initial deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials were anesthetic-type dependent with the largest differential observed with rats under αCS anesthesia (ca. 2°C). Hypercapnia induction raised rat brain temperature under all three anesthesia regimes, but by different anesthetic-dependent amounts correlated with the initial differentials—αCS anesthesia resulted in the largest brain temperature increase (0.32 ± 0.08°C), while CH and IF anesthesia lead to smaller increases (0.12 ± 0.03 and 0.16 ± 0.05°C, respectively). The characteristic temperature transition time for the hypercapnia-induced temperature increase was 2–3 min under CH and IF anesthesia and ~4 min under αCS anesthesia. We conclude that both, the deep-brain/body-core temperature differential and the characteristic temperature transition time correlate with CBF: a lower CBF promotes higher deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials and, upon hypercapnia challenge, longer characteristic transition times to increased temperatures. PMID:19277681

  18. Immunosuppressive effect induced by intraperitoneal and rectal administration of boar seminal immunosuppressive factor.

    PubMed

    Dostál, J; Veselský, L; Drahorád, J; Jonáková, V

    1995-06-01

    The immunosuppressive component was isolated from boar seminal vesicle secretion and administered i.p. or rectally to male mice. By means of the immunofluorescent method, the seminal immunosuppressive component was found on the membranes of 50-70% of white blood cells of treated mice the first day after i.p. and the third day after rectal administration. The immunosuppressive component was observed on the membranes of 10-20% of white cells even at the 17th day after treatment. Intraperitoneal or rectal administration of the immunosuppressive component led to a decrease in the white cell concentration in blood of treated mice. These findings indicate that rectal deposition of semen may compromise some aspects of the immune system and may be an important cofactor in the development of viral or bacterial infections among homosexual men.

  19. Determination of the amplitude and phase relationships between oscillations in skin temperature and photoplethysmography-measured blood flow in fingertips.

    PubMed

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Skripal, A V; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that skin temperature oscillations in fingertips coexist with blood flow oscillations and there is a certain correlation between them. At the same time, the reasons for differences in waveform and the delay between the blood flow and temperature oscillations are far from being fully understood. In this study we determine the relationships between spectral components of the blood flow and temperature oscillations in fingertips, and we ascertain the frequency dependences of amplitude attenuation and delay time for the temperature oscillations. The blood flow oscillations were considered as a source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels towards the skin surface and manifesting as temperature oscillations. The finger temperature was measured by infrared thermography and blood flow was assessed by photoplethysmography for ten healthy subjects. The time-frequency analysis of oscillations was based on the Morlet wavelet transform. The frequency dependences of delay time and amplitude attenuation in temperature compared with blood flow oscillations have been determined in endothelial (0.005-0.02 Hz) and neurogenic (0.02-0.05 Hz) frequency bands using the wavelet spectra. We approximated the experimental frequency dependences by equations describing thermal wave propagation through the medium and taking into account the thermal properties and thickness of a tissue. Results of analysis show that with the increase of frequency f the delay time of temperature oscillations decreases inversely proportional to f(1/2), and the attenuation of the amplitude increases directly proportional to exp f(1/2). Using these relationships allows us to increase correlation between the processed temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations from 0.2 to 0.7 within the frequency interval 0.005-0.05 Hz. The established experimental and theoretical relationships clarify an understanding of interrelation between the dynamics of blood flow and skin

  20. The effect of moist air on skin blood flow and temperature in subjects with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Patel, Denis; Kodawala, Yusufi; Shetye, Gauri; Chen, Wei-Ti; Moniz, Harold; Pathak, Kunal; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Desai, Rajavi; Dave, Bhargav; Malthane, Swapnil; Alshaharani, Mastour; Neupane, Sushma; Shenoy, Samruddha; Nevgi, Bhakti; Cho, Sungkwan; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-02-01

    Endothelial function is known to be impaired in response to heat in people with diabetes, but little has been done to see how air humidity alters the skin blood flow response to heat. Seventeen male and female subjects were divided in two groups, one with type 2 diabetes and the other the control subjects without diabetes, age-matched to the diabetes group. All subjects participated in a series of experiments to determine the effect of the warming of the skin by air on skin temperature and skin blood flow. On different days, skin temperature was warmed with air that was 38°C, 40°C, or 42°C for 20 min. Also, on different days, at each temperature, the air humidity was adjusted to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Skin blood flow and temperature were measured throughout the exposure period. This allowed the interactions between air humidity and temperature to be assessed. For the control subjects, the moisture in the air had no different effect on skin blood flow at air temperatures of 38°C and 40°C (analysis of variance, P>0.05), although skin blood flow progressively increased at each air temperature that was applied. But for the warmest air temperature, 42°C, although the four lower humidities had the same effect on skin blood flow, air at 100% humidity caused the largest increase in skin blood flow. In contrast, in the subjects with diabetes, blood flow was always significantly less at any air temperature applied to the skin than was observed in the control subjects (P<0.05), and skin blood flow was significantly higher for the two higher humidities for the two higher air temperatures. Skin temperature paralleled these findings. These data show that individuals with diabetes do not tolerate moist, warm air above 50% humidity as well as controls without diabetes.

  1. Red blood cell coagulation induced by low-temperature plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Ikehara, Sanae; Takei, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Sakakita, Hajime; Ishikawa, Kenji; Ueda, Masashi; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Yamagishi, Masahiro; Kim, Jaeho; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hori, Masaru; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment promotes blood clot formation by stimulation of the both platelet aggregation and coagulation factors. However, the appearance of a membrane-like structure in clots after the treatment is controversial. Based on our previous report that demonstrated characteristics of the form of coagulation of serum proteins induced by LTP treatment, we sought to determine whether treatment with two plasma instruments, namely BPC-HP1 and PN-110/120TPG, formed clots only from red blood cells (RBCs). LTP treatment with each device formed clots from whole blood, whereas LTP treatment with BPC-HP1 formed clots in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 2 × 10(9)/mL RBCs. Light microscopic analysis results showed that hemolysis formed clots consisting of materials with membrane-like structures from both whole blood and PBS-suspended RBCs. Moreover, electron microscopic analysis results showed a monotonous material with high electron density in the formed clots, presenting a membrane-like structure. Hemolysis disappeared with the decrease in the current through the targets contacting with the plasma flare and clot formation ceased. Taken together, our results and those of earlier studies present two types of blood clot formation, namely presence or absence of hemolysis capability depending on the current through the targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Quality radiotherapy in rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Capirci, C; Amichetti, M; De Renzis, C

    2001-01-01

    The quality of radiotherapy significantly impacts on the results of treatment, in patients with rectal carcinoma, especially in terms of acute and late toxicity. Based on this assumption, the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) formulated a document aimed to define the standards of radiation treatment for rectal carcinomas. Two different levels of standard were described: a first level, considered as "minimal requirement", and a second level, considered as "optimal treatment". A retrospective evaluation, based on a questionnaire, revealed that in 1996, in most Italian Centers, patients affected by rectal carcinoma received radiation treatment within the first level of proposed standards. A subsequent analysis concerned the evaluation of the level of treatments applied in 2000. In this paper the radiotherapy standards proposed by the AIRO are described in the different phases of the radiation treatment.

  3. Outdoor Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: Effect Modification by Individual Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Liang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-02-15

    We collected data from Kailuan cohort study from 2006 to 2011 to examine whether short-term effects of ambient temperature on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are non-linear or linear, and their potential modifying factors. The HR, BP and individual information, including basic characteristics, life style, socio-economic characteristics and other characteristics, were collected for each participant. Daily mean temperature and relative humidity were collected. A regression model was used to evaluate associations of temperature with HR and BP, with a non-linear function for temperature. We also stratified the analyses in different groups divided by individual characteristics. 47,591 residents were recruited. The relationships of temperature with HR and BP were "V" shaped with thresholds ranging from 22 °C to 28 °C. Both cold and hot effects were observed on HR and BP. The differences of effect estimates were observed among the strata of individual characteristics. The effect estimate of temperature was higher among older people. The cold effect estimate was higher among people with lower Body Mass Index. However, the differences of effect estimates among other groups were inconsistent. These findings suggest both cold and hot temperatures may have short-term impacts on HR and BP. The individual characteristics could modify these relationships.

  4. Local management of rectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Touzios, John; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of rectal neoplasia, whether benign or malignant, challenges the surgeon. The challenge in treating rectal cancer is selecting the proper approach for the appropriate patient. In a small number of rectal cancer patients local excision may be the best approach. In an attempt to achieve two goals-cure of disease with a low rate of local failure and maintenance of function and quality of life-multiple approaches can be utilized. The key to obtaining a good outcome for any one patient is balancing the competing factors that impact on these goals. Any effective treatment aimed at controlling rectal cancer in the pelvis must take into account the disease in the bowel wall itself and the disease, or potential disease, in the mesorectum. The major downside of local excision techniques is the potential of leaving untreated disease in the mesorectum. Local management techniques avoid the potential morbidity, mortality, and functional consequences of a major abdominal radical resection and are thus quite effective in achieving the maintenance of function and quality of life goal. The issue for the transanal techniques is how they fare in achieving the first goal-cure of the cancer while keeping local recurrence rates to an absolute minimum. Without removing both the rectum and the mesorectum there is no completely accurate way to determine whether a rectal cancer has moved outside the bowel wall, so any decision on local management of a rectal neoplasm is a calculated risk. For benign neoplasia, the challenge is removing the lesion without having to resort to a major abdominal procedure.

  5. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  7. Effect of temperature on lysosomal enzyme activity during preparation and storage of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Manjunath; De, Tanima; Christopher, Rita

    2017-03-27

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for the assay of lysosomal enzymes has facilitated the implementation of pilot studies for newborn screening for lysosomal storage disorders in various developed countries. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of ambient temperature during DBS preparation and storage on lysosomal enzyme activity in a developing, tropical country. Blood samples from 12 healthy subjects collected on a S&S 903 filter paper were dried and stored at different temperatures for different periods of time. Activities of five lysosomal enzymes (acid α-glucosidase, acid α-galactosidase, acid β-glucocerebrosidase, acid sphingomyelinase, and galactocerebrosidase) were determined by tandem mass spectrometric and fluorimetric (acid α-glucosidase and acid β-glucocerebrosidase only) assays. The mean activities of all five enzymes decreased significantly when DBS was dried at temperatures above 24°C (P<.0001). DBS stored at 4°C, 24°C, 30°C, 37°C, and 45°C for 10 days and more, also showed significant reduction in activities of all five enzymes (P<.0001). The results highlight the importance of maintaining the correct ambient temperature during DBS preparation and storage to avoid false positive results when screening for lysosomal storage disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  9. High flow rate microfluidic device for blood plasma separation using a range of temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villarreal, Angeles Ivón; Arundell, Martin; Carmona, Manuel; Samitier, Josep

    2010-01-21

    A hybrid microfluidic device that uses hydrodynamic forces to separate human plasma from blood cells has been designed and fabricated and the advantageous effects of temperature and flow rates are investigated in this paper. The blood separating device includes an inlet which is reduced by approximately 20 times to a small constrictor channel, which then opens out to a larger output channel with a small lateral channel for the collection of plasma. When tested the device separated plasma from whole blood using a wide range of flow rates, between 50 microl min(-1) and 200 microl min(-1), at the higher flow rates injected by hand and at temperatures ranging from 23 degrees C to 50 degrees C, the latter resulting in an increase in the cell-free layer of up to 250%. It was also tested continuously using between 5% and 40% erythrocytes in plasma and whole blood without blocking the channels or hemolysis of the cells. The mean percentage of plasma collected after separation was 3.47% from a sample of 1 ml. The percentage of cells removed from the plasma varied depending on the flow rate used, but at 37 degrees C ranged between 95.4 +/- 1% and 97.05 +/- 05% at 100 microl min(-1) and 200 microl min(-1), respectively. The change in temperature also had an effect on the number of cells removed from the plasma which was between 93.5 +/- 0.65% and 97.01 +/- 0.3% at 26.9 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively, using a flow rate of 100 microl min(-1). Due to its ability to operate in a wide range of conditions, it is envisaged that this device can be used in in vitro 'lab on a chip' applications, as well as a hand-held point of care (POC) device.

  10. Stability of coagulation assays performed in plasma from citrated whole blood transported at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Zürcher, Manuel; Sulzer, Irmela; Barizzi, Gabriela; Lämmle, Bernhard; Alberio, Lorenzo

    2008-02-01

    Many preanalytical variables affect the results of coagulation assays. A possible way to control some of them would be to accept blood specimens shipped in the original collection tube. The aim of our study was to investigate the stability of coagulation assays in citrated whole blood transported at ambient temperature for up to two days after specimen collection. Blood samples from 59 patients who attended our haematology outpatient ward for thrombophilia screening were transported at ambient temperature (outdoor during the day, indoor overnight) for following periods of time: <1 hour, 4-6, 8-12, 24-28 and 48-52 hours prior to centrifugation and plasma-freezing. The following coagulation tests were performed: PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, FII:C, FV:C, FVII:C, FVIII:C, FIX:C, FX:C, FXI:C, VWF:RCo, VWF:Ag, AT, PC activity, total and free PS antigen, modified APC-sensitivity-ratio, thrombin-antithrombin-complex and D-dimer. Clinically significant changes, defined as a percentage change of more than 10% from the initial value, were observed for FV:C, FVIII:C and total PS antigen starting at 24-28 hours, and for PT, aPTT and FVII:C at 48-52 hours. No statistically significant differences were seen for fibrinogen, antithrombin, or thrombin-antithrombin complexes (Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance). The present data suggest that the use of whole blood samples transported at ambient temperature may be an acceptable means of delivering specimens for coagulation analysis. With the exception of factor V and VIII coagulant activity, and total PS antigen all investigated parameters can be measured 24-28 hours after specimen collection without observing clinically relevant changes.

  11. The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Kodawala, Yusufi; Patel, Dennis; Nevgi, Bhakti; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei Ti; Alshaharani, Mastour; Pathak, Kunal; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Shenoy, Samruddha; Cho, Sungwan; Dave, Bargav; Desai, Rajavi; Malthane, Swapnil; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most studies of the skin and how it responds to local heat have been conducted with either water, thermodes, or dry heat packs. Very little has been accomplished to look at the interaction between air humidity and temperature on skin temperature and blood flow. With variable air temperatures and humidity’s around the world, this, in many ways, is a more realistic assessment of environmental impact than previous water bath studies. Material/Methods Eight young and 8 older subjects were examined in an extensive series of experiments where on different days, air temperature was 38, 40, or 42°C. and at each temperature, humidity was either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Over a 20 minute period of exposure, the response of the skin in terms of its temperature and blood flow was assessed. Results For both younger and older subjects, for air temperatures of 38 and 40°C., the humidity of the air had no effect on the blood flow response of the skin, while skin temperature at the highest humidity was elevated slightly. However, for air temperatures of 42°C., at 100% humidity, there was a significant elevation in skin blood flow and skin temperature above the other four air humidity’s (p<0.05). In older subjects, the blood flow response was less and the skin temperature was much higher than younger individuals for air at 42°C. and 100% humidity (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus, in older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects. PMID:22460091

  12. Correlation between quantitative and semiquantitative parameters in DCE-MRI with a blood pool agent in rectal cancer: can semiquantitative parameters be used as a surrogate for quantitative parameters?

    PubMed

    Dijkhoff, Rebecca A P; Maas, Monique; Martens, Milou H; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Beets, Geerard L; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess correlation between quantitative and semiquantitative parameters in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in rectal cancer patients, both in a primary staging and restaging setting. Nineteen patients were included with DCE-MRI before and/or after neoadjuvant therapy. DCE-MRI was performed with gadofosveset trisodium (Ablavar(®), Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, Massachusetts, USA). Regions of interest were placed in the tumor and quantitative parameters were extracted with Olea Sphere 2.2 software permeability module using the extended Tofts model. Semiquantitative parameters were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Spearman rank correlation tests were used for assessment of correlation between parameters. A p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Strong positive correlations were found between mean peak enhancement and mean K trans: 0.79 (all patients, p<0.0001), 0.83 (primary staging, p = 0.003), and 0.81 (restaging, p = 0.054). Mean wash-in correlated significantly with mean V p and K ep (0.79 and 0.58, respectively, p<0.0001 and p = 0.009) in all patients. Mean wash-in showed a significant correlation with mean K ep (0.67, p = 0.033) in the primary staging group. On the restaging MRI, mean wash-in only strongly correlated with mean V p (0.81, p = 0.054). This study shows a strong correlation between quantitative and semiquantitative parameters in DCE-MRI for rectal cancer. Peak enhancement correlates strongly with K trans and wash-in showed strong correlation with V p and K ep. These parameters have been reported to predict tumor aggressiveness and response in rectal cancer. Therefore, semiquantitative analyses might be a surrogate for quantitative analyses.

  13. Study for a portable IR sensor to detect the blood temperature during coronary bypass implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Hartwig, Valentina; Francesconi, Raffaello; Landini, Luigi; Benassi, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the possibility of using an infrared prototype device for the detection of the blood temperature during a surgical operation for coronary bypass implantation. The correlation between the fluid temperature time behavior and the fluid flow rate was demonstrated. Each blood vessel acts like a thermal wave emitter, so the amount of heat is proportional to the blood flow detected by the IR sensor. The idea was to design a low cost portable device with the advantage that it can be placed near the region of interest. We chose a pyroelectric sensor for its high-quality cost ratio. Because this kind of sensor detects only a variable infrared source, we used an electromechanical chopper for modulating the radiation. It consists of an electronic shutter whose opening speed is controlled by an astable multivibrator. The output signal was analyzed using a dedicated electronic circuit including a bandpass filter and an amplifier; then an acquisition board was employed for capturing and displaying the signal using a PC. Prototype assessment was made with laboratory equipment and in vivo measurements were made during surgical operation on a small pig.

  14. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  15. Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity. PMID:24116099

  16. Effects of dexamethasone treatment and respiratory vaccination on rectal temperature, complete blood count, and functional capacities of neutrophils in beef steers.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on various aspects of immunity following administration of a multivalent respiratory vaccine, using a model intended to mimic acute versus chronic stress. Angus × Hereford steers (n = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) were str...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Catherine E; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the anatomy of the anorectum, the MRI protocol parameters required to optimize diagnosis of rectal cancer, and the diagnostic MRI criteria essential to stage rectal cancer accurately, using the TNM staging classification. A brief review of more emerging important aspects of rectal cancer staging, such as the circumferential resection margin, extramural vascular invasion, and the staging of low rectal cancers, will also be provided. Finally, the authors will touch upon the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in the setting of locally advanced rectal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resting Blood Flow in the Skin: Does It Exist, and What Is the Influence of Temperature, Aging, and Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of resting blood flow to the skin and other organs is an important indicator of health and disease and a way to assess the reaction to various stimuli and pharmaceutical interventions. However, unlike plasma ions such as sodium or potassium, it is difficult to determine what the proper value for resting blood flow really is. Part of the problem is in the measurement of blood flow; various techniques yield very different measures of skin blood flow even in the same area. Even if there were common techniques, resting blood flow to tissue, such as the skin, is determined by the interaction of a plurality of factors, including the sympathetic nervous system, temperature, pressure, shear forces on blood vessels, tissue osmolality, and a variety of other stimuli. Compounding this variability, the blood flow response to any stressor is reduced by free radicals in the blood and diminished by aging and diabetes. Race also has an effect on resting blood flow to the skin. All these factors interact to make the exact resting blood flow difficult to determine in any one individual and at any one time. This review examines the main techniques to assess blood flow, the factors that alter blood flow in the skin, and how aging and diabetes affect blood flow. Recommendations for the measurement of resting blood flow are presented. PMID:22768900

  19. Resting blood flow in the skin: does it exist, and what is the influence of temperature, aging, and diabetes?

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of resting blood flow to the skin and other organs is an important indicator of health and disease and a way to assess the reaction to various stimuli and pharmaceutical interventions. However, unlike plasma ions such as sodium or potassium, it is difficult to determine what the proper value for resting blood flow really is. Part of the problem is in the measurement of blood flow; various techniques yield very different measures of skin blood flow even in the same area. Even if there were common techniques, resting blood flow to tissue, such as the skin, is determined by the interaction of a plurality of factors, including the sympathetic nervous system, temperature, pressure, shear forces on blood vessels, tissue osmolality, and a variety of other stimuli. Compounding this variability, the blood flow response to any stressor is reduced by free radicals in the blood and diminished by aging and diabetes. Race also has an effect on resting blood flow to the skin. All these factors interact to make the exact resting blood flow difficult to determine in any one individual and at any one time. This review examines the main techniques to assess blood flow, the factors that alter blood flow in the skin, and how aging and diabetes affect blood flow. Recommendations for the measurement of resting blood flow are presented.

  20. [Rectosacropexy in rectal prolapse management].

    PubMed

    Titov, A Iu; Biriukov, O M; Fomenko, O Iu; Zarodniuk, I V; Voĭnov, M A

    2016-01-01

    To compare results of rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy in rectal prolapse management. Study included 122 patients operated for rectal prolapse for the period January 2007 to August 2014. Patients' age ranged from 19 to 85 years (mean 47.3±16.1). Main group consisted of 60 (49.2%) patients who underwent rectosacropexy (D'Hoore's procedure). Control group included 62 (50.8%) patients in whom posterior-loop rectopexy was applied (Wells's procedure). Long-term results were followed-up in 94 (77.0%) patients including 48 and 46 from main and control group respectively. Recurrent prolaple incidence after rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy was 2% and 8.7% respectively. Multivariant analysis statistically confirmed that postoperative impaired colon motility was independent risk factor of recurrence. Recurrent disease is observed 5.7 times more often in this case. Rectosacropexy does not significantly impair colon motility because of ileus occurs in 8.3% of operated patients. Impovement of anal continence does not depend on rectopexy method and occurs in all patients with degree 1-2 of anal sphincter failure. Rectosacropexy may be preferred in rectal prolapse. However, further highly significant studies are necessary to optimize rectal prolapse management.

  1. Murder or not? Cold temperature makes criminals appear to be cold-blooded and warm temperature to be hot-headed.

    PubMed

    Gockel, Christine; Kolb, Peter M; Werth, Lioba

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-related words such as cold-blooded and hot-headed can be used to describe criminal behavior. Words associated with coldness describe premeditated behavior and words associated with heat describe impulsive behavior. Building on recent research about the close interplay between physical and interpersonal coldness and warmth, we examined in a lab experiment how ambient temperature within a comfort zone influences judgments of criminals. Participants in rooms with low temperature regarded criminals to be more cold-blooded than participants in rooms with high temperature. Specifically, they were more likely to attribute premeditated crimes, ascribed crimes resulting in higher degrees of penalty, and attributed more murders to criminals. Likewise, participants in rooms with high temperature regarded criminals to be more hot-headed than participants in rooms with low temperature: They were more likely to attribute impulsive crimes. Results imply that cognitive representations of temperature are closely related to representations of criminal behavior and attributions of intent.

  2. Murder or Not? Cold Temperature Makes Criminals Appear to Be Cold-Blooded and Warm Temperature to Be Hot-Headed

    PubMed Central

    Gockel, Christine; Kolb, Peter M.; Werth, Lioba

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-related words such as cold-blooded and hot-headed can be used to describe criminal behavior. Words associated with coldness describe premeditated behavior and words associated with heat describe impulsive behavior. Building on recent research about the close interplay between physical and interpersonal coldness and warmth, we examined in a lab experiment how ambient temperature within a comfort zone influences judgments of criminals. Participants in rooms with low temperature regarded criminals to be more cold-blooded than participants in rooms with high temperature. Specifically, they were more likely to attribute premeditated crimes, ascribed crimes resulting in higher degrees of penalty, and attributed more murders to criminals. Likewise, participants in rooms with high temperature regarded criminals to be more hot-headed than participants in rooms with low temperature: They were more likely to attribute impulsive crimes. Results imply that cognitive representations of temperature are closely related to representations of criminal behavior and attributions of intent. PMID:24788725

  3. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.

    PubMed

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation.

  4. Incidence and risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook; Lim, Hyun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Hui Gyeong; Bang, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 300 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We assessed the presence of rectal pain and categorized patients into Group N (no rectal pain) or Group P (rectal pain). Results In total, 288 patients were included. Of these patients, 39 (13.5%) reported rectal pain and 14 (4.9%) had rectal pain that persisted for >3 months. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in Group P had more preoperative chemoradiotherapy, more ileostomies, longer operation times, more anastomotic margins of <2 cm from the anal verge, more anastomotic leakage, and longer hospital stays. Multivariate analysis identified an anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time as risk factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Conclusions In this study, the incidence of rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery was 13.5%. An anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time were risk factors for rectal pain. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Thus, the possibility of postoperative rectal pain should be discussed preoperatively with patients with these risk factors. PMID:28415928

  5. Temperature control using a heat exchanger of a cardioplegic system in cardiopulmonary bypass model for rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Gon; Choi, Se Hun; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2008-12-01

    Small animal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) model would be a valuable tool for investigating pathophysiological and therapeutic strategies on bypass. However, the rat CPB models have a number of technical limitations. Effective maintenance and control of core temperature by heat exchanger (HE) is among them. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of rectal temperature maintenance and hypothermic control using a HE of cardioplegia system in CPB model for rats. The miniature circuit consisted of a reservoir, HE, membrane oxygenator, and roller pump; the static priming volume was 40 cc. In the first stage of experiment, 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups; HE group was subjected to CPB with HE from a cardioplegia system, and control group was subjected to CPB with warm water circulating around the reservoir. Partial CPB was conducted at a flow rate of 40 mg/kg/min for 20 min after venous cannulation (via the internal jugular vein) and arterial cannulation (via the femoral artery). Rectal temperature was measured after anesthetic induction, after cannulation, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after CPB. Arterial blood gas with hematocrit was also analyzed, 5 and 15 min after CPB. In the second stage with the same experimental setting, rectal temperatures were lowered in 10 rats to the target temperature of 32 degrees C. After reaching the target temperature, animals were rewarmed. Rectal temperature was measured after cannulation, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min after CPB. Arterial blood gas with hematocrit was also analyzed, 5 and 15 min after CPB. Rectal temperature change differed between the two groups (P < 0.01). The temperatures of the HE group were well maintained during CPB, whereas the control group was under progressive hypothermia. Rectal temperature 20 min after CPB was 36.16 +/- 0.32 degrees C in the HE group and 34.22 +/- 0.36 degrees C in the control group. In the second set of experiments, the hypothermia targeted (32 degrees C) was

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  8. T1 and T2 values of human neonatal blood at 3 Tesla: Dependence on hematocrit, oxygenation, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiying; Chalak, Lina F; Krishnamurthy, Lisa C; Mir, Imran; Peng, Shin-lei; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of blood T1 and T2 is of major importance in many applications of MRI in neonates. However, to date, there has not been a systematic study to examine neonatal blood T1/T2 relaxometry. This present study aims to investigate this topic. Using freshly collected blood samples from human umbilical cord, we performed in vitro experiments under controlled physiological conditions to measure blood T1 and T2 at 3 Tesla (T) and their dependence on several factors, including hematocrit (Hct), oxygenation (Y) and temperature. The arterial T1 in neonates was 1825 ± 184 ms (Hct = 0.42 ± 0.08), longer than that of adult blood. Neonatal blood T1 was strongly dependent on Hct (P < 0.001) and Y (P = 0.005), and the dependence of T1 on Y was more prominent at higher Hct. The arterial T2 of neonatal blood was 191 ms at an Hct of 0.42, which was also longer than adult blood. Neonatal blood T2 was positively associated with blood oxygenation and negatively associated with hematocrit level, and can be characterized by an exchange model. Neonatal blood T1 was also positively associated with temperature (P < 0.001). The values provided in this report may provide important reference and calibration information for sequence optimization and quantification of in vivo neonatal MRI studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of metabolic, temperature, heart rate and ventilatory responses to exercise at extreme ambient temperatures (0 degrees and 35 degrees C.).

    PubMed

    Claremont, A D; Nagle, F; Reddan, W D; Brooks, G A

    1975-01-01

    Eight male subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer for one half to one hour at loads demanding 52 to 59% of Vo2max on two separate occasions, once with ambient temperature held at 0 degrees C and once in a 35 degrees C environment. Throughout exercise and during recovery in a 25 degrees C environment, measurements were made of oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, muscle-rectal-skin temperatures, and blood lactic acid. In the hot condition significant increases in heart rate, blood lactates, sweat loss, muscle, rectal and skin temperature responses were observed. At 0 degrees C Vo2 was significantly elevated during exercise over that in the 35 degrees C condition. Despite the elevated Vo2 response in the cold, higher body temperatures measured in the heat were associated with a significantly higher (P less than .025) recovery Vo2 (x = 866 ml), which was of the magnitude predicted by the van't Hoff-Arrhenius relationship.

  10. Characterization of blood components separated from donated whole blood after an overnight holding at room temperature with the buffy coat method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fa Qiang; Kang, Wei; Peng, Yu; Wang, Wei Ming

    2011-10-01

    With buffy coat (BC) processing of whole blood (WB) donations, increase in WB storage time to facilitate overnight holding before the separation of blood components would be a logistically attractive development. This study undertakes a comparative in vitro characterization of blood components prepared from WB samples that were either processed within 8 hours or stored overnight at room temperature before processing by the BC method. The WB units (400 mL) collected were either processed within 8 hours (fresh blood) or stored overnight (overnight blood) at room temperature. WB units were separated into individual-component red blood cells (RBCs), BC, and plasma. The in vitro quality of these blood components (RBCs, pooled platelet concentrates [PCs], and plasma) was analyzed during storage. Levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were found to be significantly lower immediately after processing, compared with the fresh WB samples, in RBCs that had been separated from an overnight-hold sample. However, this difference was not apparent after 14 days of storage. In pooled PCs, measurements for glucose, lactate, PO(2), PCO(2), extent of shape change, and hypotonic shock response were similar. The platelet yield in PCs prepared from an overnight-hold WB sample was significantly higher, while CD62P expression and annexin V binding were lower (p < 0.05). For frozen plasma (FP), no significant differences were observed for the coagulation factors (F)II, FVII, FV, F IX, FX, and FXI; fibrinogen; and von Willebrand factor content between the 8- and 24-hour FP. The FVIII was the component that was most sensitive to the prolongation of production time and it only had 80% of the activity of the 8-hour FP. These data suggest that blood components (RBCs, pooled PCs, and FP) separated from WB that has been stored overnight at room temperature by the BC method are of acceptable quality. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Necrotising fasciitis secondary to perforated rectal adenocarcinoma presenting as a thigh swelling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William David George; Winters, Conchubhair; Amin, Eshan

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the medical admissions ward with right thigh pain presumed to be a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Subsequent duplex ultrasonography excluded a DVT but noted the presence of a significant amount of subcutaneous gas. A plain film radiograph was performed with the same finding raising the possibility of necrotising fasciitis (NF). Only at this point was digital rectal examination performed revealing a large rectal mass oozing pus and blood. CT imaging showed thickening of the rectum consistent with a tumour with gas and fluid in the perirectal space extending to the anterolateral right femur. Despite aggressive debridement and treatment, the patient deteriorated and died 6 weeks later. This case should serve as a reminder to consider digital rectal examination and the occurrence of a rectal perforation in all patients who present with suspicious thigh swellings. PMID:25824287

  12. Seasonal blood pressure changes: an independent relationship with temperature and daylight hours.

    PubMed

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Morabito, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Rapi, Stefano; Orlandini, Simone; Mancia, Giuseppe; Gensini, Gian Franco; Parati, Gianfranco

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal blood pressure (BP) changes have been found to be related to either outdoor or indoor temperature. No information regarding the independent effects of temperature measured proximally to the patient, the personal-level environmental temperature (PET), is available. Inclusion of daylight hours in multivariate analysis might allow exploring the independent interaction of BP with seasonality. To investigate whether ambulatory BP monitoring is affected by PET or by seasonality, 1897 patients referred to our hypertension units underwent ambulatory BP monitoring with a battery-powered temperature data logger fitted to the carrying pouch of the monitor. Predictors of 24-hour daytime and nighttime BP and of morning BP surge were investigated with a multivariate stepwise regression model, including age, sex, body mass index, antihypertensive treatment, office BP, ambulatory heart rate, PET, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and daylight hours as independent variables. At adjusted regression analysis, daytime systolic BP was negatively related to PET (-0.14; 95% confidence interval, -0.25 to -0.02); nighttime BP was positively related to daylight hours (0.63; 0.37-0.90); and morning BP surge was negatively related to daylight hours (-0.54; -0.87 to -0.21). These results provide new evidence that PET and seasonality (daylight hours) are 2 independent predictors of ambulatory BP monitoring.

  13. Post-warm-up muscle temperature maintenance: blood flow contribution and external heating optimisation.

    PubMed

    Raccuglia, Margherita; Lloyd, Alex; Filingeri, Davide; Faulkner, Steve H; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2016-02-01

    Passive muscle heating has been shown to reduce the drop in post-warm-up muscle temperature (Tm) by about 25% over 30 min, with concomitant sprint/power performance improvements. We sought to determine the role of leg blood flow in this cooling and whether optimising the heating procedure would further benefit post-warm-up T m maintenance. Ten male cyclists completed 15-min sprint-based warm-up followed by 30 min recovery. Vastus lateralis Tm (Tmvl) was measured at deep-, mid- and superficial-depths before and after the warm-up, and after the recovery period (POST-REC). During the recovery period, participants wore water-perfused trousers heated to 43 °C (WPT43) with either whole leg heating (WHOLE) or upper leg heating (UPPER), which was compared to heating with electrically heated trousers at 40 °C (ELEC40) and a non-heated control (CON). The blood flow cooling effect on Tmvl was studied comparing one leg with (BF) and without (NBF) blood flow. Warm-up exercise significantly increased Tmvl by ~3 °C at all depths. After the recovery period, BF Tmvl was lower (~0.3 °C) than NBF Tmvl at all measured depths, with no difference between WHOLE versus UPPER. WPT43 reduced the post-warm-up drop in deep-Tmvl (-0.12 °C ± 0.3 °C) compared to ELEC40 (-1.08 ± 0.4 °C) and CON (-1.3 ± 0.3 °C), whereas mid- and superficial-Tmvl even increased by 0.15 ± 0.3 and 1.1 ± 1.1 °C, respectively. Thigh blood flow contributes to the post-warm-up Tmvl decline. Optimising the external heating procedure and increasing heating temperature of only 3 °C successfully maintained and even increased T mvl, demonstrating that heating temperature is the major determinant of post-warm-up Tmvl cooling in this application.

  14. Effect of local cooling on skin temperature and blood flow of men in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, M.; Sachdeva, U.

    1993-12-01

    Alterations to the finger skin temperature (Tsk) and blood flow (FBF) before and after cold immersion on exposure to an Antarctic environment for 8 weeks were studied in 64 subjects. There was a significant fall in Tsk and increase in finger blood flow after 1 week of Antarctic exposure. The Tsk did not further change even after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctica but a significant increase in FBF was obtained after 8 weeks. The cold immersion test was performed at non-Antarctic and Antarctic conditions by immersing the hand for 2 min in 0 4° C cold water. In the non-Antarctic environment the Tsk and FBF dropped significantly ( P < 0.001) indicating a vasoconstriction response. Interestingly after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctic conditions, the skin temperature dropped ( P < 0.001) but the cold induced fall in FBF was inhibited. Based on these observations it may be hypothesized that continuous cold exposure in Antarctica results in vasodilatation, which overrides the stronger vasoactive response of acute cold exposure and thus prevents cold injuries.

  15. The acute effects of outdoor temperature on blood pressure in a panel of elderly hypertensive patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Lu, Jianxiong; Yu, Qun; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Cuicui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-12-01

    Higher level of blood pressure (BP) in winter than in summer has been observed, but the association between temperature and BP and its potential modifiers with adjustment of individual confounders and time trends was rarely explored. We aimed to investigate the association between outdoor temperature and BP and its potential modification factors in a longitudinal panel study in Shanghai, China. From January 2011 to December 2012, we scheduled 54 follow-ups for BP measurements per subject via home visit every other week for 50 elderly hypertensive patients. We applied linear mixed-effect models to analyze the association between temperature and BP after controlling for individual characteristics, antihypertensive medication, comorbidities, and time trends. We evaluated the potential effect modifiers by stratification analyses. For a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature on concurrent day and previous day, systolic BP increased by 0.19 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.06, 0.31) and diastolic BP increased by 0.12 mmHg (95 % confidence interval = 0.03, 0.21). The effect of temperature on BP was stronger among those with older age, female sex, low socioeconomic status, and obese physique. The effect was weak and even null for those taking the angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or its combination with calcium antagonists. Further, the effect was almost restricted within those having chronic comorbidities. Our results demonstrated that an acute decrease in outdoor temperature was significantly associated with a rise in BP among elderly hypertensive patients, in Shanghai, China. Individual characteristics, antihypertensive medications, and comorbidities may modify this effect.

  16. Rectal dose to prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy with or without rectal spacer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heeteak; Polf, Jerimy; Badiyan, Shahed; Biagioli, Matthew; Fernandez, Daniel; Latifi, Kujtim; Wilder, Richard; Mehta, Minesh; Chuong, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a spacer inserted in the prerectal space could reduce modeled rectal dose and toxicity rates for patients with prostate cancer treated in silico with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy. A total of 20 patients were included in this study who received photon therapy (12 with rectal spacer (DuraSeal™ gel) and 8 without). Two PBS treatment plans were retrospectively created for each patient using the following beam arrangements: (1) lateral-opposed (LAT) fields and (2) left and right anterior oblique (LAO/RAO) fields. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were generated for the prostate, rectum, bladder, and right and left femoral heads. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model and compared between patients with and without the rectal spacer. A significantly lower mean rectal DVH was achieved in patients with rectal spacer compared to those without. For LAT plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 4.19 and 13.5%, respectively. For LAO/RAO plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 5.07 and 13.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found in any rectal dosimetric parameters between the LAT and the LAO/RAO plans generated with the rectal spacers. We found that ≥ 9 mm space resulted in a significant decrease in NTCP modeled for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity. Rectal spacers can significantly decrease modeled rectal dose and predicted ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated in silico with PBS. A minimum of 9 mm separation between the prostate and anterior rectal wall yields the largest benefit.

  17. Variation in blood serum antifreeze activity of Antarctic Trematomus fishes across habitat temperature and depth.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lauren G; DeVries, Arthur L

    2015-07-01

    High latitude waters in the Southern Ocean can be near their freezing point and remain ice-covered throughout the year whereas lower latitude Southern Ocean waters have seasonal ice coverage and comparatively large (6 °C) annual temperature changes. The genus Trematomus (suborder Notothenioidei) is regarded primarily as a high latitude group because of its abundance there, they also inhabit the warmer regions in smaller numbers. Freeze avoidance in the notothenioids is linked to the presence of two antifreeze proteins (AFPs); the antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) and antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP), both of which adsorb to internal ice crystals inhibiting growth. Both high and low latitude trematomids possess sufficient AFP to lower their blood freezing point below that of seawater (-1.9 °C). We investigated the contributions of AFGPs and AFPP to the blood freezing point depression to determine how they varied with depth, water temperature, and the presence of ice. High latitude trematomids had lower blood freezing points than those inhabiting lower latitude waters indicating differences in their freeze avoidance capacities. Lower freezing points were associated with higher levels of antifreeze activity due to higher levels of both AFGP and AFPP. Populations of Trematomus hansoni and Trematomus bernacchii from shallow depths appear more freeze avoidant than populations inhabiting deep, ice-free water based on their lower freezing points and higher antifreeze activities. Gel electrophoresis of the trichloroacetic acid-soluble AFGPs indicates that only high molecular weight isoforms, which contribute more to AFGP activity, vary across species as well as between individuals of a species.

  18. The contribution of blood flow to the skin temperature responses during a cold sensitivity test.

    PubMed

    Davey, Martha; Eglin, Clare; House, James; Tipton, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The presumption in a cold sensitivity test (CST) used for cold injuries is that the skin temperature (T sk) observed reflects the return of blood flow to the extremity following a local cold challenge. We questioned this assumption. Six non-cold injured participants undertook two CSTs in 30 °C air. The control (CON) CST involved 12 min gentle exercise prior to immersing the foot into 15 °C water for 2 min followed by 15 min of spontaneous rewarming. The occlusion (OCC) CST was the same except that blood flow to the foot was occluded during the rewarming period. These results were compared to CSTs from six individuals with non-freezing cold injury and moderate-severe cold sensitivity (CS) and a non-perfused human digit model (NPDM). Before immersion, great toe skin blood flow (SkBF) was similar in CON and OCC conditions [255 (107) laser Doppler units (LDU)] and was higher than CS [59 (52) LDU]. During rewarming, SkBF in CON returned to 104 % of the pre-immersion value and was higher than both OCC and CS. Great toe T sk before immersion was lower in CS [28.5 (2.1) °C] compared to CON [34.7 (0.4) °C], OCC [34.6 (0.9) °C] and NPDM [35.0 (0.4) °C]. During rewarming skin/surface temperature in OCC, CS and NPDM were similar and all lower than CON. SkBF does contribute to the skin rewarming profile during a CST as a faster rate of rewarming was observed in CON compared to either OCC or NPDM. The lower T sk in CS may be due to a reduced basal SkBF.

  19. A novel, fully implantable, multichannel biotelemetry system for measurement of blood flow, pressure, ECG, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, M; Dang, Q; Pitsillides, K; Munns, S; Hicks, J; Kassab, G S

    2007-03-01

    Biotelemetry provides high-quality data in awake, free-ranging animals without the effects of anesthesia and surgery. Although many biological parameters can be measured using biotelemetry, simultaneous telemetric measurements of pressure and flow have not been available. The objective of this study was to evaluate simultaneous measurements of blood flow, pressure, ECG, and temperature in a fully implantable system. This novel system allows the measurement of up to four channels of blood flow, up to three channels of pressure, and a single channel each of ECG and temperature. The system includes a bidirectional radio-frequency link that allows the implant to send data and accept commands to perform various tasks. The system is controlled by a base station decoder/controller that decodes the data stream sent by the implant into analog signals. The system also converts the data into a digital data stream that can be sent via ethernet to a remote computer for storage and/or analysis. The system was chronically implanted in swine and alligators for up to 5 wk. Both bench and in vivo animal tests were performed to evaluate system performance. Results show that this biotelemetry system is capable of long-term accurate monitoring of simultaneous blood flow and pressure. The system allows, within the room, recordings, since the implant transmission range is between 6 and 10 m, and, with a relay, backpack transmission distance of up to 500 m can be achieved. This system will have significant utility in chronic models of cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

  20. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  1. Association between blood pressure changes during self-paced outdoor walking and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Ishii, Nanako

    2017-03-01

    Exaggerated elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) during exercise is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease. Although there are differences between the outdoor exercise and exercise tests in the laboratory setting, there is little information regarding SBP changes during practical outdoor exercise. We investigated SBP changes during self-paced outdoor walking and the relationship to air temperature. Subjects (n = 109, 47-83 years) walked outdoors at their own pace wearing a blood pressure monitor on their wrist. SBP increased during walking compared to rest, but was higher at the 1 km mark than both the 2 and 3 km marks (rest, 124 ± 14 mmHg; 1 km, 140 ± 16 mmHg; 2 km, 136 ± 18 mmHg; 3 km, 135 ± 18 mmHg). SBP at rest, air temperature, body mass index (BMI) and walking intensity during the first 1 km were identified as predictors of SBP at the 1 km mark in the stepwise regression analysis, independent of other confounders (R(2)  = 0·606). SBP at the 1 km mark was higher in the lower temperature group (11·6-14·3°C, 145 ± 14 mmHg) than in the intermediate (15·1-16·7°C, 140 ± 18 mmHg) and higher (17·0-19·6°C, 136 ± 16 mmHg) temperature groups, independent of SBP at rest, BMI and walking intensity. These results suggest that increases in SBP are higher on lower temperature days and are greater at 1 km than at 2 and 3 km. It is therefore recommended that measures are taken against the cold on lower temperature days to attenuate the SBP response during onset of walking. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Surgical treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Salinas-Aragón, L E; Camacho-Mauries, D; Medina-Franco, H

    2010-01-01

    Rectal affection accounts for 30% of colorectal cancer. The standard of treatment is surgical resection, which often is curative. For superior and middle-rectal involvement, low anterior resection (LAR) is the preferred procedure. For tumors involving the lower portion of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection (APR) or LAR are the options of treatment, depending on sphincter involvement. The main surgical objective is to achieve a R0 resection with an appropriated total mesorrectal excision, greater number of lymph nodes and negative distal and radial margins. These surgical parameters have been used as quality indicators and have prognostic implications in terms of overall and disease-free survival. Total mesorectal excision with preservation of hypogastric nerves has shown a reduction in rates of sexual and bladder dysfunction as well as lower local recurrence. At specialized centers such procedures are performed by minimal invasive surgery; however the number of meta-analysis is scarce.

  3. Time and temperature dependant changes in red blood cell analytes used for testing recombinant erythropoietin abuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Neil; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2004-01-01

    There has been a long debate since the introduction of blood analysis prior to major sports events, to find out whether blood samples should be analysed right away on the site of competition or whether they should be transported and analysed in an anti-doping laboratory. Therefore, it was necessary to measure blood samples and compare the results obtained right after the blood withdrawal with those obtained after a few hours delay. Furthermore, it was interesting to determine the effect of temperature on the possible deterioration of red blood cell analytes used for testing recombinant erythropoietin abuse. Healthy volunteers were asked to give two blood samples and one of these was kept at room temperature whereas the second one was put into a refrigerator. On a regular basis, the samples were rolled for homogenisation and temperature stabilisation and were analysed with the same haematological apparatus. The results confirmed that blood controls prior to competition should be performed as soon as possible with standardised pre-analytical conditions to avoid too many variations notably on the haematocrit and the reticulocyte count. These recommendations should ideally also be applied to the all the blood controls compulsory for the medical follow up, otherwise unexplainable values could be misinterpreted and could for instance lead to a period of incapacity.

  4. Noninvasive Temporal Artery Thermometry as an Alternative to Rectal Thermometry in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie E; Marini, Robert P; Patterson, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the Bland–Altman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 °C with a 95% agreement limit of ± 1.27 °C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads. PMID:23849413

  5. Temporal artery and axillary thermometry comparison with rectal thermometry in children presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Adam J; Juliano, Michael L; Conley, Sean P; Cronyn, Patrick D; McGlynn, Andrea; Auten, Jonathan D

    2017-06-11

    Accurate temperature readings, often obtained rectally, are an important part of the initial evaluation of pediatric patients in the Emergency Department. Temporal artery thermometry (TAT) is one way to noninvasively measure temperature. We sought to compare the accuracy of axillary and temporal artery temperatures compared to rectal. This prospective study included children age 0-36months presenting to the Emergency Department of a large military treatment facility. Rectal, axillary, and temporal artery temperatures were obtained. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV) were reported. The effect of cutoff values 99.9°F, 100.4°F, and 102.2°F on test characteristics were also evaluated. The sensitivities of axillary and temporal artery thermometry to detect rectal fever is 11.5% and 61.5% respectively. Cutoff values did not significantly alter test characteristics. In this study, temporal artery thermometry was 0.2°C lower than rectal temperature, axillary measurement was 0.9°C below the reference standard. Mean temperature difference in the febrile group between TAT and rectal thermometry was >0.5°C compared with a mean temperature difference 0.05°C in afebrile patients. The findings of our study do not support using axillary thermometry to screen pediatric patients for fever in the emergency department. TAT cannot be recommended as a rectal thermometry replacement where height and duration of fever are used in pediatric disease prediction models. TAT may have a role in screening for fever in the appropriate pediatric patient population like primary orthopedic or trauma presentations where the balance between device precision, data capture and patient comfort may favor use of TAT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-09-26

    Laparoscopic surgery has gained acceptance as a less invasive approach in the treatment of colon cancer. However, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, particularly cancer of the lower rectum, is still challenging because of limited accessibility. Robotic surgery overcomes the limitations of laparoscopy associated with anatomy and offers certain advantages, including 3-D imaging, dexterity and ambidextrous capability, lack of tremors, motion scaling, and a short learning curve. Robotic rectal surgery has been reported to reduce conversion rates, particularly in low anterior resection, but it is associated with longer operative times than the conventional laparoscopic approach. Postoperative morbidities are similar between the robotic and conventional laparoscopic approaches, and oncological outcomes such as the quality of the mesorectum and the status of resection margins are also equivalent. The possible superiority of robotic surgery in terms of the preservation of autonomic function has yet to be established in research based on larger numbers of patients. Although robotic rectal surgery is safe, feasible, and appears to overcome some of the technical limitations associated with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the advantages provided by this technical innovation are currently limited. To justify its expensive cost, robotic surgery is more suitable for select patients, such as obese patients, men, those with cancer of the lower rectum, and those receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  8. Stubborn rectal prolapse in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sven; Tobisch, Alexander; Puhl, Gero; Kötter, Ina; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Anorectal involvement might typically cause fecal incontinence and rarely rectal prolapse. Here we report three female patients, who were admitted with a mean history of 10 years suffering from SSc. All patients presented with the initial symptom of anal incontinence, in all cases this was associated with rectal intussusception or rectal prolapse. The three women faced prolapse recurrence, independent of the initial procedure. After surgical removal of the prolapse, the incontinence remained. In SSc rectal prolapse syndrome might occur at an earlier age, and a primary prolapse of the ventral aspect of the rectal wall seems to be typical for this disease. If patients with prior diagnosis of SSc appear with third degree of fecal incontinence, it is suspected to be associated with rectal prolapse. The prolapse recurrence rate after surgery in SSc patients is high.

  9. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  10. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  11. Temperature and the respiratory properties of whole blood in two reptiles, Pogona barbata and Emydura signata.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare Y; Grigg, Gordon C; Booth, David T; Beard, Lyn A

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the capacity of two reptiles, an agamid lizard Pogona barbata and a chelid turtle Emydura signata, to compensate for the effects of temperature by making changes in their whole blood respiratory properties. This was accomplished by measuring the P50 (at 10, 20 and 30 degrees C), hematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in field acclimatised and laboratory acclimated individuals. The acute effect of temperature on P50 in P. barbata, expressed as heat of oxygenation (deltaH), ranged from -16.8+/-1.84 to -28.5+/-2.73 kJ/mole. P50 of field acclimatised P. barbata increased significantly from early spring to summer at the test temperatures of 20 degrees C (43.1+/-1.2 to 48.8+/-2.1 mmHg) and 30 degrees C (54.7+/-1.2 to 65.2+/-2.3 mmHg), but showed no acclimation under laboratory conditions. For E. signata, deltaH ranged from -31.1+/-6.32 to -48.2+/-3.59 kJ/mole. Field acclimatisation and laboratory acclimation of P50 did not occur. However, in E. signata, there was a significant increase in [Hb] and MCHC from early spring to summer in turtles collected from the wild (1.0+/-0.1 to 1.7+/-0.2 mmol/L and 4.0+/-0.3 to 6.7+/-0.7 mmol/L, respectively).

  12. Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 1. Body temperature and selected blood constituents.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Thaxton, P

    1979-05-01

    The effects of forced molting on body temperature and selected blood constituents were studied. Caged layers, reared under commercial conditions, were force molted successively at 72 and 104 weeks of age. This was accomplished by removing feed for up to 12 days and water for up to 3 days while simultaneously reducing the day length to 10 hr or less. This procedure resulted in a cessation of egg production within one week of the initiation of feed removal. There was a significant increase in body temperature during feather loss and renewal. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin increased significantly immediately upon removal of feed and water and remained elevated above control levels for the duration of the pause in egg production, while plasma total calcium, and inorganic phosphate decreased significantly during the corresponding period. Plasma total protein and plasma glucose did not exhibit consistent trends. Body temperature and the levels of the measured plasma consituents returned to normal levels upon the resumption of egg production.

  13. Breakdown of Blood-Brain and Blood-Spinal Cord Barriers During Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Role of Brain Temperature.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often-abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial cell activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, METH-induced leakage of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers is a significant contributor to different types of functional and structural brain abnormalities that determine acute toxicity of this drug and possibly neurotoxicity during its chronic use.

  14. Penile metastases of rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Persec, Z; Persec, J; Sovic, T; Rako, D; Savic, I; Marinic, D K

    2014-02-01

    Penile metastases are very rare and arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma are less common and only 50 or so cases have been reported. We present a 43-year-old man with penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma. Two years before admittance to our department, abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum (Miles operation) was performed for a Dukes B (T3N0M0) rectal adenocarcinoma; the surgical resection margins wee negative. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment were administered. One year after initial management, excision of a local recurrence was performed followed by further chemotherapy. The patient subsequently noticed lesions of the penis measuring up to 1.2 cm in diameter. Biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed normal structure of penis with subcutaneous nodular thickening. Soon thereafter, the entire shaft of the penis becomes indurated and the patient developed urinary obstruction. A suprapubic cystostomy was performed. The patient died within 6 months. Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, primarily from the bladder and the prostate gland. Metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma occurs much less commonly. Other reported primary origins of penile metastases include malignancies of the lung, nasopharynx and melanoma. The major symptoms are penile nodular mass, malignant priapism, penile pain and tenderness, difficulty in micturition, and urinary retention. Possible routes of metastasis are arterial, retrograde venous spread, retrograde lymphatic spread, but direct tumor infiltration/extension is also possible. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma usually occur within 2 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. The prognosis is very poor regardless of treatment modality. Treatment is more often palliative than curative. Survival usually varies from 7 months to 2 years. Long-term survival (9 years) has been

  15. Comparison of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zihai; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Shijie; Zhong, Shizhen; Lin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer. A total of 64 cases of rectal cancer patients undergoing radical surgery between January, 1998 and March, 2010 were collected. The patients were divided into the laparoscopic rectal surgery group (LS group, n=31) and the open surgery group (OS group, n=33). Operation time, postoperative recovery, complications and tumor-free survival rate were compared between the two groups. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Standard Karnofsky score >70 prior to surgery, definitive pathological diagnosis and complete clinical data. The exclusion criteria were concomitant tumors affecting survival. With the Dixon operation, the LS group had a longer operation time compared with the OS group (271.2±56.2 vs. 216.0±62.7 min, respectively; P=0.036), and an earlier time of oral intake (3.0±0.9 vs. 4.7±1.0 days, respectively; P=0.000). There were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups in terms of intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). With the Miles operation, there were no obvious differences between the LS and OS groups regarding operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of lymph nodes retrieved, time of oral intake, duration of postoperative hyperthermia and hospitalization time (P>0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the LS and OS groups with the Dixon or Miles operation in terms of 3-year tumor-free survival rate (P>0.05). Thus, laparoscopic surgery appears to be a safe and feasible option for the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:28357087

  16. Robotic rectal surgery: what are the benefits?

    PubMed

    Kim, C W; Baik, S H

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal surgery is not a rare event for colorectal surgeons any more. Even patients with colorectal diseases obtain information through the mass media and are asking surgeons about robotic surgery. Since laparoscopic rectal surgery has proved to have some benefits compared to open rectal surgery, many surgeons became interested in robotic rectal surgery. Some of them have reported the advantages and disadvantages of robotic rectal surgery over the last decade. This review will report on the outcomes of robotic rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery requires a longer operation time than laparoscopic or open surgery, but many authors reduced the gap as they were accustomed to the robotic system and used various additional techniques. The high cost for purchasing and maintaining the robotic system is still a problem, though. However, except for this reason, robotic rectal surgery shows comparable and even superior results in some parameters than laparoscopic or open surgery. They include pathologic and functional outcomes as well as short-term outcomes such as complication rates, length of hospital stay, time to recover normal bowel function or first flatus, time to start diet, and postoperative pain. Moreover, studies on oncologic outcomes show acceptable results. Robotic rectal surgery is safe and feasible and has a number of benefits. Therefore, it can be an alternative option to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery with strict indications.

  17. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  18. Poloxamer 188 and propylene glycol-based rectal suppository enhances anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil in mice.

    PubMed

    Paek, Seung-Hwan; Xuan, Jing-Ji; Choi, Han-Gon; Park, Byung Chul; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Jeong, Tae-Cheon; Jin, Chun Hua; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2006-05-01

    The tumoricidal and apoptosis-inducing activities of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) have been demonstrated in experimental and clinical investigations. Clinically, the 5-FU suppository form has been widely adopted for its advantages of less systemic toxicity, higher local tissue concentrations, and reduced first-pass effect. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of rectal administration of 5-FU suppository based on poloxamer 188 (P188) and propylene glycol (PG) and its anticancer effect on the murine experimental cancer models. The rectal suppository was made with 70% P188 and 30% PG, which was a solid phase at room temperature and instantly melted at physiological temperature. The treatment with the 5-FU suppository was more effective than the oral route in decreasing the volume of rectal cancer in mice. In addition, the survival rate of the mice with rectal cancer was higher in the group treated with the 5-FU suppository than in the group treated with 5-FU orally. Furthermore, in mice skin cancers induced by inoculation of murine CT-26 colon carcinoma cells, the anticancer effect of 5-FU was significantly enhanced by the rectal administration of the suppository than by oral treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that a poloxamer gel system with 5-FU/P188/PG is an effective rectal dosage form for the treatment of both rectal and non-rectal cancers.

  19. Magnamosis: a novel technique for the management of rectal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Katie W; Rollins, Michael D; Feola, G Peter; Scaife, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of rectal atresia treated using magnets to create a rectal anastomosis. This minimally invasive technique is straightforward and effective for the treatment of rectal atresia in children. PMID:25096648

  20. Unusual cause of 55 years of rectal bleeding: hemolymphangioma (a case report)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Zhu, Junfeng; Lu, Xiaofang; Chang, Dandan; Li, Xiuhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hemolymphangioma is a rare developmental error of combined blood and lymphatic vasculature. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one case of rectal hemolymphangioma reported in Pubmed. Our case probably is the first reported rectal hemolymphangioma with computed tomography (CT) evaluation. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 57-year-old male was presented to our hospital with 55 years of long history of episodic rectal bleeding. Past medical history showed numerous hospital visits for similar illness. Multiple diagnoses were made and different treatment modalities were applied for his benefit, but none of them relieved the symptoms permanently. He was then referred to our hospital. On admission, he was presented with intermediate rectal bleeding of fresh blood. CT examination showed isodense homogenous rectal wall thickening with heterogeneous enhancement on contrast examination. Multiple calcifications were seen in and around the lesion. Interventions and outcomes: He underwent open abdominal surgery with total surgical excision of the lesion. Post-surgical histopathological examination of excised specimen showed submucosal multiple thin-walled vessel of varying size, some consistent with blood vessel and other with lymph vessel, thus diagnosis of hemolymphangioma was made. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Lessions: Hemolymphangioma is a benign developmental lesion. Radiological findings can be challenging and range from benign cystic lesion to aggressive lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, combined clinical history, radiological findings, and continuous follow-up can help make proper diagnosis and provide prompt and accurate treatment. PMID:28272235

  1. Seasonal changes in ambulatory blood pressure in employees under different indoor temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Kristal-Boneh, E; Harari, G; Green, M S; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The effect of indoor temperature control on summer and winter ambulatory blood pressure levels at work was studied. METHOD--Ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were monitored once in summer and once in winter in 101 healthy normotensive subjects aged 28-63 years, engaged in similar physical work, from two plants with and three without air conditioning. Subjects were interviewed about health related habits, and measurements of environmental and occupational conditions were obtained. RESULTS--After controlling for possible confounders, mean SBP and DBP during work were significantly higher in winter than in summer (delta SBP = 3.4 mm Hg, P = 0.035; delta DBP = 3.3 mm Hg, P < 0.003). The seasonal change in SBP and DBP showed an independent association with the presence or absence of air conditioning of the industrial plants (SBP: beta = 0.194, P < 0.0001; DBP: beta = 0.054, P = 0.038). The percentage of subjects with increases of more than 10 mm Hg from summer to winter was higher in plants without than with air conditioning. CONCLUSIONS--(1) In normotensive subjects ambulatory working BP varies by season, with higher values in winter. If validated for hypertensive subjects, it may be necessary to tailor drug treatment to these variations. (2) The findings make it clear that drawing valid conclusions from comparisons of BPs between groups requires controlling for several factors, particularly season of the year. (3) Climatic conditions in the industrial plant influence the magnitude of seasonal variations in BP. Work in plants without air conditioning places a considerable added load on the employee's cardiovascular system. PMID:8535490

  2. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3 ± 0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0 ± 0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3 ± 1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature. PMID:27657715

  3. Study on rectal administration of azithromycin by suppository for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Miyuki; Nakano, Yukitaka; Aoyama, Takahiko; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Fujito, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is widely used as a first-line treatment option for children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Although pharmacists perform medication counseling in the pediatric ward, children often experience vomiting as a result of oral AZM administration. Drugs that are administered rectally are generally considered to enter the circulation system without passing through the liver first. The aim of our study was to prepare an AZM suppository and investigate the pharmaceutical properties and well as pharmacokinetics of the rectal administration route in humans. Five healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All subjects provided written informed consent before participating in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either oral administration of oral AZM 500-mg tablet or rectal administration of 125-mg, 250-mg, or 500-mg AZM suppository. Blood samples for preparation of serum were collected predose as well as at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours following the first rectal dose. Serum concentrations of AZM were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. The bioavailability of the AZM suppository through rectal administration was 20.3% compared to oral administration. We hypothesize that the surface area where AZM is absorbed also affects the absorption by rectal administration. Although further investigation is necessary to improve the absorption of AZM by the rectum and to ensure safety in children, the AZM suppository may be an effective preparation in cases where oral administration is not tolerated.

  4. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to study the thermo-mechanical effects associated with cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy), the current study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic temperatures. This device is demonstrated on a bovine carotid artery model, permeated with the cryoprotectant cocktail VS55 and a reference solution of 7.05M DMSO, below glass transition. Results are also presented for crystallized specimens, in the absence of cryoprotectants. Results indicate that the elastic modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about −140°C (8.6°C and 15.5°C below the glass transition temperature of 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively), is 1038.8 ± 25.2 MPa, which is 8% and 3% higher than that of a vitrified specimen permeated with 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively. The elastic modulus of a crystallized material at −50°C is lower by ~20% lower from that at −140°C. PMID:18958183

  5. BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION III: WHAT HAPPENS WHEN ONE SYSTEM MUST SERVE TWO MASTERS: TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE REGULATION?

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Bruning, Rebecca S.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2013-01-01

    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control where one circulation benefits with little functional effect on the other. In young, healthy subjects, arterial pressure rarely falls to any great extent during either extreme passive heating or prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat. Nor does body temperature rise disproportionately due to a compromised skin blood flow. Rather, it often takes the superimposition of additional stressors – e.g., dehydration or simulated hemorrhage – upon heat stress to substantially impact blood pressure regulation. PMID:23636697

  6. Blood pressure regulation III: what happens when one system must serve two masters: temperature and pressure regulation?

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Bruning, Rebecca S; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-03-01

    When prolonged intense exercise is performed at high ambient temperatures, cardiac output must meet dual demands for increased blood flow to contracting muscle and to the skin. The literature has commonly painted this scenario as a fierce competition, wherein one circulation preserves perfusion at the expense of the other, with the regulated maintenance of blood pressure as the ultimate goal. This review redefines this scenario as commensalism, an integrated balance of regulatory control where one circulation benefits with little functional effect on the other. In young, healthy subjects, arterial pressure rarely falls to any great extent during either extreme passive heating or prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat, nor does body temperature rise disproportionately due to a compromised skin blood flow. Rather, it often takes the superimposition of additional stressors--e.g., dehydration or simulated hemorrhage--upon heat stress to substantially impact blood pressure regulation.

  7. Analysis of cooling effect by blood vessel on temperature rise due to ultrasound radiation in tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuma; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Fukasawa, Kota; Hatano, Yuichi; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound diagnostic equipment using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques is considered minimally invasive and highly versatile. However, one of the causes of damage due to ultrasound radiation is temperature rise caused by the absorption of sound energy. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the temperature rise caused by the radiation of ultrasound. Sound intensity in a medium is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the temperature distribution caused by sound is estimated by the heat conduction equation (HCE) method in this study. Because blood vessels keep the temperature constant in tissues, the cooling effect of blood flow has to be taken into account for the precise estimation of temperature rise in human tissues. In general, it is well known that capillary vessels are mainly responsible for the cooling effect in tissues and their effect can be estimated as a function of bloodstream ratio. In this paper, a preliminary study on the cooling effect by a large vessel is described for the precise estimation of temperature rise. Blood flow in blood vessels is analyzed using the Navier-Stokes equation. To confirm the precision of the numerical analysis, the results of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results using a soft tissue phantom.

  8. Effect of luteal phase elevation in core temperature on forearm blood flow during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kolka, M A; Stephenson, L A

    1997-04-01

    Forearm blood flow (FBF) as an index of skin blood flow in the forearm was measured in five healthy women by venous occlusion plethysmography during leg exercise at 80% peak aerobic power and ambient temperature of 35 degrees C (relative humidity 22%; dew-point temperature 10 degrees C). Resting esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 0.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C higher in the midluteal than in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P < 0.05). Resting FBF was not different between menstrual cycle phases. The T(es) threshold for onset of skin vasodilation was higher (37.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) in midluteal than in early follicular phase (37.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05). The slope of the FBF to T(es) relationship was not different between menstrual cycle phases (14.0 +/- 4.2 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1) x degrees C(-1) for early follicular and 16.3 +/- 3.2 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1) x degrees C(-1) for midluteal phase). Plateau FBF was higher during exercise in midluteal (14.6 +/- 2.2 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1) x degrees C(-1)) compared with early follicular phase (10.9 +/- 2.4 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1) x degrees C(-1); P < 0.05). The attenuation of the increase in FBF to T(es) occurred when T(es) was 0.6 degrees C higher and at higher FBF in midluteal than in early follicular experiments (P < 0.05). In summary, the FBF response is different during exercise in the two menstrual cycle phases studied. After the attenuation of the increase in FBF and while T(es) was still increasing, the greater FBF in the midluteal phase may have been due to the effects of increased endogenous reproductive endocrines on the cutaneous vasculature.

  9. Critical O/sub 2/ transport values at lowered body temperatures in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, S.M.; Bradley, W.E.

    1983-12-01

    Young male rats were exposed to 34 C temperatures and increased ventilation to determine if arterial uptake of O2 increased in either normoxic, hyperoxic, or hypoxic conditions during mild hypothermia and increased blood flow rates. The heart rates, arterial pressure, rectal temperature, and blood O2 sample concentrations were monitored. Rectal temperatures of 34, 36, and 38 C were studied. Insertion of a tracheal tube into the right ventricle permitted controlling the O2 input. The O2 uptake was significantly less in the rats at 34 C, and increasing the O2 transport through the catheter did not alter the situation. The data suggested that O2 transfer to the tissues is reduced in amounts corresponding to the reduction in O2 requirements in hypoxic conditions.

  10. Influence of cold-water immersion on limb blood flow after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Chris; Jones, Helen; Low, David A; Green, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Gregson, Warren

    2017-06-01

    This study determined the influence of cold (8°C) and cool (22°C) water immersion on lower limb and cutaneous blood flow following resistance exercise. Twelve males completed 4 sets of 10-repetition maximum squat exercise and were then immersed, semi-reclined, into 8°C or 22°C water for 10-min, or rested in a seated position (control) in a randomized order on different days. Rectal and thigh skin temperature, muscle temperature, thigh and calf skin blood flow and superficial femoral artery blood flow were measured before and after immersion. Indices of vascular conductance were calculated (flux and blood flow/mean arterial pressure). The colder water reduced thigh skin temperature and deep muscle temperature to the greatest extent (P < .001). Reductions in rectal temperature were similar (0.2-0.4°C) in all three trials (P = .69). Femoral artery conductance was similar after immersion in both cooling conditions, with both conditions significantly lower (55%) than the control post-immersion (P < .01). Similarly, there was greater thigh and calf cutaneous vasoconstriction (40-50%) after immersion in both cooling conditions, relative to the control (P < .01), with no difference between cooling conditions. These findings suggest that cold and cool water similarly reduce femoral artery and cutaneous blood flow responses but not muscle temperature following resistance exercise.

  11. Multidisciplinary management in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hervás Morón, Asunción; García de Paredes, María Luisa; Lobo Martínez, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer has evolved over the last few decades from surgery alone to treatments with trimodal therapy for high-risk patients. The involvement of a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, radiotherapists and medical oncologists is now fundamental for decision-making and outcomes. The evolution of different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has optimised the therapeutic rate. Future studies will determine the optimal regimen for inducing complete responses in locally advanced disease and whether the intensification of local treatments could enable the use of more conservative treatments, as for other tumour locations. The study of biomarkers will be essential in this respect.

  12. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  13. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Ibn Majdoub, Karim; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100,000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis.

  14. Reduced and reversed temperature dependence of blood oxygenation in an ectothermic scombrid fish: implications for the evolution of regional heterothermy?

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy Darren; Rummer, J L; Sepulveda, C A; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

    2010-01-01

    Tunas (family Scombridae) are exceptional among most teleost fishes in that they possess vascular heat exchangers which allow heat retention in specific regions of the body (termed 'regional heterothermy'). Seemingly exclusive to heterothermic fishes is a markedly reduced temperature dependence of blood-oxygen (blood-O(2)) binding, or even a reversed temperature dependence where increasing temperature increases blood-O(2) affinity. These unusual binding properties have been documented in whole blood and in haemoglobin (Hb) solutions, and they are hypothesised to prevent oxygen loss from arteries to veins within the vascular heat exchangers and/or to prevent excessive oxygen unloading to the warm tissues and ensure an adequate supply of oxygen to tissues positioned efferent to the heat exchangers. The temperature sensitivity of blood-O(2) binding has not been characterised in an ectothermic scombrid (mackerels and bonitos), but the existence of the unusual binding properties in these fishes would have clear implications for their proposed association with regional heterothermy. Accordingly, the present study examined oxygenation of whole blood of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) at 10, 20 and 30 degrees C and at 0.5, 1 and 2% CO(2). Oxygen affinity was generally highest at 20 degrees C for all levels of CO(2). Temperature-independent binding was observed at low (0.5%) CO(2), where the PO(2) at 50% blood-O(2) saturation (P (50)) was not statistically different at 10 and 30 degrees C (2.58 vs. 2.78 kPa, respectively) with an apparent heat of oxygenation (H degrees ) close to zero (-6 kJ mol(-1)). The most significant temperature-mediated difference occurred at high (2%) CO(2), where the P (50) at 10 degrees C was twofold higher than that at 20 degrees C with a corresponding H degrees of +43 kJ mol(-1). These results provide clear evidence of independent and reversed open-system temperature effects on blood oxygenation in S. japonicus, and it is therefore

  15. Effect of fasting and acute heat stress on body temperature, blood acid-base and electrolyte status in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ait-Boulahsen, A; Garlich, J D; Edens, F W

    1989-01-01

    1. The tolerance of chickens to acute heat stress, evaluated by the time required to reach the critical body temperature (Tr) of 44.5 degrees C, was markedly enhanced as the period of fasting was extended. 2. Fasting reduced the rates of heat-induced changes in blood acid-base and electrolyte status. 3. Changes in Tr were correlated with changes in blood pH, pCO2, [Cl-] and [Pi] but not with changes in [Na+] or [K+]. 4. Blood acid-base and electrolyte status were related to Tr rather than time of exposure to heat stress.

  16. Enteral, oral, and rectal absorption of ceftriaxone using glyceride enhancers.

    PubMed

    Beskid, G; Unowsky, J; Behl, C R; Siebelist, J; Tossounian, J L; McGarry, C M; Shah, N H; Cleeland, R

    1988-01-01

    In vivo models in rodents and primates were used to investigate ways of overcoming the poor oral and rectal absorption of ceftriaxone. The sodium salt of ceftriaxone at 20 mg/kg was formulated in C8-C10 chain length, mono- and diglyceride extracts of coconut oil (Capmul) and administered intraduodenally to adult rats. Peak plasma levels of 17-52 micrograms/ml and bioavailability averaging 38% were attained. Significant plasma levels (42-45 micrograms/ml) were also demonstrated in squirrel monkeys with doses of 20 mg/kg ceftriaxone formulated in Capmul and given by the enteral route. Enteric-coated capsules containing this formulation were also orally administered to squirrel monkeys and gave high plasma levels (10-31 micrograms/ml) between 1 and 6 h following dosing. In rectal absorption studies, ceftriaxone formulated in Capmul as a suspension gave peak blood levels of 62-84 micrograms/ml (average bioavailability 42%) in the rabbit. In the baboon, rectal administration of ceftriaxone formulated with Capmul in a Witepsol H15 suppository gave Cmax levels ranging from 9 to 48 micrograms/ml, depending on the dose of the antibiotic and the drug/enhancer ratio.

  17. Study on the Effect of Thermal and Magnetic Stimulation by Measuring of the Peripheral Blood Flow and Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Kouhei; Nuruki, Atsuo; Tamari, Youzou; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    Recently, the stiff shoulder accompanying the muscle fatigue becomes an issue of public concern. Therefore, we paid attention to the effect of the thermal and magnetic stimulation for the muscle fatigue. The maximum voluntary contraction has recovered significantly, and also peripheral blood flow has increased by stimulation. In order to evaluate if the thermal and magnetic stimulation has any effects, three parameters was measured, which are the maximum voluntary contraction, peripheral blood flow and skin temperature. The skin temperature, however, did not changed significantly.

  18. Shipping blood to a central laboratory in multicenter clinical trials: effect of ambient temperature on specimen temperature, and effects of temperature on mononuclear cell yield, viability and immunologic function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of immunologic therapies provide opportunities to study the cellular and molecular effects of those therapies and may permit identification of biomarkers of response. When the trials are performed at multiple centers, transport and storage of clinical specimens become important variables that may affect lymphocyte viability and function in blood and tissue specimens. The effect of temperature during storage and shipment of peripheral blood on subsequent processing, recovery, and function of lymphocytes is understudied and represents the focus of this study. Methods Peripheral blood samples (n = 285) from patients enrolled in 2 clinical trials of a melanoma vaccine were shipped from clinical centers 250 or 1100 miles to a central laboratory at the sponsoring institution. The yield of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected before and after cryostorage was correlated with temperatures encountered during shipment. Also, to simulate shipping of whole blood, heparinized blood from healthy donors was collected and stored at 15°C, 22°C, 30°C, or 40°C, for varied intervals before isolation of PBMC. Specimen integrity was assessed by measures of yield, recovery, viability, and function of isolated lymphocytes. Several packaging systems were also evaluated during simulated shipping for the ability to maintain the internal temperature in adverse temperatures over time. Results Blood specimen containers experienced temperatures during shipment ranging from -1 to 35°C. Exposure to temperatures above room temperature (22°C) resulted in greater yields of PBMC. Reduced cell recovery following cryo-preservation as well as decreased viability and immune function were observed in specimens exposed to 15°C or 40°C for greater than 8 hours when compared to storage at 22°C. There was a trend toward improved preservation of blood specimen integrity stored at 30°C prior to processing for all time points tested. Internal temperatures of

  19. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. Objectives: To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. Patients and Methods: 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. Results: PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P < 0.001). In samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. Conclusions: In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour. PMID:26019892

  20. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-11

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  1. The effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Källman, Ulrika; Engström, Maria; Bergstrand, Sara; Ek, Anna-Christina; Fredrikson, Mats; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Lindgren, Margareta

    2015-03-01

    Although repositioning is considered an important intervention to prevent pressure ulcers, tissue response during loading in different lying positions has not been adequately explored. To compare the effects of different lying positions on interface pressure, skin temperature, and tissue blood flow in nursing home residents. From May 2011 to August 2012, interface pressure, skin temperature, and blood flow at three tissue depths were measured for 1 hr over the sacrum in 30° supine tilt and 0° supine positions and over the trochanter major in 30° lateral and 90° lateral positions in 25 residents aged 65 years or older. Measurement of interface pressure was accomplished using a pneumatic pressure transmitter connected to a digital manometer, skin temperature using a temperature sensor, and blood flow using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flowmetry. Interface pressure was significantly higher in the 0° supine and 90° lateral positions than in 30° supine tilt and 30° lateral positions. The mean skin temperature increased from baseline in all positions. Blood flow was significantly higher in the 30° supine tilt position compared to the other positions. A hyperemic response in the post pressure period was seen at almost all tissue depths and positions. The 30° supine tilt position generated less interface pressure and allowed greater tissue perfusion, suggesting that this position is the most beneficial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Long-Term Stability of Inorganic, Methyl and Ethyl Mercury in Whole Blood: Effects of Storage Temperature and Time

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Yuliya L.; Ward, Cynthia D.; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of temperature on the long-term stability of three mercury species in bovine blood. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis to determine the concentrations of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg) and ethyl (EtHg) mercury species in two blood pools stored at temperatures of −70, −20, 4, 23°C (room temperature) and 37°C. Over the course of a year, we analyzed aliquots of pooled specimens at time intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months. We applied a fixed-effects linear model, step-down pairwise comparison and coefficient of variation statistical analysis to examine the temperature and time effects on changes in mercury species concentrations. We observed several instances of statistically significant differences in mercury species concentrations between different temperatures and time points; however, with considerations of experimental factors (such as instrumental drift and sample preparation procedures), not all differences were scientifically important. We concluded that iHg, MeHg and EtHg species in bovine whole blood were stable at −70, −20, 4 and 23°C for 1 year, but blood samples stored at 37°C were stable for no more than 2 weeks. PMID:26912563

  3. [Rectal administration of anesthetic agents].

    PubMed

    Ceriana, P; Maurelli, M

    1995-05-01

    To collect data in the current literature dealing with the diffusion, the reliability and the effectiveness of the rectal administration of anaesthetic drugs. To evaluate differences with parenteral administration. Pharmacokinetics and clinical studies published in recent years in indexed journals. Based on the study methodology, drugs employed and pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated. Factors involved in absorption of drugs from the rectal mucosa, clinical effect and pharmacokinetic data of the following drugs: diazepam, flunitrazepam, midazolam, ketamin and methohexital, then a brief evaluation of other drugs: thiopental, etomidate, morphine and chloral hydrate. The most widely used drugs are benzodiazepines: they are safe, easy to manage and highly effective; among them midazolam has the best kinetic and dynamic pattern. Ketamin is useful during painful diagnostic procedures; with the use of barbiturates there is a greater risk of respiratory depression and more caution must be employed. Wide intervariability of rate of absorption, achievement of plasma levels and clinical effect is a relevant drawback of this technique, such to make it not preferable to the parenteral route, when both are feasible. It deserves, anyway, more consideration, and maintains its validity for the preparation of the paediatric patient to general anaesthesia.

  4. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  5. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature or in iced water and blood gas analysis was performed at baseline and after 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. RESULTS--In the first 10 minutes measured PaO2 in plastic syringes at room temperature fell by an average of 1.21 kPa/min; placing the sample on ice reduced the rate of PaO2 decline to 0.19 kPa/min. The rate of fall of PaO2 in glass at room temperature was 0.49 kPa/min. The changes in PaCO2 were less dramatic and at room temperature averaged increases of 0.47 kPa for plastic syringes and 0.71 kPa for glass syringes over the entire two hour period. These changes in gas tension for plastic syringes would lead to an overestimation of pulmonary shunt measured by the 100% oxygen technique of 0.6% for each minute left at room temperature before analysis. CONCLUSIONS--Glass syringes are superior to plastic syringes in preserving samples with a high PaO2, and prompt and adequate cooling of such samples is essential for accurate blood gas analysis. PMID:8016801

  6. Evaluation of overnight hold of whole blood at room temperature before component processing: effect of red blood cell (RBC) additive solutions on in vitro RBC measures.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Cancelas, Jose A; Cardigan, Rebecca; Devine, Dana V; Gulliksson, Hans; Sparrow, Rosemary L; Vassallo, Ralph R; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Baumann-Baretti, Bärbel; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Whole blood (WB) can be held at room temperature (18-25°C) up to 8 hours after collection; thereafter the unit must be refrigerated, rendering it unsuitable for platelet (PLT) production. Overnight hold at room temperature before processing has logistic advantages, and we evaluated this process in an international multicenter study for both buffy coat (BC)- and PLT-rich plasma (PRP)-based blood components and compared three red blood cell (RBC) additive solutions (ASs) for their ability to offset effects of overnight hold. Nine centers participated; seven used the BC method, and two used the PRP method. Four WB units were pooled and split; 1 unit was processed less than 8 hours from collection (Group A), and the other three (Groups B, C, and D) were held at room temperature and processed after 24 to 26 hours. RBCs in Groups A and B were resuspended in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol, Group C in phosphate-adenine-guanosine-glucose-saline-mannitol, and Group D in ErythroSol-4 RBCs were stored at 2 to 6°C for 49 days. RBCs from overnight-held WB had lower 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and higher adenosine triphosphate (ATP). At the end of storage there were no differences between groups, apart from a slightly higher hemolysis in Group B. ErythroSol-4 showed a slightly higher initial ATP and 2,3-DPG content, but at the end of storage no differences were found. Overnight hold of WB before processing has no lasting deleterious effects on in vitro quality of subsequently prepared components. The use of different RBC ASs did not appear to offer significant advantages in terms of RBC quality at the end, regardless of the processing method. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

    2014-09-07

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present.

  8. Three-dimensional interactions of mean body and local skin temperatures in the control of hand and foot blood flows.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Matsuda-Nakamura, Mayumi; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-08-01

    Much is known about the control of blood flow, yet gaps remain concerning the interactions of deep-body and peripheral thermal feedback. In this experiment, changes in the vascular tone of the hands and feet were mapped to demonstrate the separate and combined influences of mean body and local skin temperature changes. Eight males participated in three trials. Three pre-experimental conditions were established via water immersion (oesophageal temperatures: 36.1, 37.0, 38.5 °C), with core and mean skin temperatures then clamped (water-perfusion garment) whilst five thermal treatments were applied to the right hand and left foot (5, 15, 25, 33, 40 °C). This yielded 15 thermal combinations under which hand and foot blood flows were measured (displacement plethysmography). Lower volume-specific blood flows were observed at the foot for almost all temperature combinations. When thermoneutral and moderately hyperthermic, the cutaneous thermosensitivity of the hand was significantly greater: thermoneutral: 0.2 vs. 0.1 (foot) mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (P < 0.05); moderate hyperthermia: 0.4 vs. 0.2 (foot) mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (P < 0.05). The hand was 13 times more responsive to core temperature elevations than an equivalent local skin temperature change. For the foot, this thermosensitivity differed by a factor of 26. These observations identified the hands as heat radiators, with the feet resisting heat loss, and reinforce the dominance of central thermal feedback, particularly in controlling foot blood flow. However, thermosensitivity to local skin temperature changes was highly plastic, site-specific and dictated by thermal and regional variations in vaso- and venoconstrictor tone.

  9. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood markers of coagulation and inflammation in potentially susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Schäuble, Claudia Luise; Hampel, Regina; Breitner, Susanne; Rückerl, Regina; Phipps, Richard; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Devlin, Robert B; Carter, Jacqueline D; Soukup, Joleen; Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Belcredi, Petra; Kraus, Ute; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra E

    2012-09-01

    Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of procoagulant and proinflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. The authors investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C reactive protein in two potentially susceptible groups. This prospective panel study was conducted between March 2007 and December 2008 in Augsburg, Germany. The study population comprised 187 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and 87 participants with genetic polymorphisms on the detoxification and inflammation pathways. Overall, 1766 repeated blood measurements were collected. Hourly meteorology data were available from a central measurement site. The association between temperature and blood markers was analysed with additive mixed models. For type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance participants, the authors observed immediate, lagged and cumulative increases in fibrinogen (range of percentage changes in geometric mean: 0.6%-0.8%) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (6.0%-10.1%) in association with a 5°C temperature decrement. Participants with a body mass index above 30 kg/m(2) as well as females showed particularly strong fibrinogen effects. In participants with the special genetic background, 5°C decreases in the 5-day average of temperature led to a change of 8.0% (95% CI 0.5% to 16.2%) in interleukin-6 and of -8.4% (95% CI -15.8% to -0.3%) in high-sensitivity C reactive protein, the latter driven by physically active individuals. The authors observed different temperature effects on blood markers in two potentially susceptible groups probably indicating varying underlying biological mechanisms. This study results might provide a link between temperature and cardiovascular events.

  10. Natural blood feeding and temperature shift modulate the global transcriptional profile of Rickettsia rickettsii infecting its tick vector.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Maria Fernanda B M; Fujita, André; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Malossi, Camila D; Pinter, Adriano; Soares, João F; Daffre, Sirlei; Labruna, Marcelo B; Fogaça, Andréa C

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF), the most lethal spotted fever rickettsiosis. When an infected starving tick begins blood feeding from a vertebrate host, R. rickettsii is exposed to a temperature elevation and to components in the blood meal. These two environmental stimuli have been previously associated with the reactivation of rickettsial virulence in ticks, but the factors responsible for this phenotype conversion have not been completely elucidated. Using customized oligonucleotide microarrays and high-throughput microfluidic qRT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of a 10°C temperature elevation and of a blood meal on the transcriptional profile of R. rickettsii infecting the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. This is the first study of the transcriptome of a bacterium in the genus Rickettsia infecting a natural tick vector. Although both stimuli significantly increased bacterial load, blood feeding had a greater effect, modulating five-fold more genes than the temperature upshift. Certain components of the Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) were up-regulated by blood feeding. This suggests that this important bacterial transport system may be utilized to secrete effectors during the tick vector's blood meal. Blood feeding also up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes, which might correspond to an attempt by R. rickettsii to protect itself against the deleterious effects of free radicals produced by fed ticks. The modulated genes identified in this study, including those encoding hypothetical proteins, require further functional analysis and may have potential as future targets for vaccine development.

  11. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 3. Body weight, cloacal temperatures, and blood acid-base balance in broilers exposed to daily high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Cabuk, M; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parental age and heat acclimation during incubation on BW, cloacal temperature, and blood acid-base balance in fast-growing broilers exposed to daily cyclic high ambient temperatures from 21 to 42 d posthatch. Eggs obtained from 32- (younger), 42- (middle-aged), and 65-wk-old (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at the control incubation temperature (IT(CONT)) and the second group was heat acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (IT(HA)). Chicks were reared at standard brooding temperatures from d 1 to 21. From d 21 to 42, half of the broilers per incubation temperature and parental age were kept as controls (AT(CONT)) and the other half were exposed to daily cyclic heat treatment (AT(HIGH)) to impose a stress response. The reduction in BW at AT(HIGH) was more pronounced for progeny from older compared with younger parents. However, this reduction in BW was more or less abolished for broilers from eggs incubated at IT(HIGH), implying an increased tolerance to heat stress. Compared with IT(CONT,) IT(HA) reduced BW of broilers from 32- and 42-wk-old parents while having no effect on those from 65-wk-old parents when reared at AT(CONT). Higher blood pH, and lower partial pressure CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) at AT(HIGH) were associated with greater cloacal temperatures throughout the heat stress from d 21 to 42. Increases in cloacal temperature by AT(HIGH) were greater for IT(CONT) than for IT(HA) broilers. The AT(HIGH) and IT(HA) broilers had lesser blood partial pressure CO(2) concentrations than AT(CONT) and IT(CONT), respectively. Although at AT(HIGH), blood HCO(3)(-) was lower for broilers from all parental ages, it was more pronounced for those from 65-wk-old parents. It is concluded that these changes in blood acid-base balance reflected adaptive responses to heat stress, and incubating eggs at IT(HA) improved thermotolerance of fast

  12. Depletion of GSH in human blood plasma and cytosolic fraction during cadmium toxicity is temperature and pH dependent.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hashmat; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Hashmat, Farwa

    2016-01-01

    Toxicities of heavy metals is a burning issue and a topic of interest among the toxicologists throughout the world. Metals are always in use of man since long but in recent years the use of cadmium has increased in the form of various cadmium compounds such as cadmium compounds as stabilizers in plastic pipe industries and in the preparations of different alloys etc. Cadmium is even used in phosphate fertilizers and thus comes directly or indirectly in contact with human eatables like crops, vegetables and fruits. Once it is absorbed it affects almost all the organs and systems of human body especially blood components and kidneys. Always the chemical reactions of different chemicals are dependent on some influential factors, among these factors the effect of pH and temperature of the media in which these chemicals interact with each other are very much important. Keeping in view this fact we have evaluated the effect of cadmium nitrate tetra hydrate on GSH of human plasma and cytosolic fraction. Estimation of thiol was done by Ellman's modified method and was found that the interaction of cadmium nitrate tetra hydrate and GSH of these blood components was more at a pH and temperature, which were near to physiological pH and temperature of human body. This fact was proved as the estimated thiol concentration left after the interaction of cadmium nitrate tetra hydrate and thiol of these blood components was minimum at pH and temperature near to human blood pH and temperature. We concluded that the possible reason for depletion of GSH of these blood components was conversion of GSH into Cd(SG) (2) and/or GSSG formation.

  13. Development of the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) Rectal Cancer Surgery Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Sean C.; Morris, Arden M.; Baxter, Nancy N.; Fleshman, James W.; Alavi, Karim S.; Luchtefeld, Martin A.; Monson, John R. T.; Chang, George J.; Temple, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is excellent evidence that surgical safety checklists contribute to decreased morbidity and mortality. Objective To develop a surgical checklist comprising the key phases of care for rectal cancer patients. Design Consensus-oriented decision-making model involving iterative input from subject matter experts under the auspices of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Results The process generated a 25-item checklist covering the spectrum of care for rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Limitations Lack of prospective validation. Conclusions The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Rectal Cancer Surgery checklist comprises the essential elements of pre-, intra- and postoperative care that must be addressed during the surgical treatment of patients with rectal cancer. PMID:27270511

  14. Future of therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2013-06-01

    Since 2004, the standard of care for patients with cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer has been preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of advances have occurred and are defining the future of rectal cancer therapy. Among these are short course radiation, the impact of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, selective radiation and selective surgery, and new chemoradiation regimens with novel agents. This review will examine these developments and assess their impact on the future therapy of rectal cancer.

  15. Paediatric rectal prolapse in Rwanda.

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, E J; Duckett, J; Lewin, J

    1996-01-01

    During the 1994 crisis in Rwanda, a high incidence of full-thickness rectal prolapse was noted among the refugee children in the south-west of the country. The prolapses arose as a result of acute diarrhoeal illness superimposed on malnutrition and worm infestation. We used a modification of the Thiersch wire technique in 40 of these cases during two months working in a refugee camp. A catgut pursestring was tied around the anal margin under local, regional or general anaesthesia. This was effective in achieving short-term control of full-thickness prolapse until the underlying illness was corrected. Under the circumstances, no formal follow-up could be arranged; however, no complications were reported and only one patient presented with recurrence. Images Figure 1 PMID:9014879

  16. Mechanical suture in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Cornel Dragos; Simon, Ioan; Fabian, Ovidiu; Maghiar, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent digestive malignancies, being the third cause of death by cancer, despite early diagnosis and therapeutic progress made over the past years. Standard treatment in these patients is to preserve the anal sphincter with restoration of intestinal function by mechanical colorectal anastomosis or coloanal anastomosis, and to maintain genitourinary function by preservation of hypogastric nerves. In order to emphasize the importance of this surgical technique in the Fourth Surgical Clinic of the CF Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca, we conducted a prospective observational interventional study over a 3-year period (2013-2016) in 165 patients hospitalized for rectal and rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma in various disease stages, who underwent Dixon surgery using the two techniques of manual and mechanical end-to-end anastomosis. For mechanical anastomosis, we used Covidien and Panther circular staplers. The patients were assigned to two groups, group A in which Dixon surgery with manual end-to-end anastomosis was performed (116 patients), and group B in which Dixon surgery with mechanical end-to-end anastomosis was carried out (49 patients). Mechanical anastomosis allowed to restore intestinal continuity following low anterior resection in 21 patients with lower rectal adenocarcinoma compared to 2 patients in whom intestinal continuity was restored by manual anastomosis, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.000001). The double-row mechanical suture technique is associated with a reduced duration of surgery (121.67 minutes for Dixon surgery with mechanical anastomosis, compared to 165.931 minutes for Dixon surgery with manual anastomosis, p<0.0001). The use of circular transanal staplers facilitates end-to-end anastomosis by double-row mechanical suture, allowing to perform low anterior resection in situations when the restoration of intestinal continuity by manual anastomosis is technically not possible, with the aim to

  17. A rare cause of chronic rectal bleeding in children; solitary rectal ulcer: case report.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Barış, Sancar; Arıtürk, Ender

    2011-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema.

  18. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  19. Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor as an incidental finding in a patient with rectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Fan, Ren-Gen; zha, Wen-Zhang; Xu, Yong-Hua; Qing, Cheng-Lin; Jia, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A patient who was diagnosed as rectal polyps in the local hospital went to our hospital for surgical treatment. Abdominal CT demonstrated a large irregular extra-luminal tumor of at least 5 cm cross-section on the ventral side of the lower rectal wall. Intraoperatively, a large irregular extra-luminal tumor (about 5×4.5×4 cm) was found. Anterior resection with end colostomy and rectal stump (Hartmann's procedure) was performed. Postoperative histological examination showed simultaneous development of rectal GIST and polyps.

  20. Robotic-Laparoscopic Rectal Cancer Excision Versus Traditional Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Michael S.; Abbass, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robotic surgery has been advocated for the radical excision of rectal cancer. Most data supporting its use have been reported from European and Asian centers, with a paucity of data from the United States documenting clear advantages of the robotic technique. This study compares the short-term outcome of robotic versus laparoscopic surgery. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic (group 1) or robotic (group 2) rectal cancer excision at a single institution over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were operative time, blood loss, conversion rates, number of lymph nodes, margin positivity, length of hospital stay, complications, and readmission rates. Results: Forty-two patients were analyzed. The median operative time was shorter in group 1 than that in group 2 (240 minutes vs 260 minutes, P = .04). No difference was noted in blood loss, transfusion rates, intraoperative complications, or conversion rates. There was no difference in circumferential or distal margin positivity. The median length of stay was shorter in group 1 (5 days vs 6 days, P = .05). The 90-day complication rate was similar in both groups (33% vs 43%, P = .75), but there was a trend toward more anastomotic leaks in group 1 (14% vs 0%, P = .23). Similarly, a non–statistically significant trend toward a higher readmission rate was noted in group 1 (24% vs 5%, P = .18). Conclusion: Robotic rectal cancer excision yielded a longer operative time and hospital length of stay, although immediate oncologic results were comparable. The need for randomized data is critical to determine whether the added resource utilization in robotic surgery is justifiable. PMID:25392653

  1. The effect of time, temperature and storage device on umbilical cord blood gas and lactate measurement: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    White, Christopher R H; Mok, Tabitha; Doherty, Dorota A; Henderson, Jennifer J; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2012-06-01

    Umbilical cord blood gas analysis has a significant and growing role in early neonatal assessment. Factors often delay analysis of cord blood allowing values to change. Consequently, this study evaluates the impact of time, temperature and method of storage on umbilical blood gas and lactate analyses. Umbilical cord segments from 80 singleton deliveries were randomized to: cords at room temperature (CR), cords stored on ice (CI), syringes at room temperature (SR) or syringes stored on ice (SI). Analysis occurred every 15 minutes for one-hour. Mixed model analysis of variance allowing for repeated measures was utilized. Cord arterial pH deteriorated in CR, CI, and SI within 15 minutes (p ≤ 0.001), with SR stable until 60 minutes (p = 0.002). Arterial pCO(2) remained stable in SR and CI, increased in SI (p = 0.002; 45 minutes) and decreased in CR (p < 0.001; 45 minutes). Arterial base excess deteriorated in CR and SI (p ≤ 0.009; 15 minutes), SR (p < 0.001; 30 minutes), and CI (p < 0.001; 45 minutes). Arterial lactate levels increased within 15 minutes in all groups (p < 0.001). Cord blood gas values change rapidly after delivery. Smallest changes were seen in SR group. Data suggest that analyses should be conducted as soon as possible after delivery.

  2. Outdoor temperature, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease mortality among 23 000 individuals with diagnosed cardiovascular diseases from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Li, Liming; Lewington, Sarah; Guo, Yu; Sherliker, Paul; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Liu, Yun; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Yongrui; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Shumei; Chen, Zhengming

    2015-05-14

    Blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and both may increase as outdoor temperatures fall. However, there are still limited data about seasonal variation in blood pressure and CVD mortality among patients with prior-CVD. We analysed data on 23 000 individuals with prior-CVD who were recruited from 10 diverse regions into the China Kadoorie Biobank during 2004-8. After 7 years of follow-up, 1484 CVD deaths were recorded. Baseline survey data were used to assess seasonal variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its association with outdoor temperature. Cox regression was used to examine the association of usual SBP with subsequent CVD mortality, and seasonal variation in CVD mortality was assessed by Poisson regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and region. Mean SBP was significantly higher in winter than in summer (145 vs. 136 mmHg, P < 0.001), especially among those without central heating. Above 5°C, each 10°C lower outdoor temperature was associated with 6.2 mmHg higher SBP. Systolic blood pressure predicted subsequent CVD mortality, with each 10 mmHg higher usual SBP associated with 21% (95% confidence interval: 16-27%) increased risk. Cardiovascular disease mortality varied by season, with 41% (21-63%) higher risk in winter compared with summer. Among adult Chinese with prior-CVD, there is both increased blood pressure and CVD mortality in winter. Careful monitoring and more aggressive blood pressure lowering treatment in the cold months are needed to help reduce the winter excess CVD mortality in high-risk individuals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Simulated Seasonal Photoperiods and Fluctuating Temperatures Have Limited Effects on Blood Feeding and Life History in Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Westby, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors change seasonally and impact life history in temperate-zone ectotherms. Temperature and photoperiod are factors that change in predictable ways. Most studies testing for effects of temperature on vectors use constant temperatures and ignore potential correlated effects of photoperiod. In two experiments, we tested for effects of larval rearing environments creating ecologically relevant temperatures and photoperiods simulating early and late season conditions (June and August), or constant temperatures (cool and warm) with the June or August photoperiods, respectively. We determined effects on survivorship, development, size, and a composite performance index in a temperate-zone population of Aedes triseriatus (Say). We followed cohorts of resulting females, all held under the same environmental conditions, to assess carry-over effects of rearing conditions for larvae on longevity, blood feeding, and egg production. Larval survivorship was affected by treatment in one experiment. Development time was greater in the June and cool treatments, but the constant and fluctuating temperatures did not differ. Significantly larger mosquitoes were produced in fluctuating versus constant temperature treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on the composite performance index. Adult female longevity was lower after rearing at constant versus fluctuating temperature, but there was no difference between June and August, nor did size affect longevity. There was no effect of treatments on blood feeding and a limited effect on egg production. We conclude that seasonal temperatures and photoperiods during development have limited effects on this population of A. triseriatus and find little evidence of strong effects of fluctuating versus constant temperatures. PMID:26336255

  4. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  5. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  6. How to Use Rectal Suppositories Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lubricate the suppository tip with a water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly, not petroleum jelly (Vaseline). If you do not have this lubricant, moisten your rectal area with cool tap water. ...

  7. Discrimination of rectal cancer through human serum using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Zhang, Su; Jin, Lili

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to detect the changes in blood serum components that accompany rectal cancer. The differences in serum SERS data between rectal cancer patients and healthy controls were examined. Postoperative rectal cancer patients also participated in the comparison to monitor the effects of cancer treatments. The results show that there are significant variations at certain wavenumbers which indicates alteration of corresponding biological substances. Principal component analysis (PCA) and parameters of intensity ratios were used on the original SERS spectra for the extraction of featured variables. These featured variables then underwent linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression tree (CART) for the discrimination analysis. Accuracies of 93.5 and 92.4 % were obtained for PCA-LDA and parameter-CART, respectively.

  8. Analysis of anastomotic leakage after rectal surgery: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery is around 10 percent. Poor blood supply to the anastomosis, high anastomotic pressure and tension, increased operative blood loss, long operative time, and male sex are risk factors of anastomotic leakage. In the present study, we examined anastomotic leakage cases in rectal surgery at our institute and tried to ascertain the risk factors. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients who underwent rectal resection with anastomosis between January 2008 and October 2013 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the existence of anastomotic leakage. Clinicopathological features, operative procedures, and intraoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Regarding intraoperative procedure, we focused on the ligation level of the inferior mesenteric artery, installing a transanal drainage tube in the rectum, and constructing a diverting stoma. Results Anastomotic leakage occurred in eight patients. All of them were male (p = 0.0284). There were no statistical differences in other characteristics of the patients or tumors, in operative procedures, or in intraoperative outcomes. Conclusions In the present study, no statistically significant risk factors for anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery were detected, except for male sex. However, the rate of anastomotic leakage at our institute was revealed to be rather low. Our exertion to preserve good blood flow and to prevent high tension and pressure on the anastomosis in operation may have led to this result. PMID:26042185

  9. Effect of additive solutions on red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties of stored RBCs prepared from whole blood held for 24 hours at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Veale, Margaret F; Healey, Gerry; Sparrow, Rosemary L

    2011-01-01

    The quality of RBC components is influenced by collection, processing and storage conditions. Regulations require that whole blood (WB) units be refrigerated within 8 hours and processed into RBCs within 24 hours of collection. Overnight room temperature hold of WB has logistical advantages, but the effect on RBC quality has not been fully investigated. RBC additive solutions were compared for their ability to provide improved quality of RBCs prepared from WB held at room temperature for 24 hours. Leukocyte-reduced RBCs were prepared from WB held at 20°C on cooling plates for 24 hours prior to processing. RBCs were stored in additive solutions, SAG-M (control), Erythrosol-4, and PAGGSM, under standard blood banking conditions and sampled during 49 days of storage. Stored RBCs were evaluated for RBC shape and microparticle (MP) accumulation using flow cytometry. Osmotic fragility, adhesion of RBCs to endothelium under shear stress conditions (0.5 dyne/cm(2) ), and routine RBC quality parameters were assessed. RBCs stored in Erythrosol-4 and PAGGSM had decreased cell size, reduced osmotic fragility, and decreased accumulation of glycophorin A-positive MPs and annexin V-binding MPs compared with RBCs stored in SAG-M. RBCs stored in erythrosol-4 had increased adherence to endothelium at days 42 and 49 compared with RBCs stored in SAG-M or PAGGSM. RBCs stored in PAGGSM or Erythrosol-4 had improved retention of RBC membrane and osmotic resilience. The development of new additive solutions may offer improved quality of RBC components prepared from WB held overnight at room temperature. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Vilchis, Itzel; Williams, Stephen E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma) in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  11. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  12. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-14

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer.

  13. Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Allegaert, Karel; Casteels, Kristina; van Gorp, Ilse; Bogaert, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Body temperature measurement in children is of clinical relevance. Although rectal measurement is the gold standard, less invasive tools have become available. We aimed to describe the accuracy of tympanic, infrared skin, or temporal artery scan thermometers compared with rectal measurement to reflect core temperature. Methods Rectal (Filac 3000; Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), tympanic (AccuSystem Genius2 Typmanic Infrared Ear Thermometer, Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), temporal artery scan (Exergen, Exergen Corp, Watertown, Massachusetts), and infrared (ThermoFlash Contactless Medical Electronic Thermometer, Visiomedlab, Paris, France) body temperature measurements were randomly performed and readings were collected once. Temperature readings were described as median and range, and observations were compared with rectal temperature readings (using Wilcoxon, Bland-Altman, sensitivity, and specificity tests). The child’s comfort was assessed by the child, parent, and nurse (using Likert scales) and ease of use was assessed by nurses (using visual analog scale). Results Based on observations in 294 (median age = 3.2 years, range = 0.02–17 years) children, the mean difference was 0.49°C (tympanic scan; P < 0.0001), 0.34°C (infrared skin scan; P < 0.0001), and 0°C (temporal artery scan; P = 0.9288), respectively, when compared with rectal temperature readings. Based on visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots, all tools overestimated the temperature at lower body temperature and underestimated the temperature at higher body temperature, resulting in a sensitivity of 22% to 41% and a specificity of 98% to 100% for rectal temperatures above 38°C. The Likert scale scores and the visual analog scale scores for rectal measurement were only slightly higher when compared with the other methods. Conclusions All noninvasive techniques underperformed compared with rectal measurement. The temporal artery scan deviations were smallest, but all noninvasive

  14. CT pelvimetry and clinicopathological parameters in evaluation of the technical difficulties in performing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Cong; Su, Meng; Hu, Ke-Qiong; Su, Yin-Fa; Ye, Ying-Hai; Huang, Chong-Quan; Yu, Zhen-Lei; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Hong; Ni, Yao-Zhong; Jiang, Y I; Lou, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of pelvic anatomical and clinicopathological parameters for use in the estimation of the likely technical difficulties that may be encountered when performing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer. Sixty consecutive patients, undergoing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer were recruited between June 2009 and April 2014. All of the surgical procedures conducted, were low anterior resection (LAR) or abdominoperineal resection (APR). The operations were performed by the same surgeon and surgical team. Pelvic dimensions and angles were measured using three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral computerized tomography (CT) images. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss were used as indicators of operative difficulty. The independent variables were pelvic anatomical and clinicopathological parameters, and the dependent variables were operative time and intraoperative blood loss. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine the predictive significance of these variables. The pelvis width was significantly wider in females than in males (P<0.05), while the sacrococcygeal bending degree was significantly greater in males than in females (P<0.05). No significant difference were detected between the pelvis depth of females and males (P>0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that body mass index (BMI), tumor height, lymph node metastasis, anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic inlet, anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic outlet, height of the pubic symphysis, the sacrococcygeal distance, sacrococcygeal-pubic angle and diameter of the upper pubis to the coccyx were the main factors affecting the operative time (all P<0.05), while the maximum diameter of the tumor was the primary factor affecting intraoperative blood loss (P<0.05). Between the two procedures, the clinicopathological parameters appeared to be more valuable for predicting difficulty in LAR, in which operative

  15. [The effective parts of liangxue tongyu prescription on cooling-blood and activating-blood and analysis of chemical constituents by HPLC-MS and GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Li, Guo-chun; Yin, Lian; Zhang, Zi-han; Liang, Yi-xin; Chen, Hai-bo

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify material basis of effective parts of liangxue tongyu prescription, blood-heat and blood-stasis rat model induced by dry yeast was established. The changes of rectal temperature, blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were used to evaluate the cooling-blood and activating-blood effects of liangxue tongyu prescription and its parts. Compared with the model group, the extract from liangxue tongyu prescription, its volatile oil and n-butanol part could significantly reduce rectal temperature (P<0.01), and also reduce blood viscosity and plasma viscosity to various degrees (P<0.01 or P<0.05). So volatile oil and n-butanol part were primarily identified as effective parts of liangxue tongyu prescription. By using GC-MS with normalization method of area to analyze volatile oil of liangxue tongyu prescription, 70 compounds were identified, accounting for about 92.54%, mainly as β-asarone, paeonol, α-asarone and shyobunone. 42 compounds such as peony glycosides, tannins, and iridoid glycosides were identified by HPLC-MS techniques and standard comparison. The study determined the effective parts of liangxue tongyu prescription and clarified the chemical composition providing the foundation for further studies on material basis of liangxue tongyu prescription.

  16. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kokelaar, RF; Evans, MD; Davies, M; Harris, DA; Beynon, J

    2016-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer). Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0) resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. PMID:27785074

  17. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric; Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark; Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  18. Surgical management of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Thandinkosi E; Baig, Mirza K; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    The problem of complete rectal prolapse is formidable, with no clear predominant treatment of choice. Surgical management is aimed at restoring physiology by correcting the prolapse and improving continence and constipation with acceptable mortality and recurrence rates. Abdominal procedures are ideal for young fit patients, whereas perineal procedures are reserved for older frail patients with significant comorbidity. Laparoscopic procedures with their advantages of early recovery, less pain, and possibly lower morbidity are recently added options. Regardless of the therapy chosen, matching the surgical selection to the patient is essential. To review the present status of the surgical treatment of rectal prolapse. Literature review using MEDLINE. All articles reporting on rectopexy were included. Articles reporting on prospective and retrospective comparisons were included. Case reports were excluded, as were studies comparing data with historical controls. The results were tabulated to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. Studies that did not report some of the outcomes were noted as "not stated." Abdominal operations offer not only lower recurrence but also greater chance for functional improvements. Suture and mesh rectopexy produce equivalent results. However, the polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) sponge rectopexy is associated with an increased risk of infectious complications and has largely been abandoned. The advantage of adding a resection to the rectopexy seems to be related to less constipation. Laparoscopic rectopexy has similar results to open rectopexy but has all of the advantages related to laparoscopy. Perineal procedures are better suited to frail elderly patients with extensive comorbidity. Abdominal procedures are generally better for young fit patients; the results of all abdominal procedures are comparable. Suture and mesh rectopexy are still popular with many surgeons-the choice depends on the surgeon's experience and preference

  19. Impact of constant storage temperatures and multiple warming cycles on the quality of stored red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wagner, T; Pabst, M-A; Leitinger, G; Reiter, U; Kozma, N; Lanzer, G; Huppertz, B

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are routinely stored in liquid state at temperatures below 6°C, and RBC unit core temperature should not exceed 10°C during transport. Since the critical temperature of 10°C was chosen mostly arbitrarily, this study investigated the effect of both constant temperature settings as well as multiple rewarming cycles on stored RBCs with respect to morphology, biochemical parameters and haemolysis. Buffy coat-depleted filtered RBCs were used as standard products. RBCs were stored at 1-6°C (reference group, n = 12), 13 and 22°C (test groups, n = 12 each) or stored at 1-6°C and warmed up five times to 10, 13, or 22°C for a period of 24 h each. Various biochemical parameters were measured weekly. RBCs were further investigated using electron microscopy. Red blood cells stored constantly at 13 or 22°C showed stable haemolysis rates until day 28 and day 14, respectively. RBCs stored at 1-6°C with five warming-up periods to 10, 13 or 22°C each lasting 24 h (total 120 h) did not exceed the limit of the haemolysis rate at the end of storage. Differently shaped erythrocytes were found in all samples, but more crenate erythrocytes appeared after 42 days of storage independent of temperature profiles. Red cells can be kept at constant temperatures above 6°C without apparent harmful effects at least until day 14, whereas multiple warming cycles for no longer than 24 h at 10, 13 or 22°C with subsequent cooling do not cause quality loss as assessed using the in vitro assays employed in this study. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV < 0.28) or elevated (RV:TV > or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad

  1. Thermal behavior of human eye in relation with change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Aasma; Khanday, M A

    2016-12-01

    Extreme environmental and physiological conditions present challenges for thermal processes in body tissues including multi-layered human eye. A mathematical model has been formulated in this direction to study the thermal behavior of the human eye in relation with the change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and environmental temperatures. In this study, a comprehensive thermal analysis has been performed on the multi-layered eye using Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary and interface conditions. The variational finite element method and MATLAB software were used for the solution purpose and simulation of the results. The thermoregulatory effect due to blood perfusion rate, porosity, ambient temperature and evaporation at various regions of human eye was illustrated mathematically and graphically. The main applications of this model are associated with the medical sciences while performing laser therapy and other thermoregulatory investigation on human eye.

  2. Capillary gas chromatography with cryogenic oven temperature for headspace samples: analysis of chloroform or methylene chloride in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Seno, H; Ishii, A; Suzuki, O; Kumazawa, T

    1997-12-15

    A new and sensitive gas chromatography (GC) method for measurement of chloroform or methylene chloride in whole blood is presented. Trace levels of these analytes present in the headspace of samples were cryogenically trapped prior to on-line GC analysis. After heating of a blood sample containing chloroform and methylene chloride (internal standard, and vice versa) in a 7.0-mL vial at 55 degrees C for 20 min, 5 mL of the headspace vapor was drawn into a glass syringe. All vapor was introduced into an Rtx-Volatiles middle-bore capillary column in the splitless mode at -30 degrees C oven temperature to trap the entire analytes, and the oven temperature was programmed up to 280 degrees C for detection of the compounds and for cleaning of the column. The present conditions gave sharp peaks for both chloroform and methylene chloride and very low background noises for whole blood samples. As much as 11.5 and 20.0% of chloroform and methylene chloride, respectively, which had been added to whole blood in a vial, could be introduced into the GC column. The calibration curves showed linearity in the range of 0.05-5.0 micrograms/0.5 mL of whole blood. The detection limit was estimated to be about 2 ng/0.5 mL. The coefficients of intraday and interday variations were 1.31 and 8.90% for chloroform and 1.37 and 9.03% for methylene chloride, respectively. The data on chloroform or methylene chloride in rat blood after inhalation of each compound were also presented.

  3. A comparison between infrared tympanic thermometry, oral and axilla with rectal thermometry in neutropenic adults.

    PubMed

    Dzarr, Abu Abdullah; Kamal, Mustafa; Baba, Abdul Aziz

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the agreement between infrared tympanic membrane (TM), axillary, corrected axillary (+0.5 degrees C), oral, and corrected oral (+0.3 degrees C) to rectal thermometry as reference standard in neutropenic adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned thermometries in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were also analysed. This is a comparative diagnostic test study. A total of 400 sets of blinded simultaneous temperature readings were measured from 21 haemato-oncology in-patients with neutropenia following chemotherapy. Three-hundred sets were then randomly sampled. Agreements were analysed using random two-way intraclass correlation (ICC). Sensitivity and specificity were analysed using contingency 2x2 table. Both right and left TM thermometry have good correlation with rectal thermometry; 0.810 (95% CI, 0.748-0.855) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.713-0.815) respectively. Axilla thermometry has weak agreement (ICC 0.486 (95% CI, 0.118-0.689)) with rectal thermometry. The sensitivity (sn) and specificity (sp) in detecting rectal fever (> or =38 degrees C) were: right TM (sn) 0.712 (95% CI, 0.586-0.814), (sp) 0.957 (95% CI, 0.920-0.978); oral (sn) 0.561 (95% CI, 0.433-0.681), (sp) 0.983 (95% CI, 0.954-0.995); and axilla (sn) 0.348 (95% CI, 0.238-0.477), (sp) 0.996 (95% CI, 0.973-0.999). Single tympanic membrane thermometry is in good agreement with rectal thermometry. It is more sensitive than oral or axillary thermometry in detecting rectal fever.

  4. The effect of hematopoietic progenitor cells' temperature on cardiac arrhythmias in patients given peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Ayhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Cagirgan, Seckin; Acarlar, Ceylan; Tombuloglu, Murat

    2006-06-01

    Infusion of cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) is associated with a broad variety of symptoms. In this study, we have investigated infusion-related toxicity regarding temperature of cryopreserved autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) transplanted in 31 and allogeneic non-cryopreserved PBPCs in 4 patients receiving high dose chemotherapy and stem cells transplantation for hematological malignancies. A 24h ECG-Holter recording system was used to obtain cardiac arrhythmias. Two milliliters HPC were collected from entrance site of venous access to evaluate the temperature of infused HPC. We have detected arrhythmias in 17 (48.58%) of our patients before, during and after infusion. Median temperature of the infusat was 21 degrees C (18-28.2). Arrhythmias during infusion were detected in 8 (22.85%) patients. The temperatures of infused HPCs were not statistically different in group with and without arrhythmias as 22 degrees C and 21 degrees C, respectively (P>0.05). And also, volume, contents [dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), red blood cells (RBC), platelet (PLT), and total nucleated cell (TNC)] of product, and rate of infusion speed did not have any effect on arrhythmias. As a result of this study, we have concluded that the temperature of HPC does not cause any systemic hypothermia and does not have any relation to arrhythmias detected during infusion.

  5. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine.

  6. Correlation between near-infrared tissue spectra and pH, temperature, and blood flow using partial least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Tania; Soller, Babs R.; Zhang, Songbiao

    1999-07-01

    It has been shown that near-infrared spectroscopy is a feasible technique to non-invasively measure tissue pH in vivo. Since this technique relies on pH-induced changes in heme protein spectra, other factors that affect those spectra were investigated. In this study, the correlation between spectra collected from the bowel (575 - 1100 nm) with local tissue temperature and blood flow were investigated simultaneously with pH changes during eight independent swine hemorrhagic shock experiments.

  7. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperature checked

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperate checked prior to his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) mission, the first American manned space flight. The attending physician is Dr. William K. Douglas.

  8. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperature checked

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperate checked prior to his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) mission, the first American manned space flight. The attending physician is Dr. William K. Douglas.

  9. [Heat exchange of the rat in thermoneutral zone temperature and comparison with heat exchange in ambient temperature over and under it].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2011-08-01

    With the help of thermonetry and general calorimetry body temperature and heat production in ambient temperatures 20 degrees C, 28 degrees C, 33 degrees C were recorded. The experiments showed, that at the temperature 20 degrees C the rectal temperature was changing very little. But in ambient temperature 33 degrees C the rectal temperature was 40.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C.

  10. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  11. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    PubMed

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  12. [Calculation of thermally caused blood flow changes in a finger using thermographic skin temperature measurements (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hundhausen, E; Theves, B

    1979-03-01

    The skin temperature changes of the third finger were registered with the help of an infrared camera during a cooling process of the hand and forearm of a male, 38-years-old subject. Using the system of formulae, explained in previous publications [4-7], it was possible to describe the blood flow changes in the finger. The results are: 1. A formula for the "pseudo thermal conductivity" (material constant of the thermal conductivity plus the convective contribution), which is similar to the formula used for theat release of the whole body [4], describes well the experimental results. The "pseudo thermal conductivity" is a measure for the specific blood flow and can be converted into it. 2. The "pseudo thermal conductivity" has a local maximum. 3. The position of the maximum is independent of the tissue temperature. The anatomical properties of the finger seem to determine the position of the maximum. 4. The maximum of the "pseudo thermal conductivity"--and therefore the maximal blood flow--increases stronger than linearly with the tissue temperature.

  13. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood pressure and pulse pressure in potentially susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Stefanie; Hampel, Regina; Breitner, Susanne; Rückerl, Regina; Kraus, Ute; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Only few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between air temperature and blood pressure (BP) or pulse pressure (PP), with inconsistent findings. We examined whether short-term changes in air temperature were associated with changes in BP or PP in three different populations. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 371 systolic and diastolic BP measurements were collected in 30 individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), 30 persons with impaired glucose tolerance and 42 healthy individuals without a metabolic disorder from Augsburg, Germany. Hourly means of ambient meteorological data were obtained from a fixed measurement station. Personal temperature measurements were conducted using data loggers. Temperature effects were evaluated using additive mixed models adjusting for time trend and relative humidity. Decreases in air temperature were associated with an increase in systolic BP, diastolic BP and PP in individuals with T2D. For example, a 1°C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with an immediate increase in systolic BP of 1.0 mmHg (95%-confidence interval: [0.5;1.4]mmHg). Effects of personally measured air temperature were similar. Temperature effects were modified by age, body mass index, gender, antihypertensive medication and whereabouts, such as being indoors. We observed associations between decreases in air temperature and increases in BP as well as PP in persons with T2D indicating that these people might be potentially more susceptible to changes in air temperature. Our findings may provide a hypothesis for a mechanism between air temperature decreases and short-term increases of cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words “rectum”, “rectal”, “cancer”, “laparoscopy”, “robot”. After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients. PMID:27895814

  16. Respiratory gas exchange in the desert flea Xenopsylla ramesis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae): response to temperature and blood-feeding.

    PubMed

    Fielden, L J; Krasnov, B R; Khokhlova, I S; Arakelyan, M S

    2004-03-01

    Xenopsylla ramesis is a flea species parasitizing gerbilline rodents in the deserts of the Middle East. This study was undertaken to determine metabolic requirements of the different developmental stages of the flea-life cycle as well as to investigate the metabolic response to temperature and starvation after blood feeding. A high resolution respirometry system was used to measure CO2 emission of fleas ranging in size from 0.166+/-0.006 mg (larvae) to 0.263+/-0.009 mg (adults). The free-living stages (larvae and adults) had significantly higher metabolic rates than the cocooned stages (pupae). CO2 emission rates of the larvae exceeded that of the adults by 2.6-fold and the pupae by 7.3 times. In the adults, both temperature and blood feeding significantly affected starvation-level metabolism. Metabolism was temperature dependent with an average Q10 of 2.57 for females and 2.55 for males over the temperature range of 10-30 degrees C. No consistent decline in thermal sensitivity at higher ambient temperatures was evident. Fleas that had a blood meal prior to starvation had significantly higher metabolic rates (0. 86 +/- 0.008 x 10(-3) ml mg(-1) h(-1)) than fleas, which were newly emerged unfed adults (0.56 +/- 0.1 x 10(-3) ml mg(-1) h(-1)). Water content also differed between fed (range approx. 67-69% body mass) and newly emerged adults (range approx. 73-75% of body mass). Feeding may stimulate some as yet undetermined physiological process that causes differential metabolic response in starving, fed and unfed fleas. Characteristics of gas exchange in desert-dwelling fleas are reflective of the off-host life style in the protected microenvironment of the host nest or burrow, rather than as a response to any type of environmental extreme.

  17. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated cycling performance and limb blood flow.

    PubMed

    Vaile, J; O'Hagan, C; Stefanovic, B; Walker, M; Gill, N; Askew, C D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) and active recovery (ACT) on resting limb blood flow, rectal temperature and repeated cycling performance in the heat. Ten subjects completed two testing sessions separated by 1 week; each trial consisted of an initial all-out 35-min exercise bout, one of two 15-min recovery interventions (randomised: CWI or ACT), followed by a 40-min passive recovery period before repeating the 35-min exercise bout. Performance was measured as the change in total work completed during the exercise bouts. Resting limb blood flow, heart rate, rectal temperature and blood lactate were recorded throughout the testing sessions. There was a significant decline in performance after ACT (mean (SD) -1.81% (1.05%)) compared with CWI where performance remained unchanged (0.10% (0.71%)). Rectal temperature was reduced after CWI (36.8°C (1.0°C)) compared with ACT (38.3°C (0.4°C)), as was blood flow to the arms (CWI 3.64 (1.47) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 16.85 (3.57) ml/100 ml/min) and legs (CW 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min). Leg blood flow at the end of the second exercise bout was not different between the active (15.25 (4.33) ml/100 ml/min) and cold trials (14.99 (4.96) ml/100 ml/min), whereas rectal temperature (CWI 38.1°C (0.3°C); ACT 38.8°C (0.2°C)) and arm blood flow (CWI 20.55 (3.78) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 23.83 (5.32) ml/100 ml/min) remained depressed until the end of the cold trial. These findings indicate that CWI is an effective intervention for maintaining repeat cycling performance in the heat and this performance benefit is associated with alterations in core temperature and limb blood flow.

  18. Assessment of red blood cell parameters and peripheral smear at different temperatures in case of cold agglutination disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V

    2014-03-01

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto-antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which arise or worsen upon exposure to low temperatures. We describe a case who presented with fever and symptoms of asthenia. His investigations yielded bizarre RBC parameters which led to suspicion of a rare CAD, which was confirmed on reviewing RBC parameters, peripheral smear and direct Coomb's test at different temperatures. Hence, we suggest assessment of bizarre RBC parameters and peripheral smear can help in laboratory testing and diagnosis of CAD. It should also not pose embarrassment in laboratory testing to the pathologist for making an early and accurate diagnosis, thus emphasizing the need for an early treatment of CAD.

  19. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  20. Time and temperature affect glycolysis in blood samples regardless of fluoride-based preservatives: a potential underestimation of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Mary; Daly, Niamh; O'Kelly, Ruth; Turner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background The inhibition of glycolysis prior to glucose measurement is an important consideration when interpreting glucose tolerance tests. This is particularly important in gestational diabetes mellitus where prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential. A study was planned to investigate the effect of preservatives and temperature on glycolysis. Methods Blood samples for glucose were obtained from consented females. Lithium heparin and fluoride-EDTA samples transported rapidly in ice slurry to the laboratory were analysed for glucose concentration and then held either in ice slurry or at room temperature for varying time intervals. Paired fluoride-citrate samples were received at room temperature and held at room temperature, with analysis at similar time intervals. Results No significant difference was noted between mean glucose concentrations when comparing different sample types received in ice slurry. The mean glucose concentrations decreased significantly for both sets of samples when held at room temperature (0.4 mmol/L) and in ice slurry (0.2 mmol/L). A review of patient glucose tolerance tests reported in our hospital indicated that 17.8% exceeded the recommended diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. It was predicted that if the results of fasting samples were revised to reflect the effect of glycolysis at room temperature, the adjusted diagnostic rate could increase to 35.3%. Conclusion Preanalytical handling of blood samples for glucose analysis is vital. Fluoride-EDTA is an imperfect antiglycolytic, even when the samples are transported and analysed rapidly provides such optimal conditions. The use of fluoride-citrate tubes may offer a viable alternative in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Acclimation to heat during incubation: 4. Blood hormones and metabolites in broilers exposed to daily high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bruggeman, V; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Cabuk, M; Siegel, P B

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effects of parental age and heat acclimation of embryos on blood metabolites and hormones of broilers exposed to daily cyclic ambient temperatures from d 21 to 42. Eggs obtained from 32 (younger), 42 (middle-aged), and 65 wk (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at control incubation temperature (ITCONT), whereas the second group was heat-acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (ITHA). Chicks were reared at standard brooding temperatures from 1 to 21 d. From d 21 to 42, half of broilers/incubation temperature/parental age was kept as the control (ATCONT), whereas the other half was exposed to daily cyclic heat treatment (ATHIGH) to impose a stress response. There was a reduction in plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels in ITHA broilers. On d 28, plasma T3 levels were similar regardless of parental age of eggs incubated at ITCONT, whereas ITHA resulted in lower levels of T3 in broilers from 65 wk parents. At the same age, ATHIGH reduced plasma triglycerides with the effect greater for ITHA than ITCONT broilers. Plasma uric acid was also lower for ITHA than ITCONT broilers for the offspring of 65 wk parents on d 28. There was an increase in plasma creatine kinase activity on d 42 in ATHIGH broilers regardless of parental age and incubation temperature. Plasma corticosterone was consistently lower for the ITHA than ITCONT treatment, being significant on d 21 and 42. It was concluded that these changes in blood metabolites and hormones may enhance the thermoregulatory ability of ITHA broilers when exposed posthatch to daily high temperatures.

  2. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Hegde, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312. PMID:28127161

  3. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  4. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  5. The effect of environmental temperature on reptilian peripheral blood B cell functions.

    PubMed

    Palackdharry, Sarah; Sadd, Ben M; Vogel, Laura A; Bowden, Rachel M

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have identified phagocytic B cells in a variety of species, yet little is understood about their function and how it is influenced by natural environmental variation, such as temperature. Phagocytic B-cells are present in red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta, and the wide range of temperatures experienced by these ectotherms may have an effect on immunity, including B cell antibody secretion and phagocytosis. We examined the impact of environmental temperature on B cell function in vitro using phagocytic and ELISpot assays conducted at biologically relevant temperatures. We found a significant effect of temperature on antibody secretion, with maximal antibody secretion occurring at intermediate temperatures (estimated maximum of 28.8°C). There was no effect of temperature on phagocytosis. We also noted a difference in the efficiency of phagocytosis in this assay between B cells and non-B cells. Interestingly, in our in vitro assay, phagocytic B cells engulfed more foreign fluorescent beads per cell than phagocytes lacking surface immunoglobulin. This work sheds light on our understanding of phagocytic B cells and the importance of environmental temperature on the behavior of reptilian immune cells, which may have relevance for organismal fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain responses to mechanical rectal stimulation in patients with faecal incontinence: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, N; Hatton, S; Ng, K-S; Lagopoulos, J; Gladman, M A

    2017-10-01

    Continence is dependent on anorectal-brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation in patients with FI using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients [four men, mean (SD) age 62 (15) years]. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by fMRI during rest and mechanical distension, involving random repetitions of isobaric phasic rectal distensions at fixed (15 and 45 mmHg) and variable (10% above sensory perception threshold) pressures. Increases in BOLD signals in response to high pressure rectal distension (45 mmHg) and maximum toleration were observed in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, supramarginal gyrus, putamen and amygdala. Additionally, activation of the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus with inconsistent activity in the frontal lobe was observed. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation using fMRI in patients with FI, revealing activity in widespread areas of the brain involved in visceral sensory processing. The observed activity in the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus, with relative paucity of activity in the frontal lobes, warrants investigation in future studies to determine whether aberrations in cerebral processing of rectal stimuli play a role in the pathogenesis of FI. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Challenge or opportunity: outcomes of laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer in patients with high operative risk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ai-Guo; Zhao, Xue-wei; Mao, Zhi-hai; Han, Ding-pei; Zhao, Jing-kun; Wang, Puxiongzhi; Zhang, Zhuo; Zong, Ya-ping; Thasler, Wolfgang; Feng, Hao

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the impact of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection for patients with high operative risk, which was defined as American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) grades III and IV. This study was conducted at a single center on patients undergoing rectal resection from 2006 to 2010. After screening by ASA grade III or IV, 248 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified, involving 104 open and 144 laparoscopic rectal resections. The distribution of the Charlson Comorbidity Index was similar between the two groups. Compared with open rectal resection, laparoscopic resection had a significantly lower total complication rate (P<.0001), lower pain rate (P=.0002), and lower blood loss (P<.0001). It is notable that the two groups of patients had no significant difference in cardiac and pulmonary complication rates. Thus, these data showed that the laparoscopic group for rectal cancer could provide short-term outcomes similar to those of their open resection counterparts with high operative risk. The 5-year actuarial survival rates were 0.8361 and 0.8119 in the laparoscopic and open groups for stage I/II (difference not significant), as was the 5-year overall survival rate in stage III/IV (P=.0548). In patients with preoperative cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, the 5-year survival curves were significantly different (P=.0165 and P=.0210), respectively. The cost per patient did not differ between the two procedures. The results of this analysis demonstrate the potential advantages of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection for high-risk patients, although a randomized controlled trial should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study.

  8. Differential effects of cathinone compounds and MDMA on body temperature in the rat, and pharmacological characterization of mephedrone-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Shortall, S E; Green, A R; Swift, K M; Fone, K C F; King, M V

    2013-02-01

    Recreational users report that mephedrone has similar psychoactive effects to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). MDMA induces well-characterized changes in body temperature due to complex monoaminergic effects on central thermoregulation, peripheral blood flow and thermogenesis, but there are little preclinical data on the acute effects of mephedrone or other synthetic cathinones. The acute effects of cathinone, methcathinone and mephedrone on rectal and tail temperature were examined in individually housed rats, with MDMA included for comparison. Rats were killed 2 h post-injection and brain regions were collected for quantification of 5-HT, dopamine and major metabolites. Further studies examined the impact of selected α-adrenoceptor and dopamine receptor antagonists on mephedrone-induced changes in rectal temperature and plasma catecholamines. At normal room temperature, MDMA caused sustained decreases in rectal and tail temperature. Mephedrone caused a transient decrease in rectal temperature, which was enhanced by α(1) -adrenoceptor and dopamine D(1) receptor blockade, and a prolonged decrease in tail temperature. Cathinone and methcathinone caused sustained increases in rectal temperature. MDMA decreased 5-HT and/or 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in several brain regions and reduced striatal homovanillic acid (HVA) levels, whereas cathinone and methcathinone increased striatal HVA and 5-HIAA. Cathinone elevated striatal and hypothalamic 5-HT. Mephedrone elevated plasma noradrenaline levels, an effect prevented by α-adrenoceptor and dopamine receptor antagonists. MDMA and cathinones have different effects on thermoregulation, and their acute effects on brain monoamines also differ. These findings suggest that the adverse effects of cathinones in humans cannot be extrapolated from previous observations on MDMA. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. The Effect of Human Serum Albumin and Hematocrit on the Cake Collapse Temperature of Lyophilized Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Daniel E; Higgins, Adam Z

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, has shown great promise in addressing many of the logistical challenges of storing and preserving red blood cells (RBCs). A crucial part of any RBC lyophilization protocol is the primary drying temperature, which affects the sample drying rate and the dried cake's ability to form a stable glassy solid. Primary drying is most efficient just below the temperature at which the porous structure of the cake begins to collapse, known as the cake collapse temperature. In this short report, we utilize freeze-drying microscopy to examine the effects of human serum albumin (HSA) and hematocrit on the cake collapse temperature. Increasing the hematocrit from 0% to 20% significantly raised the cake collapse temperature from - 37.8°C to -34.8°C. Addition of 5% HSA to a 20% hematocrit RBC suspension further increased the cake collapse temperature to -20.4°C. These data provide a basis for future study of the relationship between cake collapse and overall cell survival, with the object of building a clinically-viable RBC lyophilization protocol.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... following tests may be used: Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) test : A laboratory test in ... blocking the hepatic artery (the main artery that supplies blood to the liver) and injecting anticancer drugs ...

  11. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... following tests may be used: Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) test : A laboratory test in ... blocking the hepatic artery (the main artery that supplies blood to the liver) and injecting anticancer drugs ...

  12. Basal blood glucose concentration in free-living striped mice is influenced by food availability, ambient temperature and social tactic.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Pillay, Neville; Kondratyeva, Anna; Yuen, Chi-Hang; Schoepf, Ivana; Krackow, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Vertebrates obtain most of their energy through food, which they store mainly as body fat or glycogen, with glucose being the main energy source circulating in the blood. Basal blood glucose concentration (bBGC) is expected to remain in a narrow homeostatic range. We studied the extent to which bBGC in free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) is influenced by ecological factors with a bearing on energy regulation, i.e. food availability, abiotic environmental variation and social tactic. Striped mice typically form extended family groups that huddle together at night, reducing energetic costs of thermoregulation, but solitary individuals also occur in the population. We analysed 2827 blood samples from 1008 individuals of seven different social categories that experienced considerable variation in food supply and abiotic condition. Blood samples were taken from mice in the morning after the overnight fast and before foraging. bBGC increased significantly with food plant abundance and decreased significantly with minimum daily ambient temperature. Solitary striped mice had significantly higher bBGC than group-living striped mice. Our results suggest that adaptive responses of bBGC occur and we found large natural variation, indicating that bBGC spans a far greater homeostatic range than previously thought.

  13. Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

  14. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  15. Cold Blooded: Evaluating Brain Temperature by MRI During Surface Cooling of Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Curran, Eric J; Wolfson, Daniel L; Watts, Richard; Freeman, Kalev

    2017-03-28

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) confers neurological and survival benefits for post-cardiac arrest patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who remain comatose. Specialized equipment for induction of hypothermia is not available in the prehospital setting, and there are no reliable methods for emergency medical services personnel to initiate TTM. We hypothesized that the application of surface cooling elements to the neck will decrease brain temperature and act as initiators of TTM. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the effect of a carotid surface cooling element on brain temperature in healthy adults. Six individuals completed this study. We measured a temperature drop of 0.69 ± 0.38 °C (95% CI) in the cortex of the brain following the application of the cooling element. Application of a room temperature element also caused a measurable decrease in brain temperature of 0.66 ± 0.41 °C (95% CI) which may be attributable to baroreceptor activation. The application of surface cooling elements to the neck decreased brain temperature and may serve as a method to initiate TTM in the prehospital setting.

  16. [(18)F]Fluoromisonidazole PET in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Puri, Tanuj; Greenhalgh, Tessa A; Wilson, James M; Franklin, Jamie; Wang, Lia Mun; Strauss, Victoria; Cunningham, Chris; Partridge, Mike; Maughan, Tim

    2017-09-20

    There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2). The first 6 patients did not receive an enema (the non-enema group) and the last 4 patients received an enema before PET-CT scan (the enema group). [(18)F]FMISO production failed on 2 occasions. Static PET images at 4 h were analysed using tumour-to-muscle (T:M) SUVmax and tumour-to-blood (T:B) SUVmax. The 0-45 min dynamic PET scans were analysed using Casciari model to report hypoxia and perfusion. Akaike information criteria (AIC) were used to compare data fittings for different pharmacokinetic models. Pathological tumour regression grade was scored using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7.0. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of the data. Five out of eleven (5/11) patients were classed as good responders (AJCC 0/1 or good clinical response) and 6/11 as poor responders (AJCC 2/3 or poor clinical response). The median T:M SUVmax was 2.14 (IQR 0.58) at baseline and 1.30 (IQR 0.19) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 1.08 (IQR 1.31) cm(3) and 0 (IQR 0.15) cm(3), respectively. The median T:B SUVmax was 2.46 (IQR 1.50) at baseline and 1.61 (IQR 0.14) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 5.68 (IQR 5.86) cm(3) and 0.76 (IQR 0.78) cm(3), respectively. For 0-45 min tumour modelling, the median hypoxia was 0.92 (IQR 0.41) min(-1) at baseline and 0.70 (IQR 0.10) min(-1) at week 2. The median perfusion was 4.10 (IQR 1.71) ml g(-1)

  17. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route. PMID:27123404

  18. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben Youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route.

  19. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  20. Transanal Approach to Rectal Polyps and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay; Mishra, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    A transanal approach to rectal polyp and cancer excision is often an appropriate alternative to conventional rectal resection, and has a lower associated morbidity. There has been a steady evolution in the techniques of transanal surgery over the past 30 years. It started with traditional transanal excision and was revolutionized by introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early 1980s. Introduction of transanal minimally invasive surgery made it more accessible to surgeons around the world. Now robotic platforms are being tried in certain institutions. Concerns have been raised about recurrence rates of cancers with transanal approach and success of subsequent salvage operations. PMID:26929754

  1. [Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Mortensen, John Pløen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2013-09-09

    A new Cochrane meta-analysis evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based, not modern combination chemotherapy) in almost 10,000 patients with rectal cancer and showed a 17% reduction in mortality corresponding well to the efficacy observed in recent studies, which reported a reduction in mortality just about 20%. The authors recommend adjuvant chemotherapy which is in accordance with the Danish national guidelines where 5-FU-based chemotherapy is recommended for stage III and high-risk stage II rectal cancer.

  2. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  3. Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Atkinson, Shannon; Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-08-01

    Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-Associated Induction of Cell Membrane CD47 Limits Basal and Temperature-Induced Changes in Cutaneous Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Natasha M.; Roberts, David D.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that the matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), through binding to and activation of the cell receptor CD47, inhibits basal and thermal-mediated cutaneous blood flow. Background Data Abnormal and decreased cutaneous blood flow in response to temperature changes or vasoactive agents is a feature of cardiovascular disease and aging. The reasons for decreased cutaneous blood flow remain incompletely understood. Further, a role for matricellular proteins in the regulation skin blood flow has never been proposed. Methods C57BL/6 wild type, TSP1- and CD47-null 12 and 72 week old male mice underwent analysis of skin blood flow (SkBF) via laser Doppler in response to thermal stress and vasoactive challenge. Results Young and aged TSP1- and CD47-null mice displayed enhanced basal and thermal sensitive SkFB changes compared to age matched wild type controls. Nitric oxide-mediated increases in SkBF were also greater in null mice. TSP1 and CD47 were expressed in skin from young wild type mice, and both were significantly upregulated in aged animals. Tissue 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, was greater in skin samples from null mice compared to wild type regardless of age. Finally, treating wild type animals with a CD47 monoclonal antibody, that inhibits TSP1 activation of CD47, enhanced SkBF in both young and aged animals. Conclusions The above results suggest that secreted TSP1, via its cognate receptor CD47, acutely modulates SkBF. These data further support therapeutically targeting CD47 to mitigate age-associated loss of SkBF and maximize wound healing. PMID:23275312

  5. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  6. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  7. Temperature and blood rheology in fingertips as signs of adaptation to acute hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.; Kasatkin, A.; Dementyev, V.

    2017-01-01

    It is found that the absolute values of temperature and color infrared image of the fingers and palms in healthy volunteers and in patients with hemorrhagic shock are in the same range, so they don’t represent precisely their condition. It turned out that what really matters is the dynamics of temperature and color infrared image of the palms after cuff occlusion test. In healthy volunteers and in patients with high resistance to shock, there is a rise in temperature and change in color from blue to red in the infrared image of the fingers and palms for 1 - 1.5 minutes after elimination of ischemia, but in patients with low resistance to shock there is a decrease in temperature and expansion of blue color in the palm surface in the infrared image. On the other hand, to assess the resistance to hypoxia in a fetus inside a mother’s womb it is proposed to determine the duration of the period of the fetus stationary state during apnea period in pregnant women by using ultrasonography or during period of uterus tonic contractions during childbirth. We found that if fetus has high resistance to hypoxia, the duration of stationary state during the apnea or uterus contraction is greater than 20 seconds, and after exhaustion of reserves for adaptation to hypoxia it approaches zero. It is shown that growing hypoxia causes decrease in the local temperature of the central area of the skull and vice versa.

  8. Body temperature dependency of gastric regional blood flow, acid secretion and ulcer formation in restraint and water-immersion stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Arai, I; Muramatsu, M; Aihara, H

    1986-04-01

    The effect of water temperature during restraint and water-immersion stress (RWIS) on gastric regional blood flow, acid secretion and ulcer formation were compared to those of restraint stress (RS) alone in rats. RS had no effect on the gastric regional blood flow. In contrast, the gastric regional blood flow was significantly decreased by RWIS. A water temperature dependent reduction of gastric regional blood flow induced by RWIS was observed between 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The decrease in gastric regional blood flow for RWIS rats was related to a lowering of the body temperature, which almost coincided with the temperature of water for the immersion. The gastric acid output was not influenced by RS. However, RWIS significantly increased the gastric acid output. The temperature of water in order of increasing acid output induced by RWIS was 25 degrees C greater than 30 degrees C greater than 20 degrees C. Little ulcer formation was found in RS rats, while exposure to RWIS caused marked ulceration. The temperature of water in order of severity of ulceration by RWIS was 25 degrees C greater than 20 degrees C greater than 30 degrees C. The severity of ulceration was not related to the decrease in gastric regional blood flow or increase of acid output, but was correlated to the ratio of the gastric blood flow/the acid output. These findings suggest that the decrease of gastric regional blood flow is in good agreement with the fall of body temperature, and the combined effects of the gastric blood flow and the acid secretion are involved in the ulceration caused by RWIS.

  9. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

    1986-10-24

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

  10. Rectal metastasis from Breast cancer: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cho Ee; Wright, Lucie; Pieri, Andrew; Belhasan, Anas; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer metastases occurs in around 50% of all presentation. It is the second most common type of cancer to metastasise to the GI tract but this only occurs in less than 1% of cases. Presentation of case We report a case that underwent treatment for invasive lobular cancer (ILC) of the breast and 5 years later was found to have rectal and peritoneal metastasis. She is currently receiving palliative management including chemotherapy in the form of weekly Paclitaxel (Taxol®) and stenting to relieve obstruction. Conclusion There should be high clinical suspicion of bowel metastasis in patients presenting with positive faecal occult blood with or without bowel symptoms even if the incidence is less <1% of metastases, particularly in cases where the initial breast tumour was large, with positive axillary nodes. PMID:26188979

  11. Distribution of fibronectin in the rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scott, D L; Morris, C J; Blake, A E; Low-Beer, T S; Walton, K W

    1981-07-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight present in tissues, plasma, and tissue fluids. Its distribution in the rectal mucosa was studied by immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques using a monospecific antiserum. Immunofluorescent reactivity for fibronectin was present in the normal rectal mucosa of control subjects in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and as a loose cribriform network of extracellular reactivity in the lamina propria that codistributed with histochemically demonstrable reticulin. Fibronectin was demonstrated immunoelectromicroscopically on collagen fibres, on smooth muscle cells and within and between columnar epithelial cells. In the rectal mucosa of patients with colitis with marked inflammatory changes, fibronectin appeared thickened and more prominent when present on basement membranes and as sparse strands between inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria. In patients with longstanding colitis and less inflammatory cell infiltration there was a diffuse increase in fibronectin which was densely and uniformly present throughout the lamina propria. Fibronectin is a structural component of the rectal mucosa and changes in its distribution may form an important part of the local reaction to inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Rectal bezoars due to pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohammad Salman; Al-Wahibi, Khalifa; Baloch, Shafiq; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2009-01-01

    Rectal bezoars commonly occur due to seeds, especially in children living in countries south of the Mediterranean and in the Middle-East. Dried seeds are considered a delicacy and consumed widely. Inadequate chewing or hastily eating without removing the hull may lead to their impaction as bezoars, which may require manual removal under general anaesthesia.

  13. Combined radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection.

    PubMed

    Klee, L W; Grmoljez, P

    1999-10-01

    To present our experience with a small series of men who underwent simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection. Three men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were found to have concurrent rectal tumors requiring resection. All three men underwent non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum at the same operation. In the 2 patients undergoing APR, the levators were approximated posterior to the urethra, and the bladder was secured to the pubis. The patient undergoing LAR had urinary diversion stents placed and a diverting transverse loop colostomy. All 3 patients had excellent return of urinary continence. One patient required reoperation in the early postoperative period for small bowel adhesiolysis and stoma revision. Another patient had a mild rectal anastomotic stricture and a bladder neck stricture; both were successfully treated with a single dilation. No other significant complications occurred in these patients. Radical retropubic prostatectomy can safely be performed with partial or complete rectal resection in a single operation. A few minor modifications of the standard radical retropubic prostatectomy in this setting are suggested.

  14. [Rectal cancer: diagnosis, screening and treatment].

    PubMed

    Decanini-Terán, César Oscar; González-Acosta, Jorge; Obregón-Méndez, Jorge; Vega-de Jesús, Martín

    2011-01-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the primary malignant neoplasms occurring in Mexican patients of reproductive age. Unfortunately, randomized studies in rectal cancer do not exist as they do with well-recognized colon cancer. We must individualize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, staging and treatment because management is different in rectal cancers affecting the mid- and lower third of the rectum than in the upper third and in colon cancers. Histological staging is the primary prognostic factor. TNM staging (tumor, node, and metastasis) is used internationally by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Staging is done with the assistance of endorectal ultrasound, which is best used in early-stage cancer; however, there are certain disadvantages in detecting node involvement. Magnetic resonance, on the other hand, allows for the evaluation of stenotic tumors and node involvement. Once the correct diagnosis and staging have been made, the next step is correct treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment has demonstrated to be better than adjuvant treatment. Abdominoperineal resection is rarely practiced currently, with sphincter preservation being the preferred procedure. Laparoscopic approach has conferred the advantages of the approach itself when performed by experts in the procedure but there is insufficient evidence to make it the "gold standard." Rectal cancer is a complex pathology that must be considered totally different from colon cancer for diagnosis and treatment. The patient must be staged completely and appropriately for individualizing correct treatment. More long-term studies are needed for optimizing treatment modalities.

  15. Learning curve for robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer: use of the cumulative sum method.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Sato, Sumito; Yamakawa, Yushi; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Tomioka, Hiroyuki; Mori, Keita

    2015-07-01

    Few data are available to assess the learning curve for robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the learning curve for robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer by a surgeon at a single institute. From December 2011 to August 2013, a total of 80 consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer performed by the same surgeon were included in this study. The learning curve was analyzed using the cumulative sum method. This method was used for all 80 cases, taking into account operative time. Operative procedures included anterior resections in 6 patients, low anterior resections in 46 patients, intersphincteric resections in 22 patients, and abdominoperineal resections in 6 patients. Lateral lymph node dissection was performed in 28 patients. Median operative time was 280 min (range 135-683 min), and median blood loss was 17 mL (range 0-690 mL). No postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo classification Grade III or IV were encountered. We arranged operative times and calculated cumulative sum values, allowing differentiation of three phases: phase I, Cases 1-25; phase II, Cases 26-50; and phase III, Cases 51-80. Our data suggested three phases of the learning curve in robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer. The first 25 cases formed the learning phase.

  16. Potential of DNA methylation in rectal cancer as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Exner, Ruth; Pulverer, Walter; Diem, Martina; Spaller, Lisa; Woltering, Laura; Schreiber, Martin; Wolf, Brigitte; Sonntagbauer, Markus; Schröder, Fabian; Stift, Judith; Wrba, Fritz; Bergmann, Michael; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Egger, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aberrant DNA methylation is more prominent in proximal compared with distal colorectal cancers. Although a number of methylation markers were identified for colon cancer, yet few are available for rectal cancer. Methods: DNA methylation differences were assessed by a targeted DNA microarray for 360 marker candidates between 22 fresh frozen rectal tumour samples and 8 controls and validated by microfluidic high-throughput and methylation-sensitive qPCR in fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, respectively. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was assessed by MethyLight in FFPE material from 78 patients with pT2 and pT3 rectal adenocarcinoma. Results: We identified and confirmed two novel three-gene signatures in fresh frozen samples that can distinguish tumours from adjacent tissue as well as from blood with a high sensitivity and specificity of up to 1 and an AUC of 1. In addition, methylation of individual CIMP markers was associated with specific clinical parameters such as tumour stage, therapy or patients' age. Methylation of CDKN2A was a negative prognostic factor for overall survival of patients. Conclusions: The newly defined methylation markers will be suitable for early disease detection and monitoring of rectal cancer. PMID:26335606

  17. Predictive and Prognostic Molecular Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dayde, Delphine; Tanaka, Ichidai; Jain, Rekha; Tai, Mei Chee; Taguchi, Ayumu

    2017-01-01

    The standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by radical surgery. Response to nCRT varies among patients and pathological complete response is associated with better outcome. However, there is a lack of effective methods to select rectal cancer patients who would or would not have a benefit from nCRT. The utility of clinicopathological and radiological features are limited due to lack of adequate sensitivity and specificity. Molecular biomarkers have the potential to predict response to nCRT at an early time point, but none have currently reached the clinic. Integration of diverse types of biomarkers including clinicopathological and imaging features, identification of mechanistic link to tumor biology, and rigorous validation using samples which represent disease heterogeneity, will allow to develop a sensitive and cost-effective molecular biomarker panel for precision medicine in rectal cancer. Here, we aim to review the recent advance in tissue- and blood-based molecular biomarker research and illustrate their potential in predicting nCRT response in rectal cancer. PMID:28272347

  18. Predictive and Prognostic Molecular Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dayde, Delphine; Tanaka, Ichidai; Jain, Rekha; Tai, Mei Chee; Taguchi, Ayumu

    2017-03-07

    The standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT) followed by radical surgery. Response to nCRT varies among patients and pathological complete response is associated with better outcome. However, there is a lack of effective methods to select rectal cancer patients who would or would not have a benefit from nCRT. The utility of clinicopathological and radiological features are limited due to lack of adequate sensitivity and specificity. Molecular biomarkers have the potential to predict response to nCRT at an early time point, but none have currently reached the clinic. Integration of diverse types of biomarkers including clinicopathological and imaging features, identification of mechanistic link to tumor biology, and rigorous validation using samples which represent disease heterogeneity, will allow to develop a sensitive and cost-effective molecular biomarker panel for precision medicine in rectal cancer. Here, we aim to review the recent advance in tissue- and blood-based molecular biomarker research and illustrate their potential in predicting nCRT response in rectal cancer.

  19. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperature checked

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has a thermometer in his mouth to check his temperature checked prior to his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) mission, the first American manned suborbital space flight (02739); Shepard has his heart rate checked. The attending physician is Dr. William K. Douglas (02740).

  20. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has his blood pressure and temperature checked

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard has a thermometer in his mouth to check his temperature checked prior to his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) mission, the first American manned suborbital space flight (02739); Shepard has his heart rate checked. The attending physician is Dr. William K. Douglas (02740).

  1. Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  2. Changing the 30-min Rule in Canada: The Effect of Room Temperature on Bacterial Growth in Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Kou, Yuntong; Ducas, Éric; Thibault, Louis

    2016-11-01

    To maintain product quality and safety, the '30-min rule' requires the discard of red blood cells (RBCs) that are exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for more than 30 min. Recent studies suggest this rule may safely be extended to a 60-min rule. A pool-and-split design study (N = 4) was run in parallel at Canadian Blood Services (SAGM RBCs) and Héma-Québec (AS-3 RBCs). RBCs were spiked with ∼1 colony-forming unit/ml of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Control units remained in storage at 1-6 °C for 42 days. Test 30 (T30) and T60 units were exposed to room temperature (RT) six times during storage, each time for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Bacterial proliferation was monitored. Mesophilic bacteria do not proliferate in RBCs. The growth of psychrophilic bacteria is not significantly different in RBCs exposed for 30 or 60 min to RT (p < 0.05). The study findings were the final evidence to support extension from a 30-min rule to a 60-min rule in Canada.

  3. Changing the 30-min Rule in Canada: The Effect of Room Temperature on Bacterial Growth in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Kou, Yuntong; Ducas, Éric; Thibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background To maintain product quality and safety, the ‘30-min rule’ requires the discard of red blood cells (RBCs) that are exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for more than 30 min. Recent studies suggest this rule may safely be extended to a 60-min rule. Methods A pool-and-split design study (N = 4) was run in parallel at Canadian Blood Services (SAGM RBCs) and Héma-Québec (AS-3 RBCs). RBCs were spiked with ∼1 colony-forming unit/ml of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Control units remained in storage at 1-6 °C for 42 days. Test 30 (T30) and T60 units were exposed to room temperature (RT) six times during storage, each time for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Bacterial proliferation was monitored. Results Mesophilic bacteria do not proliferate in RBCs. The growth of psychrophilic bacteria is not significantly different in RBCs exposed for 30 or 60 min to RT (p < 0.05). Conclusion The study findings were the final evidence to support extension from a 30-min rule to a 60-min rule in Canada. PMID:27994525

  4. The effects of an overnight holding of whole blood at room temperature on haemoglobin modification and in vitro markers of red blood cell aging.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, M; Zimmermann, R; Roth, T; Hauck-Dlimi, B; Strasser, E F; Xiang, W

    2015-05-01

    Some effects of the red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion are well documented whereas others are not. Whether a period of room temperature hold (RTH) during RBC production enhances the RBC storage lesion has remained controversial. In this study, we compared whole blood (WB)-derived RBCs produced after 24-h RTH with rapidly cooled (RC) RBCs and tested them for classical metabolic markers and signs of oxidative damage. SAGM-RBCs were prepared from mixed and split pairs (n = 12) of WB units. RBCs prepared after a 24-h period of RTH on day+1 after collection (RTH-RBCs) were compared with RC-RBCs. All RBCs were stored at 4°C for 42 days with assay of in vitro variables on days+1, +15, +22, +29 and +42. The study examined standard quality parameters, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and indicative markers of oxidative cell damage including post-translational haemoglobin modification, malondialdehyde (MDA), and phosphatidylserine expression. RTH-RBCs exhibited decreased levels of potassium (1·98 ± 0·26 vs. 5·23 ± 0·65 mmol/l) and of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) on day+1 compared with RC-RBCs. Haemolysis rate on day+42 was higher in RTH-RBCs than in RC-RBCs (0·52 ± 0·13 vs. 0·37 ± 0·12%). The phosphatidylserine expression amounted to 0·25 ± 0·20% in RTH-RBCs and 0·07 ± 0·12% in RC-RBCs. Haemoglobin modification was not different between both RBC groups. RTH-RBCs showed slightly higher MDA concentration on days +29 and +42. RC-RBCs and RTH-RBCs show only small differences of classical in vitro parameters and no relevant differences in antioxidative metabolism and oxidative haemoglobin modification. These findings do not explain the loss observed in in vivo survival studies with RBCs. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. The impact of temperature and pump flow rate during selective cerebral perfusion on regional blood flow in piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ginther, Richard M; Riegel, Matthew; Huang, Rong; Sharma, Mahesh S; Guleserian, Kristine J; Forbess, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Ideal temperature and flow rate for selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) are not known. We examined regional organ perfusion in a piglet SCP model. Three groups underwent SCP at 30 mL/kg/min at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 32°C) and 4 groups remained at 25°C for SCP at different flow rates (10, 30, 50 and 75 mL/kg/min). Fluorescent microspheres were injected at 5 minutes of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), immediately before SCP, SCP 45 minutes, SCP 90 minutes, and 2 hours after CPB. Brain and lower body organs were collected to examine regional blood flow (RBF, mL/min/g). At 2 hours after CPB, RBF of the 32°C group was higher than that of the 15°C group (P < .05) at the caudate nucleus and hippocampus; RBF of the 32°C group was higher than that of the 25°C and 15°C groups (P < .05) at the neocortex. No significant difference in RBF was observed among any of the 25°C groups at different flow rates. Also, there was no significant difference between the RBF to the left and right sides of brain in either the temperature or flow rate groups. RBF did significantly increase with temperature in the liver and quadriceps during SCP (P < .05). At the kidney, RBF at SCP 90 minutes was significantly higher than that at SCP 45 minutes when all temperature groups were combined (P < .05). SCP at 32°C provides higher brain RBF 2 hours after CPB. Increasing SCP flow rate does not increase RBF significantly at 25°C. Higher temperature during SCP results in improved RBF to the liver and quadriceps. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. Particulate matter air pollution and ambient temperature: opposing effects on blood pressure in high-risk cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Paolo; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Das, Ritabrata; Gracik, Theresa; Wang, Lu; Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Fitzner, Craig A; Ferri, Claudio; Brook, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    Fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and extreme temperatures have both been associated with alterations in blood pressure (BP). However, few studies have evaluated their joint haemodynamic actions among individuals at high risk for cardiovascular events. We assessed the effects of short-term exposures during the prior week to ambient PM2.5 and outdoor temperature levels on resting seated BP among 2078 patients enrolling into a cardiac rehabilitation programme at the University of Michigan (from 2003 to 2011) using multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, BMI, ozone and the same-day alternate environmental factor (i.e. PM2.5 or temperature). Mean PM2.5 and temperature levels were 12.6 ± 8.2 μg/m and 10.3 ± 10.4°C, respectively. Each standard deviation elevation in PM2.5 concentration during lag days 4-6 was associated with significant increases in SBP (2.1-3.5 mmHg) and DBP (1.7-1.8 mmHg). Conversely, higher temperature levels (per 10.4°C) during lag days 4-6 were associated with reductions in both SBP (-3.6 to -2.3 mmHg) and DBP (-2.5 to -1.8 mmHg). There was little evidence for consistent effect modification by other covariates (e.g. demographics, seasons, medication usage). Short-term exposures to PM2.5, even at low concentrations within current air quality standards, are associated with significant increases in BP. Contrarily, higher ambient temperatures prompt the opposite haemodynamic effect. These findings demonstrate that both ubiquitous environmental exposures have clinically meaningful effects on resting BP among high-risk cardiac patients.

  7. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  8. Quality and safety of red blood cells stored in two additive solutions subjected to multiple room temperature exposures.

    PubMed

    de Grandmont, M J; Ducas, E; Girard, M; Méthot, M; Brien, M; Thibault, L

    2014-10-01

    Many international standards state that red blood cell (RBC) products should be discarded if left out of controlled temperature storage for longer than 30 min to reduce the risk of bacterial growth and RBC loss of viability. This study aimed to verify whether repeated short-time exposures to room temperature (RT) influence RBCs quality and bacterial proliferation. Saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) and AS-3 RBC units were split and exposed to RT for 30 or 60 min on day 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 of storage while reference units remained stored at 1-6°C. Red blood cell in vitro quality parameters were evaluated after each exposure. In a second experiment, SAGM and AS-3 RBC units were split and inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (5 CFU/ml), Serratia marcescens (1 CFU/ml), and Serratia liquefaciens (1 CFU/ml). Reference units remained in storage while test units were exposed as described previously. Bacterial concentrations were investigated after each exposure. No differences were noticed between reference and test units in any of the in vitro parameters investigated. S. epidermidis did not grow in either reference or exposed RBCs. While S. marcescens did not grow in AS-3, bacterial growth was observed in RT-exposed SAGM RBCs on day 42. Similar growth was obtained for S. liquefaciens in the two additive solutions for both reference and test units. Short-time exposures to RT do not affect RBC quality and do not significantly influence bacterial growth. An expansion of the '30-minute' rule to 60 min should be considered by regulatory agencies. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Wrist skin temperature, motor activity, and body position as determinants of the circadian pattern of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, A; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Salazar, F J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2012-07-01

    Although the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern has been extensively studied, the determinants of this rhythm are not fully understood. Peripheral vasodilatation is a regulatory mechanism for BP maintenance. However, it remains to be established whether the increase of nocturnal distal skin temperature associated with heat loss could also reflect the dipping status. For the first time, this paper investigates the relationship between BP and skin wrist temperature (WT), to evaluate whether the WT circadian rhythm can serve as screening procedure to detect dipping/non-dipping BP patterns. In addition, the authors compare the relationship between WT and other variables previously described as determinants of the BP pattern, such as physical activity and body position. Measurements of WT, motor activity, and body position for 5 d, plus ambulatory BP for 24-h during that span, were obtained from 28 diurnally active normotensive volunteers. WT was negatively correlated, whereas activity and body position were positively correlated, with systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these relationships were stronger during the rest than activity phase. In addition, a 78.6% concordance was detected between the observed dips in BP and the predicted BP pattern calculated based on the WT rhythm. Thus, these results suggest that the increase in WT produced by heat loss during the rest phase through peripheral skin blood vessels is the result of blood vessel vasodilatation reflexes in response to a shift from a standing to a supine position, together with shift in the circadian sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (nocturnal parasympathetic activation). In conclusion, WT could be considered as a potential new screening procedure to implement the diagnosis of non-dipping BP pattern.

  10. Atypical Red Blood Cells Are Prevalent in California Sea Lion Pups Born during Anomalous Sea Surface Temperature Events.

    PubMed

    Flores-Morán, Adriana; Banuet-Martínez, Marina; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We examined whether atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more common in 2015, when the high SST event was more pronounced, and whether the stable isotope signature of pup fur, as an indicator of maternal feeding strategies, accounted for the number of atypical cells. Various atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more prevalent and more abundant than reference values. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in both years, and only pups born in 2014 showed evidence of active erythropoiesis. Microcytes and reticulocytes were more common in pups with higher isotopic δ(13)C and lower δ(15)N values, suggesting a probable relationship between maternal feeding strategies and the effect of climatic anomalies on red blood cell physiology of their pups. As developing pinnipeds require increased oxygen storage capacity for diving and foraging, the presence of atypical erythrocytes could be relevant to CSL pup fitness if the underlying cause is not reverted. This study is a first step to explore the effects that climatic alterations in the marine environment can have on the blood physiology of developing individuals.

  11. Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Nucci, Daniel J; Liptak, Julius M; Selmic, Laura E; Culp, William T N; Durant, April M; Worley, Deanna; Maritato, Karl C; Thomson, Maurine; Annoni, Maurizio; Singh, Ameet; Matz, Brad; Benson, John; Buracco, Paolo

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors. Retrospective case series. 74 dogs with rectal masses. Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time. 58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively. Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.

  12. Effect of transportation during periods of high ambient temperature on physiologic and behavioral indices of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Miles E; White, Brad J; Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D; Mosier, Derek A; Coetzee, Johann F; Amrine, David E

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of transportation during periods of high ambient temperature on physiologic and behavioral indices of beef heifers. 20 heifers (mean body weight, 217.8 kg). Ten heifers were transported 518 km when the maximum ambient temperature was ≥ 32.2°C while the other 10 heifers served as untransported controls. Blood samples were collected from transported heifers at predetermined intervals during the transportation period. For all heifers, body weights, nasal and rectal temperatures, and behavioral indices were measured at predetermined intervals for 3 days after transportation. A week later, the entire process was repeated such that each group was transported twice and served as the control twice. Transported heifers spent more time near the hay feeder on the day of transportation, had lower nasal and rectal temperatures for 24 hours after transportation, and spent more time lying down for 2 days after transportation, compared with those indices for control heifers. Eight hours after transportation, the weight of transported heifers decreased 6%, whereas that of control heifers increased 0.6%. At 48 hours after initiation of transportation, weight, rectal temperature, and time spent at various pen locations did not differ between transported and control heifers. Cortisol concentrations were higher 4 hours after initiation of transportation, compared with those determined just prior to transportation. Results indicated transportation during periods of high ambient temperatures caused transient changes in physiologic and behavioral indices of beef heifers.

  13. The importance of disease induced changes in mammalian body temperature to mosquito blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Day, J F; Edman, J D

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory mice infected with rodent malaria (Plasmodium berghei or P. chabaudi) or St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) were not hyperthermic during the infection period. However, all infected animals displayed pathogen-specific periods of hypothermia. Hamsters infected with P. berghei were hyperthermic on day 7 postinfection (PI) but became hypothermic on day 8 PI and remained so until death, approximately 20 days PI. Body temperatures of mice infected with P. yoelii were not significantly different from those of uninfected control mice. Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) successfully engorged on restrained, uninfected mice, but were unable to engorge on unrestrained, uninfected mice due to the natural antimosquito behavior of the healthy rodents. Mosquitoes successfully engorged on unrestrained, malaria or SLE infected mice only during certain pathogen-specific periods of infection, but were able to engorge on all restrained, infected mice throughout the infection period regardless of the animal's body temperature. Daily activity patterns of malaria infected mice followed pathogen-specific profiles which closely conformed to the observed mosquito-engorgement profiles.

  14. Rectal microRNAs are perturbed in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Adam M.; Hand, Nicholas J.; Tsoucas, Daphne M.; Le Guen, Claire L.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Friedman, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in intestinal microRNAs have been reported in adult patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. The goal of this study was to identify changes in microRNA expression associated with colitis in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Rectal mucosal biopsies (n=50) and blood samples (n=47) were collected from patients with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease undergoing endoscopy. Rectal and serum microRNA levels were profiled using the human nCounter® platform and the TaqMan® low-density array platform, respectively. Significantly altered microRNAs were then validated in independent sample sets via quantitative RT-PCR. In vitro luciferase reporter assays were performed in the human colorectal Caco-2 cell line to determine the effect of miR-192 on NOD2 expression. Results Profiling of rectal RNA identified 21 microRNAs significantly altered between control, UC, and colonic CD sample groups. Nine of the ten microRNAs selected for validation were confirmed as significantly changed. Rectal miR-24 was increased 1.47-fold in UC compared to CD samples (p=0.0052) and was the only microRNA altered between IBD subtypes. Three colitis-associated microRNAs were significantly altered in the sera of disease patients and displayed diagnostic utility. However, no serum microRNAs were found to distinguish ulcerative colitis from Crohn’s colitis. Finally, miR-192 inhibition did not affect luciferase reporter activity, suggesting miR-192 does not regulate human NOD2. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that rectal and serum microRNAs are perturbed in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Future studies identifying the targets of inflammatory bowel disease-associated microRNAs may lead to novel therapies. PMID:24613022

  15. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    PubMed

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease