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Sample records for recurrent medullary thyroid

  1. [Difficulties in diagnosis and localization of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Biterman, Arie; Bloch, Boaz; Wolf, Tamir; Baron, Ela; Lephel, Oleg; Cohen, Oded

    2002-02-01

    Recurrent and residual medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are common in patients following primary surgical resection. Difficulty arises in performing precise localization of the tumor because of anatomical distortion of the neck structures following surgery. To date, no modality has been shown superior to others in the diagnosis of recurrent or residual MTC, and the issue is currently under debate in the literature. We report a case in which secondary recurrence of MTC was detected and localized using a novel combination of preoperative and intraoperative radionuclide imaging, and a method of preventing intraoperative damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the anatomically disrupted neck. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a combination of these three modalities in detection and localization of recurrent MTC, while minimizing the possibility for nerve injury during the operative procedure. Such a therapeutic strategy may prove useful in the management of patients who have previously undergone neck surgery and suffer from anatomical distortion of normal neck structures.

  2. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  3. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, S; Chakrabarti, S; Mandal, P K; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to be associated with lymphoma, papillary carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid. In contrast, there are only a few reports of co-existence of HT with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. An overall prevalence of medullary carcinoma of only 0.35% has been reported in HT patients. Such a rare combination is being presented here. A 33 year old female presented with history of goiter for one year. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling revealed cytological features suggestive of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological examination of total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis along with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis can uncommonly co-exist with thyroid neoplasm, its association with medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and hence being presented.

  4. Medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular or C cells that produce calcitonin (CT), and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is hereditary in about 25% of cases. The discovery of a MTC in a patient has several implications: disease extent should be evaluated, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism should be screened for and whether the MTC is sporadic or hereditary should be determined by a direct analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. In this review, pathological characteristics, tumour markers and genetic abnormalities in MTC are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic modalities applied to patients with clinical MTC and those identified with preclinical disease through familial screening are also described. Progresses concerning genetics, initial treatment, follow-up, screening and treatment of pheochromocytoma have permitted an improvement in the long-term outcome. However, there is no effective treatment for distant metastases, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed.

  5. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line "gain of function" mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  6. What is currently the best radiopharmaceutical for the hybrid PET/CT detection of recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Slavikova, K; Montravers, F; Treglia, G; Kunikowska, J; Kaliska, L; Vereb, M; Talbot, J N; Balogova, S

    2013-06-06

    Among thyroid malignancies, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has some very specific features. Production and secretion of large amounts of peptides occur in malignant transformed C cells with few exceptions, leading to high serum levels of calcitonin (Ctn) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), that act after thyroidectomy as tumour markers warning for the presence of persistent or metastatic MTC. The availability of those serum biomarkers with an excellent sensitivity challenges medical imaging to localise the recurrent cancer tissue, since surgery is a major therapeutic option. The aims of this article are (i) to review literature evidence about the efficacy and tolerance of radiopharmaceuticals for 3 targets of PET/CT imaging (glucose metabolism, bioamines metabolism and somatostatin receptors) and also bone scintigraphy which is recommended in the Guidelines of European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO; (ii) to compare the availability and the costs in relation with those radiopharmaceuticals, (iii) and to discuss a possible sequence of those examinations, in order to optimise spending and to minimise the overall radiation dose. In this context of recurrent MTC suspected on rising tumour markers levels after thyroidectomy, this survey of literature confirms that FDOPA is the best radiopharmaceutical for PET/CT with significant diagnostic performance if Ctn>150 pg/mL; an early image acquisition starting during the first 15 min is advised. In negative cases, FDG should be the next PET radiopharmaceutical, in particular if Ctn and CEA levels are rapidly rising, and PET with a somatostatin analogue labelled with gallium-68 when neither FDOPA nor FDG PET are conclusive. Bone scintigraphy could complement FDG-PET/CT if FDOPA is not available.

  7. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  8. Prognostic and predictive markers in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erovic, Boban M; Kim, Dae; Cassol, Clarissa; Goldstein, David P; Irish, Jonathan C; Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2012-12-01

    Unlike papillary thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma is insensitive to adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. The clinical management of patients with advanced or metastatic disease remains challenging since no effective systemic adjuvant therapy is available. We aimed to identify markers of aggressive disease and novel drugable protein targets that would provide systemic adjuvant treatment for patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma. We therefore examined morphologic features of aggressive behavior and the expression of 41 proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis, inflammation, cell adhesion, tumor-specific markers, and WNT, SHH, and AKT pathways using tissue microarray from 23 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Protein expression was determined using computerized image analysis software. Statistical analysis was carried out to correlate clinical data with the average score for each marker. Angioinvasion proved to be the most reliable predictor of disease recurrence and death. The rate of angioinvasion was 43 %. All angioinvasive medullary thyroid carcinomas had locoregional and/or distant metastasis; 60 % of angioinvasive medullary thyroid carcinomas developed distant metastasis. We identified expression of several potentially important protein targets such as COX-1/2, Bcl-2a, Gst-π, Gli-1, Gli-2, Gli-3, and Bmi-1 that may be therapeutically targeted in medullary thyroid carcinoma. More importantly, the immunohistochemical profile of SSTRs in medullary thyroid carcinoma may also have clinical relevance for the administration of peptide receptor radionuclide treatment. Successful outcome of clinical trials directed against these novel targets would provide much needed systemic adjuvant treatment for patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma, and our data suggest the possibility of stratifying patients who are likely to require adjuvant therapy before their burden of disease precludes successful

  9. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid in Treating Patients With Metastatic and/or Locally Advanced or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-23

    Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage II Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  10. Concurrent medullary and papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ateşpare, Altay; Çalış, Aslı Batur; Çelik, Öner; Yener, Neşe; Vural, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in the same thyroid gland is a rare condition. These tumors derive from different cells; PTC originates from follicular cells whereas MTC originates from parafollicular cells. Because of this, the treatment of these tumors also differs. This article describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland.

  11. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypercalcitoninemia after initial treatment for medullary thyroid cancer and postoperative serum calcitonin cutoffs for predicting structural recurrence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Jang, Ju Young; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Persistent hypercalcitoninemia is reported in 40% to 60% of patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) after initial therapy, but their clinical outcomes have not been clearly studied. We evaluated the outcomes of MTC with hypercalcitoninemia and assessed the cutoffs of postoperative serum calcitonin for predicting structural recurrence. A dynamic risk assessment system was used to categorize clinical outcomes in this retrospective study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate the calcitonin cutoffs for predicting structural recurrence. Among 120 patients operated on, 30 (25%) had persistent hypercalcitoninemia. Of that group, 18 (60%) had biochemical persistent disease and 11 (37%) developed structural identified disease, including 1 death (3%). Postoperative calcitonin <29 pg/mL predicted structural disease with 100% sensitivity, 90.5% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. One third of the patients with MTC with hypercalcitoninemia experienced structural recurrence, and postoperative basal serum calcitonin might be a simple tumor marker to predict structural recurrence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: First-1508, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Somatic mutations of the ret Protooncogene in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma are not restricted to exon 16 and are associated with tumor recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Romei, C.; Elisei, R.; Pinchera, A.

    1996-04-01

    Germline point mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the ret protooncogene have been identified as causative in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Somatic point mutations of the same gene, exclusively associated with codon 918 of exon 16, have also been reported in few cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. We analyzed the blood and tumor DNA of 19 patients with sporadic MTC and 6 patients with primary parathyroid adenoma for point mutations at exons 10, 11, and 16 of the ret protooncogene by restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified product and by sequence analysis of exons 10 and 11. A Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Tyr mutation was found in both the tumoral and blood DNA of one patient, indicating that he was affected by an hereditary form of MTC, erroneously considered sporadic. In the other 18 patients with MTC, somatic point mutations of ret were found in 8 cases (44.4%). In 5 cases the mutation affected exon 16 (Met{sup 918}{r_arrow}Thr), and in 3 cases it affected exon 11 (Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Arg in 1 and Cys{sup 634}{r_arrow}Trp in 2); these 3 mutations were confirmed by sequence analysis. The remaining 10 patients had no mutation in exon 10 by either restriction analysis or sequence analysis. Clinical data showed that 75% of the patients whose tumor carried ret mutation had tumor recurrence and/or increased serum calcitonin concentrations during the postsurgical follow-up period as opposed to 10% of the patients without mutations (P < 0.02, by {chi}{sup 2} analysis). No ret mutation was found in the tumoral DNA from parathyroid adenomas. Our findings indicate that the somatic ret point mutation frequently found in sporadic MTC may affect not only exon 16 but also exon 11 and is associated with less favorable clinical outcome. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Bilateral Thyroid and Ultimobranchial Medullary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patey, Martine; Flament, Jean Bernard; Caron, Jean; Delisle, Marie Joelle; Delemer, Brigitte; Pluot, Michel

    1996-01-01

    The ultimobranchial bodies in human embryos develop from the fourth and fifth branchial pouch complexes along with thymic and parathyroid tissue. They become incorporated within the lateral thyroid lobes and are believed to be involved in the development of C-cells. We report a case of an unusual bilateral thyroid and neck prelaryngeal medullary carcinoma in a 23-year-old male patient who belongs to a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a (MEN type 2a) family with thyroid tumors and pheochromocytomas. The medullary carcinoma was located in an abnormal cystic structure that seems to be a remnant of the ultimobranchial body (UBB) in the neck. Within the contralateral thyroid lobe, the medullary carcinoma was associated with C-cell hyperplasia.

  14. Medullary carcinoma in a lingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Yaday, S; Singh, I; Singh, J; Aggarwal, N

    2008-03-01

    Total ectopia of thyroid is a rare phenomenon and malignant change in an ectopic thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of medullary carcinoma in a total ectopic lingual thyroid occurring in a 45-year-old woman who presented with dysphagia, plummy voice and a round sessile mass at the base of the tongue. The mass was extirpated using Trotter's midline approach. Upon examination, it was found to be medullary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid. Permanent substitution therapy with thyroxine secured the euthyroid status of the patient. The embrylogical basis and a review of literature regarding carcinomatous change in an ectopic thyroid are also discussed. There is a need to investigate for an ectopic thyroid, or even total ectopia, in the case of any smooth mass found at the base of the tongue.

  15. [Is immediate prophylactic thyroidectomy indispensable in familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma?].

    PubMed

    Cañizo, A; Fanjul, M; Cerdá, J; Menárguez, J; Parente, A; Laín, A; Carrera, N; Rodríguez-Arnao, M D; Rodríguez-Sánchez, A; Polo, J R; Vázquez, J

    2008-04-01

    To emphasize the importance of genetic studies in family members and early prophylactic thyroidectomy in oncogene mutation carriers in the management of familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review of families with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma treated at our center in the last 7 years was performed. We identified a total of 7 families who has isolated prevalences with thyroid malignancies. Forty members of the 7 families were screened for gene RET mutations. Prophylactic total thyroidectomy was performed in every RET mutation gene carriers. In all families the index case were patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting at a mean age of 37.25 years (range 23-42). The RET oncogen mutation was in codon 634 in exon 11 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A) in all these patients. Fourteen gene carriers were identified with a mean age of 20 years (range 7-37), eleven of whom had medullary thyroid carcinoma at the time of surgery. Five of the gene carriers were children, with a mean age of 11 years (range 7-16), four of whom had microcarcinoma and one had metastatic carcinoma at the time of surgery. After surgery no hypoparathyroidism or recurrent nerve paralysis were documented. No pediatric patient has presented with phaeochromocytoma or hypoparathyroidism to date Four of the five children have normal calcitonin levels (< 2 pg/ml) and they are free of disease. The one who presented metastatic carcinoma has recurrent disease and is awaiting surgical treatment. Genetic studies of family members related to patients with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET mutations is indispensable. The RET mutation in codon 634 exon 11 was found to be the most frequent association. Prophylactic thyroidectomy is the only curative treatment and has minimal complications when performed by expert surgeons. Early thyroidectomy is recommended since distant metastatic spread can occur at early age.

  16. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  17. Association of the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios with lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ke; Lei, Jianyong; Chen, Wenjie; Gong, Yanping; Luo, Han; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are known to be prognostic factors in several cancers. However, no previous investigation has been performed to evaluate the significance of the NLR and PLR in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aim of this study was to identify the ability of the preoperative NLR or PLR to predict lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with MTC. Data from all patients with MTC who had undergone surgery at our institution from May 2009 to May 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify optimal NLR and PLR cutoff points, and we assessed independent predictors of lymph node metastasis and recurrence using univariate and multivariate analyses. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. The ideal cutoff points for predicting lymph node involvement were 2.7 for the NLR and 105.3 for the PLR. The optimal cutoff points of the NLR and PLR for predicting recurrence were 2.8 and 129.8, respectively. Using the cutoff values, we found that PLR>105.3 (odds ratio [OR] 4.782, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–16.7) was an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis and that PLR>129.8 (OR 3.838, 95% CI 1.1–13.5) was an independent predictor of recurrence. Our study suggests that the preoperative PLR, but not NLR, was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with MTC. PMID:27749581

  18. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Obara, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare. The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc. Although they are also extremely rare, recognition of their clinicopathologic features are very important. In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.

  19. Biological relevance of medullary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Dralle, Henning

    2012-05-01

    The clinical relevance of medullary thyroid microcarcinoma, a calcitonin-secreting malignancy, as a valid target for biochemical screening programs has been called into doubt. This investigation aimed at clarifying the intensity of lymphatic spread and exploring the potential for biochemical cure in medullary thyroid microcarcinoma. This was a retrospective analysis. The setting was a tertiary referral center. Included were 233 patients with hereditary (126 patients) or sporadic (107 patients) medullary thyroid microcarcinoma. The intervention was compartment-oriented surgery. Clinical-histopathological variables were stratified by primary tumor diameter (2-mm increments) and biochemical cure. With incremental tumor diameter, increasingly more patients with medullary thyroid microcarcinoma harbored lymph node metastases: from 6 to 62% of patients (P < 0.001) for hereditary and from 13 to 43% of patients (P = 0.01) for sporadic disease. The corresponding biochemical cure rates declined from 96 to 71% (P = 0.001) and from 85 to 77% (P = 0.01). Distant disease (two instances of lung metastasis and one instance of bone and liver metastasis) was exceptional, affecting 1.3% of patients with medullary thyroid microcarcinoma. Strongest predictors of a patient's failure to achieve normal calcitonin serum levels were positive nodal status (79 vs. 11% in hereditary and 79 vs. 12% in sporadic disease; both P < 0.001) and the number of involved nodes (means of 6.6 vs. 0.3 nodes in hereditary and 8.8 vs. 0.4 nodes in sporadic disease; both P < 0.001). Sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid microcarcinoma carry a significant risk of lymph node metastasis and postoperative calcitonin elevation.

  20. Predictive and prognostic value of 18F-DOPA PET/CT in patients affected by recurrent medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Caobelli, Federico; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Evangelista, Laura; Saladini, Giorgio; Schillaci, Orazio; Vadrucci, Manuela; Scalorbi, Federica; Donner, Davide; Alongi, Pierpaolo

    2017-10-06

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy accounting for about 5-8% of thyroid cancers. Serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are widely used to monitor disease progression. However, prognostic factors able to predict outcomes are highly desirable. We, therefore, aimed to assess the prognostic role of (18)F-DOPA PET/CT in patients with recurrent MTC. 60 patients (mean age 64 ± 13 years, range 44-82) with recurrent MTC were eligible from a multicenter database. All patients underwent a restaging (18)F-DOPA PET/CT, performed at least 6 months after surgery. CEA/calcitonin levels, local recurrences, nodal involvement and metastases at PET/CT were recorded. SUVmax, SUVmean (also normalized to mediastinal uptake) and metabolic tumor volume were automatically calculated for each lesion, by placing a volume of interest around the lesion with 40% of peak activity as threshold for the automatic contouring. The patients were clinically and radiologically followed up for 21 ± 11 months. Rate of progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and incremental prognostic value of (18)F-DOPA PET/CT over conventional imaging modalities were assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves and Log-Rank test. Cox regression univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for assessing predictors of prognosis. (18)F-DOPA PET/CT showed abnormal findings in 27 patients (45%) and resulted unremarkable in 33 (55%). PFS was significantly longer in patients with an unremarkable PET/CT scan (p = 0.018). Similarly, an unremarkable PET/CT study was associated with a significantly longer DSS (p = 0.04). (18)F-DOPA PET/CT added prognostic value over other imaging modalities both for PFS and for DSS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively). Neither semiquantitative PET parameters nor clinical or laboratory data were predictive of a worse PFS and DSS in patients with recurrent MTC. (18)F-DOPA PET/CT scan has an important prognostic

  1. A 9 years boy with MEN-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sattar, M A; Hadi, H I; Ekramuddoula, F M; Hasanuzzaman, S M

    2013-04-01

    To highlight a rare disease like multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2B variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma and to optimize the management option in such cases, we present a nine year old boy with thyroid swelling, cervical lymphadenopathy and thick lips. His calcitonin level was raised. Investigation's results of the boy were as following fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was medullary carcinoma of thyroid, preoperative calcitonin was >2000pg/ml, post operative histopathological report was medullary carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy with aggressive initial neck surgery may reduce the recurrence and increase better prognosis and survival rate. Calcitonin is used as diagnostic and follow-up marker.

  2. Bradshaw lecture, 1976. Thyroid medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1977-01-01

    The main characteristics of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid are its non-follicular histological appearance, resulting from its origin from the parafollicular C cells, its secretion of calcitonin, providing a relatively simple diagnostic test, and its equal sex incidence, in contrast to all other diseases of the thyroid. Sporadic cases are seen and it occurs in familial groups, with autosomal dominant inheritance, when it is associated with phaeochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia to form the second type of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA2). These last features make it necessary in every case of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid to examine other members of the family and to investigate the possibility of concomitant adrenal and parathyroid disease. The priorities of treatment when these are present and the indications for total thyroidectomy are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:20027

  3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: The third most common thyroid cancer reviewed

    PubMed Central

    STAMATAKOS, MICHAEL; PARASKEVA, PANORAIA; STEFANAKI, CHARIKLEIA; KATSARONIS, PARASKEVAS; LAZARIS, ANDREAS; SAFIOLEAS, KONSTANTINOS; KONTZOGLOU, KONSTANTINOS

    2011-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a type of thyroid cancer of neuroendocrine origin. It occurs in hereditary and sporadic forms, and its aggressive behavior is associated with the clinical presentation and type of RET mutation. Total thyroidectomy remains the ideal choice of treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are the fundamental for a 100% cure rate. In this study, we present our experience of 3 cases, along with a complete review of the literature derived from a Pubmed Database search. PMID:22870127

  4. The pathology of preclinical medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) occurs sporadically, or in familial forms in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. In the familial forms it is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene. The mutation sites differ in MEN2A and MEN2B, and MTC develops at an earlier age and is more aggressive in MEN2B. Screening of relatives of affected individuals for such mutations can identify those at risk of developing MTC and total thyroidectomy can be carried out in the first decade of life before the development of clinical disease. Analysis of such removed thyroid glands shows abnormalities of the parafollicular C-cells in almost all cases. The abnormalities range from C-cell hyperplasia, either diffuse or nodular, to microcarcinoma and occasionally frank MTC. The abnormalities are bilateral and affect the upper two thirds of the thyroid lobes. Microcarcinomas may be visible with the naked eye, but often they are identified only on microscopy. Histopathological examination of the entire gland is essential.

  5. Advanced medullary thyroid cancer: pathophysiology and management

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carla Vaz; Siqueira, Débora Rodrigues; Ceolin, Lucieli; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignant tumor originating from thyroid parafollicular C cells. This tumor accounts for 3%–4% of thyroid gland neoplasias. MTC may occur sporadically or be inherited. Hereditary MTC appears as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A or 2B, or familial medullary thyroid cancer. Germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene cause hereditary forms of cancer, whereas somatic mutations can be present in sporadic forms of the disease. The RET gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways leading to proliferation, growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Nowadays, early diagnosis of MTC followed by total thyroidectomy offers the only possibility of cure. Based on the knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of MTC, new drugs have been developed in an attempt to control metastatic disease. Of these, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent one of the most promising agents for MTC treatment, and clinical trials have shown encouraging results. Hopefully, the cumulative knowledge about the targets of action of these drugs and about the tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated side effects will help in choosing the best therapeutic approach to enhance their benefits. PMID:23696715

  6. Recent Updates on the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor derived from the thyroid C cells producing calcitonin. MTC accounts for 0.6% of all thyroid cancers and incidence of MTC increased steadily between 1997 and 2011 in Korea. It occurs either sporadically or in a hereditary form based on germline rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations. MTC can be cured only by complete resection of the thyroid tumor and any loco-regional metastases. The most appropriate treatment is still less clear in patients with residual or recurrent disease after initial surgery or those with distant metastases because most patients even with metastatic disease have indolent courses with slow progression for several years and MTC is not responsive to either radioactive iodine therapy or thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression. Recently, two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vandetanib and cabozantinib, are approved for use in patients with advanced, metastatic or progressive MTC. In this review, we summarize the current approach according to revised American Thyroid Association guidelines and recent advances in systemic treatment such as TKIs for patients with persistent or recurrent MTC after surgery. PMID:27586449

  7. Concurrent Medullary, Papillary, and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas and Simultaneous Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Orlev, Amir; Mizrahi, Ido; Gross, David J; Freund, Herbert R

    2015-03-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer (85%). Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for up to 10% of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for only 5-8% of thyroid cancers. Concurrent medullary, follicular, and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare and reported scarcely. A 72-year-old male presented with nonspecific neck pain. The workup revealed a nodular thyroid gland with a follicular lesion on fine-needle aspiration. Total thyroidectomy was performed and pathological examination identified a 25-mm follicular carcinoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and two medullary microcarcinomas. The genetic workup was negative and no other family members were diagnosed with any endocrinopathy. Two months after surgery, the patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome that was treated with laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. On 3-year follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrent disease. We present a rare case of a patient with follicular, papillary, and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and Cushing's syndrome. To date, no known genetic mutation or syndrome can account for this combination of neoplastic thyroid and adrenal pathologies, although future research may prove differently.

  8. Persistent hypercalcitoninemia in patients with medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Misso, Claudia; Calzolari, Filippo; Puxeddu, Efisio; Lucchini, Roberta; Monacelli, Massimo; Giammartino, Camillo; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; d'Ajello, Michele; Ragusa, Mark; Avenia, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a highly malignant and progressive disease. Surgery is the only effective treatment. Calcitonin is a significant marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma, and due to its sensitivity it represents a useful tool for the follow-up. The outcome of patients affected by medullary thyroid carcinoma depends on tumor size, lymph node involvement, and adequacy of primary surgical management. In the present study, the authors reviewed their own experience in the cure of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Forty-one patients operated for sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma were included. Indications for surgery, inclusive of lymphectomy techniques, timing of redo surgery, and the meaning of calcitonin levels in highlighting disease are extensively discussed. Patients with elevated calcitonin levels and favorable outcome are considered, together with the various diagnostic tools to be employed during patient workup.

  9. Medullary thyroid cancer diagnosis: an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Giovanella, Luca; Crescenzi, Anna; Romanelli, Francesco; Valabrega, Stefano; Spriano, Giuseppe; Cremonini, Nadia; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Papini, Enrico

    2014-08-01

    Since its first description in 1951, a timely diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Several contributions have been addressed to the treatment and follow-up of MTC, but review articles focused on the diagnostic problems of this cancer in clinical practice are sparse. As a delayed diagnosis and an inadequate initial treatment may severely affect the prognosis of this thyroid malignancy, the appropriate use and the correct interpretation of the available diagnostic tools for MTC are of crucial importance. The purpose of the present article is to provide an easy-to-use guide reviewing the main issues of MTC diagnosis: (1) basal serum calcitonin; (2) stimulated serum calcitonin; (3) additional serum markers for MTC; (4) ultrasound and other imaging techniques; (5) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; (6) calcitonin measurement on FNA washout; (7) rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations; and (8) scope of the problem. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hypercalcitoninemia is not pathognomonic of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Sergio P A; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie de Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (>2-4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (approximately 90%-100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, <5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma.In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma

  11. Hypercalcitoninemia is not Pathognomonic of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Sergio PA; Lourenço, Delmar M; Santos, Marcelo Augusto; Tavares, Marcos R; Toledo, Rodrigo A; de Menezes Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin. Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with omeprazole (> 2–4 months), beta-blockers, glucocorticoids and potential secretagogues, have been associated with hypercalcitoninemia. An association between calcitonin levels and chronic auto-immune thyroiditis remains controversial. Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (~90%–100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, < 5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%). False-positive calcitonin results within MEN2 families have led to incorrect indications of preventive total thyroidectomy to RET mutation negative relatives. In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and

  12. Treating medullary thyroid cancer in the age of targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Maria E; Hu, Mimi I; Jimenez, Camilo; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Cote, Gilbert J

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor deriving from the thyroid parafollicular cell. Thyroidectomy continues to serve as the primary initial treatment for this cancer. Because standard cytotoxic chemotherapy has proven ineffective, reoperation and external beam radiation therapy had been the only tools to treat recurrences or distant disease. The discovery that aberrant activation of RET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is a primary driver of MTC tumorigenesis led to clinical trials using RET-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The successes of those trials led to the approval of vandetanib and cabozantinib for treating patients with progressive or symptomatic MTC. The availability of these drugs, along with additional targeted therapies in development, requires a thoughtful reconsideration of the approach to treating patients with unresectable locally advanced and/or metastatic progressive MTC. PMID:25908961

  13. The variable pathologic presentations of medullary and micro-medullary thyroid carcinoma: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Samulski, T Danielle; Livolsi, Virginia A; Montone, Kathleen; Baloch, Zubair

    2014-03-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare tumor; its pathologic diagnosis can be difficult due to variability in its clinical presentation, size, morphology, and follow-up. We report our institutional experience with 45 cases of MTC diagnosed at University of Pennsylvania Medical Center between 2000 and 2007. The collected data points included patient's age, sex, family history, tumor size, method of diagnosis, calcitonin and CEA levels, presence of concomitant follicular derived thyroid carcinoma (FDTC), lymph node (LN) status, and clinical follow-up. The cohort included 17 males and 28 females (average age 53 years); 6 had a history of multiple endocrine neoplasia II (MENII). Pre-operative FNA was performed in 33/45 cases (33%); 23/33 were diagnosed as MTC or suspicious for MTC. Of 45 cases 20 were micro-MTC; 15 occurred with other thyroid malignancies. LN metastases were present at primary resection in 18/45 cases. Calcitonin levels rose or remained elevated postoperatively in 4 cases; of these, 2 had regional LN recurrence and 1 developed distant metastases and subsequently died of disease. MTC is a heterogeneous disease. Sporadic micro-MTC carcinoma is an indolent tumor and can occur with other malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting medullary thyroid carcinomas with bispecific antibodies and bivalent haptens. Results and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rouvier, E; Gautherot, E; Meyer, P; Barbet, J

    1997-01-01

    The present article reviews the clinical trials that have been performed in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with the Affinity Enhancement System. This technique uses bispecific antibodies to target radiolabelled bivalent haptens to tumour cells. Its sensitivity in the detection of known tumour sites is high (90%) and this technique also achieves good sensitivity (61%) in the detection of occult disease as revealed by abnormal thyrocalcitonin blood levels. Due to its high targeting capacity, this technique is now considered for use as a therapeutic agent in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients.

  15. [Study of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma from a proband].

    PubMed

    Morlán Herrador, Laura; de Arriba, Antonio; Miguel, Gloria; Ferrera, Marta; Labarta, José I

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is an uncommon type of cancer, accounting less than 1% of all cancers in adults, and 0.5-3% of all cancers in children. There are four different types: papillary carcinoma (80-90% of cases), follicular (5-10%), medullary (5%) and anaplastic cell (2-3%). Eighty per cent of cases of medullary thyroid cancer are sporadic, but 20% are associated with an inherited syndrome that is divided into three groups: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. The inherited forms are caused by a disruption in the RET oncogene, which is located in the long arm of chromosome 10. A hereditary case of medullary thyroid carcinoma is presented. It was detected because of a familial genetic study. The purpose of the paper is emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis and the intervention of multidisciplinary teams of experts.

  16. Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass.

    PubMed

    White, Jeremy; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Schwartz, Arnold; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice.

  17. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: genetic advances, treatment recommendations, and the approach to the patient with persistent hypercalcitoninemia.

    PubMed

    Chi, D D; Moley, J F

    1998-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a tumor of the thyroid C cells that occurs in sporadic and hereditary clinical settings. Genetic testing of at-risk individuals is available and has been applied to patient management. Plasma calcitonin levels are a sensitive marker for the presence of disease. Surgery offers the best hope for cure and also is an effective modality for managing metastatic and recurrent disease.

  18. Sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to tumor size: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liguang; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to nodule size and compared with findings for papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study included 38 medullary thyroid carcinoma nodules and 91 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules, which were confirmed by pathologic examination between May 2008 and September 2013. Nodules were divided into those that were greater than 10 mm (large nodules) and 10 mm or less (small nodules). The differences in sonographic features (composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape) between groups were analyzed with a χ(2) test. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed an ovoid-to-round shape and a smooth margin; small medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed a taller-than-wide shape and a spiculated margin; the differences were statistically significant between the groups (P < .05). Compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas, large medullary thyroid carcinomas tended to have an ovoid-to-round shape, a smooth margin, and macrocalcifications and were more frequently diagnosed as indeterminate nodules (P < .05); however, there were no significant differences in the internal composition, calcifications, echogenicity, margin, and shape between small medullary thyroid carcinomas and small papillary thyroid carcinomas (P > .05). Our data indicate that the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are associated with tumor size; furthermore, the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are similar to those of small papillary thyroid carcinomas but greatly different from those of large papillary thyroid carcinomas. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas are more commonly diagnosed as indeterminate nodules by sonography than large papillary thyroid carcinomas, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy or serum calcitonin measurement may be helpful. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Modigliani, E; Franc, B; Niccoli-sire, P

    2000-12-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is a rare tumour derived from thyroid C cells with serum calcitonin as a specific and sensitive marker. MTC is inherited in 25% of cases, with an autosomal dominant transmission, age-related penetrance and variable expressivity. MTC is an obligatory component of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), which comprises three well defined syndromes: MEN2A, which may be associated with pheochromocytoma and/or hyperparathyroidism; the much rarer MEN2B, which occurs early and is accompanied by developmental abnormalities; while in contrast, familial MTC (FMTC) is not associated with any endocrinopathy. The RET proto-oncogene is the causative gene of the MEN2 syndromes and mutations in this gene are found in >90% of inherited cases, allowing easier and more reliable family screening than pentagastrin stimulation tests. Nevertheless, the correlation between the genotype and the different clinical phenotypes is not perfect. The prognosis of MTC depends on its staging at presentation, and the early appearance of cervical lymph node metastases emphasizes the need for extensive surgery, although many patients still do not normalize calcitonin levels post-operatively, and they remain a challenge for the further management.

  20. Medical Management of Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jessica E.; Sherman, Scott K.; O’Dorisio, Thomas M.; Howe, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, which occurs in both heritable and sporadic forms. Discovery that mutations in the RET protooncogene predispose to familial cases of this disease has allowed for presymptomatic identification of gene carriers and prophylactic surgery to improve the prognosis of these patients. A significant number of patients with the sporadic type of MTC and even with familial disease, still present with nodal or distant metastases, making surgical cure difficult. Over the past several decades, many different types of therapy for metastatic disease have been attempted, with limited success. Improved understanding of the molecular defects and pathways involved in both familial and sporadic MTC has resulted in new hope for these patients with the development of drugs targeting the specific alterations responsible. This new era of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors represents a significant step forward from previous trials of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy. Although much progress has been made, additional agents and strategies are needed to achieve durable, long-term responses in patients with metastatic MTC. This article reviews the history and results of medical management for metastatic MTC from the early 1970s up until the present day. PMID:24942936

  1. Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical Data From A University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6–15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were

  2. Somatostatin receptor expression in non-medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pazaitou-Panayiotou, Kalliopi; Tiensuu Janson, Eva; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Stridsberg, Mats; Karkavelas, Georgios; Karayannopoulou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is dependent upon binding of radiolabelled peptides to their respective receptor expressing cells. The main objective of this study was to characterize the expression of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes in non-medullary thyroid cancers in order to be able to recommend the use of PRRT as a treatment option in patients with progressive local or metastatic disease. We constructed tissue microarrays from paraffin blocks prepared from 47 cases of non-medullary thyroid carcinomas and related normal thyroid tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with five different polyclonal SSTR antibodies. SSTR subtypes sst2 and sst3 were expressed in all non-medullary thyroid carcinomas, sst1 and sst5 in 75%, and sst4 in 38%. Coexpression of more than three subtypes was detected in 36 of the 47 cases. The expression of SSTR subtypes in normal thyroid tissue was low or absent. Non-medullary thyroid carcinomas frequently express all SSTR subtypes. This expression provides a basis for further studies with the aim of exploring PRRT as a possible new treatment for iodine-131 refractory metastatic non-medullary thyroid carcinomas.

  3. Clinical value of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy in local recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid cancers: a comparison of lesions with 18F-FDG-PET and MIBI images.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Kabasakal, Levent; Ocak, Meltem; Maecke, Helmut; Uslu, Lebriz; Halaç, Metin; Asa, Sertac; Sager, Günes; Önsel, Çetin; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2013-12-01

    Various studies have been conducted for determining the most optimal method for the early diagnosis of local recurrent or distant metastatic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled octreotide derivatives in the detection of recurrence or distant metastases in medullary thyroid cancer patients and to compare the lesions with those detected using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies in the same patient group. Sixteen medullary thyroid cancer patients [two male and 14 female; mean age 52.0 ± 14.1 years (range 13-72 years)] were included in this study. All patients underwent a whole-body scan 1 and 4 h after injection with octreotide derivatives and single photon emission computed tomography images were taken of the sites suspicious for metastasis. The lesions seen in Tc-99m HYNIC octreotide studies were compared with those seen in 18F-FDG-PET and Tc-99m MIBI studies. Among the Tc-99m-labeled octreotide scintigraphy studies, nine were evaluated as true positive (56.2%) and one was evaluated as false positive (6.2%); six were false negative (37.5%). In 16 patients, the total number of lesions seen on octreotide scintigraphy was 21. Thirteen of the 16 patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET imaging. Of the 13 patients studied, 10 showed true-positive (76.9%) and three showed false-negative (23.1%) results. The total number of lesions seen on 18F-FDG-PET was 23. The Tc-99m MIBI study yielded positive results in seven of 16 patients (43.7%) and negative results in nine patients (56.3%). The total number of lesions on Tc-99m MIBI was 12. The Tc-99m-labeled somatostatin receptor scintigraphy analogs HYNIC-tyrosine octreotide and HYNIC-TATE are useful imaging alternatives in somatostatin receptor-expressing thyroid cancers. Radiolabeling using these analogs is easy and they are readily available for routine use.

  4. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  5. Four patients with cutaneous metastases from medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Libero; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sherman, Steven I; Hymes, Sharon R; Gagel, Robert F; Shaw, Stephanie; Sarlis, Nicholas J

    2008-08-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from thyroid cancer, especially medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is rare. We report four patients with cutaneous metastases from sporadic MTC, three women and one man, aged 50 to 69 years. They presented different cutaneous lesions phenotypes. The first patient had a remote history of MTC and initial presentation of the recurrence was a rapidly progressing cutaneous lesion; on subsequent disease staging, widely metastatic disease was discovered. The other three patients developed cutaneous metastases in the presence of known distant metastases, indicating systemic spread of thyroid cancer. Definitive diagnosis of cutaneous metastases of MTC was made on biopsy of the lesions with cells that stained positive for neuroendocrine markers. Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis from MTC is important because it is a negative prognostic factor indicative of multisystemic disease. Thus, MTC metastases should be included in the differential diagnosis of erythematous maculopapular eruptions and nodular lesions of the skin, especially when these metastases occur in the upper part of the body and if the patient has a history of MTC. The appearing of cutaneous metastasis is a negative prognostic factor since all the patients here described died within one year from the diagnosis of cutaneous metastases.

  6. Medullary thyroid cancer with undetectable serum calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Gersten, Adam J; Tassler, Andrew B; Surks, Martin I

    2015-02-01

    Calcitonin is a sensitive biomarker that is used for diagnosis and follow-up in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). In patients with tumors > 1 cm, it is uncommon for preoperative serum calcitonin to be in the normal laboratory reference range in patients with MTC, and even more unusual for serum calcitonin to be undetectable. A 39-year-old woman was found to have a left thyroid nodule on magnetic resonance imaging done for neck pain. Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy were performed, and cytopathology was positive for malignant cells. The cells also had features suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor, and the specimen was immune-stained with calcitonin. There was positive immunoreactivity for calcitonin in isolated cells of the cytospin, highly favoring a diagnosis of MTC. Serum calcitonin was < 2 pg/mL (<6 pg/mL), and serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 3.1 ng/mL (<5.2 ng/mL). Given the low calcitonin levels, procalcitonin was also tested and was elevated at 0.21 ng/mL (< 0.1 ng/mL). The patient subsequently underwent a total thyroidectomy and central and ipsilateral lateral lymph node dissection. Histopathology confirmed a 2.6 × 2.0 × 1.2-cm MTC, with strong, diffuse immunostaining for calcitonin. Postoperatively, serum calcitonin has remained undetectable, carcinoembryonic antigen has remained within the reference range, and procalcitonin has become undetectable. We present a rare case of a patient with MTC with undetectable preoperative serum calcitonin, whose tumor demonstrated strong, diffuse immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. We discuss the possible pathogenesis of calcitonin-negative MTC and the challenges in following patients with this condition.

  7. Management of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) represents up to one-third of MTC cases and includes multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A (and its variant familial MTC) and 2B. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the disease focusing on the management of hereditary MTC patients, who have already developed tumor, as well as discuss the recommended approach for asymptomatic family members carrying the same mutation. A PubMed search was performed to review recent literature on diagnosis, genetic testing, and surgical and medical management of hereditary MTC. The wide use of genetic testing for RET mutations has markedly influenced the course of hereditary MTC. Prophylactic thyroidectomy of RET carriers at an early age eliminates the risk of developing MTC later in life. Pre-operative staging is a strong prognostic factor in patients, who have developed MTC. The use of recently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (vandetanib, cabozantinib) holds promising results for the treatment of unresectable, locally advanced, and progressive metastatic MTC. Genetic testing of the RET gene is a powerful tool in the diagnosis and prognosis of MTC. Ongoing research is expected to add novel treatment options for patients with advanced, progressive disease.

  8. Diagnostic value of selected biochemical markers in the detection of recurrence of medullary thyroid cancer - comparison of calcitonin, procalcitonin, chromogranin A, and carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Woliński, Kosma; Kaznowski, Jarosław; Klimowicz, Aleksandra; Maciejewski, Adam; Łapińska-Cwojdzińska, Dagny; Gurgul, Edyta; Car, Adrian D; Fichna, Marta; Gut, Paweł; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the thyroid gland, which derives from parafollicular C cells. Periodic measurement of biochemical markers of MTC remains a crucial part of patient follow-up and disease monitoring. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of four selected markers - calcitonin (Ct), procalcitonin (PCT), chromogranin A (CgA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Patients with histopathologically confirmed MTC hospitalised in a single department between January 2015 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were subdivided into two groups: a remission group and an active disease group, based upon serum markers of MTC and imaging. Levels of Ct, PCT, CgA, and CEA were compared between the groups. Forty-four patients were included; 20 patients presented active disease and 24 were in remission. All patients with active disease had Ct exceeding the upper limit of normal range (10 pg/mL) - for that threshold the sensitivity was 100.0% and the specificity was 73.9%; for the best-fit threshold of 121.0 pg/mL the specificity was 95.8% with sensitivity 100.0%. There was significant correlation between Ct and PCT - p < 0.000001, r = 0.93. All patients with active disease exceeded the upper limit of the normal range (0.5 ng/mL) - for that threshold the sensitivity was 100.0% and the specificity was 83.3%; for the best-fit threshold of 0.95 ng/mL the specificity was 95.8% with sensitivity 100.0%. In case of CEA for the best-fit threshold of 12.66 ng/mL the specificity was 100.0% with sensitivity 57.9%; for CgA the best-fit threshold was 75.66 ng/mL with specificity 83.3% and sensitivity 75.0%. Our study confirms that PCT can be considered as an equivalent alternative for measurement of calcitonin. On the other hand, it is also worth noting that MTC can be a rare cause of very high levels of PTC not resulting from infectious diseases. The diagnostic value of CEA and chromogranin A is much lower and can be within the

  9. 2012 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlumberger, M.; Bastholt, L.; Dralle, H.; Jarzab, B.; Pacini, F.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Distant metastases are the main cause of death in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). These 21 recommendations focus on MTC patients with distant metastases and a detailed follow-up protocol of patients with biochemical or imaging evidence of disease, selection criteria for treatment, and treatment modalities, including local and systemic treatments based on the results of recent trials. Asymptomatic patients with low tumor burden and stable disease may benefit from local treatment modalities and can be followed up at regular intervals of time. Imaging is usually performed every 6–12 months, or at longer intervals of time depending on the doubling times of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels. Patients with symptoms, large tumor burden and progression on imaging should receive systemic treatment. Indeed, major progress has recently been achieved with novel targeted therapies using kinase inhibitors directed against RET and VEGFR, but further research is needed to improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:24782992

  10. Is Hashimoto's thyroiditis a risk factor for medullary thyroid carcinoma? Our experience and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Ayman A; Ali, Moaath K Mustafa; Jaber, Omar I; Suleiman, Moh'd J; Ashhab, Ashraf A; Al Shweiat, Wajdi Mohammed; Momani, Munther Suliaman; Shomaf, Maha; AbuRuz, Salah Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    The etiology of medullary thyroid carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study, we reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for different thyroid-related complaints between January 2000 and January 2012 at Jordan University Hospital-Amman, Jordan. To highlight relevant previously published studies addressing this topic, a literature search was conducted for English language studies reporting "medullary thyroid carcinoma" or "C-cell hyperplasia" in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Of the 863 patients with a mean age of 47.2 ± 12.3 years who underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period, 78 (9.04 %) were diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 15 (1.74 %) had medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 (20 %) of whom had coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 683 (79.1 %) patients had benign thyroid disease, 67 (9.8 %) of whom had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The difference between these rates was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). When examined by gender, 9 females had medullary thyroid carcinoma, 3 (33.3 %) of whom had coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis; by contrast, of 560 females with benign thyroid disease, 62 (11.1 %) had Hashimoto's thyroiditis (p = 0.04). Although this study population represents a small and single-institution experience, our results suggest that there might be an association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and medullary thyroid carcinoma only in female patients who undergo total thyroidectomy.

  11. C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, J A; Krueger, J E

    2001-01-01

    Since the discovery of the thyroid C-cell, considerable progress has been made regarding its origin, function, and pathology. In this article an attempt is made to summarize and update our knowledge about physiologic or reactive C-cell hyperplasia, neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ), and medullary microcarcinoma. Seldom recognized preoperatively, physiologic C-cell hyperplasia is associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic thyroid disorders as well as with hypercalcemia. However, the pathogenesis is still unclear. Although physiologic C-cell hyperplasia may progress to medullary carcinoma, the full malignant potential is unknown. Problems related to the definition of physiologic C-cell hyperplasia are discussed. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis are required for the diagnosis. By contrast, C-cell hyperplasia associated with MEN II syndromes or familial medullary carcinoma can be diagnosed preoperatively in asymptomatic children or adolescents by the detection of germline mutations of the RET protooncogene. Morphologic and genetic abnormalities support the idea that C-cells in the familial form of C-cell hyperplasia are neoplastic and can be recognized with conventional stains. Therefore, the number of C-cells is irrelevant for the diagnosis. Medullary microcarcinoma is a neoplasm that measures < 1 cm. The sporadic variant is usually an incidental microscopic finding, whereas the familial form can be diagnosed by genetic testing. Its morphologic features and biologic behavior differ from those of larger medullary carcinomas. The frequency of medullary microcarcinoma will probably increase with the use of genetic testing.

  12. Cabozantinib S-Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-20

    Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Childhood Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma

  13. [Clinico-prognostic analysis of course of thyroid medullary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kravcheniuk, A M; Reĭzin, D B; Pilets'kyĭ, A M; Reĭzin, V I

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of localization, character of development, sizes and metastatic potential of tumors in patients, suffering various forms of thyroid medullary carcinoma (THMC), was accomplished, permitting to establish a certain dependence of these characteristics from the recurrence occurrence frequency and lethality in groups of patients, owing different gender. The tumor diameter more than 2 cm and presence of metastases in time with diagnosis establishing have constituted the unfavorable factors, causing lethality enhancement in sporadic form of THMC. In women patients more frequent multifocal development coincide with lesser frequent metastasizing and lesser lethality in comparison with such in men. Lethality in men in sporadic form of THMC is twice as more, than in women patients, and it is explained by tumor diagnosis in them in later stages, although their postoperative life span is longer, taking into account the unfavorable impact of intraoperative age (bigger, than in men) on the results of treatment and prognosis. Lethality in inherited forms of THMC is significantly lesser, than in sporadic form, independently from impact of such existing factors, as more frequent multifocal tumor development, bilateral thyroid affection and similar frequency of metastasizing. In men the metastasizing is occurring more frequently, as it take place in cases of a sporadic form of the disease, causing higher lethality in them, comparing with such in women, suffering inherited forms of THMC.

  14. Mixed medullary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pfaltz, M; Hedinger, C E; Mühlethaler, J P

    1983-01-01

    We report a case of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid which on light microscopy showed not only the well known arrangement of cells in sheets and nests but also unequivocal follicular structures. These follicular structures are present both in the primary tumor and in lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that the cells lining the follicles produce thyroglobulin, whereas the remaining tumor tissue is positive for calcitonin and carcinoembrionic antigen. This case represents a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with an atypical pattern consisting of both thyroglobulin and calcitonin producing cells.

  15. Review analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: a 15-year Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Dorairajan, N; Siddharth, D; Kanna, Srinivasulu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of adequate primary surgery in cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We retrospectively reviewed 44 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid treated in Government General Hospital, Chennai between 1987 and 2002. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with only central compartment dissection were compared with those who had undergone total thyroidectomy with meticulous triple compartment (bilateral lateral and central groups) nodal dissection. The group of total thyroidectomy with only central compartment dissection had a high rate of lymph nodal recurrence and persistent hypercalcitoninemia compared with the group with total thyroidectomy with meticulous triple compartment nodal dissection. (chi square, 4.503; P > 0.05). Primary surgery with total thyroidectomy with meticulous triple compartment dissection is superior to total thyroidectomy with central compartment dissection alone in terms of preventing nodal and local recurrences and achieving normal (basal and stimulated) serum calcitonin levels postoperatively.

  16. Pretargeted immunoscintigraphy in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, P.; Paganelli, G.; Songini, C.; Samuel, A.; Sudati, F.; Siccardi, A. G.; Fazio, F.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the use of pretargeted immunoscintigraphy (ISG) in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we studied 25 patients with histologically proven disease; ISG was repeated after surgery in two patients. The antibody, either an anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or an antichromogranin A (CgA) biotinylated monoclonal antibody (MAb) or a cocktail of the two biotinylated MAbs was first injected. After 24 h, avidin was administrated i.v., followed by 111In-labelled biotin 24 h later. Fifty-two lesions were visualised. Six primary tumours, diagnosed by increased calcitonin levels, were all correctly diagnosed; 47 recurrences, also suspected by blood tumour markers, were detected and confirmed by cytology or histology. In one case, single photon emission tomography allowed the detection of small lymph nodes with a diameter of 4-7 mm. These lesions, not judged neoplastic by ultrasound, were confirmed to be neoplastic by fine needle aspiration. Pretargeted ISG correctly localises primary tumours and recurrences in MTC patients, when the only marker of relapse is serum elevation of calcitonin. With this three-step pretargeting method, cocktails of potentially useful MAbs can be used, avoiding false-negative studies that may occur when CEA or CgA are not expressed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8795589

  17. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-Exendin-4 for the Diagnosis of Recurrence or Dissemination of Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Pach, D.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Jabrocka-Hybel, A.; Stefańska, A.; Tomaszuk, M.; Mikołajczak, R.; Janota, B.; Trofimiuk-Müldner, M.; Przybylik-Mazurek, E.; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Epidemiological studies on medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have shown that neither a change in stage at diagnosis nor improvement in survival has occurred during the past 30 years. In patients with detectable serum calcitonin and no clinically apparent disease, a careful search for local recurrence, and nodal or distant metastases, should be performed. Conventional imaging modalities will not show any disease until basal serum calcitonin is at least 150 pg/mL. The objective of the study was to present the first experience with labelled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 in the visualisation of MTC in humans. Material and Method. Four patients aged 22–74 years (two with sporadic and two with MEN2 syndrome-related disseminated MTC) were enrolled in the study. In all patients, GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed. Results. High-quality images were obtained in all patients. All previously known MTC lesions have been confirmed in GLP-1 scintigraphy. Moreover, one additional liver lesion was detected in sporadic MTC male patient. Conclusions. GLP-1 receptor imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 is able to detect MTC lesions. GLP-1 scintigraphy can serve as a confirmatory test in MTC patients, in whom other imaging procedures are inconsistent. PMID:23606839

  18. Diagnostic utility of PET/CT with (18)F-DOPA and (18)F-FDG in persistent or recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma: the importance of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen cutoff.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lluch, Ana Reyes; Cuenca-Cuenca, Juan Ignacio; Guerrero-Vázquez, Raquel; Martínez-Ortega, Antonio Jesús; Tirado-Hospital, Juan Luis; Borrego-Dorado, Isabel; Navarro-González, Elena

    2017-06-23

    This study sought to evaluate and compare the utility of 18-F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) and 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for identification of lesions in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the calcitonin (Ct), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, each doubling time (DT), and PET positivity. We evaluated the reliability of the 150 pg/mL Ct cutoff set by the American Thyroid Association guidelines for further imaging (including (18)F-DOPA PET/CT). We prospectively recruited 18 patients with recurrent MTC, identified by elevation of Ct or CEA. Each patient underwent a (18)F-FDG PET/CT and a (18)F-DOPA PET/CT. Abnormal uptakes were detected with (18)F-DOPA (n=12) and (18)F-FDG (n=9), (sensitivity of 66.7% vs. 50%; p<0.01). Twenty-eight lesions were detected with (18)F-DOPA vs. 16 lesions with (18)F-FDG (1.56±1.5 vs. 0.89±1.18 lesions per patient; p=0.01). None of our patients showed additional lesions with (18)F-FDG in comparison to (18)F-DOPA. Patient-based detection rate increased significantly with Ct levels ≥150 pg/mL vs. Ct<150 pg/mL for both (18)F-DOPA (sensitivity 90.9% vs. 28.6%; p=0.013) and (18)F-FDG PET/CT (sensitivity 72.7% vs. 14.3%; p=0.025). Using a CEA cutoff of ≥5 ng/mL, detection rates of (18)F-DOPA and (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 81.1% and 72.7%, respectively. No correlation between Ct-DT or CEA-DT and PET positivity was found. Histological confirmation was obtained in eight patients. (18)F-DOPA PET/CT appears to be superior to (18)F-FDG PET/CT in detecting and locating lesions in patients with recurrent MTC. This technique tends to be especially useful in patients with negative results in other imaging modalities and Ct≥150 pg/mL or CEA≥5 ng/mL.

  19. [Medullary thyroid carcinomas: persistent hypercalcitoninemia after surgery, reoperations-results].

    PubMed

    Proye, C

    2003-06-01

    In the situation of persistent hypercalcaemia after cervicotomy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (CMT), the concerns are radically different depending on whether the initial operation has been adequate or not. If it has been inadequate, it is necessary to reoperate via cervicotomy and facilitate, in all cases, a total thyroidectomy and a bilateral and central neck dissection. If the cervicotomy has been adequate, it is necessary to have a high index of suspicion for a locoregional recurrence and systemic disease, but the indications for reintervention must be respected. The essential problem is the difficulty in staging residual or recurrent disease. In this situation all the imagery available should be utilised, including laparoscopy to rule out the possibility of miliary metastatic liver disease. There is no hope of cure in the setting of systemic disease, but it is necessary to recall that an extremely elevated calcitonin can be well tolerated and compatible with a survival for several decades. The overall prognosis lies not in the level of elevation of the tumoral marker but the extent of local invasion and systemic disease. There is no hope of cure when the calcitonin level is superior to 1000 pg/ml. There is also no chance of localising recurrent disease when the calcitonin level is inferior to 50 pg/ml. Therefore, one should only utilise the various available localisation techniques when the level of calcitonin is between 50 and 1000 pg/ml. A mediastinal dissection via sternotomy is only indicated in the absence of distal metastases and in the setting of nodal involvement just caudal to the initial cervicotomy, and only after a laparoscopy to exclude hepatic metastases. The future hopes lie with radio-immunoguided surgery in cases of local invasive disease and radiolabelled immunochemotherapy for systemic disease.

  20. Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Sadow, Peter M; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2010-07-01

    Tumors of the thyroid are subclassified based on the cell of origin and commonly include follicular-derived tumors and C-cell-derived tumors. The most common follicular-derived tumors are papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma, whereas the malignant C-cell-derived tumor is medullary thyroid carcinoma. Rare cases in the literature describe patients who have follicular-derived and C-cell-derived tumors in the same thyroid gland. These can be synchronous but anatomically separate carcinomas, or they can show some mixing of the 2 components. The mixture may be at an interface, as in collision tumors, or can be throughout the entire lesion, as in true mixed medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas. The clinical, histologic, and molecular features of these mixed tumors and the classification guidelines are reviewed.

  1. DNA analysis and persistent hypercalcitoninemia in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeng, T K; Lee, C H; Wang, H C; Chiu, J W; Lui, W Y

    1993-05-01

    The clinical data of 20 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) treated in Veterans General Hospital (VGH)-Taipei from 1970 to 1991 were reviewed. DNA content of the MTC and postoperative serum calcitonin (CT) were compared to evaluate patients' survival. All three patients with stage IV disease had aneuploid DNA and died within 7 months. The average survival was 4 months. The other 17 patients were all alive at the time of study and the mean follow up was 86 months. Three (3/7) patients had less than total thyroidectomy while only 2 (2/13) of the total thyoidectomized patients needed reoperation because of tumor recurrence. Of the 15 patients with available calcitonin data 11 had persistent post-operative hypercalcitoninemia. Among these 11 patients 5 out of the 6 patients with demonstrable lesions received reoperation; the other five (5/11) without demonstrable lesions were not operated and lived well in spite of persistent hypercalcitoninemia. One in 4 diploid patients and 9 in 12 aneuploid patients had metastatic lesions. No statistical significant correlation was found between the DNA content and survival, metastases or hypercalcitoninemia, although aneuploid MTC tended to be more advanced. We therefore concluded that total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for MTC. Persistent postoperative hypercalcitoninemia without clinical demonstrable lesions can be treated conservatively and DNA aneuploidy cannot be used as a reliable indicator of the grade of malignancy for MTC.

  2. [Type of surgery for 147 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cai-ping; Zhu, Yong-xue; Tian, Ao-long

    2003-09-01

    To study the optimum type of surgical treatment for thyroid medullary carcinoma. From May 1960 to July 2000, 147 patients with thyroid medullary carcinoma were treated with surgical treatment. The results of tumorectomy, subtotal and total thyroidectomy were compared. The overall 5-, 10- and 15-year survival rates were 85.4%, 77.4% and 73.1%. The recurrence rate was lowest in the total thyroidectomy group, medium in the subtotal group and highest in tumor extirpation group (P < 0.05). The overall cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 72.1%. The cervical occult nodal metastasis rate in clinically N0 patients was 42.1% (occult metastasis rates in central and lateral cervical regions were 24.6% and 36.8%). Thirteen patients with persistent postoperative hypercalcitoninemia were observed from 5 months to 6 years without tumor recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is the optimal treatment for thyroid medullary carcinoma. Regardless of clinical N0 or N1, central and ipsilateral neck dissection should be considered. Patients with persistent postoperative hypercalcitoninemia should be observed closely.

  3. Medullary thyroid microcarcinoma: a clinicopathologic retrospective study of 38 patients with no prior familial disease.

    PubMed

    Guyétant, S; Dupre, F; Bigorgne, J C; Franc, B; Dutrieux-Berger, N; Lecomte-Houcke, M; Patey, M; Caillou, B; Viennet, G; Guerin, O; Saint-Andre, J P

    1999-08-01

    Thirty-eight patients (25 women, 13 men; mean age, 57.8 [32 to 91]) showing one or more medullary thyroid microcarcinomas (ie, < 1 cm), with no prior MEN II or medullary thyroid carcinoma history in their family, were reviewed. Follow-up was available for 29 patients (mean, 53.6 months [1 to 147]). 21 patients (72.4%) are alive and free of disease, four patients (13.8%) died during follow-up without disease, 2 patients are alive with disease (local recurrence and persistent hypercalcitoninemia) after 80 and 99 months, respectively, and 2 patients died of disease after 24 and 46 months. Most tumors were incidental pathological findings (19 of 38) or were discovered by systematic blood calcitonin measurement for a nodular thyroid disease (15 of 38). Only the four patients who had an unfavorable outcome were symptomatic cases (palpable micro-MTC, diarrhea, cervical lymph node metastasis and pulmonary metastatic disease). The two patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis died during follow-up. In univariate analysis, a symptomatic medullary thyroid carcinoma was a strong predictor of an unfavourable outcome (p < .00008), as were the preoperative calcitonin level (P = .007) and an elevated postoperative calcitonin level (P = .004). Among 30 histopathological criteria, only the presence of amyloid correlated with an unfavorable outcome (P = .018).

  4. Thyroid cancers. II. Medullary, anaplastic, lymphoma, sarcoma, squamous cell.

    PubMed

    Austin, J R; el-Naggar, A K; Goepfert, H

    1996-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma in both sporadic and familial forms is a curable disease if detected early and treated by the proper surgery. The advent of genetic screening for the RET protooncogene portends great promise in the earlier diagnosis and treatment of familial forms of MTC. New chemotherapy protocols have produced some tumor regression in patients with metastatic MTC. Improved use of Adriamycin and hyper-fractionated radiotherapy combined with debulking procedures has prolonged survival in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid gland lymphoma, if diagnosed early and treated by combined chemoradiotherapy, carries a good prognosis for survival. The best treatment for thyroid sarcomas and SCC of the thyroid is early diagnosis and aggressive surgery combined with radiotherapy.

  5. Advances in chemotherapy of differentiated epithelial and medullary thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Steven I

    2009-05-01

    Systemic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas have been of only limited effectiveness. For patients with differentiated or medullary carcinomas unresponsive to conventional treatments, novel therapies are needed to improve disease outcomes. The PubMed and Google Scholar search engines were used to identify publications and peer-reviewed meeting presentations addressing chemotherapy and targeted therapy for differentiated or medullary carcinoma. Multiple novel therapies primarily targeting angiogenesis have entered clinical trials for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Partial response rates up to 30% have been reported in single agent studies, but prolonged disease stabilization is more commonly seen. The most successful agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, with potential targets including the mutant kinases associated with papillary and medullary oncogenesis. Two drugs approved for other malignancies, sorafenib and sunitinib, have had promising preliminary results reported, and are being used selectively for patients who do not qualify for clinical trials. Randomized trials for several agents are underway that may lead to eventual drug approval for thyroid cancer. Treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced thyroid carcinoma now emphasizes clinical trial opportunities for novel agents with considerable promise. Alternative options now exist for use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are well tolerated and may prove worthy of regulatory approval for this disease.

  6. Selective Ablation of Tumor Suppressors in Parafollicular C Cells Elicits Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai; Lin, Chuwen; Yao, Erica; Zhang, Kuan; Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingzhe; Chuang, Pao-Tien

    2017-03-03

    Among the four different types of thyroid cancer, treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma poses a major challenge because of its propensity of early metastasis. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms of medullary thyroid carcinoma and discover candidates for targeted therapies, we developed a new mouse model of medullary thyroid carcinoma based on our CGRP(CreER) mouse line. This system enables gene manipulation in parafollicular C cells in the thyroid, the purported cells of origin of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Selective inactivation of tumor suppressors, such as p53, Rb, and Pten, in mature parafollicular C cells via an inducible Cre recombinase from CGRP(CreER) led to development of murine medullary thyroid carcinoma. Loss of Pten accelerated p53/Rb-induced medullary thyroid carcinoma, indicating interactions between pathways controlled by tumor suppressors. Moreover, labeling differentiated parafollicular C cells by CGRP(CreER) allows us to follow their fate during malignant transformation to medullary thyroid tumor. Our findings support a model in which mutational events in differentiated parafollicular C cells result in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Through expression analysis including RNA-Seq, we uncovered major signaling pathways and networks that are perturbed following the removal of tumor suppressors. Taken together, these studies not only increase our molecular understanding of medullary thyroid carcinoma but also offer new candidates for designing targeted therapies or other treatment modalities. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Somatostatin receptors and somatostatin content in medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Reubi, J.C.; Chayvialle, J.A.; Franc, B.; Cohen, R.; Calmettes, C.; Modigliani, E. )

    1991-04-01

    Human medullary thyroid carcinomas from 19 patients were analyzed for their content in somatostatin (SRIF) receptors using receptor autoradiography with a SRIF-28 analogue and the SRIF octapeptide (Tyr3)-SMS 201-995 as iodinated radioligands. Four out of 19 cases were SRIF receptor positive with the SRIF octapeptide radioligand. These cases as well as four additional tumors were also positive with the SRIF-28 radioligand 125I-(Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25)-SRIF-28. High affinity binding sites pharmacologically specific for bioactive SRIF analogues, specifically located on tumor tissue, were identified. In some cases the SRIF receptors were distributed in a non-homogeneous pattern, with labelling occurring preferentially in highly differentiated tumor regions. Numerous cases were shown to have a high tumoral SRIF content measured by radioimmunoassay or immunohistochemical technique. However, there was no correlation between SRIF receptor status and tumor levels of endogenous SRIF. No correlation was seen between the clinical outcome or the survival of the patients and their tumoral SRIF receptor content. Whereas some medullary thyroid carcinomas seem to be a target for SRIF, the SRIF function in these tumors remains unclear. SRIF receptors in a group of medullary thyroid carcinomas may be useful morphological marker of these tumors and of potential interest for their in vivo localization.

  8. Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Vila, Juan Manuel; Peix, Jean L; Mandry, Alexandra C; Mezzadri, Norberto A; Lifante, Jean C

    2007-05-01

    The calcitonin is a sensitive marker for the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, therefore, invaluable in the follow-up of patients who have been treated. Biological cure of the medullary thyroid cancer refers to a basal plasma calcitonin of less than 10 ng/l without elevation after stimulation tests. Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed from a series of 35 patients who underwent 47 reinterventions. The indications for reoperation were: hypercalcitoninemia with clinical evidence of the disease (32 cases); hypercalcitoninemia after an inadequate primary surgery (6 cases); persistent hypercalcitoninemia with biochemical evidence of the disease (2 cases); liver metastases (1 case); and palliative surgery for relieving symptoms (1 case). Only three patients of the series had biochemical cure after reoperation (patients with an inadequate primary surgery). This study is consistent with the bibliographic reviews supporting that the cervical reoperation, eventually mediastinal, for residual hypercalcitoninemia after primary surgical treatment is indicated when the initial intervention did not follow the French Calcitonin Tumour Study Group (GETC) recommendations or when a specific lesion is evidenced by imaging studies without systemic dissemination.

  9. Systemic treatment and management approaches for medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ernani, Vinicius; Kumar, Mukesh; Chen, Amy Y; Owonikoko, Taofeek K

    2016-11-01

    Although rare, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) exemplifies the value that ever-expanding knowledge of molecular pathways and mechanisms brings to managing challenging cancers. Although surgery can be curative for MTC in many patients, a substantial proportion of patients present with locoregional or distant metastatic disease. Once distant disease occurs, treatment options are limited, and conventional cancer treatments such as cytotoxic chemotherapy are of minimal benefit. Biomarkers such as calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen are important correlates of disease burden as well as predictors of disease progress, including recurrence and survival. MTC is either sporadic (∼75%) or inherited (∼25%) as an autosomal dominant disease. Regardless, germline and somatic mutations, particularly in the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene, are key factors in the neoplastic process. Gain-of-function RET mutations result in overactive proteins that lead to abnormal activation of downstream signal transduction pathways, resulting in ligand-independent growth and resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Specific RET mutation variants have been found to correlate with phenotype and natural history of MTC with some defects portending a more aggressive clinical course. Greater understanding of the consequence of the aberrant signaling pathway has fostered the development of targeted therapies. Two small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are currently available as approved agents for the treatment of advanced or progressive MTC and provide significant increases in progression-free survival. Since there have been no head-to-head comparisons, clinicians often select between these agents on the basis of familiarity, patient characteristics, comorbidities, and toxicity profile.

  10. Differentiated and Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Management of Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Asimakopoulos, P; Nixon, I J; Shaha, A R

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid cancer metastasises to the central and lateral compartments of the neck frequently and early. The impact of nodal metastases on outcome is affected by the histological subtype of the primary tumour and the patient's age, as well as the size, number and location of those metastases. The impact of extranodal extension has recently been highlighted as an important prognosticating factor. Although clinically evident nodal disease in the lateral neck compartments has a significant impact on both survival and recurrence, microscopic metastases to the central or the lateral neck in well-differentiated thyroid cancer do not significantly affect outcome. Here we discuss the surgical management of neck metastases in well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Ikuko; Ando, Takao; Haraguchi, Ai; Horie, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Misa; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Uga, Tatsuya; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A medullary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from the C-cells of the thyroid. Despite their distinct embryological origin, medullary thyroid carcinomas are exceptionally accompanied by a tumor derived from the follicular cells; this is defined as mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma. There have been controversies regarding the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma questioning whether or not a mixed carcinoma originates from a common cancer stem cell. We present a case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma in which two thyroid carcinomas were found intermingled in the thyroid as well as in the metastatic cervical lymph nodes. We examined the tumor by immunostaining with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and thyroid transcription factor-1, and also reviewed the literature and discuss the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma - a pitfall waiting to happen.

    PubMed

    Tang, P Y; Khor, L Y; Takano, A

    2017-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma and is derived from thyroid follicular cells. In contrast, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. Synchronous occurrence of these two carcinomas is uncommon and occurs as either discrete lesions or as a mixed lesion. The current case report describes a 50-year-old woman with synchronous multiple discrete MTC and PTC with lymph nodes metastasis. Pathologists and treating physicians should be aware of the synchronous coexistence of these entities to avoid possible misdiagnosis.

  13. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asa, Sylvia L.; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B.; Gagel, Robert F.; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Methods: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. Results: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. Conclusions: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice. PMID:25810047

  14. Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samuel A; Asa, Sylvia L; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B; Gagel, Robert F; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice.

  15. Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deftos, Leonard J.; Parthemore, Jacqueline G.

    1974-01-01

    The secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) was studied in 30 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Most patients with elevated levels of CT were normocalcemic and also had normal basal levels of PTH. Five of six patients with associated hyperparathyroidism were hypercalcemic and had elevated basal PTH levels. Hormone secretion was also studied during infusions with standard and low doses of calcium. PTH unexpectedly increased during 12 of 18 calcium infusions. Such a paradoxical increase in PTH was seen in those patients with the greatest increase in CT and the least increase in calcium during the calcium infusion. Accordingly, increases in PTH concentration during the calcium infusions could be correlated directly with increases in CT and correlated inversely with increases in calcium. These observations suggest that, in some patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, a further increase in the abnormally elevated CT levels may stimulate PTH secretion. Therefore, at least in acute studies, there may be a functional, as well as a genetic, relationship between the secretion of these two hormones in patients with this thyroid tumor. PMID:4847251

  16. Putative BRAF activating fusion in a medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, Katayoon; Wiseman, Sam M; Walker, Blair A; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hirst, Martin; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Andrew J; Marra, Marco A; Jones, Steven J M

    2016-03-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. Surgery is the only curative treatment for this cancer. External beam radiation therapy is reserved for adjuvant treatment of MTC with aggressive features. Targeted therapeutics vandetanib and cabozantinib are approved for the treatment of aggressive and metastatic tumors that are not amenable to surgery. The use of these multikinase inhibitors are supported by the observed overactivation of the RET oncoprotein in a large subpopulation of MTCs. However, not all patients carry oncogenic alterations of this kinase. Hence, there is still a need for comprehensive molecular characterization of MTC utilizing whole-genome and transcriptome-sequencing methodologies with the aim of identifying targetable mutations. Here, we describe the genomic profiles of two medullary thyroid cancers and report the presence of a putative oncogenic BRAF fusion in one. Such alterations, previously observed in other malignancies and known targets of available drugs, can benefit patients who currently have no treatment options.

  17. Prognostic Influence of Clinical and Pathological Factors in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 53 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Lenine G.; Cavalheiro, Beatriz G.; Junqueira, Consuelo R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments. This study aimed to correlate the clinical progression of surgically treated patients with clinical and pathological data. METHODS A total of 53 patients were followed for 75 months (mean average) in tertiary-care hospital. The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-two patients (41.5%) were alive and disease-free at the end of the follow-up period; twenty-three patients (43.4%) had persistent disease; and eight patients (15.1%) had recurrent disease. Four patients (7.6%) died from medullary thyroid carcinoma with clinical and/or imaging evidence of neoplasia. The following aspects demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the final medical condition: positive initial cervical examination (p = 0.002); neoplastic extensions to the thyroid capsule (p = 0.004) and adjacent tissues (p = 0.034); cervical lymph node metastases (p < 0.001); diameter of neoplasia (p = 0.018); TNM (tumor, node and metastasis) Stage (p = 0.001) and evidence of distant and/or cervical diseases in the absence of a cure (p = 0.011). Through logistic regression, the presence of cervical lymph node metastases was considered an independent variable (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Clinical and pathological aspects of patients with surgically treated medullary thyroid carcinomas are predictors of disease progression. Specifically, even treated cervical lymph node metastases are significantly correlated with disease progression. PMID:19759878

  18. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Iodine I 131 and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  19. Genetic alterations in medullary thyroid cancer: diagnostic and prognostic markers.

    PubMed

    A, Taccaliti; F, Silvetti; G, Palmonella; M, Boscaro

    2011-12-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin producing neuroendocrine tumour that originates from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. The RET proto-oncogene encodes the RET receptor tyrosine kinase, with consequently essential roles in cell survival, differentiation and proliferation. Somatic or germline mutations of the RET gene play an important role in this neoplasm in development of sporadic and familial forms, respectively. Genetic diagnosis has an important role in differentiating sporadic from familiar MTC. Furthermore, depending on the location of the mutation, patients can be classified into risk classes. Therefore, genetic screening of the RET gene plays a critical role not only in diagnosis but also in assessing the prognosis and course of MTC.

  20. [Calcitonin determination for early diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Karges, W

    2010-07-01

    Calcitonin is considered to be a sensitive marker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) therefore early detection and surgical treatment may help to improve the clinical prognosis of MTC. Routine calcitonin measurement has therefore been recommended in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with nodular thyroid disease. In the case of elevated serum calcitonin (>20 pg/ml) stimulation testing is recommended to improve the predictive power for MTC particularly in patients with small nodules. Serum calcitonin measurement cannot reliably discriminate between micro-MTC (<10 mm) and C cell hyperplasia. In patients with stimulated calcitonin levels exceeding 100 pg/ml thyroidectomy is recommended because of a high inherent risk of MTC. Highly elevated basal and stimulated serum calcitonin levels are strongly suggestive of MTC with practical implications for surgical management.

  1. Genetic Alterations in Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers

    PubMed Central

    A, Taccaliti; F, Silvetti; G, Palmonella; M, Boscaro

    2011-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin producing neuroendocrine tumour that originates from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. The RET proto-oncogene encodes the RET receptor tyrosine kinase, with consequently essential roles in cell survival, differentiation and proliferation. Somatic or germline mutations of the RET gene play an important role in this neoplasm in development of sporadic and familial forms, respectively. Genetic diagnosis has an important role in differentiating sporadic from familiar MTC. Furthermore, depending on the location of the mutation, patients can be classified into risk classes. Therefore, genetic screening of the RET gene plays a critical role not only in diagnosis but also in assessing the prognosis and course of MTC. PMID:22654561

  2. Medullary thyroid carcinoma with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Min Joo; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Ku, Ha Ra; Kang, Geon Wook; Na, Im Il; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Hong Il; Ku, Yun Hyi

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is caused most frequently by a bronchial carcinoid tumor or by small cell lung cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare etiology of ectopic ACTH syndrome. We describe a case of Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production from MTC in a 48-year-old male. He was diagnosed with MTC 14 years ago and underwent total thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection and a series of metastasectomies. MTC was confirmed by the pathological examination of the thyroid and metastatic mediastinal lymph node tissues. Two years after his last surgery, he developed Cushingoid features, such as moon face and central obesity, accompanied by uncontrolled hypertension and new-onset diabetes. The laboratory results were compatible with ectopic ACTH syndrome. A bilateral adrenalectomy improved the clinical and laboratory findings that were associated with Cushing syndrome. This is the first confirmed case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by MTC in Korea.

  3. Cytological aspects of melanotic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M A; Dias Medeiros, J; Rodrigues Da Cunha, L; de Cássia Caldas Pessôa, R; Silveira Tavares, F; de Fátima Borges, M; Marinho, E O

    2001-03-01

    We had the opportunity to examine a case of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of a melanotic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a 20-yr-old man. The patient presented a single node, hardened and mobile upon deglutition, in the right lobe of the thyroid, for 9 mo, without symptoms of glandular dysfunction. Calcitonin (138 pg/ml), urinary calcium (177 mg/dl), and the carcinoembryonic antigen (341 ng/ml) were increased. The nodular aspirate, drawn by FNA, was represented by pleomorphic cells, with frequent intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, sometimes bi- or multinucleated, with abundant, finely granular cytoplasm, sometimes containing a brown pigment resembling melanin. An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies (Dako Corp., Carpinteria, CA) showed that the neoplastic cells were intensely and diffusely positive for calcitonin and chromogranin, and focally positive for HMB45. In view of these findings, the case was characterized as a melanotic variant of medullary carcinoma, a rare type of neoplasia, but having a prognosis similar to the classical variant of MTC.

  4. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dangui; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan; Liu, Wensheng; Xu, Zhengang; Tang, Pingzhang

    2015-04-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ninety-one patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma first treated between January 1999 and October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Of 91 patients, 39 cases presented with clinical negative node (cN0) and 52 cases with clinical positive node (cN+). Central compartment dissection was performed in all cases. Lateral neck dissection was performed in 52 cN+ cases (71 sides). All neck dissection specimens were obtained and analyzed for lymph node (LN) involvement with respect to neck levels. The distribution of LN with metastasis was studied in cN+ patients and the following factors were used to study the predictive value of central compartment LN metastasis: sex, age, family history, tumor size, bilateral tumor, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread, and remote metastasis. Univariate analysis with the χ(2) test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between central compartment LN metastasis and other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors related to central compartment metastasis. Neck and bilateral neck metastasis rates were 73.6%, 19.8% respectively. Metastasis rates in central compartment and superior mediastinal region were 68.1% and 27.5% respectively. The central compartment metastasis rate was 33.3% in cN0 patients and 94.2% in cN+ patients. The superior mediastinal metastasis rate was 2.6% in cN0 patients and 46.2% in cN+ patients. Extracapsular spread was an independent predictive factor for central compartment metastasis (χ(2)=15.592, P=0.000, OR=12.876). The incidences of LN metastases at level II, III, IV, V were 62.9%,84.5%,83.1%,50.0% in cN+ patient, respectively. Multi-sites were involved. The possibility of lateral neck metastasis was higher when preoperative value of calcitonin was higher than 300 ng/L (66.7% vs 28.6%, χ(2)=5.771, P=0.016). Cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary

  5. Histopathology of C Cells and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Kurt Werner

    2015-01-01

    The human thyroid gland contains less than 0.01-0.1% calcitonin producing and secreting C cells, which in men are almost exclusively situated in an intrafollicular location; the vast majority of C cells are embryologically derived of remnants of the ultimobranchial body and ultimately of the neural crest, a small subset, however, is presumed to originate from endodermal stem cells. Thyroid tumours with C cell differentiation have been named medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); calcitonin is also produced and secreted by MTC which makes this peptide hormone a very useful serum marker both for early detection and clinical follow-up of patients with MTC. About 70-80% of MTC are sporadic tumours, whereas 20-30% are familial MTC which are autosomal-dominant inherited and caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene located on chromosome 10. This article summarizes the histological, immunhistochemical and molecular genetic features of C cells, C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC, emphasizing the role of diagnostic pathology.

  6. [Hypercalcitoninemia in conditions other than medullary cancers of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Niccoli, P; Conte-Devolx, B; Lejeune, P J; Carayon, P; Henry, J F; Roux, F; Wion-Barbot, N; Bigorgne, J C

    1996-01-01

    Serum calcitonin (CT) assays are the most useful tumoral marker for the diagnosis and follow up of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Since 1988 the sensitivity and specificity of CT assays have been considerably improved. Normal basal and pentagastrin (Pg) stimulated CT ranges remain to be established and it appears necessary to determine the pathological circumstances which may be responsible for hypercalcitoninemia in addition to MCT. By reviewing literature and data from the "Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs à Calcitonine": a/we compared basal and Pg stimulated CT values obtained with two commercially available immunometric CT assays and we observed that CT values measured by the CT-EASIA MEDGE-NIX kit were three fold the values obtained by suing the hGH ELSA CIS BIOINDUSTRIE Kit; b/we determined that hypercalcitoninemia may be observed in isolated C Cell Hyperplasia (HCC) surrounding either lymphocytic thyroiditis or follicular thyroid carcinoma loci, in chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis, and in various neuroendocrine tumors. Surprisingly, the hypercalcitoninemia related to HCC has been found in genetically unaffected members (without any identified gene RET mutation) of both a Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A and isolated familial hereditary MTC.

  7. Three siblings with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case series.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Owais; Haq, Naeemul; Farooq, Saad; Kiran, Zareen; Siddique, Sabeeh; Pervez, Shahid; Islam, Najmul

    2016-08-02

    In 2015, thyroid carcinoma affected approximately 63,000 people in the USA, yet it remains one of the most treatable cancers. It is mainly classified into medullary and non-medullary types. Conventionally, medullary carcinoma was associated with heritability but increasing reports have now begun to associate non-medullary thyroid carcinoma with a genetic predisposition as well. It is important to identify a possible familial association in patients diagnosed with non-medullary thyroid carcinoma because these cancers behave more destructively than would otherwise be expected. Therefore, it is important to aggressively manage such patients and screening of close relatives might be justified. Our case series presents a diagnosis of familial, non-syndromic, non-medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in three brothers diagnosed over a span of 6 years. We report the history, signs and symptoms, laboratory results, imaging, and histopathology of the thyroid gland of three Pakistani brothers of 58 years, 55 years, and 52 years from Sindh with non-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Only Patients 1 and 3 had active complaints of swelling and pruritus, respectively, whereas Patient 2 was asymptomatic. Patients 2 and 3 had advanced disease at presentation with lymph node metastasis. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy with Patients 2 and 3 requiring a neck dissection as well. No previous exposure to radiation was present in any of the patients. Their mother had died from adrenal carcinoma but also had a swelling in the front of her neck which was never investigated. All patients remained stable at follow-up. Non-medullary thyroid carcinoma is classically considered a sporadic condition. Our case report emphasizes a high index of suspicion, a detailed family history, and screening of first degree relatives when evaluating patients with non-medullary thyroid carcinoma to rule out familial cases which might behave more aggressively.

  8. Vandetanib for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maryann R; Yi, Soo Yun; Alghamdi, Wael; Shaheen, Daniel J; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-03-01

    To review the place in therapy of vandetanib for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Literature searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using the search terms ZD6474 OR vandetanib OR Caprelsa combined with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Two phase 2 trials and 1 phase 3 trial were identified. Vandetanib is approved for the treatment of unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic MTC in patients with symptomatic or progressive disease. In the phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, vandetanib 300 mg daily (n = 231) was compared with placebo (n = 100). Vandetanib-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.69; P < .001). No difference in overall survival (OS) was seen at the time of publication. Most adverse effects were grade 1 or 2 and managed by dose interruptions or reductions. The most common grade 3/4 adverse effects were diarrhea, hypertension, QT prolongation, fatigue, and rash. Because of the potential for QT prolongation, torsades de pointes, and sudden death, vandetanib is restricted via a Risk Evaluations and Mitigation Strategy program. Vandetanib prolongs PFS but has not been shown to improve OS. Vandetanib can be considered for patients with unresectable locoregional disease. It is a first-line option for patients with unresectable symptomatic distant metastases as well as an option for advanced disseminated symptomatic metastatic disease. Vandetanib is expected to be an important addition to the formulary of health plans that provide prescription drug benefits.

  9. Kidney Involvement in Systemic Calcitonin Amyloidosis Associated With Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Timco; Niedlich-den Herder, Cindy; Stegeman, Coen A; Links, Thera P; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Diepstra, Arjan

    2017-04-01

    A 52-year-old woman with widely disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma developed nephrotic syndrome and slowly decreasing kidney function. A kidney biopsy was performed to differentiate between malignancy-associated membranous glomerulopathy and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Surprisingly, the biopsy specimen revealed diffuse glomerular deposition of amyloid that was proved to be derived from the calcitonin hormone (Acal), produced by the medullary thyroid carcinoma. This amyloid was also present in an abdominal fat pad biopsy. Although local ACal deposition is a characteristic feature of medullary thyroid carcinoma, the systemic amyloidosis involving the kidney that is presented in this case report has not to our knowledge been described previously and may be the result of long-term high plasma calcitonin levels. Our case illustrates that systemic calcitonin amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of proteinuria in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Failure of pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin testing in early manifestation of familial medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pirich, Christian; Rendl, Gundula; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Häusler, Ingrid

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes three generations of a family with familial medullary thyroid cancer (RET gene mutation L790F). One of the three siblings-all of them carrier of the respective mutation-exhibited the absence of pathological basal and pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin levels in spite of multifocal medullary thyroid microcancer. This case illustrates the challenge to consider the biological diversity of RET gene mutations in the clinical management of affected gene carriers.

  11. Metastasis of colon cancer to medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeo, So-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Jung, Chan-Hee; Lee, Seung-Won; Kwak, Jeong-Ja; Kim, Chul-Hee; Kang, Sung-Koo; Mok, Ji-Oh

    2014-10-01

    Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding.

  12. Epigenetics in Medullary Thyroid Cancer: From Pathogenesis to Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Dicitore, Alessandra; Messina, Erika; Sciammarella, Concetta; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland. Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are implicated in the pathogenesis of MTC. Germline activating mutations of this gene have been reported in about 88-98% of familial MTCs, while somatic mutations of RET gene have been detected in about 23-70% of sporadic forms. Although these genetic events are well characterized, much less is known about the role of epigenetic abnormalities in MTC. The present review reports a detailed description of epigenetic abnormalities (DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA profile), probably involved in the pathogenesis and progression of MTC. A systematic review was performed using Pubmed and Google patents databases. We report the current understanding of epigenetic patterns in MTC and discuss the potential use of current knowledge in designing novel therapeutic strategies through epigenetic drugs, focusing on recent patents in this field. Taking into account the reversibility of epigenetic alterations and the recent development in this field, epigenetic therapy may emerge for clinical use in the near future for patients with advanced MTC.

  13. Leflunomide suppresses growth in human medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alhefdhi, Amal; Burke, Jocelyn F; Redlich, Aaron; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Chen, Herbert

    2013-11-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. Leflunomide (LFN) is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and its active metabolite teriflunomide has been identified as a potential anticancer drug. In this study we investigated the ability of LFN to similarly act as an anticancer drug by examining the effects of LFN treatment on MTC cells. Human MTC-TT cells were treated with LFN (25-150 μmol/L) and Western blotting was performed to measure levels of neuroendocrine markers. MTT assays were used to assess the effect of LFN treatment on cellular proliferation. LFN treatment downregulated neuroendocrine markers ASCL1 and chromogranin A. Importantly, LFN significantly inhibited the growth of MTC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with LFN decreased neuroendocrine tumor marker expression and reduced the cell proliferation in MTC cells. As the safety of LFN in human beings is well established, a clinical trial using this drug to treat patients with advanced MTC may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Unusual gastric mucosal infiltration by a medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, T; Doppl, W; Roller, F C; Schäffler, A; Schäffer, R; Gattenlöhner, S

    2016-07-27

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 1 to 2 % of all thyroid carcinoma cases. The most common route of dissemination is to locoregional lymph nodes. Distant metastases commonly affect bones, lungs, and liver. We present a case of a white woman with a 25-year history of medullary thyroid carcinoma on multiple medications including tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for the last 11 months, who exhibited unusual diffuse infiltration of advanced stage medullary thyroid carcinoma to her gastric mucosa. A 53-year-old white woman presented with increasing fatigue, loss of appetite, and severe epigastric pain radiating to her back. She had a history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (pT2pN1b), diagnosed 25 years ago and treated by complete thyroidectomy and repeated bilateral cervical lymph node dissection. Medical therapy included octreotide 20 mg every 4 weeks, which was switched to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib 300 mg/day 11 months ago when computed tomography scanning revealed progressive mediastinal lymph node and diffuse and symptomatic pulmonary metastases. Of note, she demonstrated macroscopically stable pulmonary and mediastinal lymph node metastases; however, her calcitonin serum levels dramatically increased. Computed tomography scanning revealed a single new intrahepatic lesion (4 mm) as well as multiple (>10) new supraclavicular lesions suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma progress. As proven by gastric biopsy and immunohistochemical evaluation, her epigastric pain was explained by a diffuse infiltration of her gastric mucosa by metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Subsequently, she rapidly deteriorated and died. The current case report shows for the first time an unusual metastatic infiltration of the gastric mucosa by medullary thyroid carcinoma. When treating these patients, it is important to include this differential diagnosis during follow-up.

  15. Importance of gender-specific calcitonin thresholds in screening for occult sporadic medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Hoffmann, Florian; Sekulla, Carsten; Dralle, Henning

    2009-12-01

    Men and women differ in thyroidal C-cell mass and calcitonin secretion. This difference may have implications for the definition of calcitonin thresholds to distinguish sporadic C-cell hyperplasia from occult medullary thyroid cancer. This retrospective study examined the hypothesis that gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predict occult medullary thyroid cancer more accurately among patients with increased basal calcitonin levels than unisex thresholds. A total of 100 consecutive patients were evaluated with occult sporadic C-cell disease no larger than 10 mm who were referred for increased basal calcitonin levels and underwent pentagastrin stimulation preoperatively at this institution. Altogether, gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predicted medullary thyroid cancer better than unisex thresholds. At lower (medullary thyroid cancer four to eight times more often than men. Most discriminatory between C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer was a basal calcitonin threshold of 15 pg/ml (corrected 20 pg/ml) for women and 80 pg/ml (corrected 100 pg/ml) for men, based on the greatest accuracy at the lowest possible calcitonin level. The respective gender-specific stimulated peak calcitonin thresholds were 80 pg/ml (corrected 100 pg/ml) and 500 pg/ml. Corresponding positive predictive values for medullary thyroid cancer at these calcitonin thresholds were 89 and 90% for women, as opposed to 100% for men. To increase the positive predictive value for women to 100%, the respective calcitonin thresholds would have to be raised to 40 pg/ml (corrected 50 pg/ml) and 250 pg/ml. These findings indicate that gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predict sporadic occult medullary thyroid cancer better than unisex thresholds.

  16. [Lymph node dissection in non-medullary differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M

    2006-01-01

    Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the most common form of endocrine carcinomas. Lymph node involvement seems to be a low risk factor for death, but it increases the risk for loco-regional recurrences and distant metastasis. The limits and the key points of the cervical lymph node dissection are described. The sentinel lymph node is used to rarely, so it could limit the lymph dissection. Node-picking has to be avoided. Central lymph node resection is recommended for high-risk patients, as male, patients more than 45 or less than 21 years old, papillary carcinomas greater than 1 cm or follicular carcinoma more than 2 cm in diameter. Lateral lymph node resection is performed when the lymph nodes of the central compartment are involved, more than 3 cm in diameter, and bulked. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy is useless. When thyroid carcinoma is known postoperatively, re-operation depends of the cervical mass and of the results of the radioactive iodine treatment.

  17. Thyroid hemiagenesis associated with medullary or papillary carcinoma: report of cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbiao; Gao, Li; Song, Chunyi

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which 1 thyroid lobe fails to develop. Co-occurrence of hemiagenesis and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report 2 cases of thyroid hemiagenesis with carcinoma. The first patient was referred with a left thyroid mass and absent right lobe. The frozen section examination revealed medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); therefore, a left thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection was performed. Another patient was referred with a right thyroid mass and absent left lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent right thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection. The operative findings confirmed hemiagenesis of the right lobe and MTC in the left lobe for the first case, and hemiagenesis of the left lobe and papillary carcinoma in the right lobe for the second case. Our case represents the first reported case of association between thyroid hemiagenesis and MTC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. New drugs for medullary thyroid cancer: new promises?

    PubMed

    Spitzweg, Christine; Morris, John C; Bible, Keith C

    2016-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland, occurring either sporadically or alternatively in a hereditary form based on germline RET mutations in approximately one-third of cases. Historically, patients with advanced, metastasized MTC have had a poor prognosis, partly due to limited response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the past decade, however, considerable progress has been made in identifying key genetic alterations and dysregulated signaling pathways paving the way for the evaluation of a series of multitargeted kinase inhibitors that have started to meaningfully impact clinical practice. Two drugs, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are now approved in the US and EU for use in advanced, progressive MTC, with additional targeted agents also showing promise or awaiting results from clinical trials. However, the potential for toxicities with significant reduction in quality of life and lack of curative outcomes has to be carefully weighed against potential for benefit. Despite significant PFS prolongation observed in randomized clinical trials, most patients even with metastatic disease enjoy indolent courses with slow progression observed over years, wherein watchful waiting is still the preferred strategy. As advanced, progressive MTC is a rare and complex disease, a multidisciplinary approach centered in specialized centers providing interdisciplinary expertise in the individualization of available therapeutic options is preferred. In this review, we summarize current concepts of the molecular pathogenesis of advanced MTC and discuss results from clinical trials of targeted agents and also cytotoxic chemotherapy in the context of clinical implications and future perspectives.

  19. Medullary thyroid cancer: RET testing of an archival material.

    PubMed

    Godballe, Christian; Jørgensen, Gita; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Krogdahl, Annelise S; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nielsen, Finn C

    2010-04-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) might be sporadic (75%) or hereditary (25%). Until the mid nineties the diagnosis of hereditary MTC was based on family history, clinical evaluation, histological detection of C-cell hyperplasia and tumor multifocality. Patients and families with hereditary MTC might be missed? Today mutation analysis of the RET proto-oncogene is routinely performed on DNA. Departments of pathology often store tissue specimens from performed surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine if analysis of DNA extracted from formalin fixed archival tissue might be a possible method to identify not previously known cases of hereditary MTC. In 23 cases, tissue analysis was performed, and in 2 patients (9%) a mutation was identified, but in both cases the most likely explanation was contamination with tumor tissue. The ability to detect RET mutations was confirmed by testing of non-tumor tissue from patients with known hereditary MTC. This study shows that genetic testing of archival MTC material is technically possible and might be a way of identifying patients with previously not recognized hereditary MTC.

  20. Calcitonin precursor levels in human medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bihan, H; Becker, K L; Snider, R H; Nylen, E; Vittaz, L; Lauret, C; Modigliani, E; Moretti, J L; Cohen, R

    2003-08-01

    The hormonal serum marker for the presence and course of patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is the mature calcitonin (CT) peptide. Other CALC-1 gene products such as the 116-amino acid polypeptide prohormone, procalcitonin, as well as its component calcitonin precursors (CTpr) may also be increased in their sera. We performed a study to evaluate the clinical utility of serum levels CTpr in these patients. Twenty-one patients with MTC (9 males, 12 females; 23-76 years of age) were evaluated. The diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination, except for 2 (a proven RET mutation plus an abnormal pentagastrin-stimulated CT level). Nine patients had postoperative hypercalcitoninemia and 3 of these died. The specific assay for mature CT was a commercial immunoradiometric assay (hCT-IRMA); the immunoluminometric assay for CTpr (B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica, Berlin, Germany) detects intact procalcitonin and the free CT:CT carboxypeptide-1. All patients had detectable serum CTpr. These levels considerably exceeded those of mature CT, averaging 7.6-fold greater. CTpr levels correlated positively with mature CT (r = 0.61; p < 0.001). After pentagastrin administration, there was a parallelism of response between the two assays. Whenever there were known metastases, CTpr increased markedly. This study demonstrates the universal presence of CTpr in the blood of patients with MTC. The measurement of these peptides may offer a new dimension to the clinical evaluation of this malignancy.

  1. Comparison of serum calcitonin and procalcitonin in detecting medullary thyroid carcinoma among patients with thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Verburg, Frederik A; Imperiali, Mauro; Valabrega, Stefano; Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Ceriani, Luca

    2013-07-01

    To prospectively evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in detecting or excluding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) among patients with thyroid nodules and increased calcitonin (CT) levels. Fourteen of 1236 patients referred for thyroid nodules had increased serum CT >10 pg/mL. A stimulation test with pentagastrin was done and both CT and PCT were measured after stimulation. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasound, fine-needle cytology and, if indicated, surgery with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the surgical specimens. After follow-up, two MTCs were found. These two patients had basal CT >100 pg/mL and detectable (>0.1 ng/mL) PCT, with 100% sensitivity. Pentagastrin stimulated CT achieved values above 100 pg/mL in two MTCs and in other two cases with no MTC outcome (50% PPV and 83% NPV). On the contrary, all patients with no MTC had both basal and stimulated undetectable PCT (100% PPV and 100% NPV). The addition of basal PCT measurement in patients with thyroid nodule(s) and increased CT may significantly improve accuracy of CT measurement without needing a PG stimulation test.

  2. Shear wave elastography in medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Gumińska, Anna; Bakuła-Zalewska, Elwira; Mlosek, Krzysztof; Słapa, Rafał Z.; Wareluk, Paweł; Krauze, Agnieszka; Ziemiecka, Agnieszka; Migda, Bartosz; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dedecjus, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a modern method for the assessment of tissue stiffness. There has been a growing interest in the use of this technique for characterizing thyroid focal lesions, including preoperative diagnostics. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of SWE in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnostics. Materials and methods A total of 169 focal lesions were identified in the study group (139 patients), including 6 MTCs in 4 patients (mean age: 45 years). B-mode ultrasound and SWE were performed using Aixplorer (SuperSonic, Aix-en-Provence), with a 4–15 MHz linear probe. The ultrasound was performed to assess the echogenicity and echostructure of the lesions, their margin, the halo sign, the height/width ratio (H/W ratio), the presence of calcifications and the vascularization pattern. This was followed by an analysis of maximum and mean Young's (E) modulus values for MTC (EmaxLR, EmeanLR) and the surrounding thyroid tissues (EmaxSR, EmeanSR), as well as mean E-values (EmeanLRz) for 2 mm region of interest in the stiffest zone of the lesion. The lesions were subject to pathological and/or cytological evaluation. Results The B-mode assessment showed that all MTCs were hypoechogenic, with no halo sign, and they contained micro- and/ or macrocalcifications. Ill-defined lesion margin were found in 4 out of 6 cancers; 4 out of 6 cancers had a H/W ratio > 1. Heterogeneous echostructure and type III vascularity were found in 5 out of 6 lesions. In the SWE, the mean value of EmaxLR for all of the MTCs was 89.5 kPa and (the mean value of EmaxSR for all surrounding tissues was) 39.7 kPa Mean values of EmeanLR and EmeanSR were 34.7 kPa and 24.4 kPa, respectively. The mean value of EmeanLRz was 49.2 kPa. Conclusions SWE showed MTCs as stiffer lesions compared to the surrounding tissues. The lesions were qualified for fine needle aspiration biopsy based on B-mode assessment. However, the diagnostic algorithm for MTC is based on the

  3. Shear wave elastography in medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Gumińska, Anna; Bakuła-Zalewska, Elwira; Mlosek, Krzysztof; Słapa, Rafał Z; Wareluk, Paweł; Krauze, Agnieszka; Ziemiecka, Agnieszka; Migda, Bartosz; Jakubowski, Wiesław; Dedecjus, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a modern method for the assessment of tissue stiffness. There has been a growing interest in the use of this technique for characterizing thyroid focal lesions, including preoperative diagnostics. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of SWE in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnostics. A total of 169 focal lesions were identified in the study group (139 patients), including 6 MTCs in 4 patients (mean age: 45 years). B-mode ultrasound and SWE were performed using Aixplorer (SuperSonic, Aix-en-Provence), with a 4-15 MHz linear probe. The ultrasound was performed to assess the echogenicity and echostructure of the lesions, their margin, the halo sign, the height/width ratio (H/W ratio), the presence of calcifications and the vascularization pattern. This was followed by an analysis of maximum and mean Young's (E) modulus values for MTC (EmaxLR, EmeanLR) and the surrounding thyroid tissues (EmaxSR, EmeanSR), as well as mean E-values (EmeanLRz) for 2 mm region of interest in the stiffest zone of the lesion. The lesions were subject to pathological and/or cytological evaluation. The B-mode assessment showed that all MTCs were hypoechogenic, with no halo sign, and they contained micro- and/ or macrocalcifications. Ill-defined lesion margin were found in 4 out of 6 cancers; 4 out of 6 cancers had a H/W ratio > 1. Heterogeneous echostructure and type III vascularity were found in 5 out of 6 lesions. In the SWE, the mean value of EmaxLR for all of the MTCs was 89.5 kPa and (the mean value of EmaxSR for all surrounding tissues was) 39.7 kPa Mean values of EmeanLR and EmeanSR were 34.7 kPa and 24.4 kPa, respectively. The mean value of EmeanLRz was 49.2 kPa. SWE showed MTCs as stiffer lesions compared to the surrounding tissues. The lesions were qualified for fine needle aspiration biopsy based on B-mode assessment. However, the diagnostic algorithm for MTC is based on the measurement of serum calcitonin levels, B

  4. Chromogranin A and the α -subunit of glycoprotein hormones in medullary thyroid carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Guignat, L; Bidart, J M; Nocera, M; Comoy, E; Schlumberger, M; Baudin, E

    2001-01-01

    Using specific immunoradiometric assays, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of chromogranin A and the α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones in neuroendocrine tumours of neuroectodermic origin. The serum α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones was only slightly increased in 2 out of 44 medullary thyroid carcinoma or phaeochromocytoma patients with increased calcitonin or 24-hour urinary metanephrine levels. Serum chromogranin A was increased in 12 of 45 (27%) medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with an elevated calcitonin level and in 4 of 16 medullary thyroid carcinoma patients (25%) with an undetectable calcitonin level, in 5 of 7 phaeochromocytoma patients with increased urinary catecholamine and metabolite excretion, and in 2 of 3 patients with a non-functioning phaeochromocytoma. During follow-up, the course of chromogranin A was found to parallel that of tumour burden and/or 24-hour urinary metanephrine in 5 phaeochromocytoma patients. We conclude that chromogranin A measurement is not recommended for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma patients. It may be useful in patients with functioning and non-functioning phaeochromocytomas as a follow-up marker. In neuroendocrine tumour patients with elevated calcitonin secretion, the serum α-subunit of glycoprotein hormone measurement may help differentiate medullary thyroid carcinoma or phaeochromocytoma patients from other endodermal-derived neuroendocrine tumour patients in whom it is frequently elevated. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11259096

  5. Mutant HABP2 Causes Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies at the base of the throat in front of the windpipe. A member of the endocrine system, the thyroid secretes hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and metabolism. Cancer of the thyroid is the most common endocrine cancer and the eighth most common cancer in the U.S. An estimated 63,450 Americans will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer this year. The vast majority is of follicular cell origin, and the remaining cancer originates from parafollicular cells, so called medullary thyroid cancer.

  6. [An expert system for differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V A; Emel'ianova, O A; Gladyshev, A O

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative regularities of pathological changes in the nuclei and aggregates of C and B cells and to build an expert system on their basis for the differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma. Puncture smears with histologically verified medullary (C cell) carcinoma and oxyphilic cell (B cell) carcinoma were investigated. The nuclei and aggregates of C cells and B cells (Hürthle cells, oncocytes) were morphometrically examined with a computer color image analyzer on the basis of a light microscope and a digital photo camera. The quantitative regularities of the degree of C and B cell aggregation in medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma were found by morphometry. The threshold values for the aggregates in the comparison groups and their weight coefficients formed the basis for the expert system to differentially diagnose medullary and oxyphilic cell carcinoma at the initial stages of patient examination. The clinical trials showed the high efficiency of the developed expert system.

  7. The prognostic value of tumor markers doubling times in medullary thyroid carcinoma - preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Tomasz; d'Amico, Andrea; Szpak-Ulczok, Sylwia; Skoczylas, Aleksander; Gubała, Elżbieta; Chorąży, Anna; Gorczewski, Kamil; Włoch, Jan; Jarząb, Barbara

    2010-11-03

    Calcitonin (Ct) and carcinoembrional antigen (CEA) are widely used as tumor markers for the post-operative follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).In patients with elevated serum Ct and CEA their dynamics can be described by calculating the doubling time (DT) - the time, they need to double the serum concentration. Previous reports concluded that the Ct and CEA DT have prognostic value in MTC patients. We retrospectively analyzed data of 70 MTC patients with elevated serum Ct or CEA. In total, doubling times were calculated and the DT of the less favorable marker was used to stratify the patients into the low- and high-risk group with the cut-off value of 2 years. The survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard method. The doubling time < = 2 years of the less-favorable marker had significant prognostic impact for recurrence-free survival, HR = 2.61 (1.43-4.71) and overall survival, HR = 8.99 (3.51-23.04). The calcitonin and carcinembrional antigen doubling times of less than two years are negative prognostic factors for MTC recurrence-free and total survival in patients with persistent or recurrent disease. They may be used as predictive factors for more intensive search of disease localization in asymptomatic hypercalcitoninemia and for therapy choice in symptomatic disease.

  8. The prognostic value of tumor markers doubling times in medullary thyroid carcinoma - preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Calcitonin (Ct) and carcinoembrional antigen (CEA) are widely used as tumor markers for the post-operative follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In patients with elevated serum Ct and CEA their dynamics can be described by calculating the doubling time (DT) - the time, they need to double the serum concentration. Previous reports concluded that the Ct and CEA DT have prognostic value in MTC patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 70 MTC patients with elevated serum Ct or CEA. In total, doubling times were calculated and the DT of the less favorable marker was used to stratify the patients into the low- and high-risk group with the cut-off value of 2 years. The survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard method. Results The doubling time < = 2 years of the less-favorable marker had significant prognostic impact for recurrence-free survival, HR = 2.61 (1.43-4.71) and overall survival, HR = 8.99 (3.51-23.04). Conclusions The calcitonin and carcinembrional antigen doubling times of less than two years are negative prognostic factors for MTC recurrence-free and total survival in patients with persistent or recurrent disease. They may be used as predictive factors for more intensive search of disease localization in asymptomatic hypercalcitoninemia and for therapy choice in symptomatic disease. PMID:21047422

  9. Medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland: an unusual site of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle D; Asa, Sylvia L; Fuller, Gregory N

    2008-06-01

    We present a case of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma involving the pituitary gland of a 23-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b who presented with diabetes insipidus and visual loss. The diagnostic features, including cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry, used to differentiate pituitary adenoma from metastatic medullary carcinoma are discussed. Pituitary metastases and tumor-to-tumor metastases in this region are also highlighted.

  10. RET mutation and increased angiogenesis in medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Verrienti, Antonella; Tallini, Giovanni; Colato, Chiara; Boichard, Amélie; Checquolo, Saula; Pecce, Valeria; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Rosignolo, Francesca; de Biase, Dario; Rhoden, Kerry; Casadei, Gian Piero; Russo, Diego; Visani, Michela; Acquaviva, Giorgia; Ferdeghini, Marco; Filetti, Sebastiano; Durante, Cosimo

    2016-08-01

    Advanced medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) are now being treated with drugs that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases, many of which involved in angiogenesis. Response rates vary widely, and toxic effects are common, so treatment should be reserved for MTCs likely to be responsive to these drugs. RET mutations are common in MTCs, but it is unclear how they influence the microvascularization of these tumors. We examined 45 MTCs with germ-line or somatic RET mutations (RETmut group) and 34 with wild-type RET (RETwt). Taqman Low-Density Arrays were used to assess proangiogenic gene expression. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess intratumoral, peritumoral and nontumoral expression levels of VEGFR1, R2, R3, PDGFRa, PDGFB and NOTCH3. We also assessed microvessel density (MVD) and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) based on CD31-positive and podoplanin-positive vessel counts, respectively, and vascular pericyte density based on staining for a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA), a pericyte marker. Compared with RETwt tumors, RETmut tumors exhibited upregulated expression of proangiogenic genes (mRNA and protein), especially VEGFR1, PDGFB and NOTCH3. MVDs and LVDs were similar in the two groups. However, microvessels in RETmut tumors were more likely to be a-SMA positive, indicating enhanced coverage by pericytes, which play key roles in vessel sprouting, maturation and stabilization. These data suggest that angiogenesis in RETmut MTCs may be more intense and complete than that found in RETwt tumors, a feature that might increase their susceptibility to antiangiogenic therapy. Given their increased vascular pericyte density, RETmut MTCs might also benefit from combined or preliminary treatment with PDGF inhibitors.

  11. Hypervascularity is more frequent in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xingjian; Liu, Meijuan; Xia, Yu; Wang, Liang; Bi, Yalan; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Meng; Dai, Qing; Jiang, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to retrospectively compare the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and the features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 97 patients with 127 MTCs between January 2000 and January 2016 and 107 consecutive patients with 132 PTCs were included in this study. Two radiologists retrospectively determined the sonographic features and compared the findings of MTCs and PTCs. Compared with the patients with PTCs, the patients with MTCs were older (46.9 years vs 42.9 years, P = 0.016) and the male proportion was higher (53.6% vs 33.6%, P = 0.005). Most of the MTCs had an irregular shape (72.4%), a length/width ratio <1 (75.6%), an unclear boundary (63.8%), no peripheral halo ring (93.7%), hypoechogenicity (96.9%), heterogeneous echotexture (76.4%), no cystic change (78.7%), calcification (63.8%), and hypervascularity (72.4%). There was no significant difference in the boundary, peripheral halo ring, echogenicity, and calcification between the MTCs and PTCs. However, compared with the PTCs, a larger size (2.2 vs 1.2 cm, P <0.001), a regular shape (27.6% vs 7.6%, P <0.001), a length/width ratio <1 (75.6% vs 51.5%, P<0.001), heterogeneous echotexture (76.4% vs 54.5%, P <0.001), cystic change (21.3 vs 8.3%, P = 0.005), and hypervascularity (72.4% vs 47.7%, P <0.001) were more frequent in the MTCs. The sonographic features with a higher likelihood of malignancy are common in MTCs, including a shape taller than the width, irregular infiltrative margins, an absent halo, hypoechogenicity, the presence of microcalcifications, and increased intranodular vascularity. However, MTCs tend to possess these suspicious sonographic features less often than PTCs, with the exception of hypervascularity, which was more frequent in MTCs. PMID:27930537

  12. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the esophagus with features of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Raymond M; Alperstein, Adam; Diaz, Carlos; Klingbeil, Kyle D; Vangara, Sameera S.; Misawa, Ryosuke; Reed, Jennifer; Gaudi, Sudeep

    2017-01-01

    Summary A 41-year-old female presented with a pedunculated mass in the upper esophagus and bilateral lymphadenopathy. Biopsies suggested a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly carcinoid, and ensuing imaging revealed cervical lymph node metastases. The esophageal mass was removed endoscopically and discovered by pathologists to closely resemble medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) on immunohistochemistry staining. Following surgery, further work up demonstrated very high serum calcitonin levels, suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma, however the thyroid gland was normal on ultrasound. The patient underwent a neck dissection to remove the lymph node metastases and subsequently her calcitonin levels dropped to 0 ng/mL, indicating remission. It appears that the primary tumor was not in the thyroid, but in the cervical esophagus. The thyroid has appeared normal on multiple ultrasounds without any detectable nodules or masses. This is quite a unique case because this patient presented with a tumor resembling medullary carcinoma of the thyroid that presented as a pedunculated mass in the cervical esophagus. The actual final diagnosis of this mass in the cervical esophagus was neuroendocrine tumor (NET), consistent with a carcinoid tumor, not ectopic MTC. This case report highlights that calcitonin-secreting tumors outside the thyroid should not lead to erroneous recommendations for thyroidectomy. PMID:28944148

  13. Radioimmunoimaging of metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland using an indium-111-labeled monoclonal antibody to CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Watson, C.G.; Levine, G.; Tauxe, W.N.; Yousem, S.A.; Unger, M.; Kowal, C.D.

    1988-12-01

    Elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or calcitonin after surgical therapy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) indicate the presence of residual or metastatic disease. CEA elevations appear to be prognostically more reliable in patients with metastatic disease and suggest a more virulent tumor. Attempts to stage the disease with use of conventional imaging techniques are usually inadequate, as is the therapy for disseminated or recurrent MCT. An indium-111-labeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ZCE-025) was used to image metastases in a patient with MCT. Potential applications of monoclonal antibody technology in the management of MCT would include (1) preoperative differentiation of unicentric from multicentric thyroid gland involvement, (2) detection of regional or distant metastases or both, (3) measurement of response to systemic therapy, and (4) the facilitation of radionuclide immunoconjugate therapy.

  14. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in a young dog

    PubMed Central

    Vieson, Miranda D.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Moon-Larson, Martha; Saunders, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the gross, histological, and immunohistochemical features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pulmonary metastases in a young dog. Sheets of pleomorphic cells supported by fibrous stroma characterized the primary mass, while metastatic nodules had a neuroendocrine pattern. Despite differing histologic features, all masses showed marked immunoreactivity against calcitonin and multiple neuroendocrine markers consistent with MTC. Although MTC is a well-recognized entity, it may be difficult to distinguish this mass from other thyroid neoplasms, necessitating immunohistochemical characterization. PMID:24690600

  15. Mixed medullary-follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: diagnostic dilemmas in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Atef N; Michael, Claire W; Jing, Xin

    2011-11-01

    Mixed medullary-follicular carcinoma (MMFC) of thyroid is an extremely rare tumor, characterized by coexistence of morphological and immunohistochemical features of both medullary carcinoma and follicular (or papillary) carcinoma. We herein present fine needle aspiration (FNA) findings of a histology-confirmed MMFC along with a review of literature. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who had a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and presented with enlargement of preexisting right thyroid nodule. An US-guided FNA of the thyroid nodule was performed and conventional smears were prepared. A cytologic diagnosis of "positive for malignancy, consistent with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)" was rendered based on the presence of features characteristic for MTC, and the absence of components of follicular neoplasm (adenoma and carcinoma) or papillary carcinoma. However, microscopic examination of the follow-up total thyroidectomy specimen with the aid of immunocytochemical study detected minor portion of follicular carcinoma in addition to MTC. A histologic diagnosis of MMFC was then established. While specific identification of MMFC by FNA may be difficult, it should be emphasized that adequate sampling in conjunction with the proper immunostaining panel could have highlighted the different aspects of the mixed tumor. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Potential absence of prognostic implications of severe preoperative hypercalcitoninemia in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zangeneh, Farhad; Gharib, Hossein; Goellner, John R; Kao, Pai Chih

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate preoperative hypercalcitonine-mia further as a marker of prognosis in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data in six patients (four men and two women, 39 to 76 years old)--three with sporadic MTC, one with familial MTC, and two with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A--who had preoperative basal serum calcitonin levels of 400 to 16,000 pg/mL (normal, 0 to 19). Pentagastrin stimulation was performed in patients who had preoperative basal calcitonin levels less than 1,000 pg/mL, and responses ranged from 2,600 to 8,500 pg/mL. Thyroidectomy revealed intrathyroidal MTC in four patients; MTC and nodal metastatic lesions were present in two. The tumor cells were immunoreactive with anti-calcitonin immunoperoxidase staining. Serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were normal postoperatively. In serial postoperative evaluation during a follow-up period of 2 to 9 years, stimulated peak plasma calcitonin levels after pentagastrin or calcium infusion were normal (in five patients) or near normal (in one patient), without clinical evidence of recurrent disease. The two patients with nodal metastatic disease have had normal calcitonin levels during a mean duration of follow-up of approximately 3 years. Pronounced preoperative hypercalci-toninemia does not necessarily preclude a favorable short-term outcome in patients with MTC.

  17. A Genomic Alternative to Identify Medullary Thyroid Cancer Preoperatively in Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Robert J.; Traweek, S. Thomas; Lanman, Richard B.; Kennedy, Giulia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of calcitonin screening for the rare medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is controversial due to questions of efficacy, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. This study reports the results of a large prospective validation using a machine-trained algorithm (MTC Classifier) to preoperatively identify MTC in fine-needle aspiration biopsies in lieu of calcitonin measurements. Methods: Cytology analysis on a prospective consecutive series of 50,430 thyroid nodule biopsies yielded a total of 7815 indeterminate (Bethesda categories III/IV) cases, which were tested with the MTC classifier. A prospective, consecutively submitted series of 2673 Bethesda III–VI cases with cytology determined locally was also evaluated. RNA was isolated and tested for the MTC Classifier using microarrays. Results: Forty-three cases were positive by the MTC Classifier among 10,488 tested nodules (0.4%), consistent with the low prevalence of MTC. Of these, all but one was histologically or biochemically confirmed as MTC, yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98%. Of the positive cases, only 19 (44%) had been specifically suspected of MTC by cytology, highlighting the limitations of light microscopy to detect this disease. Three surgically confirmed MTC cases that were detected by the MTC Classifier had low basal serum calcitonin values, indicating these would have been missed by traditional calcitonin screening methods. A pooled analysis of three independent validation sets demonstrates high test sensitivity (97.9%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (97.9%), and negative predictive value (99.8%). Conclusions: A clinical paradigm is proposed, whereby cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules being tested for common malignancies using gene expression can be simultaneously tested for MTC using the same genomic assay at no added cost. PMID:26992356

  18. [PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSTICS OF THYROID MEDULLARY CARCINOMA WITH EMPHASIS ON CYTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY THYROID TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Katović, Sandra Kojić; Vasilj, Ankica

    2014-12-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that arises from the parafollicular C cells that produce calcitonin, a hormone essential for the regulation of calcium metabolism. It accounts for 4%-10% of all thyroid cancers. In most cases (75%-80%), it is sporadic, while in other cases it is part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome. Most often, medullary thyroid carcinoma is presenting as a solitary nodule. At the time of diagnosis, about half of the patients have enlarged cervical lymph nodes, while a small number of patients have distant metastases in the liver, lungs, bones and brain. If the tumor is hormone active, the patient may have systemic symptoms such as diarrhea or flushing. Ultrasonically, medullary carcinoma usually appears as a hypoechogenic node with marked vascularity and uneven contours that can sometimes contain microcalcifications, and in most cases is located in the upper poles of the thyroid. The sample obtained by fine needle aspiration is usually cellular, tumor cells are disseminated or arranged in poorly cohesive groups. They are most often plasmacytoid, but sometimes can also be spindled. The nuclei are eccentric and chromatin shows features of neuroendocrine tumors. Cytoplasms of tumor cells are abundant, triangular or polygonal, amphophilic, finely granulated and unsharply limited. Background is clean and sometimes amyloid can be found. Depending on the cytologic picture, differential diagnostic problems can be well differentiated thyroid tumors, primarily follicular neoplasm, lymphomas, poorly differentiated insular carcinoma, metastatic small cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors or melanoma. In case of differential diagnostic difficulties, of great help is to determine calcitonin immunocytochemically or in aspirate or serum. Medullary carcinoma may show low progression and long-time survival, but can also be a rapidly progressive tumor where survival is measured in months. Good prognostic indicators are

  19. All-trans-retinoic acid promotes iodine uptake via up- regulating the sodium iodide symporter in medullary thyroid cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Hou, Yan-Li; Kang, Qiang-Qiang; Chen, Xing-Yue; Duan, Li-Qun; Shu, Jin; Li, Shao-Lin; Hu, Xiao-Li; Peng, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the main therapy of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is surgical, but by which way there is a poor prognosis with a mean survival of only 5 years. In some cases, some researchers found that it is the medullary thyroid cancer stem cells (MTCSCs) that cause metastasis and recurrence. This study aimed to eradicate MTCSCs through administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Here we demonstrate that MTCSCs possess stem- like properties in serum-free medium. The ABCG2, OCT4 and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) were changed by ATRA. Additionally, we found that ATRA can increase the expression of NIS in vivo. All the data suggested that ATRA could increase the iodine uptake of MTCSCs through NIS.

  20. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Metastatic, or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  1. Exomic Sequencing of Medullary Thyroid Cancer Reveals Dominant and Mutually Exclusive Oncogenic Mutations in RET and RAS

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuchen; Sausen, Mark; Leary, Rebecca; Bettegowda, Chetan; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Bhan, Sheetal; Ho, Allen S.; Khan, Zubair; Bishop, Justin; Westra, William H.; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Tufano, Ralph P.; Robinson, Bruce; Dralle, Henning; Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Fagin, James A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Velculescu, Victor E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Nelkin, Barry D.; Ball, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid cancer that can occur sporadically or as part of a hereditary syndrome. Objective: To explore the genetic origin of MTC, we sequenced the protein coding exons of approximately 21,000 genes in 17 sporadic MTCs. Patients and Design: We sequenced the exomes of 17 sporadic MTCs and validated the frequency of all recurrently mutated genes and other genes of interest in an independent cohort of 40 MTCs comprised of both sporadic and hereditary MTC. Results: We discovered 305 high-confidence mutations in the 17 sporadic MTCs in the discovery phase, or approximately 17.9 somatic mutations per tumor. Mutations in RET, HRAS, and KRAS genes were identified as the principal driver mutations in MTC. All of the other additional somatic mutations, including mutations in spliceosome and DNA repair pathways, were not recurrent in additional tumors. Tumors without RET, HRAS, or KRAS mutations appeared to have significantly fewer mutations overall in protein coding exons. Conclusions: Approximately 90% of MTCs had mutually exclusive mutations in RET, HRAS, and KRAS, suggesting that RET and RAS are the predominant driver pathways in MTC. Relatively few mutations overall and no commonly recurrent driver mutations other than RET, HRAS, and KRAS were seen in the MTC exome. PMID:23264394

  2. 2012 European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Genetic Testing and Its Clinical Consequences in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elisei, R.; Alevizaki, M.; Conte-Devolx, B.; Frank-Raue, K.; Leite, V.; Williams, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) are familial and inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Three different phenotypes can be distinguished: multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B, in which the MTC is associated with other endocrine neoplasias, and familial MTC (FMTC), which occurs in isolation. The discovery that germline RET oncogene activating mutations are associated with 95–98% of MEN 2/FMTC syndromes and the availability of genotyping to identify mutations in affected patients and their relatives has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies available for the management of these patients. All patients with MTC, both those with a positive familial history and those apparently sporadic, should be submitted to RET genetic screening. Once an RET mutation has been confirmed in an index patient, first-degree relatives should be screened rapidly to identify the 50% who inherited the mutation and are therefore at risk for development of MTC. Relatives in whom no RET mutation is identified can be reassured and discharged from further follow-up, whereas RET-positive subjects (i.e. gene carriers) must be investigated and a therapeutic strategy initiated. These guideline recommendations are derived from the most recent studies identifying phenotype-genotype correlations following the discovery of causative RET gene mutations in MEN 2 eighteen years ago. Three major points will be discussed: (a) identification of patients and relatives who should have genetic screening for RET mutations, (b) management of asymptomatic gene carriers, and (c) ethics. PMID:24783025

  3. Disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma despite early thyroid surgery in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-2A syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Santen, H M; Aronson, D C; van Trotsenburg, A S P; ten Kate, F J W; van de Wetering, M D; Wiersinga, W M; de Vijlder, J J M; Vulsma, T

    2005-05-01

    A 51/2-year-old boy, with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-2A syndrome, was evaluated for presence of MEN-2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). DNA diagnostics confirmed MEN-2A. Basal (360 ng/L) and pentagastrin stimulated (430 ng/L) calcitonin (CT) levels were slightly elevated, plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was normal. Within a year both tumor markers increased and total thyroidectomy was performed. Histologic examination did not show MTC. In the following years, both tumor markers increased progressively but despite the use of multiple imaging techniques no metastases were localized. After 6 years, biopsy of a palpable lymph node showed MTC. The boy was treated with total cervical, suprahyoidal, and mediastinal lymph node dissection, showing MTC in almost all nodes. Again, the tumor markers remained high. At this point in time, the disadvantages of further medical interventions were outweighed against the chance for cure and it was decided to shift the goal of treatment toward palliation rather than cure. At the last visit the boy was clinically well with persistent extremely high levels of plasma CEA and CT. In conclusion, when prophylactic thyroidectomy in the MEN-2A syndrome has failed, it may be best to withdraw from further interventions to prevent more damage.

  4. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S.; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P.; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A.

    2016-01-01

    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27200201

  5. Horner's Syndrome Incidental to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Excision: Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Spiliopoulou, Sofia P; Zolota, Vassiliki; Papadas, Theodoros A

    2016-01-01

    Horner's syndrome is characterized by a combination of ipsilateral miosis, blepharoptosis, enophthalmos, facial anhidrosis, and iris heterochromia in existence of congenital lesions. The syndrome results from a disruption of the ipsilateral sympathetic innervation of the eye and ocular adnexa at different levels. Though rare, thyroid and neck surgery could be considered as possible causes of this clinical entity. We present a case of Horner's syndrome in a patient after total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for medullary thyroid cancer with neck nodal disease and attempt a brief review of the relevant literature.

  6. Thyroid paraganglioma. Report of 3 cases and description of an immunohistochemical profile useful in the differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma, based on complementary DNA array results.

    PubMed

    Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Gallel, Pilar; Ros, Susana; Gatius, Sonia; Valls, Joan; De-Cubas, Aguirre A; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Yebra-Pimentel, M Teresa; Menarguez, Javier; Gamallo, Carlos; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid paraganglioma is a rare disorder that sometimes poses problems in differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. So far, differential diagnosis is solved with the help of some markers that are frequently expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (thyroid transcription factor 1, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen). However, some of these markers are not absolutely specific of medullary thyroid carcinoma and may be expressed in other tumors. Here we report 3 new cases of thyroid paraganglioma and describe our strategy to design a diagnostic immunohistochemical battery. First, we performed a comparative analysis of the expression profile of head and neck paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma, obtained after complementary DNA array analysis of 2 series of fresh-frozen samples of paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma, respectively. Seven biomarkers showing differential expression were selected (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 4-like 2, NDUFA4L2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2; vesicular monoamine transporter 2; calcitonin gene-related protein/calcitonin; carcinoembryonic antigen; and thyroid transcription factor 1) for immunohistochemical analysis. Two tissue microarrays were constructed from 2 different series of paraffin-embedded samples of paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma. We provide a classifying rule for differential diagnosis that combines negativity or low staining for calcitonin gene-related protein (histologic score, <10) or calcitonin (histologic score, <50) together with positivity of any of NADH dehydrogenase 1 alpha subcomplex, 4-like 2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2; or vesicular monoamine transporter 2 to predict paragangliomas, showing a prediction error of 0%. Finally, the immunohistochemical battery was checked in paraffin-embedded blocks from 4 examples of thyroid paraganglioma (1 previously reported case and 3 new cases), showing also a

  7. Characterization of the Immunochemical Forms of Calcitonin Released by a Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Goltzman, David; Tischler, Arthur S.

    1978-01-01

    Immunoreactive calcitonin released by a medullary thyroid carcinoma in tissue culture has been found to exhibit heterogeneity when analyzed by gel chromatography and radioimmunoassay, in a pattern analogous to that seen in the circulation of the patient from whom the neoplasm was removed. To examine the cause of the heterogeneity, the immunoreactive material released by the tumor into tissue culture medium was further analyzed by gel electrophoresis in the presence of the protein denaturant 8 M urea, by gel chromatography after reduction and alkylation, by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-agarose, and by bioassay in a renal adenylyl cyclase system of enhanced sensitivity. The results suggest that the larger immunochemical forms of calcitonin described in the circulation of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma may be released directly from the neoplasm and need not derive from peripheral metabolism of the monomer. It could be demonstrated that a major proportion of the immunochemical enlargement is dependent upon intermolecular disulfide bridge formation whereas aggregation or non-convalent protein binding account for a smaller component of the heterogeneity. In view of the absence of binding of the immunoreactive material to the lectin agarose, carbohydrate side chains, at least of the α-d glucosyl variety, do not seem to contribute significantly to calcitonin enlargement. Additionally, the studies indicate that, at least by in vitro assay, the larger immunochemical forms of calcitonin, representing the majority of the immunoreactivity released by a medullary thyroid carcinoma, are biologically inactive. PMID:621283

  8. Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Are Independent of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipe; Pereira, Sofia S; Mesquita, Marta; Morais, Tiago; Costa, Madalena M; Quelhas, Pedro; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Mariana P; Leite, Valeriano

    2017-04-01

    Blood and lymph vessel invasion are well-recognized markers of tumor aggressiveness, as these are the routes that lead to metastases. Thyroid tumors, depending on the histological variant, tend to have distinctive biological behaviors and use different vascular routes to metastasize, yet the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess how the lymph vessel density (LVD) in different histological types of thyroid tumors, and in their surrounding tissue, correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor pathological features. Lymph vessels of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), of the classical (CVPTC, n = 50) and follicular variants (FVPTC, n = 18), and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC, n = 34) were immunohistochemically stained against antigen D2-40. The stained area was quantified using a computerized morphometric analysis tool and correlated with the tumor pathological characteristics. LVD within all analyzed thyroid tumor subtypes was significantly lower than in the surrounding thyroid tissues (p < 0.001). Despite intratumoral LVD being significantly higher in CVPTC than in FVPTC, and peritumoral LVD being significantly higher in MTC than in PTC (p < 0.05), no correlations were found between LVD (either intratumoral or peritumoral) and the presence of lymph node metastasis. As no LVD differences were found amongst thyroid tumors with or without LNM, dissemination is more likely to depend on the tumor ability to invade the abundant lymph vessel network of the surrounding thyroid tissue than on the ability of the tumor to promote de novo lymphangiogenesis.

  9. The NANETS Consensus Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pheochromocytoma, Paraganglioma & Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas, intra-adrenal paraganglioma, and extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal chromaffin cells or similar cells in extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Serious morbidity and mortality rates associated with these tumors are related to the potent effects of catecholamines on various organs, especially those of the cardiovascular system. Before any surgical procedure is done, pre-operative blockade is necessary to protect the patient against significant release of catecholamines due to anesthesia and surgical manipulation of the tumor. Treatment options vary with the extent of the disease with laparoscopic surgery being the preferred treatment for removal of primary tumors. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the thyroid C-cells or parafollicular cells. Thyroid c-cells elaborate a number of peptides and hormones, such as calcitonin, CEA, and chromogranin A. Some or all of these markers are elevated in patients with MTC and can be used to confirm the diagnosis as well as to follow patients longitudinally for recurrence. MTC consists of a spectrum of disease that ranges from extremely indolent tumors that are stable for many years to aggressive types associated with a high mortality rate. Genetic testing for RET mutations has allowed identification of familial cases and prophylactic thyroidectomy for cure. The only curative treatment is complete surgical resection. PMID:20664475

  10. Ultrasonography features of medullary thyroid cancer as predictors of its biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cherry; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ha, EunJu; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Young Jun; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Jae Kyun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2017-04-01

    Background Although there are many well-known prognostic predictors of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the ultrasonography (US) findings of MTC have not been sufficiently validated in this regard. Purpose To investigate the US findings of MTC and their relationship with the biological behavior of MTC. Material and Methods The US findings and clinical and pathology records of 123 MTC nodules from 108 patients were retrospectively analyzed at two tertiary referral hospitals. MTCs were classified according to US findings, i.e. MTC with benign (B-MTC) and malignant US findings (M-MTC). We then compared the clinical and pathology findings between the two groups. Results Eighty-two M-MTCs (66.7%) and 41 B-MTCs (33.3%) were identified. M-MTCs showed a significantly higher prevalence of lateral lymph node metastases as well as extrathyroidal and extranodal extension (all P < 0.05). M-MTCs larger than 1 cm showed a significantly higher prevalence of multifocality, recurrence, extrathyroidal and extranodal extension than B-MTCs larger than 1 cm in the largest dimension (all P < 0.05). Tumors > 1 cm were more likely to be B-MTC and one-third of all MTCs had benign US features. The common findings of B-MTC included a solid, ovoid to round shape, with a smooth margin, hypoechogenicity, and without calcification. Conclusion The biological behavior of M-MTCs results in poorer outcomes than that of B-MTCs.

  11. Dynamic risk stratification for medullary thyroid cancer according to the response to initial therapy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Won Gu; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Dong Eun; Lee, Yu-Mi; Sung, Tae-Yon; Chung, Ki-Wook; Yoon, Jong Ho; Hong, Suck Joon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2016-07-01

    Detecting persistent/recurrent disease of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is important. The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is useful for predicting disease-specific mortality, but is a static system and does not include postoperative serum calcitonin levels. We have focused on the clinical usefulness of dynamic risk stratification (DRS) using the best response to the initial therapy in MTC patients. A total of 120 MTC patients were classified into three DRS groups based on their responses to initial therapy. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to TNM staging and DRS. In the DRS, 70, 23 and 7 % of the MTC patients were classified into excellent, biochemical incomplete, or structural incomplete response groups, respectively. On TNM staging, 37, 16, 13 and 35 % of patients were stages I-IV, respectively. There were significant differences in survivals according to TNM staging (p = 0.03) and DRS (p = 0.005). During the median follow-up of 6.2 years, 75 patients (63 %) demonstrated no evidence of disease (NED). About 60 and 17 % of patients in stages III and IV were NED, respectively. DRS predicted NED better than TNM staging according to the proportion of variance explained (PVE) (49.1 vs. 28.7 %, respectively). At the final follow-up, 88, 4 and 0 % of patients in excellent, biochemical incomplete, and structural incomplete response groups attained NED, respectively. DRS based on the best response to the initial therapy can provide useful prognostic information in addition to initial TNM staging for predicting of mortality, as well as the likelihood of NED in MTC patients.

  12. Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magarey, Matthew J R; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.

  13. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a review on ethical considerations in treatment of children.

    PubMed

    Nozhat, Zahra; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and it accounts approximately 1%-3% of all human cancers. Among the three subtypes of thyroid cancers, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is the most common cause of death in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (MEN2A), MEN type 2B (MEN2B) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Generally, MTC accounts for up to 10% of all types of thyroid cancers. It is one of the aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma which is manifested in childhood ages more than adults, and it comprises about 17% of all pediatric thyroid cancer. Like the other cancers, prevention of MTC is easier than its cure. In the recent decades (from 1993) the diagnosis of asymptomatic child carrying RET mutations in the affected families by MTC, has been provided by genetic screening, and prophylactic thyroidectomy is an efficacy therapeutic procedure. On the one hand, according to near the complete penetrance of the disease and its onset in the early years of life, it is required to accelerate the protection of at-risk children with relative affected by MTC and on the other hand, there are several obstructions to MTC treatment including: 1) the proband's refusal to disclose the RET mutation genetic testing results, 2) children's vulnerability because of their inability to participate in the informed consent, and 3) the existence of conflict between physicians and children's guardian. In this review article, the recommendations and ethical issues of MTC treatment in asymptomatic and at-risk children have been summarized.

  14. Hypercalcitoninemia in thyroid conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative analysis of calcium and pentagastrin stimulation of serum calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kerstin; Elwerr, Malik; Machens, Andreas; Abuazab, Mohammed; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Dralle, Henning

    2013-03-01

    Calcitonin screening aims at uncovering occult medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Elevated basal calcitonin serum levels call for calcitonin stimulation, the level of which may direct the extent of surgery. Because pentagastrin has become restricted, calcium has increasingly been used instead for stimulation. This study identified a new spectrum of patients demonstrating a false-positive hypercalcitoninemia in the absence of C-cell disease, carrying multinodular goiter (MNG), thyroiditis, and non-MTC thyroid malignancy, and endeavored to explore the feasibility of extrapolating pentagastrin-stimulated to calcium-stimulated calcitonin thresholds. Altogether, 43 (9.5 %) of 455 patients with nodular thyroid disease revealed increased basal calcitonin serum levels between 2005 and 2012, for which they underwent intravenous stimulation with pentagastrin (31 patients) or calcium gluconate (12 patients) before and after primary thyroidectomy. Stimulation with calcium gluconate resulted in significantly higher and more variable preoperative calcitonin serum levels after 2 (241.2 vs. 104.9 pg/mL; P = 0.018) and 5 min (240.6 vs. 87.4 pg/mL; P = 0.007) than stimulation with pentagastrin. Stimulation with calcium gluconate produced 10-fold (nodular goiter), 15-fold (thyroiditis), and 21-fold (thyroid neoplasia other than MTC) calcitonin increases over baseline, as opposed to 5-fold, 10-fold, and 8-fold increases after stimulation with pentagastrin. None of the 43 patients, all of whom reverted to undetectable calcitonin serum levels after thyroidectomy, had immunohistochemical evidence of C-cell disease. Subgroup analyses according to gender and thyroid disease, being limited by the low number of patients in each subgroup, did not yield significant differences. Calcium stimulation yields significantly greater calcitonin levels than pentagastrin stimulation, precluding generalization of pentagastrin-stimulated to calcium

  15. Multiple endocrine neoplasia similar to human subtype 2A in a dog: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Arias, E.A. Soler; Castillo, V.A.; Trigo, R.H.; Caneda Aristarain, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Human multiple endocrine neoplasia subtype 2A (MEN 2A) is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma in the same individual. In this report, a case of a female Rottweiler with medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma was described. Clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea and weight loss were observed. Two adrenal neoplasms were identified incidentally by ultrasonography, and tumor in the left thyroid lobe was identified by palpation. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed by biochemical testing. Histopathology report was consistent with diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for calcitonin and synaptophysin, and negative for thyroglobulin, which confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case in a dog is presenting neoplastic characteristics similar to human MEN 2A and emphasizing the importance of using immunohistochemistry for confirmation. PMID:27822452

  16. [Thyroid C cells and their pathology: Part 1: normal C cells, - C cell hyperplasia, - precursor of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Schmid, K W

    2015-05-01

    The C cells (parafollicular) of the human thyroid gland are predominantly located within the thyroid follicles, are of neuroendocrine origin and produce and secrete the peptide hormone calcitonin. Calcitonin is clinically utilized as a screening marker to detect occult medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as well as in the follow-up of patients with MTC. An increase in the number of C cells is designated as C cell hyperplasia (CCH). Neoplastic CCH is caused by an autosomal dominant inherited mutation of the RET protooncogene, which develops into invasive familial MTC in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 depending on the location of the mutation in the RET gene with a high variation in latency. According to the current state of knowledge CCH without a germline mutation in the RET protooncogene, designated as non-MEN2-associated CCH, seems to be unrelated to the development of sporadic MTC.

  17. PROX1 Promotes Secretory Granule Formation in Medullary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Yazawa, Takuya; Chiba, Tomohiro; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Arimasu, Yuu; Sato, Hanako; Kamma, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms of endocrine secretory granule (SG) formation in thyroid C cells and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells have not been fully elucidated. Here we directly demonstrated that PROX1, a developmental homeobox gene, is transcriptionally involved in SG formation in MTC, which is derived from C cells. Analyses using gene expression databases on web sites revealed that, among thyroid cancer cells, MTC cells specifically and highly express PROX1 as well as several SG-forming molecule genes. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that in vivo MTC and C cells expressed PROX1, although follicular thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid cancer cells, normal follicular cells did not. Knockdown of PROX1 in an MTC cells reduced SGs detected by electron microscopy, and decreased expression of SG-related genes (chromogranin A, chromogranin B, secretogranin II, secretogranin III, synaptophysin, and carboxypeptidase E). Conversely, the introduction of a PROX1 transgene into a papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells induced the expression of SG-related genes. Reporter assays using the promoter sequence of chromogranin A showed that PROX1 activates the chromogranin A gene in addition to the known regulatory mechanisms, which are mediated via the cAMP response element binding protein and the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays demonstrated that PROX1 binds to the transcriptional regulatory element of the chromogranin A gene. In conclusion, PROX1 is an important regulator of endocrine SG formation in MTC cells.

  18. Classification of locoregional lymph nodes in medullary and papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Musholt, T J

    2014-02-01

    Among the various thyroid malignancies, medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized by predominant locoregional lymph node metastases that may cause morbidity and affect patient survival. Although lymph node metastases are frequently detected, the optimal strategy aiming at the removal of all tumor tissues while minimizing the associated surgical morbidity remains a matter of debate. A uniform consented terminology and classification is a precondition in order to compare results of the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinomas. While the broad distinction between central and lateral lymph node groups is generally accepted, the exact boundaries of these neck regions vary significantly in the literature. Four different classification systems are currently used. The classification system of the American Head and Neck Society and the corresponding classification system of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) are based on observations of squamous cell carcinomas and appointed to needs of head and neck surgeons. The classification of the Japanese Society for Thyroid Diseases and the compartment classification acknowledge the distinctive pattern of metastasis in thyroid carcinomas. Comparison of four existing classification systems reveals underlying different treatment concepts. The compartment system meets the necessities of thyroid carcinomas and is used worldwide in studies describing the results of lymph node dissection. Therefore, the German Association of Endocrine Surgery has recommended using the latter system in their recently updated guidelines on thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Targeting mTOR in RET mutant medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gild, Matti L; Landa, Iñigo; Ryder, Mabel; Ghossein, Ronald A; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Fagin, James A

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by a gene that is frequently mutated in medullary thyroid cancer, have emerged as promising novel therapies for the disease. Rapalogs and other mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are effective agents in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, which share lineage properties with medullary thyroid carcinomas. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of mTOR activity to RET-induced signaling and cell growth and to establish whether growth suppression is enhanced by co-targeting RET and mTOR kinase activities. Treatment of the RET mutant cell lines TT, TPC-1, and MZ-CRC-1 with AST487, a RET kinase inhibitor, suppressed growth and showed profound and sustained inhibition of mTOR signaling, which was recapitulated by siRNA-mediated RET knockdown. Inhibition of mTOR with INK128, a dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase inhibitor, also resulted in marked growth suppression to levels similar to those seen with RET blockade. Moreover, combined treatment with AST487 and INK128 at low concentrations suppressed growth and induced apoptosis. These data establish mTOR as a key mediator of RET-mediated cell growth in thyroid cancer cells and provide a rationale for combinatorial treatments in thyroid cancers with oncogenic RET mutations. PMID:23828865

  20. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment, prognostic factors, and a comparison of staging systems.

    PubMed

    Kebebew, E; Ituarte, P H; Siperstein, A E; Duh, Q Y; Clark, O H

    2000-03-01

    The clinical courses of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) vary, and a number of prognostic factors have been studied, but the significance of some of these factors remains controversial. The study group consisted of 104 patients with MTC or C-cell hyperplasia managed at the hospitals of the University of California, San Francisco, between January 1960 and December 1998. Patients were classified as having sporadic MTC, familial non-multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) MTC, MEN 2A, or MEN 2B. The TNM, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS), and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) extent-of-disease stages were determined for each patient. The predictive values of these staging or prognostic scoring systems were compared by calculating the proportion of variance explained (PVE) for each system. Fifty-six percent of the patients had sporadic MTC, 22% had familial MTC, 15% had MEN 2A, and 7% had MEN 2B. The overall average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and patients with sporadic MTC presented at an older age (P < 0.05). Thirty-two percent of the patients with hereditary MTC were diagnosed by screening (genetic and/or biochemical). These patients had a lower incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05) and 94.7% were cured at last follow-up (P < 0.0001) compared with patients not screened. Patients with sporadic MTC who had systemic symptoms (diarrhea, bone pain, or flushing) had widely metastatic MTC and 33.3% of those patients died within 5 years. Overall, 49.4% of the patients were cured, 12.3% had recurrent MTC, and 38.3% had persistent MTC. The mean follow-up time was 8.6 years (median, 5.0 years) with 10.7% (n=11) and 13.5% (n=14) cause specific mortality at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Patients with persistent or recurrent MTC who died of MTC lived for an average of 3.6 years (ranging from 1 month to 23.7 years). Patients who had total or

  1. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Other Thyroid Cancers: Medullary, Anaplastic, Lymphoma and So Forth

    PubMed Central

    Araz, Mine; Çayır, Derya

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is used in staging, restaging, and evaluation of therapy response in many cancers as well as differentiated thyroid carcinomas especially in non-iodine avid variants. Its potential in less frequent thyroid tumors like medullary, anaplastic thyroid cancers, thyroid lymphoma and metastatic tumors of the thyroid however, is not well established yet. The aim of this review is to provide an overview on the recent applications and indications of 18F-FDG PET/CT in these tumors and to focus on the controversies in the clinical setting. PMID:28291004

  2. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  3. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  4. Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Eren; Gurbuz, Yesim; Tarkun, Ilhan; Canturk, Zeynep; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are two distinct types of thyroid carcinoma with considerable difference in terms of cellular origin, histopathological appearance, clinical course and prevalence. The histogenetic origin and possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are still unclear. The most widely accepted hypotheses considering co-occurrence of MTC and PTC are stem cell theory, collision effect theory and hostage theory. Herein we describe two rare cases of mixed medullary-papillary thyroid carcinoma with co-occurrence of MTC and PTC which developed with concomitant MEN 2A and different sites of lymph node metastasis in the first patient, while with atypical clinical presentation in the second patient. In conclusion, co-expression of thyroglobulin, synaptophysin and chromogranin by the papillary component of mixed tumor seems to support stem cell theory in our first case, whereas positive staining for calcitonin but not for thyroglobulin in the medullary component of the tumor along with separation of these two tumors from each other by a normal thyroid tissue seem to indicates the likelihood of collision effect theory in our second case.

  5. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 and Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Furio; Robinson, Bruce G.; Santoro, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Over the last decade, our knowledge of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes MEN2A and MEN2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) has expanded greatly. In this manuscript, we summarize how recent discoveries have enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases and led to improvements in the diagnosis and management of affected patients. Evidence Acquisition: We reviewed the English literature through PubMed from 2000 to the present, using the search terms medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, RET proto-oncogene, and calcitonin. Evidence Synthesis: Over 70 RET mutations are known to cause MEN2A, MEN2B, or FMTC, and recent findings from studies of large kindreds with these syndromes have clouded the relationship between genotype and phenotype, primarily because of the varied clinical presentation of different families with the same RET mutation. This clinical variability has also confounded decisions about the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy for MTC, the dominant endocrinopathy associated with these syndromes. A distinct advance has been the demonstration through phase II and phase III clinical trials that molecular targeted therapeutics are effective in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC. Conclusions: The effective management of patients with MEN2A, MEN2A, and FMTC depends on an understanding of the variable behavior of disease expression in patients with a specific RET mutation. Information gained from molecular testing, biochemical analysis, and clinical evaluation is important in providing effective management of patients with either early or advanced-stage MTC. PMID:23744408

  6. Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Are Independent of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipe; Pereira, Sofia S.; Mesquita, Marta; Morais, Tiago; Costa, Madalena M.; Quelhas, Pedro; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Mariana P.; Leite, Valeriano

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood and lymph vessel invasion are well-recognized markers of tumor aggressiveness, as these are the routes that lead to metastases. Thyroid tumors, depending on the histological variant, tend to have distinctive biological behaviors and use different vascular routes to metastasize, yet the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process are still poorly understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess how the lymph vessel density (LVD) in different histological types of thyroid tumors, and in their surrounding tissue, correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor pathological features. Methods Lymph vessels of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), of the classical (CVPTC, n = 50) and follicular variants (FVPTC, n = 18), and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC, n = 34) were immunohistochemically stained against antigen D2-40. The stained area was quantified using a computerized morphometric analysis tool and correlated with the tumor pathological characteristics. Results LVD within all analyzed thyroid tumor subtypes was significantly lower than in the surrounding thyroid tissues (p < 0.001). Despite intratumoral LVD being significantly higher in CVPTC than in FVPTC, and peritumoral LVD being significantly higher in MTC than in PTC (p < 0.05), no correlations were found between LVD (either intratumoral or peritumoral) and the presence of lymph node metastasis. Conclusions As no LVD differences were found amongst thyroid tumors with or without LNM, dissemination is more likely to depend on the tumor ability to invade the abundant lymph vessel network of the surrounding thyroid tissue than on the ability of the tumor to promote de novo lymphangiogenesis. PMID:28589086

  7. Somatostatin receptor imaging-guided pasireotide therapy in medullary thyroid cancer with ectopic adrenocorticotropin production.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Frederik A; Anlauf, Martin; Mottaghy, Felix M; Karges, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old man with a history of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) presented with high adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and urinary free cortisol levels. The diagnosis of ectopic ACTH production, a rare MTC complication, was established in this patient. PET/CT using the somatostatin analogue DOTA-(Tyr)-octreotate labeled with gallium (Ga-DOTATATE) was performed, showing positive radionuclide uptake in multiple MTC metastases. After this therapy with the novel somatostatin analogue, pasireotide was initiated after which urinary free cortisol and ACTH levels decreased. The present case thus illustrates a potential theranostic use of Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in MTC.

  8. Iodine-131 MIBG uptake in metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. A patient treated with somatostatin

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, C.A.; Basso, L.V.

    1988-04-01

    A 47-year-old man with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2a syndrome in whom metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) concentrated in lesions from metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is reported. A somatostatin analogue (Sandostatin SMS 201-995) alleviated the symptoms of flushing and diarrhea associated with the elevated calcitonin levels but it did not alter either the course of the disease or the MIBG images. A review of the literature is presented of the noncatecholamine secreting tumors associated with MIBG uptake. Similarities between this case and metastatic carcinoid syndrome are discussed. 27 references.

  9. Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid With Axillary Metastasis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Murat; Makay, Ozer; Simsir, Ilgin; Ertan, Yeşim; Icoz, Gokhan; Saygili, Füsun; Akyildiz, Mahir

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of axillary lymph node metastasis as a consequence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a 42-year-old man. On January 2009, the patient was referred to us for the management of right cervical lymph node enlargement. Total thyroidectomy was performed with right-sided functional neck dissection. Postoperative histopathology revealed MTC in the right lobe of the thyroid, with extrathyroidal extension and right-sided neck metastases. Multiple left cervical, mediastinal, and right axillary lymphadenopathies were detected at the third year follow-up exam. Left-sided functional neck dissection, axillary lymph node dissection, and mediastinal lymph node dissection were performed, and the pathologic outcomes revealed as the metastatic dissemination of MTC. After a disease-free term for 1 year, multiple metastatic lesions were detected in the patient. PMID:25785315

  10. RET mutations in a large indian family with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, D. M.; Nehru, Arun G.; Seshadri, M. S.; Thomas, Nihal; Nair, Aravindan; Pai, Rekha; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a tumor arising from the para follicular (C) cells of the thyroid gland and can occur either sporadically or as part of an inherited syndrome. A proportion of these cases carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene. Screening for these mutations in the affected patients and the carriers “at risk” which includes the first-degree relatives is of utmost importance for early detection and prompt treatment including prophylactic thyroidectomy in cases that harbor these mutations. Results: This report presents details of screening and subsequent follow-up of a large Indian family, where the index case was found to carry p. Cys634Ser mutation involving exon 11 of the RET gene. These data are of value considering the paucity of information within the region in context of screening large families affected by these mutations. PMID:25143909

  11. Surgery for lymph node metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma: A review.

    PubMed

    Jin, Linda X; Moley, Jeffrey F

    2016-02-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine malignancy of the thyroid C cells that occurs in hereditary and sporadic clinical settings. Metastatic spread commonly occurs to cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes. MTC cells do not concentrate radioactive iodine and are not sensitive to hormonal manipulation, and therefore surgery is the most effective option for curative therapy, reduction in tumor burden, or effective palliation. In patients undergoing preventative surgery for hereditary MTC, central lymph node dissection should be considered if the calcitonin level is elevated. Preservation of parathyroid function in these young patients is of paramount importance. In patients with established primary tumors, systematic surgical removal of lymph node basins (compartmental dissection) should be guided by ultrasound mapping of lymph node metastases and level of serum calcitonin. A "berry-picking" approach is discouraged. Newly approved targeted molecular therapies offer wider treatment options for patients with progressive or metastatic disease. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A and thyroid medullary carcinoma: an interdisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Haecker, Frank-Martin; Oertli, Daniel; Gissler, Stefanie; Zumsteg, Urs; Avoledo, Pierino; von Schweinitz, Dietrich

    2003-04-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A (MEN 2A) requires interdisciplinary management. The association of RET proto-oncogene mutations and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in children is well-known, but the optimal timing for elective surgery is controversial. Besides the risk of MTC, associated anomalies like hyperparathyroidism have to be considered. We report the results of molecular genetic investigations, the pentagastrin stimulation test, pre- and postoperative staging, and histologic examinations of four children who had a positive family history for MEN 2A. Histologic specimens of the removed thyroid glands showed MTC in all four cases. The patients had an uneventful postoperative clinical course. In view of the recent literature and our patients' results, we suggest a concept for diagnostic strategy and timing of the elective thyroidectomy.

  13. Circulating calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen m-RNA detected by RT-PCR as tumour markers in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bojunga, J; Dragan, C; Schumm-Draeger, P M; Usadel, K H; Kusterer, K

    2001-01-01

    Detection of local relapse or metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) continue to pose a major diagnostic challenge. Besides established diagnostic studies such as serum calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), molecular detection of circulating tumour cells may be an additional diagnostic tool for the early detection of disease recurrence. We performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on blood samples from patients diagnosed with MTC disease using primers specific for CT and CEA, respectively. CT mRNA was not detectable in peripheral blood of all patients with MTC (n = 11) and all controls (n = 32). CEA mRNA was significantly more often detected patients with MTC (72.7%) than in controls (34.4%; p = 0.038; Fisher exact test). With an example of a patient with MTC and massive tumour mass in the neck we demonstrate the failure of detection of CT mRNA over a period of 6 months, whereas CEA mRNA could be detected in peripheral blood of this patient. As a consequence, CT mRNA detected by RT-PCR in the peripheral blood can not be recommended as a tumour marker in MTC. However, the use of carcinoembryonic mRNA may provide a significant improvement in diagnosis of recurrent disease in MTC. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign   http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720443

  14. Long-term course of patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after apparent curative primary surgery for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J A; Grant, C S; Gharib, H; Hay, I D; Ilstrup, D M

    1990-10-01

    Thirty-one patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after seemingly adequate primary operation for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) were followed for a mean period of 11.9 years after operation. Ten patients had sporadic MTC and the remaining patients were members of families with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)--either MEN 2A (15 patients) or MEN 2B (six patients). Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 90% and 86%, respectively. Only four patients died at the completion of the study: two of MTC and two of unrelated causes. Eleven patients (35.5%) underwent surgical re-exploration after demonstration of recurrent disease clinically or radiologically. In no patient did the calcitonin level return to normal after re-exploration. The presence of more than three metastatic nodes at the time of initial operation was a statistically significant (p = 0.003) predictor for disease recurrence. Factors approaching statistical significance were patients younger than age 35 (p = 0.06) and the percentage of cells in the S phase of cell division (0.07). This data supports a conservative surgical philosophy in the management of the patient with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after resection of MTC.

  15. Long-term course of patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after apparent curative primary surgery for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    van Heerden, J A; Grant, C S; Gharib, H; Hay, I D; Ilstrup, D M

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after seemingly adequate primary operation for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) were followed for a mean period of 11.9 years after operation. Ten patients had sporadic MTC and the remaining patients were members of families with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)--either MEN 2A (15 patients) or MEN 2B (six patients). Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 90% and 86%, respectively. Only four patients died at the completion of the study: two of MTC and two of unrelated causes. Eleven patients (35.5%) underwent surgical re-exploration after demonstration of recurrent disease clinically or radiologically. In no patient did the calcitonin level return to normal after re-exploration. The presence of more than three metastatic nodes at the time of initial operation was a statistically significant (p = 0.003) predictor for disease recurrence. Factors approaching statistical significance were patients younger than age 35 (p = 0.06) and the percentage of cells in the S phase of cell division (0.07). This data supports a conservative surgical philosophy in the management of the patient with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after resection of MTC. PMID:2222011

  16. Persistent hypercalcitoninemia in patients with medullary thyroid cancer: a therapeutic approach based on selective venous sampling for calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Medina-Franco, H; Herrera, M F; López, G; Tielve-Campillo, M; Sierra, M; Lozano-Salazar, R R; González, O

    2001-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can be cured by microdissection of residual metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Selective venous sampling can be used for localization. The aim of this study is to prospectively analyze our results with a therapeutic approach based on venous sampling, in patients with hyperthyrocalcitoninemia after thyroidectomy for MTC. Selective venous sampling for determination of stimulated calcitonin was obtained in all patients after performing a complete laboratory and imaging workup. Patients with a gradient between the suprahepatic vein and the superior vena cava underwent unilateral or bilateral extensive lymph node dissection. We used the gradient between the right and left jugular veins to decide which side of the neck to operate. Calcitonin levels were obtained after surgery and a pentagastrin test was performed one year later if basal levels remained normal. Mean age of the five women with a neck gradient in the selective venous sampling who underwent neck exploration was 45 years. In all patients metastatic lymph nodes were found at the site suggested by the study. Mean positive/resected lymph nodes were 5/20. Postoperative basal and stimulated levels of calcitonin became normal in two patients at one year of follow up. Selective venous sampling is useful to localize recurrent MTC.

  17. RET mutation p.S891A in a Chinese family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and associated cutaneous amyloidosis binding OSMR variant p.G513D.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Zhen-Guang; Cao, Jin-Lin; Du, Juan; Liu, Nai-Fang; Li, Feng; Sheng, Mao; Fu, Er; Guo, Jian; Jia, Hong; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Ma, Ju-Ming

    2015-10-20

    There are no reports on the relationship between familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) associated with cutaneous amyloidosis (CA) and RET or OSMR/IL31RA gene mutations. In this study, we investigated a Chinese family with FMTC/CA and found a recurrent RET c.2671T>G (p.S891A) mutation in six of 17 family members. Three of the six p.S891A mutation carriers presented with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Of them, three (two with and one without MTC) were diagnosed as having combined lichen/macular biphasic CA. We also identified a novel RET variant, c.1573C>T (p.R525W) in five members. Of them, three carriers had no evidence of thyroid/skin or basal serum/stimulated calcitonin abnormalities. In vitro cell proliferation assay indicated that oncogenic activity of RET p.S891A was slightly enhanced by p.R525W, whereas p.R525W alone had no effect on cell proliferation. Meanwhile, we identified a novel OSMR variant, c.1538G>A (p.G513D) in seven members. We noticed that three OSMR p.G513D carriers presenting with CA also had the RET p.S891A mutation. Our investigation indicated that the RET p.S891A mutation combined with OSMR p.G513D may underlie a novel phenotype manifesting as FMTC and CA.

  18. Ectopic ACTH Production Leading to Diagnosis of Underlying Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Leslee N.; Wilson, Jessica R.; Baum, Howard B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has been described as a source of ectopic ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. This is an infrequent association, occurring in less than 1% of MTC cases. Among these, it is even more unusual for an initial diagnosis of hypercortisolism to lead to the discovery of underlying MTC. Here we present a case of a patient with weakness, diarrhea, and hypokalemia who was found first to have Cushing’s syndrome and later diagnosed with metastatic MTC. The patient was treated initially with oral agents to control his hypercortisolism, then with an etomidate infusion after experiencing intestinal perforation. He also received vandetanib therapy targeting his underlying malignancy, as this has been shown to reverse clinical signs of Cushing’s syndrome in patients with MTC and subsequent ectopic ACTH secretion. Bilateral adrenalectomy was ultimately required. Medullary thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients presenting with Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, and a multimodality treatment approach is often required. PMID:27141514

  19. Lessons learned and questions unanswered from use of multitargeted kinase inhibitors in medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Steven I

    2013-07-01

    To review studies of novel multitargeted kinase inhibitors studied in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Search of relevant references in PubMed and Google Scholar on "chemotherapy" and "medullary thyroid cancer". Multitargeted kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the role of chemotherapy for progressive MTC, providing for the first time tolerable therapeutic options that can improve outcomes in patients with progressive disease. Drugs thought to inhibit the RET kinase have advanced the furthest for this disease, but these agents also target the VEGF receptor along with other kinases that may be relevant to both beneficial and adverse effects. Vandetanib improved progression-free survival from 19.3 to 30.5 months compared with placebo in patients with metastatic disease, whereas cabozantinib improved progression-free survival from 4.0 months to 11.2 months in a population with more aggressive disease. However, ''cure'' remains elusive, adverse events frequent, and exactly how such ''targeted'' agents actually function within MTC remains unclear. New approaches to clinical trial design and the preclinical development of targeted agents may be required to optimize the combination of maximum efficacy with minimal toxicity for patients with metastatic MTC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship of melanocytic differentiation with prognostic markers in medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Serap; Nur Yurum, Fatma; Ebru Pala, Emel; Ortac, Ragip; Husnu Bugdayci, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) makes up 5-10% of thyroid malignancies. Small cell, squamous, giant cell or melanocytic differentiation can rarely be seen in MTCs. It is important to determine those with the potential to act aggressively such as cases with melanocytic differentiation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 46 MTC cases diagnosed at four different centers between 2002 and 2013 were included in the study. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with Melan-A and HMB-45 was performed in all cases. Six of the 46 MTC cases were medullary microcarcinomas and three were multicentric medullary carcinomas. There were 34 females and 12 males with a mean age at onset of 51.4 years and mean tumor diameter of 23.2mm. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) was found in 13 of the 38 cases that had data regarding the lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, Melan A staining was seen in four cases. HMB45 staining was seen in four cases. A statistically significant relationship was found between LNM and diameter, Melan A expression (p=0.02, p=0.03 respectively) but there was no significant relationship with HMB45 expression (p=0.07). General survival data were present for 35 of the 46 cases. All cases without lymph node metastasis survived (21/21) while 8 of 11 cases with lymph node metastasis survived among cases with survival data; one case that was diffuse-strong positive for both HMB45 and Melan A was lost due to distant organ metastasis six months after the diagnosis. Should the possibility of melanocytic differentiation be evaluated in cases where melanocytic differentiation is not reflected in the morphology (lack of pigment) in MTCs? We did not come across a study on the subject in the English literature. The effect of melanocytic differentiation on the prognosis in MTCs should be investigated in larger series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Influence of the calcitonin assay on the definition of biochemical cure in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V; Müller, S; Nagarajah, J; Lahner, H; Broecker-Preuss, M; Bockisch, A; Görges, R

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin (hCT) is an important diagnostic parameter in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We determined the variability of the reference ranges of several currently available immunometric assays for "biochemically cured" MTC patients. We compared six assays [Nichols ICMA, Biomerica IEMA, Immulite 2000 (Siemens), Calcitonin-IRMA magnum (Medipan), SELco-IRMA (Medipan) and Calcitonin IRMA (Medgenix)] in subgroups of 198 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after total thyroidectomy as a model for curatively treated MTC patients. In addition, hCT was measured after pentagastrin stimulation in 13 DTC patients and 13 patients with MTC. The basal hCT concentrations were below the detection limit of the respective assay in 100% of all thyroidectomized DTC patients for Nichols ICMA (n = 138) and Immulite 2000 (n = 60), in 97% for Biomerica IEMA (n = 57), and in 85% for IRMA magnum (n = 20). However, basal hCT was mostly within the reference range in Selco-IRMA (n = 20) and Medgenix IRMA (n = 76). In all DTC patients and 9/13 MTC patients the pentagastrin stimulated hCT was below the detection limit for the Nichols ICMA and Immulite 2000, all four MTC patients with elevated stimulated hCT developed a recurrence during follow-up. For assays with high monomer specificity (Nichols ICMA, Biomerica IEMA, Immulite 2000, to a lesser degree IRMA magnum) biochemical cure is defined by basal and stimulated calcitonin levels below the detection limit. For assays with low monomer specificity (SELco-IRMA, IRMA Medgenix) calcitonin levels in the reference range of patients without thyroid diseases are consistent with "biochemical cure".

  2. Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Is Highly Expressed in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Erika L Souza; Goemann, Iuri M; Dora, José Miguel; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2008-01-01

    Summary Type II deiodinase (D2) plays a critical role in controlling intracellular T3 concentration and early studies indicated a follicular but not a parafollicular C-cell origin of D2 activity in the thyroid gland. Here, we show that D2 is highly expressed in human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a tumour that arises from the C-cells. D2 transcripts were detected in all MTC samples obtained from 12 unselected MTC patients and the levels of D2 activity were comparable to those found in surrounding normal follicular tissue (0.41±0.10 vs 0.43±0.41 fmol.min.mg.protein, P=0.91). Additional analysis in the TT cells, a human MTC cell line, demonstrated that the D2 expression is down regulated by thyroid hormones and enhanced by cAMP analogs and dexamethasone. The thyroid hormone receptor α1 and β isoforms were also detected in all MTC samples and in TT cells, thus suggesting a potential role of T3 locally produced by D2 in this neoplastic tissue. PMID:18514391

  3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma - PET/CT imaging with 68Ga-labelled gastrin and somatostatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Kunikowska, Jolanta; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Dariusz; Ruchała, Marek; Kolasa, Anna; Janicka-Jedyńska, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Królicki, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    a 75-year-old man with a 10-year history of nodular goitre was referred for clinical evaluation. The ultrasound scan revealed enlarged thyroid right lobe almost fully filled with a heterogeneous nodule with numerous calcifications. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggested medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Before the surgery the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department and somatostatin receptor imaging (SRS; 68Ga-DOTATATE) with PET/CT was performed. The scan demonstrated an increased uptake within the right thyroid mass. Subsequent PET/CT with 68Ga-gastrin analogue (MG48) revealed the same indications as the SRS: an increased alveolar uptake in the right thyroid mass without the signs of lymph node metastases. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph nodes dissection. Histopathology examination confirmed the presence of MTC with vascular invasion, but without lymph node metastases (pT3NoMx according to the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual). Immunohistochemical staining revealed positive reaction to calcitonin and CD56, whereas the reaction to thyroglobulin remained negative. The Ki-67 was 1%. Staining for SSTR2 and CCK2 showed high cytoplasmic expression in both cases. Knowledge of the presence of CCK2 receptor in MTC patients may be an important indication for the choice of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The presence of both the receptor types, cholecystokinin-2/gastrin and somatostatin, is possibly an interesting combination as far as the therapeutic target is concerned.

  4. Clinicopathologic predictors of thyroid bed recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer using ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Laura J; Sciallis, Andrew P; Reynolds, Jordan; Jenkins, Sarah; Smith, Carin; Stan, Marius N; Nassar, Aziza

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring changes in the thyroid bed (TB) is one of the clinical mainstays for surveillance of recurrent thyroid carcinoma. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic tool that is commonly used to aid in the identification of residual or recurrent disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided FNA of the TB in detecting recurrent thyroid cancer and to correlate the findings with clinicopathologic parameters to identify predictors of TB recurrence. We retrieved cases of soft tissue masses within the TB that were evaluated for recurrence between January 1, 2006, and February 1, 2011. All ultrasound-guided FNA biopsies clinically suspected to indicate a lymph node metastasis and specimens with lymphocytes were excluded from the data. Of the 291 patients identified for evaluation of recurrence, 250 had papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 had follicular carcinoma, 22 had medullary carcinoma, 7 had Hürthle cell carcinoma, and 2 had a previous thyroidectomy for an unknown type of thyroid carcinoma. For all FNAs that were clinically suspicious or intermediate for recurrence, the rate of positivity was 71.8% (209 patients). All cases diagnosed as "positive for PTC" or "suspicious for PTC" on TB FNA were found to have soft tissue metastasis on follow-up surgical resection. This resulted in a negative predictive value of 88.4% and a positive predictive value of 100%. The average time between thyroidectomy and TB FNA was 73.5 months. Of the patients with a previous diagnosis of PTC, those with suspicious/positive cytology were more likely to be women, to be older at thyroidectomy, to have documented metastasis to other sites as well as extrathyroidal extension and multifocal primary disease as compared with nondiagnostic/negative cytology cases. Patient age ≥45 years, primary tumor size at thyroidectomy, and surgical resection margin status had no statistical significance for predicting risk of TB recurrence. TB recurrence of PTC is

  5. [Next generation sequencing technology for susceptible gene screening in familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Dong, L; Yu, Y; Yu, J P; Hao, W J; Zheng, X Q; Cheng, Y N; Han, L; Zhao, J Z; Gao, M

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To screen genes related to familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Methods: A panel of NGS was designed and sequencing was performed for DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of FNMTC patients and sporadic non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (SNMTC) cases, respectively, and gene mutations were screened. In addition, the clinicopathological characteristics, including tumor size, extension of surgery, lymph node metastasis and extra-thyroidal extension, were compared between patients with or without mutations. Results: In 63 NMTC samples, 45 mutations were detected on 13 genes. 37 germline mutations were detected in 47 FNMTC patients, while 8 germline mutations were detected in 16 SNMTC patients. In 8 FNMTC family lineages, the same mutations were carried by FNMTC patients from the same pedigree. The number of carriers of mutations was 29 in the 47 FNMTC patients and 6 in the 16 SNMTC patients, with a non-significant difference (P= 0.092). Among the FNMTC patients, there were 22 patients with central lymph node metastasis in the 29 mutation-positive patients, significantly more than 7 in the 16 mutation-negative cases (P= 0.031). As for the parentage, there were 3 patients with central lymph node involvement among the 7 patients of parent generation, while all the 9 patients of offspring generation had central lymph node metastasis (P=0.019). Conclusions: This panel of NGS can be used to screen mutant susceptibility gene of FNMTC patients, and the findings may be helpful for early detection of FNMTC patients and predicting the disease risk to familial members of FNMTC patients.

  6. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-15

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  7. Comparison of the prognostic values of selected inflammation based scores in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Lei, Jianyong; Li, Canjun; Shu, Kunpeng; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Yuwei; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-09-01

    The significance of inflammation based scores including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and plasma fibrinogen remains unclear in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Seventy-eight patients newly diagnosed as MTC with operation in our institution from May 2009 to September 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Kaplan-Meier analyses were calculated to compare the prognostic value of these scores. Increased PLR was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.644, P = 0.022), capsule invasion (AUC = 0.666, P = 0.007), advanced tumor stages (AUC = 0.657, P = 0.011), and recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Increased fibrinogen was predictive of lymph node metastasis (AUC = 0.669, P = 0.006) and capsule invasion (AUC = 0.631, P = 0.038). Reduced PNI was predictive of recurrence (AUC = 0.655, P = 0.049). Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox regression analysis revealed that PLR was a significant predictor for recurrence. PLR, fibrinogen, and PNI are all predictive. Specially, PLR is superior to other inflammation based scores in terms of prognostic ability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Use of fine-needle aspirate calcitonin to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Guidobaldi, Leo; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Crescenzi, Anna; Alevizaki, Maria; Giovanella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of calcitonin in washout fluids of thyroid nodule aspirate (FNA-calcitonin) has been reported as accurate to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The results from these studies have been promising and the most updated version of ATA guidelines quoted for the first time that "FNA findings that are inconclusive or suggestive of MTC should have calcitonin measured in the FNA washout fluid." Here we aimed to systematically review published data on this topic to provide more robust estimates. A comprehensive computer literature search of the medical databases was conducted by searching for the terms "calcitonin" AND "washout." The search was updated until April 2015. Twelve relevant studies, published between 2007 and 2014, were found. Overall, 413 thyroid nodules or neck lymph nodes underwent FNA-calcitonin, 95 were MTC lesions and 93 (97.9%) of these were correctly detected by this measurement regardless of their cytologic report. The present study shows that the above ATA recommendation is well supported. Almost all MTC lesions are correctly detected by FNA-calcitonin and this technique should be used to avoid false negative or inconclusive results from cytology. The routine determination of serum calcitonin in patients undergoing FNA should improve the selection of patients at risk for MTC, guiding the use of FNA-calcitonin in the same FNA sample and providing useful information to the cytopathologist for the morphological assessment and the application of tailored ancillary tests. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Improved selection of patients for reoperation for medullary thyroid cancer by imaging with radiolabeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibodies.

    PubMed

    Juweid, M; Sharkey, R M; Swayne, L C; Goldenberg, D M

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the utility of using radiolabeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as a noninvasive imaging method to aid in the selection of patients for reoperation after operation for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Sixteen patients with persistent or recurrent hypercalcitoninemia since operation or MTC, but had negative or equivocal conventional imaging study results, were given 99mTc-, 123I-, or 131I-labeled NP-4 or MN-14 anti-CEA MAbs. Scintigraphic images were then performed to determine detection of tumor lesions. The MAb scans were positive in 13 (81%) of the 16 patients studied. However, in only three of 13 patients was disease confined to the cervical or mediastinal nodes. In 10 patients, disease was additionally or solely found in distant organs such as liver (five patients), bone (four patients), and periaortic nodes (one patient). On the basis of our studies, only three of the 13 patients with positive scans would benefit from repeat neck exploration, another three would possibly benefit from neck or mediastinal exploration and hepatic resection, and the remaining seven patients would not benefit from any reoperation with curative intent. MTC imaging with anti-CEA MAbs could be very useful in determining the ideal candidates for repeat neck exploration.

  10. Mutations of codon 918 in the RET proto-oncogene correlate to poor prognosis in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zedenius, J.; Svensson, A.; Baeckdahl, M.; Wallin, G.

    1995-10-01

    The hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 2A and B (MEN 2A and B) were recently linked to germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, altering one of five cysteine residues in exon 10 or 11 (MEN 2A), or substituting a methionine for a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16 (MEN 2B). The latter mutation also occurs somatically in some sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), and has in a previous study been correlated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In the present study, 46 MTCs were selected for investigation of the codon 918 mutation. The mutation was found in 29 tumors (63%), and was significantly correlated with a poor outcome, with regard to distant metastasis or tumor recurrence (p<10{sup 4}). Two tumors showed multifocal growth and C-cell hyperplasia, and these patients were therefore also investigated for germline mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16. The codon 918 mutation was found only in the tumors, thus of somatic origin. The RET codon 918 mutation may have prognostic impact, and therefore preoperative assessment may influence decision-making in the treatment of patients suffering from MTC. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in relation to hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kameya, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Adachi, I.; Abe, K.; Kasai, N.; Kimura, K.; Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were analyzed immunohistochemically for calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells, and tumor cells in 8 cases were examined by an electron microscope and analyzed by manual and computer procedures with particular attention paid to the size and quality of secretory granules. Calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells were found singly or in clusters in 14 and 11 tumors, respectively. In 4 cases, calcitonin-positive cell clusters and an increase in number of singly scattered C cells were seen apart from the main tumor, suggesting a multicentric nature of certain medullary carcinomas. Some ACTH-containing cells were apparently also positive for calcitonin. In a case of familial Sipple disease, follicular lining cells were replaced in areas with ACTH-containing cells. Three to five frequency distribution curves of the size of secretory granules were obtained in all of 6 cases analyzed, and at least two different types of granule matrix were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 PMID:202164

  12. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone and liver images in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.G.; Coleman, R.E.; McCook, T.A.; Dale, J.K.; Wells, S.A.

    1984-04-01

    Thirty-four patients with surgically documented medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) and elevated serum calcitonin levels had Tc-99m phosphate bone and/or Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver images for suspected metastases. Liver images demonstrated metastatic lesions in nine of 32 patients (28%). Bone images were positive for metastases in eight of 30 patients (27%). Four of these eight abnormal bone studies detected only skeletal lesions, two demonstrated only extraosseous metastases, and two showed both kinds. This study demonstrates that radionuclide bone and liver images frequently detect metastatic lesions in patients with MCT and elevated serum calcitonin levels, and that some nonskeletal metastases in patients with this tumor display an unusual affinity for bone-seeking radiotracers.

  14. Vandetanib Successfully Controls Medullary Thyroid Cancer-Related Cushing Syndrome in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Nella, A. A.; Fox, E.; Balis, F. M.; Quezado, M. M.; Whitcomb, P. O.; Derdak, J.; Kebebew, E.; Widemann, B. C.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing syndrome due to ACTH secretion from metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the first case of Cushing syndrome associated with MTC in a pediatric patient and the successful reversal of Cushing syndrome with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (vandetanib) therapy. Patient and Methods: A 17-year-old Brazilian adolescent presented with metastatic MTC and associated ACTH-dependent ectopic Cushing syndrome in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. When the patient was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, rapid decrease in serum cortisol and improvement of clinical symptoms were observed. Conclusion: We describe the first pediatric case of clinical and biochemical improvement of paraneoplastic MTC-related Cushing syndrome after treatment with vandetanib. Vandetanib and possibly other tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be a novel beneficial option in patients with neuroendocrine tumor-related ectopic Cushing syndrome. PMID:24617713

  15. Vandetanib successfully controls medullary thyroid cancer-related Cushing syndrome in an adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Nella, A A; Lodish, M B; Fox, E; Balis, F M; Quezado, M M; Whitcomb, P O; Derdak, J; Kebebew, E; Widemann, B C; Stratakis, C A

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic Cushing syndrome due to ACTH secretion from metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to describe the first case of Cushing syndrome associated with MTC in a pediatric patient and the successful reversal of Cushing syndrome with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (vandetanib) therapy. A 17-year-old Brazilian adolescent presented with metastatic MTC and associated ACTH-dependent ectopic Cushing syndrome in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. When the patient was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, rapid decrease in serum cortisol and improvement of clinical symptoms were observed. We describe the first pediatric case of clinical and biochemical improvement of paraneoplastic MTC-related Cushing syndrome after treatment with vandetanib. Vandetanib and possibly other tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be a novel beneficial option in patients with neuroendocrine tumor-related ectopic Cushing syndrome.

  16. New radionuclide tracers for the diagnosis and therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Zanin, D.; van der Schoot, J.B.

    1988-03-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a calcitonin-producing tumor that occurs in familial and sporadic forms, can be monitored satisfactorily with measurements of calcitonin and CEA in serum. However, locating the tumor site may be difficult. In the current review of the experience with four new radionuclide tracers for MTC, the relative value of each of these procedures is outlined. Total body imaging using TI-201 chloride and Tc-99m(V) DMSA are both sensitive techniques that can be used for the detection and follow-up of MTC. Imaging using I-131 MIBG and I-131 anti-CEA antibodies/fragments should be performed once the diagnosis and the tumor site have been established, to evaluate if patients might be amenable for therapy with one of these radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Czepczyński, Rafał; Parisella, Maria Gemma; Kosowicz, Jerzy; Mikołajczak, Renata; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Gryczyńska, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy; Signore, Alberto

    2007-10-01

    Several new somatostatin analogues have been developed for the diagnosis and therapy of different tumours. Since somatostatin receptors are often over-expressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of scintigraphy with the somatostatin analogue (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in MTC in comparison with other diagnostic techniques. Forty-five patients with MTC, aged 14-83 years, were investigated. Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) was performed 2 and 4 h post injection of 740 MBq (20 mCi) of the tracer. Other imaging techniques were also applied and analysed in individual cases (ultrasonography, computed tomography, (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA, (131)I-MIBG, (99m)Tc-MDP, (111)In-DTPA-octreotide and (18)F-FDG-PET) and compared with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. In group 1 (eight patients before thyroidectomy), uptake of the tracer was found in the primary tumours. In group 2 (six patients with remission), a false positive result was found in one patient; in the remaining five patients, no pathological foci were visualised. In group 3 (31 patients with post-surgical hypercalcitoninaemia), scintigraphy was true positive in 23 patients (74.2%): uptake in the thyroid bed was found in five patients, in the lymph nodes in 18 and in bone metastases in four. Using (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, the overall sensitivity was 79.5%, specificity 83.3%, accuracy 80.0%, positive predictive value 96.9% and negative predictive value 38.5%. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC is clinically useful for scintigraphy in the follow-up of patients with MTC. It can be used in clinical practice for preoperative evaluation, for localisation of local recurrence or distant metastases and particularly for therapy decision making.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology stained with Rius method in quicker diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Huang; Hsiao, Yung-Lien; Chang, Tien-Chun

    2007-09-01

    The cytologic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have been described and documented in the literature. Most of the studies were related to the Papanicolaou stain or the May-Grnwald-Giemsa stain. The aim of the present study was to analyze detailed cytologic characteristics of MTC diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) stained with a quick method, Rius stain. We collected the FNAC slides of 38 cases with MTC that were proven by surgical pathology. The cytologic findings were reviewed under a light microscope. The median age at diagnosis was 46.5 years, ranging from 13 to 83 years; 20 were women and 18 were men. Among them, seven cases were familial forms and the others were sporadic. The majority of these cases showed moderate to abundant cellularity. Small round cells, spindle-shaped cells and large oval to polygonal cells formed the usual components. Twenty-seven cases were categorized as pleomorphic cell type and 11 cases as monomorphic type. Except in one case, cohesive and clustered small round cells predominated in all cases, alone or coupled with cohesive spindle cells and/or scattered large oval to polygonal cells. The diagnosis of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma was made in the case composed solely of grouped polygonal cells. Cytoplasmic granularities were noted in 14 cases and vacuolations were seen in eight. Binucleated and multinucleated cells were not uncommon, while intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were less frequent. The diagnostic sensitivity for MTC by FNAC was 89%. The distinctive cytopathologic characteristics of MTC by Rius stain allowed us to make the diagnosis in aspiration biopsies accurately and quickly.

  19. Detection rate of FNA cytology in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Treglia, Giorgio; Guidobaldi, Leo; Romanelli, Francesco; Nigri, Giuseppe; Valabrega, Stefano; Sadeghi, Ramin; Crescenzi, Anna; Faquin, William C; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Giovanella, Luca

    2015-02-01

    The early detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can improve patient prognosis, because histological stage and patient age at diagnosis are highly relevant prognostic factors. As a consequence, delay in the diagnosis and/or incomplete surgical treatment should correlate with a poorer prognosis for patients. Few papers have evaluated the specific capability of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) to detect MTC, and small series have been reported. This study conducts a meta-analysis of published data on the diagnostic performance of FNAC in MTC to provide more robust estimates. A comprehensive computer literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases was conducted by searching for the terms 'medullary thyroid' AND 'cytology', 'FNA', 'FNAB', 'FNAC', 'fine needle' or 'fine-needle'. The search was updated until 21 March 2014, and no language restrictions were used. Fifteen relevant studies and 641 MTC lesions that had undergone FNAC were included. The detection rate (DR) of FNAC in patients with MTC (diagnosed as 'MTC' or 'suspicious for MTC') on a per lesion-based analysis ranged from 12·5% to 88·2%, with a pooled estimate of 56·4% (95% CI: 52·6-60·1%). The included studies were statistically heterogeneous in their estimates of DR (I-square >50%). Egger's regression intercept for DR pooling was 0·03 (95% CI: -3·1 to 3·2, P = 0·9). The study that reported the largest MTC series had a DR of 45%. Data on immunohistochemistry for calcitonin in diagnosing MTC were inconsistent for the meta-analysis. The presented meta-analysis demonstrates that FNAC is able to detect approximately one-half of MTC lesions. These findings suggest that other techniques may be needed in combination with FNAC to diagnose MTC and avoid false negative results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Digitalis-like Compounds Facilitate Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer Redifferentiation through Intracellular Ca2+, FOS, and Autophagy-Dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tesselaar, Marika H; Crezee, Thomas; Swarts, Herman G; Gerrits, Danny; Boerman, Otto C; Koenderink, Jan B; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Netea, Mihai G; Smit, Johannes W A; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Plantinga, Theo S

    2017-01-01

    Up to 20%-30% of patients with metastatic non-medullary thyroid cancer have persistent or recurrent disease resulting from tumor dedifferentiation. Tumor redifferentiation to restore sensitivity to radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is considered a promising strategy to overcome RAI resistance. Autophagy has emerged as an important mechanism in cancer dedifferentiation. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators for redifferentiation of thyroid cancer cell lines. Five autophagy-activating compounds, all known as digitalis-like compounds, restored hNIS expression and iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cell lines. Upregulation of hNIS was mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) and FOS activation. Cell proliferation was inhibited by downregulating AKT1 and by induction of autophagy and p21-dependent cell-cycle arrest. Digitalis-like compounds, also designated as cardiac glycosides for their well-characterized beneficial effects in the treatment of heart disease, could therefore represent a promising repositioned treatment modality for patients with RAI-refractory thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 169-81. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Ultrastructure in C cell hyperplasia in asymptomatic patients with hypercalcitoninemia and a family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asaadi, A A

    1981-07-01

    C cell hyperplasia and occult medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in asymptomatic individuals at genetic risk can be detected by measurement of serum calcitonin concentrations before and after stimulation with a secretagogue. Electron microscopy was used to confirm the presence of C cell hyperplasia afte demonstration of elevated serum calcitonin values in three asymptomatic young women from two affected kindreds. Nodules of hyperplastic cells were observed in each of the three thyroids and were composed of two types of cells, one rich in secretory granules and the other in mitochondria. In one thyroid relatively large nodules also contained extracellular deposits of amyloid. Although the presence of the two types of cells and amyloid deposits is characteristic of medullary carcinoma, there was no evidence that the C cell nodules were malignant. However, such nodules may represent a certain stage in the development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We believe, therefore, that electron microscopy can demonstrate incipient C cell neoplasia in needle biopsy specimens. Confirmation of C cell neoplasia is desirable for positive diagnosis and hence for genetic counseling in patients with a family history of the disease.

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Na, Dong Gyu; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sung, Jin Yong; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Joon Hyung; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jeong Seon; Kim, Kyu Sun; Baek, Seon Mi; Lee, Younghen; Chong, Semin; Sim, Jung Suk; Huh, Jung Yin; Bae, Jae-Ik; Kim, Kyung Tae; Han, Song Yee; Bae, Min Young; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2012-01-01

    Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus. PMID:22438678

  3. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p < 0.05). We did not observe any differences in ghrelin expression neither between MTC and PTC nor between NG and PTC. Obestatin immunoexpression pattern in all analyzed specimens was irregular and poorly accented. The strongest immunoreactivity for obestatin was demonstrated in NG. In MTC obestatin expression was significantly weaker than in NG and PTC (p < 0.05 in both cases). In NG the intensity of obestatin immunostaining was significantly higher than that of ghrelin (p = 0.03). Conversely, ghrelin expression in MTC was definitely more evident than obestatin immunoreactivity (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between ghrelin and obestatin expression in PTC. No correlations were detected between reciprocal tissue expressions of ghrelin and obestatin in the analyzed specimens of NG, PTC or MTC. The differences between ghrelin expression in NG and MTC suggest that ghrelin may be involved in thyroid cell proliferation

  4. Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma: recommendations by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Siqueira, Debora R; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Tincani, Alfio J; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Maciel, Lea M Z

    2014-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates in the thyroid parafollicular cells and represents 3-4% of the malignant neoplasms that affect this gland. Approximately 25% of these cases are hereditary due to activating mutations in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. The course of MTC is indolent, and survival rates depend on the tumor stage at diagnosis. The present article describes clinical evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of MTC. The aim of the consensus described herein, which was elaborated by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, was to discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of individuals with MTC in accordance with the latest evidence reported in the literature. After clinical questions were elaborated, the available literature was initially surveyed for evidence in the MedLine-PubMed database, followed by the Embase and Scientific Electronic Library Online/Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (SciELO/Lilacs) databases. The strength of evidence was assessed according to the Oxford classification of evidence levels, which is based on study design, and the best evidence available for each question was selected. Eleven questions corresponded to MTC diagnosis, 8 corresponded to its surgical treatment, and 13 corresponded to follow-up, for a total of 32 recommendations. The present article discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, and postoperative management of MTC, as well as the therapeutic options for metastatic disease. MTC should be suspected in individuals who present with thyroid nodules and family histories of MTC, associations with pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, and/or typical phenotypic characteristics such as ganglioneuromatosis and Marfanoid habitus. Fine-needle nodule aspiration, serum calcitonin measurements, and anatomical

  5. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rinner, Beate; Li, Zeng Xia; Haas, Helga; Siegl, Veronika; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann; Pfragner, Roswitha

    2009-11-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.

  6. Expression of sex steroid hormone receptors in C cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bléchet, Claire; Lecomte, Pierre; De Calan, Loïc; Beutter, Patrice; Guyétant, Serge

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that C cells are twice as numerous in male than in female thyroids and that C cell hyperplasia (CCH) is much more frequent in men. These findings suggest regulation involving sex steroid hormones through the expression of sex steroid hormone receptors on C cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed an immunohistochemical study of estrogen receptors alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta), progesterone receptors (PR), and androgen receptors (AR) on specimens from a series of 40 patients operated on for a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; n=28; female 18, male 10) and/or CCH (n=19; female 6, male 13). ER beta was the only receptor to be consistently expressed in CCH (100%) and MTC (96.5%), whereas ER alpha was never expressed. PR and AR were rarely expressed in MTC (7 and 14%, respectively). AR was expressed in half the CCH cases (53%), with a trend to male predominance (61% in men vs 33% in women). Our study is the first to describe ER beta expression in CCH. In addition, our findings suggest that CCH, and possibly MTC, might be influenced by sex steroid hormones, namely, estrogens and androgens, through the expression of ER beta and AR on C cells.

  7. Targeted DNA Sequencing Detects Mutations Related to Susceptibility among Familial Non-medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Dong, Li; Li, Dapeng; Chuai, Shaokun; Wu, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiangqian; Cheng, Yanan; Han, Lei; Yu, Jinpu; Gao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared to sporadic NMTC (SNMTC). However, FNMTC is difficult to differentiate from SNMTC by the morphology and immunohistochemistry. Although genes responsible for FNMTC were unclear, screening for rare germline mutations on known important tumor suppressor genes might offer more insights on predicting susceptibility to FNMTC. Here, a customized panel was designed to capture all exons of 31 cancer susceptive genes possibly related to FNMTC. Using next-generation sequencing we performed deep sequencing to achieve 500× coverage of the targeted regions. At the end 45 variants were identified in 29 of 47 familial patients and 6 of 16 sporadic patients. Notably, several germline mutations were found matching between paired FNMTC patients from the same family, including APC L292F and A2778S, BRAF D22N, MSH6 G355S and A36V, MSH2 L719F, MEN1 G508D, BRCA1 SS955S, BRCA2 G2508S, and a GNAS inframe insertion. We demonstrated a novel approach to help diagnose and elucidate the genetic cause of the FNMTC patients, and assess whether their family members are exposed to a higher genetic risk. The findings would also provide insights on monitoring the potential second cancers for thyroid cancer patients. PMID:26530882

  8. Molecular Basis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: The Role of RET Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin, Lucieli; Siqueira, Débora R.; Romitti, Mírian; Ferreira, Carla V.; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2012-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor originating in parafollicular C cells. It accounts for 5 to 8% of all thyroid cancers. MTC develops in either sporadic (75%) or hereditary form (25%). Genetic and molecular studies have demonstrated the involvement of the RET proto-oncogene in hereditary MTC and, less often, in its sporadic form. Although a strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been described, wide clinical heterogeneity is observed among families with the same RET mutation or even in carriers of the same kindred. In recent years, several single nucleotide polymorphisms of the RET gene have been described in the general population as well as in patients with MTC. Some studies have reported associations between the presence of polymorphisms and development or progression of MTC. Nonetheless, other studies failed to demonstrate any effect of the RET variants. Differences in the genetic background of distinct populations or methodological approaches have been suggested as potential reasons for the conflicting results. Here, we review current knowledge concerning the molecular pathogenesis of sporadic and hereditary MTC. In particular, we analyze the role of RET polymorphisms in the clinical presentation and prognosis of MTC based on the current literature. PMID:22312249

  9. Sprouty1 is a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macià, A; Gallel, P; Vaquero, M; Gou-Fabregas, M; Santacana, M; Maliszewska, A; Robledo, M; Gardiner, J R; Basson, M A; Matias-Guiu, X; Encinas, M

    2012-08-30

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignancy derived from the calcitonin-producing C-cells of the thyroid gland. Oncogenic mutations of the Ret proto-oncogene are found in all heritable forms of MTC and roughly one half of the sporadic cases. However, several lines of evidence argue for the existence of additional genetic lesions necessary for the development of MTC. Sprouty (Spry) family of genes is composed of four members in mammals (Spry1-4). Some Spry family members have been proposed as candidate tumor-suppressor genes in a variety of cancerous pathologies. In this work, we show that targeted deletion of Spry1 causes C-cell hyperplasia, a precancerous lesion preceding MTC, in young adult mice. Expression of Spry1 restrains proliferation of the MTC-derived cell line, TT. Finally, we found that the Spry1 promoter is frequently methylated in MTC and that Spry1 expression is consequently decreased. These findings identify Spry1 as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in MTC.

  10. Recombinant leukemia inhibitory factor suppresses human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Singh, Nishant K; Jensen, Davin R; Peterson, Francis C; Park, Jong-In

    2013-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neoplasm of the endocrine system, which originates from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. For MTC therapy, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, multi-kinase inhibitors targeting RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or hepatocyte growth factor. Nevertheless, not all patients with the progressive MTC respond to these drugs, requiring the development of additional therapeutic modalities that have distinct activity. Previously, we reported that expression of activated Ras or Raf in the human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, can induce growth arrest and RET downregulation via a leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-mediated autocrine/paracrine loop. In this study, we aimed to evaluate bacterially-produced recombinant human LIF for its efficacy to suppress human MTC xenografts in mice. Here, we report that, consistent with its effects in vitro, locally or systemically administered recombinant LIF effectively suppressed growth of TT and MZ-CRC-1 xenografts in mice. Further, as predicted from its effects in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cell cultures in vitro, recombinant LIF activated the JAK/STAT pathway and downregulated RET and E2F1 expression in tumors in mice. These results suggest that LIF is a potent cytostatic agent for MTC cells, which regulates unique mechanisms that are not targeted by currently available therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrence pattern after conservative surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenya; Takenouchi, Shigeo; Mitani, Hiroki; Yoshida, Tuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based treatment represents the optimal management strategy for papillary thyroid carcinoma; however, the optimal extent of thyroidectomy and neck dissection remains controversial. This study aims to clarify the pattern of recurrence after conservative surgery in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 93 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated with conservative surgery. We analyzed recurrence rate, recurrence pattern, risk factors for recurrence, salvage treatment, and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients stratified according to risk. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the low-risk group compared with the high-risk group (14% vs 34%; p<0.01). The recurrence pattern also differed between the two groups, with ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence being more common in the low-risk group (9%), while contralateral lateral neck recurrence was more common in the high-risk group (18%). Patients with contralateral thyroid lobe metastasis and/or direct contralateral thyroid lobe invasion showed a significantly higher rate of contralateral lateral neck metastasis than patients negative for both these features. The overall 5-year DFS was 81% in all patients. Advanced T and N classification, large primary tumor (≥4cm), extrathyroidal invasion, and high-risk group were significantly associated with poorer 5-year DFS in univariate analysis. Conservative surgery may represent a good treatment option for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. Tumor recurrence patterns differ between risk groups, with contralateral thyroid lobe lesions and direct contralateral lobe invasion being risk factors for contralateral lateral neck recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and its oncogenic mechanism in medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan; Sheikholeslami, Sara; Afsari, Farinaz

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for nearly 1% of all of human cancer. Thyroid cancer has four main histological types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular thyroid cells, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the neural crest parafollicular cells or C-cells of the thyroid gland. MTC represents a neuroendocrine tumor and differs considerably from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. MTC is one of the aggressive types of thyroid cancer, which represents 3-10% of all thyroid cancers. It occurs in hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) forms. The hereditary form of MTC has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. According to the present classification, hereditary MTC is classified as a multiple endocrine neoplasi type 2 A & B (MEN2A & MEN2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). The RET proto-oncogene is located on chromosome 10q11.21. It is composed of 21 exons and encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. RET regulates a complex network of signal transduction pathways during development, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of the enteric nervous system progenitor cells. Gain of function mutations in RET have been well demonstrated in MTC development. Variants of MTC result from different RET mutations, and they have a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Various MTC related mutations have been reported in different exons of the RET gene. We proposed that RET genetic mutations may be different in distinct populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find a geographical pattern of RET mutations in different populations.

  13. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in Norway. Serum calcitonin in 300 relatives of 43 patients.

    PubMed

    Normann, T; Gautvik, K M

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of serum calcitonin (iCT) were performed in 300 relatives of 43 Norwegian patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MCT). Prior to the screening, familial occurrence of the disease was known in only one of the families. Persistant hypercalcitoninemia (serum levels greater than 0.50 ng/ml) was demonstrated in 2 healthy persons from this family and in 3 first degree relatives of 2 patients with apparently sporadic disease. Additional 7 relatives of 5 other "sporadic" cases showed elevation of serum iCT on one occasion, while later controls revealed normal values. Twenty persons had high normal serum levels (0.35 ng/ml less than or equal to iCT less than 0.50 ng/ml). The significance of transitory hypercalcitoninemia and high normal values are at the present unknown, but these persons will have further tests. Stimulation tests for iCT secretion were found to be of limited value in distinguishing between normal and pathological serum iCT. All individuals found to have chronic hypercalcitoninemia belonged to families in which the probands showed one or several of the following "high risk" factors: A positive history of thyroid disease, early age of onset, bilateral presence of the thyroid tumour, association with other endocrine or peripheral neurogenic tumours, and marphanoid habitus. The iCT screening was however negative in the relatives of the two probands revealing 4 and 5 of these factors. Since neither the family history nor the presence or absence of "high risk" factors distinguished between sporadic and familial cases, it is concluded that serum iCT measurements should be carried out in primary relatives of all patients with MCT.

  14. Surgical and clinical strategies in the management of thyroid medullary carcinoma in children with and without ret proto-oncogene mutations.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi-Türer, Özlem; Vurallı, Doğuş; Karnak, İbrahim; Gönç, Nazlı; Yalçın, Emel Şule; Orhan, Diclehan; Kandemir, Nurgün; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may arise sporadically or in familial manner. We presented sporadic and familial cases with MTC in order to raise awareness on management of such patients. Three medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cases were presented. Case 1 had RET634 mutation; managed with total thyroidectomy (TT) and cervical lymph node dissection (CLND). Case 2 had RET804 mutation; managed with prophylactic TT. Case 3 had thyroid nodule; managed with TT and CLND. Case 1 had micro-carcinomatosis foci, Case 2 had normal thyroid tissue in histopathological examination and Case 3 had medullary thyroid carcinoma with tumor negative surgical borders. Case 1 was re-operated for persisting focus of disease. Follow-up of cases were uneventful. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of critical timing for surgery and various surgical and clinical strategies in the management of MTC in children.

  15. Axitinib treatment in advanced RAI-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and refractory medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Jaume; Trigo, José Manuel; Aller, Javier; Manzano, José Luís; Adrián, Silvia García; Llopis, Carles Zafón; Reig, Òscar; Bohn, Uriel; Cajal, Teresa Ramón Y; Duran-Poveda, Manuel; Astorga, Beatriz González; López-Alfonso, Ana; Martínez, Javier Medina; Porras, Ignacio; Reina, Juan Jose; Palacios, Nuria; Grande, Enrique; Cillán, Elena; Matos, Ignacio; Grau, Juan Jose

    2017-10-01

    Axitinib, an antiangiogenic multikinase inhibitor (MKI), was evaluated in the compassionate use programme (CUP) in Spain (October 2012-November 2014). 47 patients with advanced radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, n = 34) or medullary thyroid cancer (MTC, n = 13) with documented disease progression were treated with axitinib 5 mg b.i.d. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1. Progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AEs) were secondary objectives. Regulatory authorities validated the CUP, and all patients signed informed consent form. Axitinib was administered as first-line therapy in 17 patients (36.2%), as second-line in 18 patients (38.3%) and as third/fourth-line in 12 patients (25.5%). With a median follow-up of 11.5 months (0-24.3), ORR was 27.7% (DTC: 29.4% and MTC: 23.1%) and median PFS was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.1-12.2) (DTC: 7.4 months (95% CI: 3.1-11.8) and MTC: 9.4 months (95% CI: 4.8-13.9)). Better outcomes were reported with first-line axitinib, with an ORR of 53% and a median PFS of 13.6 months compared with 16.7% and 10.6 months as second-line treatment. Twelve (25.5%) patients required dose reduction to 3 mg b.i.d. All-grade AEs included asthenia (53.2%), diarrhoea (36.2%), hypertension (31.9%) and mucositis (29.8%); grade 3/4 AEs included anorexia (6.4%), diarrhoea (4.3%) and cardiac toxicity (4.3%). Axitinib had a tolerable safety profile and clinically meaningful activity in refractory and progressive thyroid cancer regardless of histology as first-line therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that cross-resistance between MKIs is suggested in thyroid cancer, highlighting the importance of prospective sequential clinical studies. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Preoperative localization of neck recurrences from thyroid cancer: charcoal tattooing under ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Chami, Linda; Hartl, Dana; Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin; Travagli, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    Reoperation for thyroid cancer recurrence is a surgical challenge in previously dissected necks, and there is a need for a reliable procedure for surgeon guidance. In this study, the usefulness of preoperative charcoal tattooing for surgical guidance was evaluated. From July 2007 to May 2010, 53 patients (40 females; Mage=44 years, range 19-76 years) were prospectively included for preoperative localization of neck recurrences from differentiated (n=46) or medullary thyroid cancer (n=7). Preoperative cytological assessment was performed for at least one lesion in each patient. Ultrasound (US) imaging was performed with high-frequency probes (8-14 Mhz). Micronized peat charcoal (0.5-3 mL) was injected under US guidance using a 25 gauge needle, 0-15 days preoperatively. A total of 106 lesions were selected for charcoal tattooing. Of these, 101 had been tattooed, and 102 were removed (85 metastases, 17 benign on pathology). The tolerance of charcoal injection was good in all but three patients. A mean volume of 1 mL of charcoal was injected with a mean of two targets per patient. Charcoal labeling facilitated intraoperative detection in 56 "difficult" lesions (i.e., small size, dense fibrosis, anatomical pitfalls), and charcoal trace facilitated intraoperative guidance in 17 lesions. Feasibility and usefulness rates were 83% and 70.7% respectively. These findings suggest that charcoal tattooing under US guidance is an easy to implement, safe, and useful procedure for surgeon guidance in neck reoperation for thyroid cancer.

  17. The Role of Core Needle Biopsy and Its Impact on Surgical Management in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Clinical Experience at 3 Medical Institutions.

    PubMed

    Ha, E J; Baek, J H; Na, D G; Kim, J-h; Kim, J K; Min, H S; Song, D E; Lee, K E; Shong, Y K

    2015-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is challenging to diagnose. Our aim was to present our experience using core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma compared with fine-needle aspiration. Between January 2000 and March 2012, 202 thyroid nodules in 191 patients were diagnosed as medullary thyroid cancer by using sonography-guided fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy, or surgery. One hundred eighty-three thyroid nodules in 172 patients were included on the basis of the final diagnosis. We evaluated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer. We compared the rate of a delayed diagnosis, a diagnostic surgery, and surgery with an incorrect diagnosis for fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy and investigated the factors related to the fine-needle aspiration misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer. Fine-needle aspiration showed 43.8% sensitivity and 85.1% positive predictive value for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer; 25.7% (44/171) of patients had a delayed diagnosis, while 18.7% (32/171) underwent an operation for accurate diagnosis, and 20.5% (35/171) underwent an operation with an incorrect diagnosis. Core needle biopsy achieved 100% sensitivity and positive predictive value without a delay in diagnosis (0/22), the need for a diagnostic operation (0/22), or an operation for an incorrect diagnosis (0/22). A calcitonin level of <100 pg/mL was the only significant factor for predicting the fine-needle aspiration misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer (P = .034). Core needle biopsy showed a superior sensitivity and positive predictive value to fine-needle aspiration and could optimize the surgical management in patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Because the ability of fine-needle aspiration to diagnose medullary thyroid cancer significantly decreases in patients with serum calcitonin levels of

  18. The Oncogenic Activity of RET Point Mutants for Follicular Thyroid Cells May Account for the Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients Affected by Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; De Falco, Valentina; Bellantoni, Marie; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo; Carlomagno, Francesca; Picascia, Antonella; Tramontano, Donatella; Tallini, Giovanni; Santoro, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Activating germ-line point mutations in the RET receptor are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), whereas somatic RET rearrangements are prevalent in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Some rare kindreds, carrying point mutations in RET, are affected by both cancer types, suggesting that, under specific circumstances, point mutations in RET can drive the generation of PTC. Here we describe a family whose siblings, affected by both PTC and MTC, carried a germ-line point mutation in the RET extracellular domain, converting cysteine 634 into serine. We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. Furthermore, RET point mutants maintained a protein domain, the intracellular juxtamembrane domain, that exerted negative effects on the mitogenic activity. In conclusion, RET point mutants can behave as dominant oncogenes for thyroid follicular cells. Their transforming activity, however, is rather modest, providing a possible explanation for the rare association of MTC with PTC. PMID:15277225

  19. Usefulness of preoperative serum calcitonin in patients with nodular thyroid disease without suspicious history or cytology for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Penna, Gustavo Cancela; Brandão, Kamilla; Souza, Bárbara Érika

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of preoperative serum calcitonin (sCT) in patients with nodular disease without suspicion of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in history or cytology. sCT was measured before thyroidectomy in 494 patients with nodular disease who had no family history of MTC or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and no cytological suspicion of MTC. Basal sCT was < 10 ng/mL in 482 patients and none of them had MTC. One patient with basal sCT > 100 pg/mL had MTC. Among the 11 patients with basal sCT between 10 and 100 pg/mL, MTC was diagnosed in only one. The two patients with MTC were submitted to total thyroidectomy, combined with elective lymph node dissection indicated exclusively based on hypercalcitoninemia, and sCT was undetectable after six months. Preoperative sCT is useful for the detection of sporadic MTC in patients with nodular disease, even in the absence of suspicious history or cytology.

  20. Progression of medullary thyroid cancer in RET carriers of ATA class A and C mutations.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Lorenz, Kerstin; Dralle, Henning

    2014-02-01

    There is no histopathological or radiological information on the natural course of tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). This investigation aimed at determining annual rates of tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in hereditary MTC at the surgical pathology level. This was a retrospective analysis. The setting was a tertiary referral center. Included were 172 carriers of American Thyroid Association (ATA) class C (95 patients) and class A rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations (77 patients) with MTC. The intervention was compartment-oriented surgery. Comparisons of means between index and nonindex patients yielded incremental primary tumor diameter and incremental number of lymph node metastases, which were divided by incremental patient age at tissue diagnosis. Annual primary tumor growth was 0.4-0.5 mm in node-negative carriers of ATA class A and C mutations. In node-positive carriers, annual primary tumor growth was 2.6 mm (ATA class C mutations) and 1.2 mm (ATA class A mutations), more than 6-fold (2.6 vs 0.4 mm) and more than 2-fold greater (1.2 vs 0.5 mm) than in their node-negative peers. Node-positive carriers revealed an annual rate of lymph node metastasis of 0.6-0.7 nodes independent of ATA class. Small MTCs may take longer than 10 years to become big enough to visualize on imaging. These slow growth rates highlight the importance of following up on patients for very long time periods to uncover at least some tumoral sources of persistent calcitonin production.

  1. Ursolic acid from Trailliaedoxa gracilis induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    AGUIRIANO-MOSER, VICTOR; SVEJDA, BERNHARD; LI, ZENG-XIA; STURM, SONJA; STUPPNER, HERMANN; INGOLIC, ELISABETH; HÖGER, HARALD; SIEGL, VERONIKA; MEIER-ALLARD, NATHALIE; SADJAK, ANTON; PFRAGNER, ROSWITHA

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the C-cells of the thyroid and is not sensitive to radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, surgical removal of the tumor tissue in its entirety is the only curative treatment for MTC. The present study aimed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of extracts of Trailliaedoxa gracilis (TG; WW Smith & Forrest), a plant from the province of Sichuan, China, and of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpen present in TG, on the MTC-SK MTC cell line. A total of 13 TG fractions and UA were examined in vitro for their effects on cell morphology, cell number, proliferation and rates of apoptosis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nuclear factor-κB essential modifier (NEMO) was performed to delineate the role of the apoptotic pathway following treatment with UA. TG and UA were examined in vivo in xenotransplanted MTC-bearing severe combined immunodeficient mice. The TG fractions exhibited antiproliferative effects, with inhibition of mitochondrial activity in the tumor cells at concentrations, which caused no impairment of the normal control cells. The apoptotic rates of the MTC-SK cells treated with the TG fractions and UA were determined, in which no marked tumor inhibition was observed in the treated MTC-mice, and no change in the expression of NEMO was detected in the treated MTC-SK cells. The observation of early-onset activation of caspase 8 suggested that the responsible factor was linked to NEMO, an anti-apoptotic protein. However, no differences in the mRNA transcription levels of NEMO were detected in MTC-SK cells treated with UA, suggesting that this protein was not associated with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway. PMID:26151624

  2. The molecular biology of medullary thyroid carcinoma: A model for cancer development and progression

    SciTech Connect

    Nelkin, B.D.; de Bustros, A.C.; Mabry, M.; Baylin, S.B. )

    1989-06-02

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an important human cancer for the study of molecular abnormalities that underlie initiation of neoplasia and subsequent cellular changes during tumor progression. Thus tumor can occur in different inherited forms, each mediated by autosomal dominant genetic events. Germline abnormalities on chromosome 10 are linked to at least one type of genetic MTC, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. These studies of chromosome 10 in DNA from MTC tumors failed to detect frequent loss of polymorphic DNA markers, suggesting that the genetic mechanisms involved in MTC development may be different from those for other inherited cancers such as retinoblastoma. During tumor progression of MTC, abnormalities develop in expression of the mature phenotype of the endocrine cell from which the tumor arises. In cell culture, chemical modulation or gene insertion can lead to partial correction of these defects in differentiation capacity by activating cellular signaling processes. These studies offer opportunities to dissect the molecular events that regulate endocrine cell differentiation, to determine the precise abnormalities that may underlie the initiation and tumor progression events in MTC and related cancers, and, thereby, to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Three-dimensional cytomorphology in fine needle aspiration biopsy of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, T C; Lai, S M; Wen, C Y; Hsiao, Y L; Huang, S H

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate three-dimensional (3-D) cytomorphology in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ENAB was performed on tumors from five patients with MTC. The aspirate was stained and observed under a light microscope (LM). The aspirate was also fixed, dehydrated, critical point dried, spattered with gold ions and observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the specimen was fixed, dehydrated, embedded in an Epon mixture, cut with an ultramicrotome, mounted on copper grids, electron doubly stained with uranium acetate and lead citrate, and observed with TEM. Findings under SEM were correlated with those under LM and TEM. Under SEM, 3-D cytomorphology of MTC displayed a disorganized cellular arrangement with indistinct cell borders in three cases. The cell surface was uneven and had granular protrusions that corresponded to secretory granules observed under TEM. In one case with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB, there were abundant granules on the cell surface. In one case of sporadic MTC with multinucleated tumor giant cells and small cells, granular protrusions also were noted on the cell surface. Granular protrusion was a characteristic finding in FNAB of MTC tinder SEM and might be helpful in the differential diagnosis.

  4. Correlation of RET somatic mutations with clinicopathological features in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Moura, M M; Cavaco, B M; Pinto, A E; Domingues, R; Santos, J R; Cid, M O; Bugalho, M J; Leite, V

    2009-01-01

    Screening of REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene mutations has been carried out in different series of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). RET-positive tumours seem to be associated to a worse clinical outcome. However, the correlation between the type of RET mutation and the patients' clinicopathological data has not been evaluated yet. We analysed RET exons 5, 8, 10–16 in fifty-one sporadic MTC, and found somatic mutations in thirty-three (64.7%) tumours. Among the RET-positive cases, exon 16 was the most frequently affected (60.6%). Two novel somatic mutations (Cys630Gly, c.1881del18) were identified. MTC patients were divided into three groups: group 1, with mutations in RET exons 15 and 16; group 2, with other RET mutations; group 3, having no RET mutations. Group 1 had higher prevalence (P=0.0051) and number of lymph node metastases (P=0.0017), and presented more often multifocal tumours (P=0.037) and persistent disease at last control (P=0.0242) than group 2. Detectable serum calcitonin levels at last screening (P=0.0119) and stage IV disease (P=0.0145) were more frequent in group 1, than in the other groups. Our results suggest that, among the sporadic MTC, cases with RET mutations in exons 15 and 16 are associated with the worst prognosis. Cases with other RET mutations have the most indolent course, and those with no RET mutations have an intermediate risk. PMID:19401695

  5. Vandetanib and cabozantinib potentiate mitochondria-targeted agents to suppress medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Hong, Seung-Keun; Wu, Pui-Kei; Park, Jong-In

    2017-07-03

    Although the FDA-approved receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are used to treat surgically inoperable progressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), not all patients are responsive while the disease sometimes progresses after an initial response. To better understand MTC drug resistance at molecular and biochemical levels, we have generated drug-resistant subpopulations of the human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, via prolonged exposure to vandetanib and cabozantinib. These drug-resistant progenies exhibited substantial cross-resistance to vandetanib and cabozantinib, suggesting that these inhibitors may invoke an overlapping resistance mechanism(s) in MTC cells. Of note, vandetanib and cabozantinib increased mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in drug-naïve as well as drug-resistant cells but only drug-naïve cells exhibited substantially altered oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. Therefore, these inhibitors appear to cause a bioenergetics stress to which drug-resistant MTC cells are more tolerant. Given the ability of vandetanib and cabozantinib to increase Δψm, we hypothesized that these inhibitors can augment growth inhibitory effects of mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl and ubiquinone by increasing their Δψm-dependent uptake/retention in MTC cells. Indeed, our in vitro and mouse xenograft data strongly support this possibility.

  6. Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a 30-year experience at one institution in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cho Rok; Lee, Sohee; Son, Haiyoung; Ban, Eunjeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Jandee; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome and prognosis of patients with sporadic and hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) who were treated at a single tertiary hospital in Korea. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the case files of 85 patients treated from August 1982 to February 2012. Results In all, 65 patients (76.5%) had sporadic MTC and 20 patients (23.5%) had hereditary MTC. Patients in the sporadic group were older than in the hereditary group (P < 0.001). However, the hereditary group had more tumor multiplicity (P < 0.001) and bilaterality (P < 0.001). Neither survival rate was significantly different between the sporadic and hereditary groups (P = 0.775 and P = 0.866). By multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival. Conclusion In general, patients with MTC have favorable outcomes. Distant metastasis appears to be the strongest predictor of overall and progression-free survival. PMID:27904849

  7. Can the early reduction of tumour markers predict outcome in surgically treated sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Bümming, Per; Ahlman, Håkan; Nilsson, Bengt; Nilsson, Ola; Wängberg, Bo; Jansson, Svante

    2008-09-01

    Patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have a variable clinical course. Our aim was to analyse the reduction of tumour markers after thyroidectomy with meticulous dissection and relate it to clinical outcome. Twenty consecutive patients with palpable sporadic MTC underwent thyroidectomy with central and uni- or bilateral modified radical neck dissection; three were subjected to mediastinal dissection. Basal (b-) and stimulated (s-) calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-levels were measured before and 6-8 weeks after primary surgery, and the reduction of these tumour markers was determined. Median CT (b- and s-) were markedly reduced after surgery (98.5% and 99.1%, respectively), and CEA decreased 11 times. CT (b-) fell >99% in seven patients after surgery; in these and four additional patients, CT (s-) showed a similar reduction. During follow-up (median 52.5 months), two patients (stages IV B and C) died of MTC; they had <95% reduction of CT. Four patients (stage IV A) are alive with verified metastases. Eight patients (one stage III, seven stage IV A) are alive with hypercalcitoninemia. Five stages I-III patients and one stage IV A patient are disease-free. Thyroidectomy and meticulous dissection caused a pronounced reduction of tumour markers. A postoperative reduction of CT (s-) >or=97% seems to be associated with less aggressive clinical course, while CEA had lower predictive value.

  8. Progression of postoperative residual medullary thyroid carcinoma as monitored by plasma calcitonin levels.

    PubMed

    Tisell, L E; Dilley, W G; Wells, S A

    1996-01-01

    Patients operated on for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) frequently have persistent elevated plasma calcitonin concentrations after operation, indicating remaining tumor. The plasma calcitonin concentration in a patient with MTC roughly reflects the endogenous tumor burden. The only effective treatment for MTC is surgical. The decision about whether a patient with persistent MTC should have a repeat operation would be influenced by knowledge of the natural course of the disease. Forty patients with persistently elevated peak plasma calcitonin concentrations after thyroidectomy for MTC were monitored for a mean of 6 years. Serial determinations of plasma calcitonin levels were obtained before and after intravenous injection of calcium and pentagastrin. At the first postoperative test 63% of the patients had undetectable basal calcitonin values, although their stimulated plasma calcitonin concentrations were elevated. The mean annual increase in stimulated plasma calcitonin concentrations was 117%, but plasma calcitonin concentrations were stable in three patients and decreased in one patient. Five patients are known to have experienced distant metastases. MTC is a progressive disease in most patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after thyroidectomy. Stimulated peak plasma calcitonin levels are more meaningful than basal levels in the serial postoperative evaluation of patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia after thyroidectomy for MTC.

  9. Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma and MEN2 syndromes in childhood.

    PubMed

    Waguespack, Steven G; Rich, Thereasa A; Perrier, Nancy D; Jimenez, Camilo; Cote, Gilbert J

    2011-08-23

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes are rare but important endocrine diseases that are increasingly managed by pediatric providers. MTC is generally associated with a favorable prognosis when diagnosed during childhood, where it frequently occurs secondary to activating mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and arises from pre-existing C-cell hyperplasia. MEN2A accounts for 90-95% of childhood MTC cases and is most commonly due to mutations in codon 634 of RET. MEN2B is associated with the most aggressive clinical presentation of MTC and is almost always due to the Met918Thr mutation of RET. Surgery is the primary treatment and only chance of cure, although the advent of targeted therapies seems to be improving progression-free survival in advanced cases. Since the discovery of the role of RET in MEN2A, considerable advances in the management of this syndrome have occurred, and most of the children with MEN2A who have undergone early thyroidectomy will now lead full, productive lives. Strong genotype-phenotype correlations have facilitated the development of guidelines for interventions. Contemporary approaches for deciding the appropriate age at which surgery should take place incorporate data from ultrasonography and calcitonin measurements in addition to the results of genotyping. To optimize care and to facilitate ongoing research, children with MTC and the MEN2 syndromes are optimally treated at tertiary centers with multidisciplinary expertise.

  10. Overview and Management of Dermatologic Events Associated with Targeted Therapies for Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciccolini, Kathryn; Kloos, Richard T.; Agulnik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment options for patients with advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have, in recent years, expanded with the approval of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): vandetanib and cabozantinib. Other agents, including TKIs, are under clinical investigation for MTC. Although patients treated with TKIs are at risk of developing dermatologic adverse events (AE), these untoward events may be mitigated through AE-driven algorithms. Summary: AE-driven algorithms combine effective nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical treatment modalities implemented by a multidisciplinary effort that incorporates nursing interventions, patient education, and referrals to pain-management specialists, podiatrists, and dermatologists, as appropriate. Effective AE prevention and management reduce the need for dose interruptions and modifications, allowing patients the opportunity to derive the maximal benefit from TKI therapy, while maintaining quality of life. Conclusions: Optimal use of targeted therapies in the treatment of MTC depends on careful patient selection, interdisciplinary communication, and patient education and encouragement to enhance compliance and safety, optimize consistent dosing, and maximize the use of effective therapies. PMID:24902006

  11. Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of new radiopharmaceutical agents in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Troncone, L.; Rufini, V.; De Rosa, G.; Testa, A.

    1989-01-01

    Recently developed radiopharmaceuticals have been proposed for imaging medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with some having therapeutic potential. This study compares the imaging results obtained with radioiodinated meta-iodo-benzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 99m}Tc (V) DMSA, and {sup 131}I F(ab')2 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) in a group of MTC patients. In 23 patients {sup 131}I MIBG imaging showed a high specificity (no false-positive results) but a less satisfactory sensitivity (50%). In 12 patients {sup 99m}Tc (V) DMSA revealed a better sensitivity (77%) but a lower specificity (three false-positive results). Positive results were obtained in two of three patients studied with {sup 131}I F(ab')2 anti-CEA. These data suggest that the highly sensitive {sup 99m}Tc (V) DMSA should be considered as a first choice procedure followed by the highly specific radioiodinated MIBG to confirm the initial results. Since radioiodinated MIBG imaging may have therapeutic usefulness, {sup 131}I MIBG was evaluated in an integrated treatment protocol in four cases of proven MTC. The preliminary results obtained were encouraging.

  12. A cut-off value of basal serum calcitonin for detecting macroscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Won Gu; Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Dong Eun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Hong, Suck Joon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee

    2015-04-01

    Serum calcitonin (CT) level is used to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), but the cut-off level is unclear. We aimed at identifying the optimal cut-off value of basal serum CT levels for detecting MTC. We retrospectively enrolled patients with hypercalcitoninemia (≥2·9 pmol/l) who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography (US) and subsequent work-up between 2001 and 2013 at Asan Medical Center. We divided patients into four groups: proven MTC (group 1, n = 93), pathologically proven non-MTC after surgery (group 2, n = 57), benign single nodule by cytology (group 3, n = 68) and patients without nodules on US (group 4, n = 24). Basal serum CT levels were evaluated. The median CT level of group 1 (119·5 pmol/l) was significantly higher than those of other groups (4·0, 3·8 and 3·8 pmol/l, P < 0·001). When we adopted 19·0 pmol/l of CT level as a cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 77·4%, 98·7%, 97·3% and 87·8%, respectively. When we compared 29·2 pmol/l (100 pg/ml) and 19·0 pmol/l (65 pg/ml) as cut-off values, 19·0 pmol/l was more sensitive and accurate than 29·2 pmol/l. Factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia in non-MTC groups were autoimmune thyroiditis, chronic kidney disease, proton pump inhibitors and other malignancies. Serum CT levels tended to decrease spontaneously in non-MTC groups. Basal serum CT levels higher than 19·0 pmol/l can be a useful cut-off value for detecting macroscopic MTC, even though values below 19·0 pmol/l cannot exclude the presence of MTC like small volume MTC or premalignant C-cell hyperplasia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  14. Results of a screening program for C-cell disease (medullary thyroid cancer and C-cell hyperplasia).

    PubMed

    Simpson, W J; Carruthers, J S; Malkin, D

    1990-04-01

    In the authors' Medullary Screening Clinic, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) or C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) has been identified in 26 relatives of 12 apparently "sporadic" patients from 56 families in which calcitonin (CT) testing has been performed. The interpretation of stimulated test results was sometimes difficult: elevated basal levels without a significant increase after the injection of secretagogues; basal levels in the normal range with considerable increases after stimulation but not exceeding two or three times the upper limit of normal; elevated basal or stimulated CT levels that slowly decreased to normal or near-normal levels over relatively short periods of time. The latter results suggest the possibility of CCH disappearing spontaneously in some patients.

  15. Genotype-phenotype based surgical concept of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Dralle, Henning

    2007-05-01

    Since DNA tests have enabled reliable identification of asymptomatic RET (rearranged during transfection) gene carriers, myriads of publications have appeared on genotype-phenotype relationships. A comprehensive appraisal of this body of evidence using evidence-based methodology is pending. This study was based on systematic evaluation of the literature using evidence-based criteria. (1) There is a distinct age-related progression of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in carriers of RET mutations (grade C). (2) Among the high-risk RET mutations, those in codon 634 cause higher penetrance rates of the multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A phenotype (MTC, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma) than mutations in codons 609, 611, 618, and 620, irrespective of the amino acid substituting for cysteine (grade C). (3) DNA-based screening is superior to calcitonin-based screening in asymptomatic RET carriers (grade C). (4) Using a worst-case scenario, i.e., considering the earliest finding of MTC in asymptomatic RET carriers, pre-emptive thyroidectomy should be performed before that time (grade C) to be truly prophylactic. Specifically, for carriers of highest-risk mutations (codon 918): within the first year of life; for carriers of high-risk mutations (codon 609, 611, 618, 620, 630, and 634): before the age of 5 years; and for carriers of least-high risk mutations (codon 768, 790, 791, 804, and 891): before the age of 5-10 years. Strict adherence to these grade C recommendations can result in undertreatment of the former (codon 634) and overtreatment of the latter. These genotype-phenotype correlations provide a solid foundation on which to base surgical concepts, leaving little room for randomized controlled clinical trials.

  16. Mortalin (GRP75/HSPA9) upregulation promotes survival and proliferation of medullary thyroid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Hong, Seung-Keun; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Park, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. For therapy of advanced MTC, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting RET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and/or c-MET. Nevertheless, not all patients respond to these drugs, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We found that mortalin (HSPA9/GRP75), a member of HSP70 family, is upregulated in human MTC tissues and that its depletion robustly induces cell death and growth arrest in MTC cell lines in culture and in mouse xenografts. These effects were accompanied by substantial downregulation of RET, induction of the tumor suppressor TP53, and altered expression of cell cycle regulatory machinery and apoptosis markers including E2F-1, p21CIP1, p27KIP1, and Bcl-2 family proteins. Our investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects revealed that mortalin depletion induces transient MEK/ERK activation and altered mitochondrial bioenergetics in MTC cells, as indicated by depolarized mitochondrial membrane, decreased oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification, and increased oxidative stress. Intriguingly, mortalin depletion induced growth arrest partly via the MEK/ERK pathway whereas it induced cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction in a Bcl-2 dependent manner. However, TP53 was not necessary for these effects except for p21CIP1 induction. Moreover, mortalin depletion downregulated RET expression independently of MEK/ERK and TP53. These data demonstrate that mortalin is a key regulator of multiple signaling and metabolic pathways pivotal to MTC cell survival and proliferation, proposing mortalin as a novel therapeutic target for MTC. PMID:25435367

  17. Phase II Clinical Trial of Sorafenib in Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Elaine T.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Kloos, Richard T.; Prior, Thomas W.; Knopp, Michael V.; Liang, Jiachao; Sammet, Steffen; Hall, Nathan C.; Wakely, Paul E.; Vasko, Vasyl V.; Saji, Motoyasu; Snyder, Pamela J.; Wei, Lai; Arbogast, Daria; Collamore, Minden; Wright, John J.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Shah, Manisha H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) activity are critical in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor targeting Ret and VEGFR, showed antitumor activity in preclinical studies of MTC. Patients and Methods In this phase II trial of sorafenib in patients with advanced MTC, the primary end point was objective response. Secondary end points included toxicity assessment and response correlation with tumor markers, functional imaging, and RET mutations. Using a two-stage design, 16 or 25 patients were to be enrolled onto arms A (hereditary) and B (sporadic). Patients received sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily. Results Of 16 patients treated in arm B, one achieved partial response (PR; 6.3%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 30.2%), 14 had stable disease (SD; 87.5%; 95% CI, 61.7% to 99.5%), and one was nonevaluable. In a post hoc analysis of 10 arm B patients with progressive disease (PD) before study, one patient had PR of 21+ months, four patients had SD ≥ 15 months, four patients had SD ≤ 6 months, and one patient had clinical PD. Median progression-free survival was 17.9 months. Arm A was prematurely terminated because of slow accrual. Common adverse events (AEs) included diarrhea, hand-foot-skin reaction, rash, and hypertension. Although serious AEs were rare, one death was seen. Tumor markers decreased in the majority of patients, and RET mutations were detected in 10 of 12 sporadic MTCs analyzed. Conclusion Sorafenib is reasonably well tolerated, with suggestion of clinical benefit for patients with sporadic MTC. Caution should be taken because of the rare but fatal toxicity potentially associated with sorafenib. PMID:20368568

  18. Interest of sentinel node biopsy in apparently intrathyroidal medullary thyroid cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Puccini, M; Manca, G; Ugolini, C; Candalise, V; Passaretti, A; Bernardini, J; Boni, G; Buccianti, P

    2014-09-01

    Initial surgery for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) with no evidence of lymph node involvement in neck compartments consists of total thyroidectomy and prophylactic central neck dissection. This study evaluated the reliability of a radiotracer technique for the intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in lateral compartments in patients with early MTC. Patients with limited (cT1 N0) MTC entered the study (2009-2012). A 0.1-0.3 ml suspension of macrocolloidal technetium-99-labeled human albumin was injected (under echo-guide) in the tumor 5 h before surgery. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy confirmed the identification of SLNs in the lateral neck. The operation consisted of total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection, and a hand-held gamma-probe (Neoprobe) guide was used to remove the SLNs from the lateral neck. Four patients were recruited. The tracer always indicated a SLN. Pathology reports indicated micrometastases from MTC in SLN in three patients. At a mean follow-up of 30.5 months, all patients were biochemically cured. The technique we describe to detect and remove neck SLN from MTC seemed to be very accurate. It always showed the SLNs (usually two) in the lateral compartments. Micrometastases were detected in three of four patients, allowing their correct staging. The method described here for the detection of SLNs in early MTC seems effective and reliable and can be used for a more precise N staging of the patients. It could play a role, alone or combined with other techniques, in driving the extent of prophylactic neck dissection or other potential applications.

  19. Treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma by combined expression of suicide and interleukin-2 genes.

    PubMed

    Soler, M N; Milhaud, G; Lekmine, F; Treilhou-Lahille, F; Klatzmann, D; Lausson, S

    1999-01-01

    Inherited medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) are aggressive and resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapies. We evaluated a novel strategy for treatment of MTC, combining "suicide" and interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene therapies. Tumors were produced in Wag/Rij rats by orthotopic injection of the rMTC 6-23 cell line, and/or derivatives expressing the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) gene (rMTC-TK). Ganciclovir, a nucleoside analog selectively transformed to a toxic metabolite by HSV1-TK, totally eradicated rMTC-TK tumors in 60% of the animals. 1:1 rMTC and rMTC-TK mixed tumors were also strongly inhibited by ganciclovir (P < 0.05), indicating the occurrence of an efficient "bystander" effect in vivo. Double labelling of rMTC cell membranes and apoptotic nuclei revealed that, as with the TK+ cells, some TK- cells died by apoptosis. A 1:1 mixture of rMTC and rMTC-TK cells was administered to produce established tumors and then rMTC cells, transfected to express the IL-2 gene (rMTC-IL2), were inoculated. Combined ganciclovir and IL-2 treatment improved the inhibition of tumor growth compared to that following ganciclovir alone (86% compared to 54%, P < 0.05). This treatment also significantly enhanced macrophage activation and tumor infiltration by CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results open an avenue for combining suicide and immunoregulatory gene therapies for MTC management in man.

  20. Refining calcium test for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer: cutoffs, procedures, and safety.

    PubMed

    Mian, Caterina; Perrino, Michela; Colombo, Carla; Cavedon, Elisabetta; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Ferrero, Stefano; De Leo, Simone; Sarais, Cristiano; Cacciatore, Chiara; Manfredi, Gloria Irene; Verga, Uberta; Iacobone, Maurizio; De Pasquale, Loredana; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Vicentini, Leonardo; Persani, Luca; Fugazzola, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Calcitonin (CT) measurement is crucial to the early diagnosis and the follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). If the evaluation of stimulated CT levels is required, a provocative test can be performed, being the high-dose Ca test recently reintroduced in clinical practice. Our objective was to identify gender-specific thresholds for MTC diagnosis in a large series of patients who underwent the Ca test. A total of 91 patients (49 females and 42 males) underwent the Ca test (calcium gluconate, 25 mg/kg) before thyroidectomy and both basal CT (bCT) and stimulated CT (sCT) were compared with histological results by receiver operating characteristic plot analyses. To evaluate possible side effects of Ca administration, cardiac function has been extensively studied. bCT levels were found to harbor the same accuracy as sCT in the preoperative diagnosis of MTC. The best Ca thresholds for the identification of MTC were >26 and >68 for bCT and >79 and >544 pg/mL for sCT in females and males, respectively. The high tolerability and safety of the Ca test was demonstrated and advice offered to be followed before and during the test. Gender-specific bCT and sCT cutoffs for the identification of C-cell hyperplasia and/or MTC have been defined. The bCT and sCT were found to have a similar accuracy, indicating that serum CT assays with improved functional sensitivity may likely decrease the relevance of the stimulation test in several conditions. Finally, systematic cardiac monitoring confirms the safety of the Ca test.

  1. Surgical curability of medullary thyroid cancer in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B: a changing perspective.

    PubMed

    Brauckhoff, Michael; Machens, Andreas; Lorenz, Kerstin; Bjøro, Trine; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Dralle, Henning

    2014-04-01

    This investigation aimed at exploring the suitability of nonendocrine manifestations preceding medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) for early diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B). MEN 2B patients, running a high risk of metastatic MTC, must be diagnosed early for biochemical cure. Forty-four MEN 2B patients carrying inherited (3 patients) and de novo (41 patients) M918T RET mutations were examined for signs and symptoms prompting MEN 2B. All 3 patients with inherited mutations were diagnosed before the age of 1 year and cured of their C-cell disease. Among 41 patients with de novo mutations, MEN 2B was diagnosed in 12 patients after recognition of nonendocrine manifestations [intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (6 patients), oral symptoms (5 patients), ocular ("tearless crying") (4 patients), and skeletal stigmata (1 patient) alone or concomitantly]. In the remaining 29 patients with de novo mutations, the diagnosis of MEN 2B was triggered by symptomatic MTC (28 patients) or pheochromocytoma (1 patient). The former patients, being significantly (P < 0.001) younger (means of 5.3 vs 17.6 years) and having lower calcitonin levels (means of 115 vs 25,519 pg/mL), smaller tumors (67% vs 0% were ≤10 mm) and less often extrathyroidal extension (0% vs 81%), lymph node (42% vs 100%), and distant metastases (8% vs 79%), were biochemically cured more often (58% vs 0%). MTC is curable in patients with de novo mutations when nonendocrine MEN 2B components are quickly appreciated and surgical intervention is performed before patients turn 4 years old.

  2. Effect of an Outreach Programme on Vandetanib Safety in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bastholt, Lars; Kreissl, Michael C.; Führer, Dagmar; Maia, Ana L.; Locati, Laura D.; Maciel, Léa; Wu, Yi; Heller, Kevin N.; Webster, Alan; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective management of adverse events (AEs) following vandetanib treatment is important to maximize clinical benefits. We examined whether more frequent contact with vandetanib-treated patients reduced AEs of CTCAE grade 2 or higher. Study Design In this open-label, multicentre, phase III study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer were randomized to a patient outreach programme (outreach) or a standard AE monitoring schedule (vandetanib control) for 52 weeks. In addition to standard AE monitoring, patients in the outreach arm were contacted every 2 weeks by telephone/during their clinic visit for specific AE questioning related to diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headache and rash. Patients received vandetanib at 200 or 300 mg/day, depending on the creatinine levels at screening. Results Altogether, 205 patients were randomized (outreach, n = 103; vandetanib control, n = 102). This study did not meet its primary objective; the mean percentage of time patients experienced at least one AE of grade 2 or higher was higher for the outreach group (51.65%) than for the vandetanib control group (45.19%); the difference was not statistically significant (t statistic: 1.29; 95% CI −3.44 to 16.37%; p = 0.199). The most frequently reported AEs were diarrhoea (56.9% for the outreach group vs. 46.6% for the vandetanib controls), hypertension (36.3 vs. 31.1%), rash (25.5 vs. 24.3%) and nausea (25.5% vs. 18.4%), and the most frequently reported AEs of grade 2 or higher were hypertension (33.3 vs. 23.3%), diarrhoea (26.5 vs. 24.3%) and dermatitis acneiform (11.8 vs. 9.7%). Conclusions Additional outreach to patients treated with vandetanib had no impact on the rate or severity of AEs compared to the standard AE monitoring schedule. AEs were consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib. PMID:27843809

  3. Altered vitamin D metabolism and bone remodelling in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcitoninemia.

    PubMed

    Emmertsen, K; Melsen, F; Mosekilde, L; Lund, B; Lund, B; Sørensen, O H; Nielsen, H E; Sølling, H; Hansen, H H

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) and hypercalcitoninemia were studied. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and iPTH (C-terminal) were normal. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) levels were increased (p less than 0.001) in spite of reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels (p less than 0.02) indicating an enhanced activity of the renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase. Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were normal and correlated positively with serum 25-OHD. Histomorphometric analyses of iliac crest bone biopsies after in vivo tetracycline double-labelling were performed in patients and controls. The patients showed a normal trabecular bone volume. The mean size of the cortical osteocytic lacunae was increased (p less than 0.001). Significant increases were found in fractional formation surfaces (p less than 0.05), fractional labelled surfaces (p less than 0.01) and fractional resorption surfaces (p less than 0.005) in trabecular bone. The appositional rate of newly mineralized bone was reduced (p less than 0.025). The mean osteoid seam width was normal due to an unchanged mineralization lag time and a normal osteoid appositional rate. The bone formation rate at tissue level was high normal. The altered vitamin D metabolism may be caused by a direct effect of hypercalcitoninemia on the renal l alpha-hydroxylase or may represent an adaptive change in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. The dynamic bone changes are similar to those found in primary hyperparathyroidism and may be caused by an enhanced sensitivity to circulating PTH induced by the increased 1,25-(OH)2D.

  4. Determinative factors of biochemical cure after primary and reoperative surgery for sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Ukkat, J; Dralle, H

    1998-06-01

    Normalization of calcitonin levels after surgery has been regarded as the most powerful prognostic factor for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Although the prognosis of patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia may be acceptable, the biochemical cure rate can be improved by new microdissection techniques. This raises certain questions: Can extension of locoregional lymphadenectomy (LA) further improve biochemical cure and survival after primary or reoperative MTC surgery? Which factors concerning TNM categories are associated with the possibility of postoperative normalization of calcitonin levels? This study included 64 patients with sporadic MTC operated on from 1986 to 1997. Altogether 27 patients underwent primary surgery, and 37 patients were reoperated, performing a microdissection of all four locoregional compartments (four-compartment lymphadenectomy, or 4CLA). For primary MTC the biochemical cure rate was 100% in node-negative patients and 33% in node-positive patients; the latter could be improved to 45% after 4CLA. In contrast to reoperative MTC, the rate of lymph node metastases (LNMs) with primary MTC correlated with the pT category (pT1 33%, pT2 53%, pT3 100%, pT4 100%) but not with age or sex. Again in contrast to reoperative MTC, mediastinal LNMs in primary MTC were present only in patients with a pT4 tumor. At reoperation, 4CLA was able to cure 22% of node-positive patients, 28% without proved distant metastases. No patient with extrathyroidal tumor involvement or distant metastases was biochemically cured after either primary or reoperative surgery. For all node-positive MTC patients, in addition to cervicocentral LA at least a bilateral cervicolateral LA is recommended. Transsternal mediastinal lymph node dissection is indicated in patients with LNMs in the cervicomediastinal transition, facilitating biochemical cure in up to 45% after the first operation and 22% after reoperative surgery of sporadic MTC.

  5. Preclinical testing of selective Aurora kinase inhibitors on a medullary thyroid carcinoma-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Tuccilli, Chiara; Baldini, Enke; Prinzi, Natalie; Morrone, Stefania; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Filippini, Angelo; Catania, Antonio; Alessandrini, Stefania; Rendina, Roberta; Coccaro, Carmela; D'Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    Deregulated expression of the Aurora kinases (Aurora-A, B, and C) is thought to be involved in cell malignant transformation and genomic instability in several cancer types. Over the last decade, a number of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases have been developed, which have proved to efficiently restrain malignant cell growth and tumorigenicity. Regarding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we previously showed the efficacy of a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor (MK-0457) in impairing growth and survival of the MTC-derived cell line TT. In the present study, we sought to establish if one of the Aurora kinases might represent a preferential target for MTC therapy. The effects of selective inhibitors of Aurora-A (MLN8237) and Aurora-B (AZD1152) were analyzed on TT cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and ploidy. The two inhibitors reduced TT cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 of 19.0 ± 2.4 nM for MLN8237 and 401.6 ± 44.1 nM for AZD1152. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that AZD1152 inhibited phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10) by Aurora-B, while it did not affect Aurora-A autophosphorylation. MLN8237 inhibited Aurora-A autophosphorylation as expected, but at concentrations required to achieve the maximum antiproliferative effects it also abolished H3 (Ser10) phosphorylation. Cytofluorimetry experiments showed that both inhibitors induced accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and increased the subG0/G1 fraction and polyploidy. Finally, both inhibitors triggered apoptosis. We demonstrated that inhibition of either Aurora-A or Aurora-B has antiproliferative effects on TT cells, and thus it would be worthwhile to further investigate the therapeutical potential of Aurora kinase inhibitors in MTC treatment.

  6. Multi-step approach in a complex case of Cushing's syndrome and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parenti, G; Nassi, R; Silvestri, S; Bianchi, S; Valeri, A; Manca, G; Mangiafico, S; Ammannati, F; Serio, M; Mannelli, M; Peri, A

    2006-02-01

    The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) may sometimes be cumbersome. In particular, in ACTH-dependent CS it may be difficult to distinguish between the presence of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma and ectopic ACTH and/or CRH secretion. In such instances, the etiology of CS may remain unknown despite extensive diagnostic workout, and the best therapeutic option for each patient has to be determined. We report here the case of a 54-yr-old man affected by ACTH-dependent CS in association with a left adrenal adenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). He presented with clinical features and laboratory indexes of hypercortisolism associated with elevated levels of calcitonin. Ectopic CS due to MTC was reported previously. In our case hypercortisolism persisted after surgical treatment of MTC. Thorough diagnostic assessment was performed, in order to define the aetiology of CS. He was subjected to basal and dynamic hormonal evaluation, including bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Extensive imaging evaluation was also performed. Overall, the laboratory data together with the results of radiological procedures suggested that CS might be due to inappropriate CRH secretion. However, the source of CRH secretion in this patient remained unknown. It was then decided to remove the left adenomatous adrenal gland. Cortisol level fell and has remained within the normal range nine months after surgery. This case well depicts the complexity of the diagnostic workout, which is needed sometimes to correctly diagnose and treat CS, and suggests that monolateral adrenalectomy may represent, at least temporarily, a reasonable therapeutic option in occult ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism.

  7. Clinical value of [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT in the detection of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Yang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Xiaoping; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Silong; Yao, Zhifeng; Pan, Herong; Zhang, Yingjian; Li, Duanshu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of fluorine-18 2-deoxy-2-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) in the detection of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. From November 2006 to November 2012, 50 medullary thyroid cancer patients (median age 48.7 years, range 18-76) who had a total thyroidectomy operation underwent whole-body [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT scans. The diagnostic accuracy of [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT was determined through both lesion-based and patient-based analyses. Further pathological tests were performed on all identified lesions or clinically followed for a minimum period of 6 months. One hundred forty-four suspicious lesions were identified by organ-based analysis. Of these lesions, [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT detected 99 true-positive lesions, sensitivity was 73.3%, and specificity was 66.7%. On the patient-based analysis, the overall sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 65.7% and 92.3%, respectively. Using a cutoff calcitonin value of 1000 pg/ml, in patients with calcitonin lower than this value, sensitivity and specificity were 42.9% and 91.0%, respectively. In patients with calcitonin exceeding this value, they raised to 77.3% (χ(2)=4.392, P<.05) and 100% (χ(2)=0.197, P>.05), respectively. Compared with conventional imaging modality, PET/CT scans detected more lesions in 10 patients (20.4%) and correctly changed the treatment in 8 patients (16.3%). [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT has excellent sensitivity and specificity, especially when the calcitonin value is higher than 1000 pg/ml for detecting metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. Compared to conventional morphologic imaging methods, it provides additional information for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioimmunoscintigraphy using iodine-131-anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies and thallium-201 scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zanin, D.E.; van Dongen, A.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Bruning, P.F. , Amsterdam )

    1990-11-01

    This case report demonstrates the use of thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) scans versus iodine-131- ({sup 131}l) anti-CEA F(ab')2 scans in a patient with high serum CEA levels due to metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma in the suprarenal region and sacroiliacal region. Scintigraphy using monoclonal antibodies directed against CEA showed a higher tumor uptake (0.26% dose and 0.64% dose, respectively) than a thallium scan and is believed to be promising for future radiotherapeutic applications.

  9. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  10. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

  11. Identification of epistatic interactions through genome-wide association studies in sporadic medullary and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Luzón-Toro, Berta; Bleda, Marta; Navarro, Elena; García-Alonso, Luz; Ruiz-Ferrer, Macarena; Medina, Ignacio; Martín-Sánchez, Marta; Gonzalez, Cristina Y; Fernández, Raquel M; Torroglosa, Ana; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud

    2015-12-21

    The molecular mechanisms leading to sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), two rare tumours of the thyroid gland, remain poorly understood. Genetic studies on thyroid carcinomas have been conducted, although just a few loci have been systematically associated. Given the difficulties to obtain single-loci associations, this work expands its scope to the study of epistatic interactions that could help to understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases and explain new heritable components of genetic risk. We carried out the first screening for epistasis by Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) in genome-wide association study (GWAS) on sMTC and juvenile PTC, to identify the potential simultaneous involvement of pairs of variants in the disease. We have identified two significant epistatic gene interactions in sMTC (CHFR-AC016582.2 and C8orf37-RNU1-55P) and three in juvenile PTC (RP11-648k4.2-DIO1, RP11-648k4.2-DMGDH and RP11-648k4.2-LOXL1). Interestingly, each interacting gene pair included a non-coding RNA, providing thus support to the relevance that these elements are increasingly gaining to explain carcinoma development and progression. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the genetic basis of thyroid carcinoma susceptibility in two different case scenarios such as sMTC and juvenile PTC.

  12. Retrospective analysis of 140 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma followed-up in a single institution

    PubMed Central

    SIMÕES-PEREIRA, JOANA; BUGALHO, MARIA JOÃO; LIMBERT, EDWARD; LEITE, VALERIANO

    2016-01-01

    Familial cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may be diagnosed by genetic screening, while in sporadic tumors the diagnosis relies mainly on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The aim of the present study was to determine the demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of MTC patients followed-up at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology Francisco Gentil (Lisbon, Portugal). For that purpose, a retrospective analysis of 140 MTC patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 was performed. The results indicated that patients with hereditary MTC (11.4%) were significantly younger than patients with sporadic MTC. Of the latter, 34.3% had no clinical suspicion of MTC prior to surgery. The sensitivity of cytology and calcitonin (CT) assay in diagnosing MTC were 51.3 and 98.7%, respectively. All familial index cases and 69.0% of sporadic cases presented with advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis, while 73.0% of familial MTC detected by genetic/pentagastrin screening were diagnosed at the early stage of the disease. Biochemical cure (BC) was achieved in 39.7% of patients and, of these, only 6.5% relapsed. The 5 and 10-year survival rates were 79.3 and 73.6%, respectively. Age >45 years (P=0.026), advanced stage at diagnosis (P<0.001) and absence of BC (P<0.001) were predictors of a worse prognosis on univariate analysis. However, when the patients detected by genetic/pentagastrin screening were excluded from the analysis, age was no longer a prognostic factor, although disease stage remained a significant prognostic factor. On multivariate analysis, BC was the only factor with a significant impact on prognosis (P=0.031). In addition, the present study confirmed that the majority of patients were diagnosed at advanced stages, and CT determination was observed to be more sensitive than cytology to diagnose MTC. Patients at early stages were more prone to achieve BC, which was a favorable prognostic factor. To the best of our knowledge, the present study

  13. mTOR activation in medullary thyroid carcinoma with RAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Lyra, Joana; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Pinto, Vasco; Prazeres, Hugo; Rodrigues, Fernando; Eloy, Catarina; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-11-01

    Rearranged during transfection (RET) mutations are well-known genetic events in sporadic and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). The presence of RAS mutations in sporadic cases, challenging the RET paradigm in these tumors, has been recently reported. We intend to evaluate mTOR pathway activation in RET- and RAS-mutated MTC. In this study, we analysed the presence of RET, H-RAS, and K-RAS mutations in a series of 87 MTCs (82 apparently sporadic and five FMTCs; five apparently sporadic MTCs were eventually found to be familial). We also evaluated mTOR activation--using the expression of its downstream effector phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6) and the expression of the mTOR inhibitor, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)--by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed that RET mutations were present in 52.9% of the cases (46/87) and RAS mutations in 12.6% (11/87) of the whole series of MTCs and 14.3% of the 77 sporadic MTCs. The presence of RET and RAS mutations was mutually exclusive. RAS mutations were significantly associated with higher intensity of p-S6 expression (P=0.007), suggesting that the mTOR pathway is activated in such MTCs. We observed also an increased expression of p-S6 in invasive tumors (P=0.042) and in MTCs with lymph node metastases (P=0.046). Cytoplasmic PTEN expression was detected in 58.8% of the cases; cases WT for RAS showed a significantly lower expression of PTEN (P=0.045). We confirmed the presence of RAS mutation in 14.3% of sporadic MTCs and report, for the first time, an association between such mutations and the activation of the mTOR pathway. The evaluation of the mTOR activation by pS6 expression may serve as an indicator of invasive MTC. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Distribution of RET Mutations and Evaluation of Treatment Approaches in Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğan, Berna İmge; Yüksel, Bağdagül; Tuna, Mazhar Müslüm; Navdar Başaran, Mehtap; Akkurt Kocaeli, Ayşen; Ertörer, Melek Eda; Aydın, Kadriye; Güldiken, Sibel; Şimşek, Yasin; Cihan Karaca, Züleyha; Yılmaz, Merve; Aktürk, Müjde; Anaforoğlu, İnan; Kebapçı, Nur; Duran, Cevdet; Taşlıpınar, Abdullah; Kulaksızoğlu, Mustafa; Gürsoy, Alptekin; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Erdoğan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective multicenter study, centrally conducted and supported by the Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism of Turkey, aimed to evaluate the impact of free RET proto-oncogene testing in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients. Surgical timing, adequacy of the treatment, and frequency of prophylactic thyroidectomy (PTx) in mutation carriers were also assessed. Methods: Genetic testing for MTC and pheochromocytoma was conducted between July 2008 and January 2012 in 512 patients. Application forms and RET mutation analyses of these patients whose blood samples were sent from various centers around Turkey were assessed retrospectively. An evaluation form was sent to the physicians of the eligible 319 patients who had confirmed sporadic MTC, familial MTC (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), or who were mutation carriers. Physicians were asked to give information about the surgical history, latest calcitonin levels, morbidity, mortality, genetic screening, and PTx among family members. Twenty-five centers responded by filling in the forms of 192 patients. Results: Among the 319 patients, RET mutation was detected in 71 (22.3%). Cys634Arg mutation was the most prevalent mutation (43.7%), followed by Val804Met in 18 patients (25.4%), and Cys634Tyr in 6 patients (8.5%). Among 192 MTC patients, the diagnosis was sporadic MTC in 146 (76.4%), FMTC in 14 (7.3%), MEN2A in 15 patients (7.9%), and MEN2B in one patient. The number of mutation carriers among 154 apparently sporadic MTC patients was 8 (5.2%). Ten patients were submitted to PTx out of twenty-four mutation carriers at a mean age of 35±19 years. Conclusion: Turkish people have a similar RET proto-oncogene mutation distribution when compared to other Mediterranean countries. Despite free RET gene testing, the number of the PTx in Turkey is limited and relatively late in the life span of the carriers. This is mainly due to patient and family incompliance and incomplete family

  15. Rethinking the Current American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Staging System for Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Adam, Mohamed Abdelgadir; Thomas, Samantha; Roman, Sanziana A; Hyslop, Terry; Sosa, Julie A

    2017-06-21

    Controversy exists around the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of the rarity of the disease and limited available data, the staging system for MTC has been largely extrapolated from staging for differentiated thyroid cancer. To evaluate how well the current (seventh and eighth editions) AJCC TNM staging system correlates with survival for patients with MTC and to suggest a possible revision. This population-based retrospective cohort analysis used the National Cancer Database to select patients aged 18 years or older diagnosed with MTC in the United States between 1998 and 2012. Patient demographic and tumor characteristics were assessed, and pathologic tumor stages were provided as T, N, and M categories. Recursive partitioning with bootstrapping was used to divide patients by TNM stages into groups with similar survival. The newly identified groupings were validated in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cohort. Data analysis was conducted between July 17, 2016, and November 11, 2016. Overall survival and disease-specific survival. Of the 3315 patients with MTC included in the analysis, 1941 (58.6%) were women. The median (interquartile range) age was 54 (42-65) years, and 2839 (85.6%) self-reported their race/ethnicity as white. The current AJCC TNM staging system classified 941 of these patients (28.4%) as stage I, 907 (27.4%) as stage II, 424 (12.9%) as stage III, and 1043 (31.5%) as stage IV. Recursive partitioning analysis yielded 4 TNM groups: stage I (T1N0-1aM0, T2N0M0), stage II (T1N1bM0, T2N1a-bM0, and T3N0M0), stage III (T3N1a-bM0, T4N0-1bM0), and stage IV (T1-4N0-1bM1). Based on these proposed TNM groupings, 1797 of the 3315 patients (54.2%) were classified as stage I, 684 (20.6%) as stage II, 669 (20.2%) as stage III, and 165 (5.0%) as stage IV. Under the proposed TNM groupings, survival differences across TNM groups were more distinct than under the current AJCC

  16. Ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: clues to early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Singer, Kanakadurga; Heiniger, Nicholas; Thomas, Inas; Worden, Francis P; Menon, Ram K; Chen, Ming

    2014-09-01

    We describe a 13-year-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B with medullary thyroid carcinoma who was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome. This report highlights the importance of monitoring for paraneoplastic syndrome in MEN and clues to the diagnosis of this complication provided by growth patterns.

  17. Association of mitochondrial DNA transversion mutations with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, K K; Alzahrani, A S; Zou, M; Shi, Y

    2006-02-02

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a malignant tumour of the calcitonin-secreting parafollicular C cells of the thyroid, and occurs sporadically or as a component of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2/familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) syndromes. In the present study, we investigated the frequency of mtDNA mutations in 26 MTC tumour specimens (13 sporadic and 13 familial MTC) and their matched normal tissues by sequencing the entire coding regions of mitochondrial genome. Nonsynonymous mutations were detected in 20 MTC samples (76.9%): nine out of 13 sporadic MTC (69.2%) and 11 out of 13 (84.6%) familial MTC/MEN2. Both transition and transversion types of mutations were found in the samples. Interestingly, 76.2% (16/21) of transversion mutations were found in FMTC/MEN2 patients, whereas 66.7% (12/18) of transition mutations were in sporadic MTC. Synonymous mutations were found in 12 MTC samples. In total, we identified 27 transversion mutations (21 nonsynonymous and six synonymous) in MTC. Of them, 22 (81.5%) were from FMTC/MEN2, and five (18.5%) were from sporadic MTC. The association of transversion mutation with familial MTC/MEN2 was statistically significant (P = 0.0015, binomial test). Majority of the mutations were involved in the genes located in the complex I of the mitochondrial genome, and were often resulting in a change of a moderately or highly conserved amino acid of their corresponding protein. Mitochondrial respiratory function was also compromised in a TT cell line, which carries mtDNA mutation at nt 4917 and 11,720, and in peripheral lymphocytes of MTC patients with mtDNA mutations. These data suggest that mtDNA mutation may be involved in MTC tumourigenesis and progression. Given that mtDNA mutation spectra are different between sporadic and familial MTC, different mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage may occur in the disease process.

  18. Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer after optimized surgery.

    PubMed

    Grant, Clive S

    2015-02-01

    Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after optimized surgery requires a full understanding of the disease, especially as it has changed in the last 15 years, what comprises optimized surgery, and the different types and implications of disease relapse that can be encountered. PTC has evolved to tumors that are much smaller than previously seen, largely due to various high quality imaging studies obtained for different reasons, but serendipitously identifying thyroid nodules that prove to be papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). With rare exception, these cancers are cured by conservative surgery without additional therapy, and seldom result in recurrent disease. PTC is highly curable in 85% of cases because of its rather innocent biologic behavior. Therefore, the shift in emphasis from disease survival to recurrence is appropriate. As a result of three technologic advances-high-resolution ultrasound (US), recombinant TSH, and highly sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg)-disease relapse can be discovered when it is subclinical. Endocrinologists who largely control administration of radioactive iodine have used it to ablate barely detectable or even biochemically apparent disease, hoping to reduce recurrence and perhaps improve survival. Surgeons, in response to this new intense postoperative surveillance that has uncovered very small volume disease, have responded by utilizing US preoperatively to image this disease, and incorporated varying degrees of lymphadenectomy into their initial treatment algorithm. Bilateral thyroid resection-either total or near-total thyroidectomy-remains the standard for PTC >1 cm, although recent data has re-emphasized the value of unilateral lobectomy in treating even some PTC measuring 1-4 cm. Therapeutic lymphadenectomy has universal approval, but when lymph nodes in the central neck are not worrisome to the surgeon's intraoperative assessment, although that judgment in incorrect up to 50%, whether they should be excised has

  19. Succinate dehydrogenase D variants do not constitute a risk factor for developing C cell hyperplasia or sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cascon, Alberto; Cebrian, Arancha; Pollan, Marina; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Leton, Rocio; Gutierrez, Ruth; Lesueur, Fabienne; Milne, Roger L; Gonzalez-Albarran, Olga; Lucas-Morante, Tomas; Benitez, Javier; Ponder, Bruce A J; Robledo, Mercedes

    2005-04-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a tumor that arises from parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. MTC can occur sporadically (75%) or as part of inherited cancer syndromes (25%). In most cases, hereditary MTC evolves from preneoplastic C cell hyperplasia (CCH), so early detection of this pathology would evidently be critical. A recent study reports that alterations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) D are responsible for familial non-RET CCH. First, we studied SDHD in two families with hereditary non-RET CCH and found no alterations related to the inheritance of this disease. Then, we investigated whether the H50R variant could be a risk factor in the sporadic development of MTC in both Spanish and English patients. We found no evidence that the presence of the H50R is strongly associated with the risk of sporadic MTC, although we did observe an association with age at diagnosis of MTC in Spanish H50R carriers that we did not find in English patients. Finally, we looked for evidence of CCH or any other thyroid disease in a panel of germ-line SDH (B or D) mutation carriers and found none. We conclude that SDHD variants do not constitute a risk factor for developing CCH or sporadic MTC.

  20. Pembrolizumab and Lenvatinib in Treating Metastatic or Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Columnar Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Follicular Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma

  1. Mild to moderate increase of serum calcitonin levels only in presence of large medullary thyroid cancer deposits.

    PubMed

    Pelizzo, M R; Torresan, F; Da Roit, A; Merante Boschin, I; Chondrogiannis, S; Rampin, L; Colletti, P M; Vinjamury, S; Perkins, A J; Rubello, D

    2015-01-01

    Many open questions remain to be elucidated about the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). The most intriguing concerns the outcome of MTC patients after surgery. Great importance is usually given to serum calcitonin (Ct) and carcinoembryonic (CEA) levels. It is commonly believed that the higher are the levels of these tumor markers and their kinetics (double time and velocity of markers levels) the worst is the prognosis. However, this is not the rule, as there are huge MTC metastatic deposits characterized by low serum Ct and CEA levels, and this condition is not closely related to the outcome of the disease during post-surgical follow-up. A series is reported here of patients who have these characteristics, as well as a description of their prognosis and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein kinase C: a putative new target for the control of human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molè, Daniela; Gentilin, Erica; Gagliano, Teresa; Tagliati, Federico; Bondanelli, Marta; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Rossi, Martina; Filieri, Carlo; Pansini, Giancarlo; degli Uberti, Ettore C; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the control of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell proliferation by a PKC inhibitor, Enzastaurin, in human MTC primary cultures and in the TT cell line. We found that PKC inhibition reduces cell proliferation by inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis and blocks the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on calcitonin secretion. Enzastaurin reduces PKCβII (Thr500) phosphorylation, indicating a direct involvement of this isoform as well as the phosphorylated levels of Akt (Ser 473) and glycogen synthase kinase (Ser9), PKC pathway downstream targets and pharmacodynamic markers for PKC inhibition. PKCβII and PKCδ enzyme isoforms expression and localization were investigated. These data indicate that in vitro PKC is involved in the control of human MTC proliferation and survival by modulating apoptosis, with a mechanism that implicates PKCβII inhibition and translocation in different subcellular compartments. Targeting PKC may represent a useful therapeutic approach for controlling MTC proliferation.

  3. Bystander cytotoxicity in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells mediated by fusion yeast cytosine deaminase and 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, Lucia; Matuskova, Miroslava; Hlubinova, Kristina; Bohovic, Roman; Feketeova, Lucia; Janega, Pavol; Babal, Pavel; Poturnajova, Martina

    2011-12-01

    In our work, we have evaluated efficiency of gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT) based on combination of fusion yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) and 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) on model human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT. We determined the efficiency of this GDEPT approach in suicide and bystander cytotoxicity induction. We have shown significant bystander effect in vitro and 5FC administration resulted in potent antitumor effect in vivo. Furthermore, we have unraveled high efficiency of cell-mediated GDEPT, when human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were used as delivery vehicles in direct cocultures in vitro. Nevertheless, effector MSC exhibited inhibitory effect on TT cell proliferation and abrogated TT xenotransplant growth in vivo. We suggest that yCD/5FC combination represents another experimental treatment modality to be tested in MTC and our data further support the exploration of MSC antitumor potential for future use in metastatic MTC therapy.

  4. Case of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B with probable ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting liver metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Togashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    A 31 year old woman was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B at 10 years old. Dark pigmentation gradually developed on her skin and her serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was high, suggesting concurrent ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) loading test ruled out Cushing's disease and supported the diagnosis of EAS. Multiple low attenuation mass in the liver was observed in a computed tomography (CT) scan, and was suspected as ectopic ACTH-secreting metastatic tumor from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ACTH production by MTC is relatively rare, particularly in patients with MEN; patients with ectopic ACTH-secreting liver metastatic tumor from MTC in MEN 2B have never been reported previously.

  5. Case report: a p.C618S RET proto-oncogene germline mutation in a large Chinese pedigree with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, X-P; Ying, R-B; Ma, J-M; Liu, W-T; Du, Z-F; Fei, J; Yang, C-P; Song, Q-Z; Jin, H-Y; Chen, Z-G; Han, J-S; Wang, J-Q; Chen, X-L; Zhao, Y; Lu, J-J; Zhang, X-N

    2012-03-01

    We report a Chinese pedigree with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Direct sequencing of the entire coding sequences of Rearranged during Transfection (RET) identified a recurrent c.T1852A (p.C618S) mutation in 13 of 23 members. The polymorphisms c.A135G (p.A45A), c.A1296G (p.A432A), c.T2307G (p.L769L) and IVS19 + 15T > C were also found in 13 carriers, and c.G2073A (p.G691S) was found in 1 carrier. Of the 13 carriers, seven (mean age: 42.6 years, range: 27-64) presented MTC as the isolated clinical phenotype, with elevated basal serum calcitonin (average: 1077.9 ng/L, range: 504-2,652) and a mean diameter of thyroid nodules of 2.97 cm (range: 1.6-4.3); they underwent a total thyroidectomy with modified bilateral/unilateral neck dissection and/or level VI lymph node dissection. The other 6 carriers did not accept surgery (4 rejected, 2 awaited). These were 2 older patients (63 and 32 years) with elevated calcitonin (1359 and 41.4 ng/L) and multi-centric hypoechoic nodules (1.5 and 0.6 cm) with calcifications in both/left thyroid lobes; and Doppler ultrasound showed normal bilateral thyroids in 4 younger carriers (median age: 8.3 years, range: 4-12) but with increased calcitonin (average: 9.7 ng/L, range: 7.87-12.2) in 3 of them. The phenotype here is consistent with the clinical symptoms reported worldwide. We recommend that screening of hotspot regions of RET should be preferentially carried out, while whole-exon sequencing should be performed when clinical signs fail to reveal hotspot mutations or different phenotype discrepancies. Moreover, we strongly suggest prophylactic thyroidectomy should be performed before age 5 in carriers with p.C618S to prevent the occurrence and metastasis of MTC.

  6. Functional significance of the novel H-RAS gene mutation M72I in a patient with medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Barollo, S; Pezzani, R; Cristiani, A; Bertazza, L; Rubin, B; Bulfone, A; Pelizzo, M R; Torresan, F; Mantero, F; Pennelli, G; Moro, S; Mian, C

    2013-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for around 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. Though usually sporadic, 1 in 4 cases are of genetic origin, with germinal mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in familial forms and somatic mutations both in RET and in the RAS family genes in sporadic ones.This study aimed to characterize a rare H-RAS sequence variant -M72I- in a patient with sporadic MTC, focusing on its functional significance.Mutation analysis was performed for the RET, N-RAS, K-RAS and H-RAS genes by direct sequencing. Western blot analysis was done on 4 thyroid tissues from 1 patient carrying the M72I mutation in H-RAS, 1 with the Q61R mutation in H-RAS, 1 with no RET, H-RAS, K-RAS or N-RAS gene mutations, and 1 normal thyroid, using different antibodies against Erk1/2, phospho-Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), Akt and phospho-Akt (Ser473). Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were completed for H-RAS wt and H-RAS M72I.Western blot analysis demonstrated that both MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were activated in the MTC patient carrying the M72I variant. In silico results showed conformational changes in H-RAS that could influence its activation by Sos and phosphate binding. Results of molecular dynamics were consistent with Western blot experiments.The M72I mutation may contribute effectively to proliferation and survival signaling throughout the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. This work underscores the importance of studying genetic alterations that may lead to carcinogenesis.

  7. Genetic and epigenetic background and protein expression profiles in relation to telomerase activation in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Kjellin, Hanna; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Fotouhi, Omid; Juhlin, C. Christofer; Bäckdahl, Martin; Zedenius, Jan; Xu, Dawei; Lehtiö, Janne; Larsson, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) exhibit telomerase activation in strong association with shorter patient survival. To understand the background of telomerase activation we quantified TERT copy numbers and TERT promoter methylation in 42 MTCs and normal thyroid references. Gain of TERT was demonstrated by quantitative PCR in 5/39 sporadic MTC. Increased methylation index (MetI) for CpG methylation at the TERT promoter was found in sporadic MTCs (P < 0.0001) and in MEN 2 associated MTCs (P = 0.011) vs. normal thyroid tissues. MetI correlated positively with TERT gene expression (r = 0.432, P = 0.006) and negatively with telomere length (r = −0.343, P = 0.032). MTC cases with MetI above the median of 52% had shorter survival as compared to cases with lower MetI (P = 0.005 for overall survival and P = 0.007 for disease-related survival). Protein expression profiles obtained by mass spectrometry were then studied in relation to telomerase activation in MTCs. Comparing protein levels between tumors defined by telomerase activity status, 240 proteins were associated with telomerase activity. Among telomerase activation positive cases a set of proteins was found to discriminate between MTCs with high and low TERT gene expression with enrichment for proteins involved in telomerase regulation. XRCC5 mRNA expression was found increased in MTCs vs. normal thyroid (P = 0.007). In conclusion the findings suggest a role for TERT copy number gain, TERT promoter methylation and XRCC5 expression in telomerase activation and telomere maintenance of MTC. PMID:26870890

  8. Results and summary of voting among the audience during presentation and discussion of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma clinical guidelines prepared by American Thyroid Association.

    PubMed

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Soderstrom, Folke

    2013-03-14

    The one-day ETA-CRN meeting, preceding the ETA meeting in Lisbon, was planned in advance to provide a thorough assessment of the European response to the published American Thyroid Association MTC guidelines. During the meeting, following each of the European speakers, a series of questions, related to the specific aspect, were presented to the audience. The responses from the audience were collected by an AudioResponseSystem (ARS voting system). The results of the voting showed in summary that European expert opinion leaders and an audience of specialists in treatment of Medullary Carcinoma welcomes the American Guidelines on the management of MTC, but simultaneously only partially agrees with some of the statements in the guidelines.

  9. Demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of patients with medullary thyroid cancer in the past 16 years in Castilla-La Mancha.

    PubMed

    Louhibi, Lynda; Marco, Amparo; Pinés, Pedro J; Padillo, José C; Gómez, Inés; Valero, Miguel A; Alramadán, Mubarak; Herranz, Sandra; Aguirre, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer is a rare tumor that is more aggressive and has a worse prognosis than differentiated thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to report the demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of patients seen in the health care system of the community of Castilla-La Mancha over a 16-year period. Data were collected through a review of patients' medical records. The medical records of 58 patients (mean age at diagnosis, 51 years; range, 6-82 years; 63.8% women) were reviewed. Prevalence rate was 2.84 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, with a high variability between areas (range, 0-5.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). Familial cases accounted for 34.5% of all medullary thyroid cancers, and the most common mutation was C634Y. The condition was most commonly diagnosed following palpation of a cervical lump (70.6%). At diagnosis, 56 of 58 patients underwent ultrasound and 8 of 58 patients were tested for serum calcitonin. Tumor multicentricity was reported in 59 and 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2A and 2B, respectively, and in no sporadic cases. Fifty-two percent of patients had an advanced stage (iii or iv) at diagnosis. Median follow-up was 36 months (interquartile range, 14-210); 11 patients were lost to follow-up. In Castilla-La Mancha, medullary thyroid cancer is diagnosed by cervical ultrasound, rather than calcitonin assay. There is a high prevalence of both familial and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer, and a significant variability in the type of proto-oncogen rearranged during transfection mutation as compared to the rest of the Spanish population. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prophylactic thyroidectomy in pediatric carriers of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma: mutation in C620 is associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed

    Bütter, Andreana; Gagné, Julie; Al-Jazaeri, Ayman; Emran, Mohammad Ali; Deal, Cheri; St-Vil, Dickens

    2007-01-01

    Prophylactic total thyroidectomy is now recommended after having confirmed RET mutations in children of parents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. We reviewed our experience to determine the incidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma with respect to age at surgery, the location of the mutation, and its association with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). A retrospective review from 1996 to 2005 revealed 20 children with genetic screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A or familial medullary thyroid carcinoma who underwent a prophylactic total thyroidectomy with parathyroid gland preservation. The median age of the 20 patients (9 boys and 11 girls) included in this study was 8.2 years (range, 3.7-16.9 years) at the time of their surgery. Final pathology revealed normal thyroid tissue (n = 3; median age, 5.9 years), C-cell hyperplasia (n = 13; median age, 10 years), or medullary thyroid carcinoma (n = 4; median age, 8 years). Four children, all with mutations in C620, had a previous diagnosis of HD. At a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 1 month to 8.4 years), all patients were well and cancer free. There is no correlation between histologic findings and median age at surgery. Hirschsprung's disease was found in 50% of the patients with the RET mutation in C620. In children of C620 parents, symptoms of HD should be actively sought, and if such are found, rectal biopsies should be performed even if mutation results are not yet available. Based on the age of the earliest cancer and the safety of total thyroidectomy, children should promptly undergo surgery after genetic screening and before their fifth year of life.

  11. Pediatric medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with point mutation of RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia and initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chiling; Lemos, Luciano B; Kaelbling, Margot; Baliga, Mithra

    2003-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with a thyroid mass, elevated serum levels of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen, as well as multiple mucosal nodules in the upper lip and tongue. Cytologic material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy from the thyroid mass was diagnosed as medullary carcinoma and confirmed by immunohistochemical studies in the cell-block sections. Subsequent histopathologic examination showed involvement of both thyroid lobes by medullary carcinoma, and electron microscopic studies further confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular studies showed a point mutation in amino acid 918 in exon 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Biopsies from the upper lip and tongue showed mucosal neuromas. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is frequently used in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules. This case illustrates the value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy as a safe and accurate diagnostic modality in the workup of pediatric thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy should always be considered for the investigation of thyroid nodules in pediatric patients.

  12. Differences in the transcriptome of medullary thyroid cancer regarding the status and type of RET gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Swierniak, Michal; Krajewska, Jolanta; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Kowal, Monika; Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Rusinek, Dagmara; Pawlaczek, Agnieszka; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Szpak-Ulczok, Sylwia; Gawlik, Tomasz; Chmielik, Ewa; Tyszkiewicz, Tomasz; Nikiel, Barbara; Lange, Dariusz; Jarzab, Michal; Wiench, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) can be caused by germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene or occurs as a sporadic form. It is well known that RET mutations affecting the cysteine-rich region of the protein (MEN2A-like mutations) are correlated with different phenotypes than those in the kinase domain (MEN2B-like mutations). Our aim was to analyse the whole-gene expression profile of MTC with regard to the type of RET gene mutation and the cancer genetic background (hereditary vs sporadic). We studied 86 MTC samples. We demonstrated that there were no distinct differences in the gene expression profiles of hereditary and sporadic MTCs. This suggests a homogeneous nature of MTC. We also noticed that the site of the RET gene mutation slightly influenced the gene expression profile of MTC. We found a significant association between the localization of RET mutations and the expression of three genes: NNAT (suggested to be a tumour suppressor gene), CDC14B (involved in cell cycle control) and NTRK3 (tyrosine receptor kinase that undergoes rearrangement in papillary thyroid cancer). This study suggests that these genes are significantly deregulated in tumours with MEN2A-like and MEN2B-like mutations; however, further investigations are necessary to demonstrate any clinical impact of these findings. PMID:28181547

  13. A Multicenter Phase 2 Trial of Pazopanib in Metastatic and Progressive Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: MC057H

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Vera J.; Molina, Julian R.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Maples, William J.; Menefee, Michael E.; Rubin, Joseph; Karlin, Nina; Sideras, Kostandinos; Morris, John C.; McIver, Bryan; Hay, Ian; Fatourechi, Vahab; Burton, Jill K.; Webster, Kevin P.; Bieber, Carolyn; Traynor, Anne M.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Cher Goh, Boon; Isham, Crescent R.; Harris, Pamela; Erlichman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pazopanib is a small molecule inhibitor of kinases principally including vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1, -2, and -3; platelet-derived growth factor receptors-α and -β; and c-Kit. We previously reported a tumor response rate of 49% in patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and 0% in patients with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer. The present report details results of pazopanib therapy in advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Objective, Design, Setting, Patients, Intervention, and Outcome Measures: Having noted preclinical activity of pazopanib in MTC, patients with advanced MTC who had disease progression within the preceding 6 months were accrued to this multiinstitutional phase II clinical trial to assess tumor response rate (by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria) and safety of pazopanib given orally once daily at 800 mg until disease progression or intolerability. Results: From September 22, 2008, to December 11, 2011, 35 individuals (80% males, median age 60 y) were enrolled. All patients have been followed up until treatment discontinuation or for a minimum of four cycles. Eight patients (23%) are still on the study treatment. The median number of therapy cycles was eight. Five patients attained partial Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors responses (14.3%; 90% confidence interval 5.8%–27.7%), with a median progression-free survival and overall survival of 9.4 and 19.9 months, respectively. Side effects included treatment-requiring (new) hypertension (33%), fatigue (14%), diarrhea (9%), and abnormal liver tests (6%); 3 of 35 patients (8.6%) discontinued therapy due to adverse events. There was one death of a study patient after withdrawal from the trial deemed potentially treatment related. Conclusions: Pazopanib has promising clinical activity in metastatic MTC with overall manageable toxicities. PMID:24606083

  14. ATF4 Targets RET for Degradation and Is a Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene in Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bagheri-Yarmand, Rozita; Williams, Michelle D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Gagel, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an aggressive tumor that harbors activating mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. We previously reported that RET inhibits transcriptional activity of ATF4, the master regulator of the stress response pathway, to prevent cell death. We hypothesized that loss of function of ATF4 plays a role in initiation of MTC. Targeted deletion of Atf4 in mice was used to assess ATF4 function in the thyroid gland. ATF4 overexpression was achieved by adenoviral and lentiviral vectors. We used immunohistochemical analysis and western blotting of MTC tumors to determine protein levels of RET and ATF4 and the Kaplan-Meier method to determine their association with clinical outcome. Targeted deletion of Atf4 in mice causes C-cell hyperplasia, a precancerous lesion for MTC. Forced ATF4 expression decreased survival of MTC cells and blocked the activation of RET downstream signaling pathways (phosphorylated ERK, phosphorylated AKT, and p70S6K). ATF4 knockdown decreased sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Moreover, ATF4 expression decreased RET protein levels by promoting RET ubiquitination. We found decreased or loss of ATF4 in 52% of MTC tumors (n = 39) compared with normal thyroid follicle cells. A negative correlation was observed between RET and ATF4 protein levels in MTC tumors, and low ATF4 expression was associated with poor overall survival in patients with MTC. ATF4 was identified as a negative regulator of RET, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, and may be a molecular marker that distinguishes patients at high risk of MTC from those with a longer survival prognosis.

  15. Search of the p.M918T Mutation in the RET Oncogene in Mexican Adult Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Erika; Vidal-Millan, Silvia; Lopez-Yañez, Alicia; Torres, José Antonio Posada; Guadarrama-Orozco, Jorge Alberto; Lino-Silva, Leonardo Saul; Meneses-Garcia, Abelardo; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Garcia, Martin Granados

    2017-02-06

    Inherited mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, predispose individuals to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) cancer syndromes. The major component tumor of these syndromes is medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). To date, somatic mutations in RET have been identified in tumors from individuals with MEN 2 finding. RET M918T mutation is present in 95% of the MEN2B cases, and approximately 50% of sporadic MTCs harbor this mutation. We performed a mutational analysis in 17 cases of Medullary thyroid carcinoma, the somatic missense mutation at codon 918 of RET was found in 2 of the 17 MTCs, and one case presented MEN2 phenotype including MTC. The percentage of RET M918T mutation is similar in Mexican MTC patients to other series, although other mutations could be implicated in our population.

  16. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  17. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumour: report of three cases with molecular analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Fugazzola, L; De Pasquale, L; Braidotti, P; Cirello, V; Beck-Peccoz, P; Bosari, S; Bastagli, A

    2005-06-01

    We report the simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), presenting as spatially distinct and well-defined tumour components, in three cases. In the first patient, histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy demonstrated an MTC in the one nodule and PTC in two additional lesions. Non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma separated the three nodules. Metastasis from PTC was diagnosed in a regional lymph node. Genetic analysis of both tumour components showed a distinctive mutational pattern: in the MTC a Cys634Arg substitution in exon 11 of the RET gene and in the two PTC foci a Val600Glu substitution in exon 15 of the BRAF gene. The other two patients are members of a large multigenerational family affected with familial MTC due to a germline mutation of the RET gene (Ala891Ser). Both patients harboured, besides medullary cancer and C-cell hyperplasia, distinct foci of papillary thyroid cancer, which was positive for Val600Glu BRAF mutation. Review of the literature disclosed 18 similar lesions reported and allowed the identification of different patterns of clinical presentation and biological behaviour. So far, the pathogenesis of these peculiar cases of thyroid malignancy has been completely unknown, but an underlying common genetic drive has been hypothesised. This is the first report in which two mutations, in the RET and BRAF genes, have been identified in three cases of MTC/PTC collision tumour, thus documenting the different genetic origin of these two coexisting carcinomas.

  18. Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Massive Amyloid Deposition in a Parathyroid Gland Associated with Amyloid Goiter: A Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Mimic on Intra-operative Frozen Section.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kirk; Diaz, Jason; Hagemann, Ian S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2017-09-06

    Clinical examples of amyloid deposition in parathyroid glands are exceedingly rare and usually present as an incidental finding in a patient with amyloid goiter. Here, we present the first histologically documented case of parathyroid amyloid deposition that presented as a mass. The patient did not have hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid gland was submitted for intra-operative frozen section and concern for medullary thyroid carcinoma was raised. An important histologic clue arguing against medullary thyroid carcinoma was the evenly dispersed nature of the amyloid. Histologic perinuclear clearing and parathyroid hormone immunohistochemistry confirmed parathyroid origin on permanent sections. The patient was also found to have associated amyloid goiter. Mass spectrometry of the amyloid showed it to be composed of kappa light chains. On further work-up, the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Awareness of parathyroid amyloid deposition is important as it is a histologic mimic of medullary thyroid carcinoma, especially on frozen section. Amyloid typing with evaluation for multiple myeloma in any patient with kappa or lambda light chain restriction is also important.

  19. Response to [90Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC treatment is associated with long-term survival benefit in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer: a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Iten, Fabienne; Müller, Beat; Schindler, Christian; Rochlitz, Christoph; Oertli, Daniel; Mäcke, Helmut R; Müller-Brand, Jan; Walter, Martin A

    2007-11-15

    We aimed to explore the efficacy of (90)Yttrium-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacyclododecane N,N',N'',N-'''-tetraacetic acid ((90)Y-DOTA)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (TOC) therapy in advanced medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase II trial, we investigated the response, survival, and long-term safety profile of systemic [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC treatment in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer. Adverse events were assessed according to the criteria of the National Cancer Institute. Survival analyses were done using multiple regression models. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. A median cumulative activity of 12.6 GBq (range, 1.7-29.6 GBq) of [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC was administered. Response was found in nine patients (29.0%). Four patients (12.9%) developed hematologic toxicities and seven patients (22.6%) developed renal toxicities. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.81; P = 0.02) and from time of first [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (hazard ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.63; P = 0.009). The visual grade of scintigraphic tumor uptake was not associated with treatment response or survival. Response to [(90)Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy in metastasized medullary thyroid cancer is associated with a long-term survival benefit. Treatment should be considered independently from the result of the pretherapeutic scintigraphy.

  20. Iodine I 131 and Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer Previously Treated With Iodine I 131 That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-04

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  1. Targeting post-translational histone modifications for the treatment of non-medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Mio, Catia; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Verrienti, Antonella; Bulotta, Stefania; Durante, Cosimo; Damante, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego

    2017-06-02

    Genomic and epigenetic alterations are now being exploited as molecular targets in cancer treatment. Abnormalities involving the post-translational modification of histones have been demonstrated in thyroid cancer, and they are regarded as promising molecular targets for novel drug treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional therapies. After a brief overview of the histone modifications most commonly associated with human malignancies, we will review recently published preclinical and clinical findings regarding the use of histone-activity modulators in thyroid cancers. Particular attention will be focused on their use as re-differentiating or anti-proliferating agents, the differential effects observed when they are used alone and in combination with other targeted drugs, and current prospects for their use in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  3. The expression of the truncated isoform of somatostatin receptor subtype 5 associates with aggressiveness in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Molè, Daniela; Gentilin, Erica; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Gagliano, Teresa; Gahete, Manuel D; Tagliati, Federico; Rossi, Roberta; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Pansini, Giancarlo; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P; degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2015-11-01

    The truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 associates with increased invasiveness and aggressiveness in breast cancer. We previously found that sst5 activation may counteract sst2 selective agonist effects in a medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line, the TT cells, and that sst5TMD4 is overexpressed in poorly differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sst5TMD4 expression in a series of human MTC and to explore the functional role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells. We evaluated sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression in 36 MTC samples. Moreover, we investigated the role of sst5TMD4 in TT cells evaluating cell number, DNA synthesis, free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), calcitonin and vascular endothelial growth factor levels, cell morphology, protein expression, and invasion. We found that in MTC the balance between sst5TMD4 and sst5 expression influences disease stage. sst5TMD4 overexpression in TT cells confers a greater growth capacity, blocks sst2 agonist-induced antiproliferative effects, modifies the cell phenotype, decreases E-cadherin and phosphorylated β-catenin levels, increases vimentin, total β-catenin and phosphorylated GSK3B levels (in keeping with the development of epithelial to mesenchymal transition), and confers a greater invasion capacity. This is the first evidence indicating that sst5TMD4 is expressed in human MTC cells, where it associates with more aggressive behavior, suggesting that sst5TMD4 might play a functionally relevant role.

  4. Germline RET sequence variation I852M and occult medullary thyroid cancer: harmless polymorphism or causative mutation?

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Spitschak, Alf; Lorenz, Kerstin; Pützer, Brigitte M; Dralle, Henning

    2011-12-01

    Rearranged during transfection (RET) gene analysis, widely used to identify carriers at risk of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), occasionally uncovers novel sequence 'variants of unknown clinical significance' including RET I852M. This study aimed to clarify whether RET I852M represents a harmless polymorphism or a pathogenic mutation. Clinical investigation supported by functional characterization of I852M mutant cells in vitro. Genotype-phenotype correlation including five kindreds from a three-generational Caucasian I852M RET family. A node-negative occult MTC was found in the 64-year-old index patient who had increased basal and stimulated peak calcitonin levels of 190 and 13 307 ng/l, respectively. Her 4-year-old grandson had no histopathological evidence of C-cell disease although his serum calcitonin levels had increased within 5 months from 3·2 to 6·3 ng/l basally and from 17·2 to 24·5 ng/l after pentagastrin stimulation. His mother and two 11- and 1·5-year-old siblings, also carrying the gene, had normal basal and stimulated calcitonin levels and hence did not undergo surgery. Functional characterization of transfected NIH3T3 cells in vitro (cell proliferation rate; cell viability; anchorage-independent cell growth; cell migration; and invasion) indicated that I852M mutant cells have transforming and migratory activities similar to American Thyroid Association (ATA) class A V804M mutants. I852M mutants demonstrated a weaker proliferative potential than fast-proliferating ATA class C C634R mutants and revealed a weaker migratory activity compared with aggressively growing ATA class D A883F mutants. I852M sequence variations represent genuine RET mutations, falling into ATA class A of weakly activating RET germline mutations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Routine exposure of recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery can prevent nerve injury★

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chenling; Xiang, Mingliang; Wu, Hao; Ma, Yan; Chen, Li; Cheng, Lan

    2013-01-01

    To determine the value of dissecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery with respect to preventing recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 5 344 patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Among these cases, 548 underwent dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, while 4 796 did not. There were 12 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury following recurrent laryngeal nerve dissection (injury rate of 2.2%) and 512 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in those not undergoing nerve dissection (injury rate of 10.7%). This difference remained statistically significant between the two groups in terms of type of thyroid disease, type of surgery, and number of surgeries. Among the 548 cases undergoing recurrent laryngeal nerve dissection, 128 developed anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (incidence rate of 23.4%), but no recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was found. In addition, the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was significantly lower in patients with the inferior parathyroid gland and middle thyroid veins used as landmarks for locating the recurrent laryngeal nerve compared with those with the entry of the recurrent laryngeal nerve into the larynx as a landmark. These findings indicate that anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve are common, and that dissecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery is an effective means of preventing nerve injury. PMID:25206452

  6. Metastatic lymph node ratio can further stratify risk for mortality in medullary thyroid cancer patients: A population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhong-wu; Liao, Tian; Wen, Duo; Sun, Guo-hua; Li, Duan-shu; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has a propensity to cervical lymph node metastases (LNM). Recent studies have shown that both the number of involved lymph nodes (LNs) and the metastatic lymph node ratio (MLNR) confer prognostic information. This study was to determine the predictive value of MLNR on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-registered MTC patients treated with thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy between 1991 and 2012, investigate the cutoff points for MLNR in stratifying risk of mortality and provide evidence for selection of appropriate treatment strategies. X-tile program determined 0.5 as optimal cut-off value for MLNR in terms of CSS in 890 MTC patients. According to multivariate Cox regression analysis, MLNR (0.50–1.00) is a significant independent prognostic factor for CSS (hazard ratio 2.161, 95% confidence interval 1.327–3.519, p=0.002). MLNR (0.50–1.00) has a greater prognostic impact on CSS in female, non-Hispanic white, T3/4, N1b and M1 patients. The lymph node yield (LNY) influences the effect of MLNR on CSS; LNY ≥9 results in MLNR (0.50–1.00) having a higher HR for CSS than MLNR (0.00-0.49). In conclusion, higher MLNRs predict poorer survival in MTC patients. Eradication of involved nodes ensures accurate staging and maximizes the ability of MLNR to predict prognosis. PMID:27588396

  7. Interleukin-2 and lanreotide in the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Lupoli, Giovanni; Guarrasi, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria; Dicitore, Alessandra; Gaudenzi, Germano; Misso, Gabriella; Castellano, Maria; Addeo, Raffaele; Facchini, Gaetano; Del Prete, Salvatore; Caraglia, Michele

    2013-10-01

    To date no efficacious treatments are available for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We investigated in vitro and in vivo a new strategy for the therapy of MTC, combining human recombinant IL-2 with lanreotide (LAN), a somatostatin analog. The in vitro effects of LAN on the sensitivity of TT cells, a MTC cell line, to IL-2-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by a lactate dehydrogenase release assay. In addition, we evaluated the toxicity, the effects on quality of life, and the antitumor activity of sc low-dose IL-2 in combination with LAN (90 mg every 28 days) in a series of 6 patients with symptomatic and advanced MTC. The cytotoxicity of IL-2-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly increased in TT cells treated with LAN or LAN plus IL-2 compared with that in TT cells without treatment. The therapy was well tolerated, and a statistically significant improvement of quality of life was observed in patients treated with the combination of LAN and IL-2. After 6 months of therapy, partial response and stable disease have been recorded in 2 and 3 patients, respectively, with a significant decrease in calcitonin levels in 3 patients. Both in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that the combination of LAN and IL-2 may have a role in the management of advanced and symptomatic MTC. However, these preliminary data require further validation in larger randomized trials.

  8. Tissue-specific gene expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells employing calcitonin regulatory elements and AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Altmann, A; Grimm, D; Kleinschmidt, J A; Schilling, T; Germann, C; Haberkorn, U

    2001-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT), the major secretory product of the C cell, is also expressed in C-cell-derived neoplasia. To investigate the role of the CT gene regulatory sequence in tissue-specific gene expression, the genes coding for the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) and for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) regulated by the CT promoter (rAAV/CT266tkneo), the CT promoter/enhancer element (rAAV/CTenhtkneo), or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (rAAV/CMVtkneo) were transduced by recombinant adenoassociated viral (AAV) vectors into the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell lines TT and hMTC and into HeLa cells as controls. In TT cell lines and hMTC cell lines transiently infected by the rAAV/CT266tkneo viruses, a significant increase in (3)H ganciclovir uptake was observed. Upon ganciclovir treatment, TT cells infected by rAAV/CT266tkneo revealed a significant growth inhibition, which was less tissue-specific because HeLa cells were also affected by these particles (74.5%). In contrast, a minor but more tissue-specific growth inhibition (33.6%) was observed for TT cells after transient infection with the rAAV/CTenhtkneo particles. Employing EGFP controlled by CMV promoter and the individual CT regulatory sequences for transduction by rAAV particles, similar results were obtained indicating that both the CT promoter and enhancer element are required for tissue-specific gene expression in MTC.

  9. Basal and stimulated calcitonin and procalcitonin by various assays in patients with and without medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Jürgen; Petzold, Anne; Raue, Friedhelm; Reinhardt, Walter; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Görges, Rainer; Mann, Klaus; Karges, Wolfram; Morgenthaler, Nils; Luster, Markus; Reiners, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Dralle, Henning; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-03-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is a sensitive marker for evaluation of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, CT measurement can vary with assay- and nonassay-dependent factors, and procalcitonin (PCT) measurement has been proposed for evaluating questionable increases in CT. We tested 2 fully automated CT assays (Immulite [IL] and Liaison [LIA]) and 1 nonautomated CT assay (IRMA, Medipan) and compared these results with PCT (Brahms Kryptor). We evaluated preanalytical conditions and PCT cross-reactivity in sera of 437 patients with clinical conditions associated with hypercalcitoninemia. Additionally, we determined the true "nil" CT concentration in 60 thyroidectomized patients and defined CT cutoff concentrations for pentagastrin stimulation testing in 13 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 10 MTC patients. Markedly decreased CT concentrations were found after storage of sera for >2 h at room temperature and >6 h at 4 °C. Cutoff concentrations for basal and stimulated CT were disease and assay dependent. Proton pump inhibitor therapy was the most frequent reason for increased CT. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with MTC than in patients with CKD without infections (P<0.001). Whereas IL and LIA demonstrated comparable analytical quality, the IRMA gave increased CT concentrations in nil sera and showed cross-reactivity with PCT in patients with concomitant bacterial infection. IL, LIA, and IRMA detected increased CT concentrations in non-MTC patients and discriminated MTC from CKD patients in pentagastrin tests. PCT assessment may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of increased CT concentrations in questionable clinical circumstances.

  10. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  11. Prognostic value of codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) RET proto-oncogene mutations in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schilling, T; Bürck, J; Sinn, H P; Clemens, A; Otto, H F; Höppner, W; Herfarth, C; Ziegler, R; Schwab, M; Raue, F

    2001-01-20

    We have determined the frequency of 918 RET proto-oncogene mutations (ATG-->ACG) in primary MTC tumors and metastases and correlated the presence or absence of this mutation with the clinical outcome of patients suffering from sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A total of 197 samples, consisting of both primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 34 patients with sporadic MTC, were collected for PCR analysis of the RET 918 mutation. In 75 of the samples (38%), codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) mutations could be detected. The mutations showed a heterogeneous distribution: 21/34 patients (62%) had mutations in at least 1 tumor sample, and in 13 patients (38%) the mutation was present in all examined samples. Patients were considered 918mt when at least 1 tumor sample showed the RET 918 mutation. These 918mt and 918 wild-type (918wt) patients did not differ significantly concerning sex, age at diagnosis, TNM stage at diagnosis, number of examined tumor samples or follow-up time. However, 918mt patients showed more aggressive development of distant metastases during follow-up (p = 0.032, Fisher's exact test) with decreased metastases-free survival (p < 0.005, log-rank test). Furthermore, 918mt patients had a significantly lower survival rate than 918wt patients (p = 0.048, log-rank test). These data show that the RET codon 918 mutation has a prognostic impact on patients with sporadic MTC which may influence follow-up treatment.

  12. Genetic and Clinical Features of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: The Experience of a Single Center in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Torrealba, Gabriel; Sáenz, Adriana; Santamaría, Carlos; Morera, Estela; Alvarado, Silvia; Roa, Yolanda; González, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Activating mutations in the RET gene leads to medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Guidelines encourage performing RET analysis in subjects with hereditary and sporadic disease. Materials and Methods. Design. Observational, case series report study. Patients. Subjects diagnosed with MTC, with a thyroidectomy performed in a single center in Costa Rica between the years 2006 and 2015. Diagnosis and Follow-Up. Pre- and postoperative calcitonin, RET mutation, and neck ultrasound and tomography were obtained. Results. 21 subjects with histological diagnosis of MTC were followed up. The average age at diagnosis was 52.0 ± 15.7 years. The preoperative mean value of calcitonin was 1340 ± 665 pg/mL. Evidence of RET mutation was found in 26.3% of the patients, with only 2 of them grouped in the same kindred. We found statistically significant differences in mean ages between mutated (38.4 ± 20.2 y) versus nonmutated RET gene (54.6 ± 11.8 y, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences regarding tumor size, metastases, and surgical reintervention. Conclusions. We report the results of RET mutation analysis in subjects with MTC in a single center of Costa Rica. The availability of this tool increases the probability of identifying familial MTC, with the benefit of detecting affected subjects and their relatives at an earlier age. PMID:28018431

  13. [The role of scintigraphy with the use of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Czepczyński, Rafał; Kosowicz, Jerzy; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Mikołajczak, Renata; Gryczyńska, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Recently a new somatostatin analogue labelled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has been synthetized. Aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC in the radionuclide imaging in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). 30 patients with MTC aged 22-83 years in different stages of the disease were investigated. In 6 patients (group 1) scintigraphy was performed before surgery directly after diagnosis of MTC. Four patients (group 2) were qualified to the study in the phase of remission after surgical treatment that had been confirmed by low concentrations of calcitonin. Twenty patients (group 3) were investigated due to stagnation or recurrence confirmed by persistent hypercalcitoninemia. The scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd, POLATOM) was performed 2 and 4 hours post injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of the tracer. Other imaging techniques were also employed and analysed in individual cases (US, CT, (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA, (131)I-MIBG, (99m)Tc-MDP, (111)In-octreotide and FDG-PET). Images obtained 2 and 4 hours p.i. were similar. In group 1, uptake of the tracer was found in the primary tumour of MTC in all patients. In group 2, a false positive result was found in 1 of 6 patients. In the remaining 5 of 6 cases no pathological foci were visualised. In group 3, uptake in the thyroid bed was found in 3 of 20 cases and in the lymph nodes in 14 of 20 patients. In 3 of 20 cases uptake in the bone metastases was found. Globally, sensitivity of the scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC was 86.4%, specificity - 75.0%, and accuracy - 84.6%. The scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC showed high utility in the diagnosis of MTC. Confirmation of the presence of somatostatin receptors with this method may be used for treatment planning: surgery or radionuclide therapy.

  14. The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Weinhaeusel, Andreas; Scheuba, Christian; Lauss, Martin; Kriegner, Albert; Kaserer, Klaus; Vierlinger, Klemens; Haas, Oskar A; Niederle, Bruno

    2008-12-01

    RET germline mutations predispose to the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (hMTC). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are described associated with sporadic MTC (sMTC). However, the findings regarding their influence on the clinical course and biological behavior of this disorder are discordant. To clarify the contradictory findings, we studied the association of certain SNPs considering age, gender, and histopathology in a large Austrian cohort with C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC. Genotyping of SNPs located in RET codons 691, 769, 836, and 904 from 199 patients with MTC and CCH (basal calcitonin > 10 pg/mL, pentagastrin stimulated > 100 pg/mL) was performed, and the results were analyzed considering gender, age at diagnosis, and histopathology. No significant difference of SNP frequencies was found in the study patients versus normal controls. In sMTC and sporadic CCH (sCCH) no significant association of SNP frequency with the age at diagnosis was found. In patients with sporadic C-cell disease (sCCH and sMTC), 3.7 times more males than females suffered synchronously from papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (20/97 [20.6%] males; 3/54 [5.6%] females; p = 0.02). sCCH was revealed more frequently in males (89/97, 91.7%) than in females (27/54, 50%; p = 10(-8)). In contrast to males, the ratio of CCH to total C-cell disease was significantly higher in females with hereditary (26/32, 81%) compared to those with sporadic disease (27/54, 50%; p = 0.006). In this study RET SNPs had no clinical impact on the development of sporadic C-cell disease when the age of diagnosis or gender is considered. C-cell disease seems to predispose males to the development of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. In addition, at least in females with CCH RET germline mutation, screening is recommended even if the family history is negative for MTC.

  15. Medullary thyroid cancer: clinico-pathological profile and outcome in a tertiary care center in North India.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Prateek Kumar; Mishra, Anjali; Mishra, Saroj Kanta; Agarwal, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amit; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in genetic screening have ushered in a new era in diagnosis and management of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, the same is not true for a resource-poor country, where clinicians are still struggling to diagnose and adequately manage this relatively uncommon thyroid malignancy. We hereby present our experience of managing MTC at a tertiary care referral center in North India. This was a retrospective study conducted between January 1990 and July 2009. Demographics, clinical profiles, details of surgical procedures, and follow-up records were reviewed. A total of 71 patients with MTC were identified. Mean age of this group was 39.9±14.1 years, and men outnumbered women 1.7:1. Some 84.5% of patients had seemingly sporadic MTC, and 15.5% had familial MTC (MEN2a=14.1%, MEN 2b=1.4%). All patients had a thyroid nodule at the time of presentation. Mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm. Cervical lymphadenopathy, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, extrathyroidal invasion, and distant metastases were present in 59%, 7.2%, 10%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Staging showed that 4.8% of patients were stage I, 17.5% stage II, 14.3% stage III, and 63.6% stage IV. Treatment was as follows: 92.6% of patients had total thyroidectomy (primary or secondary); 67.6% central compartment lymph node dissection, 62.3% lateral cervical lymph node dissection, and 7.2% trans-sternal mediastinal lymph node dissection performed. Some 66.7% of patients suffered from persistent hypercalcitoninemia, and 11.4% of those underwent reoperation. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) was 74.6% and 58%, respectively. The majority of the patients with MTC presented at stage IVa, contributing to the high rate of persistent hypercalcitoninemia. Despite a policy of observation and intervening only in overtly symptomatic patients with persistent hypercalcitoninemia, overall survival (OS) in our study was comparable to other series, reinforcing the belief that persistent

  16. Association of Socioeconomic Status and Race/Ethnicity With Treatment and Survival in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ansley M; Fedewa, Stacey A; Chen, Amy Y

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a relatively rare neoplasm of the thyroid but accounts for 14% of thyroid cancer-related deaths. Female sex, young age, and stage at presentation have been found to predict survival and treatment. However, patterns of survival and treatment by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity have not been fully described. To determine whether socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity are associated with survival and treatment in patients with MTC. Data for 1647 patients with MTC from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program registry were examined. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2013, to July 31, 2014. Differences in receipt of thyroidectomy and lymph node examination by race/ethnicity were examined using logistic regression models. Overall and disease-specific survival were examined by race/ethnicity using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Of the 1647 patients with MTC were 1192 white (72.4%), 139 black (8.4%), 222 Hispanic (13.5%), and 94 other races/ethnicities (5.7%). Of these, 1539 (93.4%) underwent surgical treatment. There were no differences in receipt of thyroidectomy by race/ethnicity; however, black patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.93) and female patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.99) were less likely to undergo lymph node examination compared with non-Hispanic white and male patients. Black patients had lower overall (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.45-3.98) and disease-specific survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.64-5.14) compared with non-Hispanic white patients. In this population-based study of patients with MTC, black patients were less likely to have lymph node examination following surgery. Furthermore, Hispanic and black patients had poorer overall and disease-specific survival compared with non-Hispanic white patients after accounting for

  17. Medullary Thyroid Cancer in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: To Treat or Not to Treat—and With Which Drug—Those Are the Questions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mimi I.; Jimenez, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare form of thyroid cancer comprising approximately 4% of all thyroid cancers. The majority of patients have a relatively good prognosis; however, a subgroup of patients will require systemic therapy. Large phase III randomized trials led to the approval of two drugs—vandetanib and cabozantinib—for progressive or symptomatic MTC. The decision regarding which drug to initiate first is not entirely clear and is a common concern amongst treating physicians. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A review of the literature in English was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated into a decision matrix. Conclusions: The decision regarding which drug to initiate first for progressive MTC should be based on a careful review of the medical history, physical examination findings, medication list, electrocardiogram, laboratory results, and tumor characteristics. It is necessary to consider the relative contraindications when choosing which drug to initiate first. PMID:25238206

  18. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 2-month-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B and symptoms of pseudo-Hirschsprung disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Annika; Fitze, Guido; Jänig, Ute; Bielack, Stefan; Lochbühler, Helmut; Coerdt, Wiltrud

    2007-09-01

    A 5-week-old male patient was seen for symptoms suggestive of Hirschsprung disease (abdominal distension, failure to thrive, and explosive defecation). Rectum biopsies revealed an intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, which is usually associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome type 2B. The ensuing molecular genetic analysis revealed a M918T mutation of the RET protooncogene, which is associated with early-onset medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Therefore, total thyroidectomy and central lymphadenectomy were performed at the age of 9 weeks. Histology showed a medullary microcarcinoma. This report of MTC occurrence within the first weeks of life underlines the importance of early diagnosis and thyroidectomy in patients with MEN 2B syndrome. Because many patients with MEN 2A and B show gastrointestinal symptoms before the development of MTC, the possibility of MEN 2 should be recognized, and genetic testing for the presence of RET mutations should be included in the explorative diagnosis for megacolon.

  19. The cAMP analogs have potent anti-proliferative effects on medullary thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dicitore, Alessandra; Grassi, Elisa Stellaria; Caraglia, Michele; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Gaudenzi, Germano; Hofland, Leo J; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic activation of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene has a main role in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Several lines of evidence suggest that RET function could be influenced by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity. We evaluated the in vitro anti-tumor activity of 8-chloroadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP) and PKA type I-selective cAMP analogs [equimolar combination of the 8-piperidinoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-PIP-cAMP) and 8-hexylaminoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-HA-cAMP) in MTC cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1)]. 8-Cl-cAMP and the PKA I-selective cAMP analogs showed a potent anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. In detail, 8-Cl-cAMP blocked significantly the transition of TT cell population from G2/M to G0/G1 phase and from G0/G1 to S phase and of MZ-CRC-1 cells from G0/G1 to S phase. Moreover, 8-Cl-cAMP induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as demonstrated by FACS analysis for annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. On the other hand, the only effect induced by PKA I-selective cAMP analogs was a delay in G0/G1-S and S-G2/M progression in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells, respectively. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that cAMP analogs, particularly 8-Cl-cAMP, significantly suppress in vitro MTC proliferation and provide rationale for a potential clinical use of cAMP analogs in the treatment of advanced MTC.

  20. Integration of a postoperative calcitonin measurement into an anatomical staging system improves initial risk stratification in medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji H; Lindsey, Susan C; Camacho, Cléber P; Valente, Flávia O F; Germano-Neto, Fausto; Machado, Alberto L; Mamone, Maria Conceição O C; Brodskyn, Fábio; Biscolla, Rosa Paula M; Tuttle, Robert Michael; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus R; Maciel, Rui M B

    2015-12-01

    Staging systems applied to medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) rely on initial clinical and pathological features and do not consider the response to treatment. To determine whether MTC staging can be improved by incorporating the first postoperative calcitonin measurement. Eighty-five patients being monitored for MTC (median follow-up 5 years) were retrospectively classified according to both the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the proposed combined risk stratification system (low, intermediate and high risk), which incorporates the first postoperative calcitonin measurement, using the outcomes no evidence of disease (NED), biochemical evidence of disease, structurally identifiable disease and death. Ninety per cent of AJCC I patients were classified as NED at final follow-up. When we added a postoperative calcitonin measurement, 95% low-risk patients were classified as NED at final follow-up. AJCC stages I and IV were associated, respectively, with no occurrence and a high rate (63%) of structurally identifiable disease. Stages II and III yielded similar predictions of structurally identifiable disease, 13% and 14%, respectively. When we included the postoperative calcitonin level, the patients with structural evidence of disease included none from the low-risk group, 10% from the intermediate group and 63% from the high-risk group. The proportion of variance explained analysis (PVE) was better for the combined risk stratification system (54%) than for the AJCC system alone (32%). Including the first postoperative calcitonin measurement with the anatomical staging system can better predict the clinical outcome of patients with MTC and refine the follow-up of these patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phase II study of plitidepsin 3-hour infusion every 2 weeks in patients with unresectable advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric; Droz, Jean P; Paz-Ares, Luis; van Oosterom, Allan T; Cullell-Young, Martin; Schlumberger, Martin

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the antitumor response, time-to-event efficacy endpoints and toxicity of plitidepsin (Aplidin) 5 mg/m as a 3-hour intravenous (i.v.) infusion every 2 weeks in patients with unresectable advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Sixteen patients with MTC and disease progression or large tumor burden received plitidepsin. Tumor response and time-related parameters were evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Secondary efficacy endpoints were marker response (calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen), clinical benefit and quality of life. Safety was assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. A total of 141 cycles (median, 9 per patient; range, 1-24) were administered. No complete responses or partial responses (PR) were found, and 12 patients had stable disease for >8 weeks. Median follow-up was 15.0 months. Median time to progression was 5.3 months. Median overall survival could not be calculated, but 86.7% and 66.0% of patients were alive at 6 and 12 months. Marker response included 1 unconfirmed PR and 2 stabilizations for calcitonin, and 1 unconfirmed PR and 4 stabilizations for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. One patient showed clinical benefit. Quality of life scores generally decreased during the study. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate. Grade 3 lymphopenia was the only severe hematological toxicity found (2 patients). Severe nonhematological toxicities were grade 3 creatine phosphokinase increase (2 patients, with no myalgia or muscular weakness) and transient grade 3 alanine aminotransferase increase (5 patients). Single-agent plitidepsin given as 3-hour i.v. infusions every 2 weeks was generally well tolerated but showed limited clinical activity in patients with unresectable advanced MTC.

  2. Trends in the Presentation, Treatment, and Survival of Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer over the past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Randle, Reese W.; Balentine, Courtney J.; Leverson, Glen E.; Havlena, Jeffrey A.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Schneider, David F.; Pitt, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of recent medical advances on disease presentation, extent of surgery, and disease specific survival (DSS) for patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is unclear. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry to compare trends over three time periods, 1983–1992, 1993–2002, and 2003–2012. Results There were 2,940 patients diagnosed with MTC between 1983 and 2012. The incidence of MTC increased during this time period from 0.14 to 0.21 per 100,000 population, and mean age at diagnosis increased from 49.8 to 53.8 (p<0.001). The proportion of tumors ≤1cm also increased from 11.4% in 1983–1992, 19.6% in 1993–2002, to 25.1% in 2003–2012 (p<0.001), but stage at diagnosis remained constant (p=0.57). In addition, the proportion of patients undergoing a total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection increased from 58.2% to 76.5% during the study period (p<0.001). In the most recent time interval, 5-year DSS improved from 86% to 89% in all patients (p<0.001), but especially for patients with regional (82% to 91%, p=0.003) and distant (40% to 51%, p=0.02) disease. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the extent of surgery is increasing for patients with MTC. DSS is also improving, primarily in patients with regional and distant disease. PMID:27842913

  3. Is intraoperative calcitonin monitoring useful to modulate the extension of neck dissection in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    De Crea, Carmela; Raffaelli, Marco; Milano, Valentina; Carrozza, Cinzia; Zuppi, Cecilia; Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino P

    2014-03-01

    The extension of the compartment-oriented neck dissection at primary surgery in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is controversial. Because a <50 % decrease in intraoperative calcitonin levels (IO-CT) after total thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection (TT-CND) has been associated with residual disease, IO-CT monitoring has been proposed to predict the completeness of surgery. The goal of the present prospective study was to verify the accuracy of IO-CT monitoring. All patients scheduled for primary surgery for suspected or proven MTC between November 2010 and January 2013 were included. Calcitonin was measured pre-incision (basal level), after tumor manipulation, at the time TT-CND was accomplished (ablation level), 10 and 30 min after ablation. A decrease >50 % with respect to the highest IO-CT level 30 min after ablation was considered predictive of cure. Twenty-six patients were included, and IO-CT monitoring identified 18 of 23 cured patients (true negative results) and 2 of 3 patients with persistent disease (true positive result). In 5 patients with normal basal and stimulated postoperative calcitonin levels, a decrease <50 % was observed (false positive results). In one of three patients with persistent disease a >50 % decrease in IO-CT was observed (false negative results). Specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of IO-CT were 78.2, 66.6, and 76.9 %, respectively. Intraoperative calcitonin monitoring is not highly accurate in predicting the completeness of surgical resection. In the present series, relying on IO-CT would result in limited resection in about one third of the patients with residual neck disease and in unnecessary lateral neck dissection in about 20 % of the cured patients.

  4. Comprehensive assessment of the disputed RET Y791F variant shows no association with medullary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Rodrigo A; Hatakana, Roxanne; Lourenço, Delmar M; Lindsey, Susan C; Camacho, Cleber P; Almeida, Marcio; Lima, José V; Sekiya, Tomoko; Garralda, Elena; Naslavsky, Michel S; Yamamoto, Guilherme L; Lazar, Monize; Meirelles, Osorio; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Lebrao, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Yeda A O; Blangero, John; Zatz, Mayana; Cerutti, Janete M; Maciel, Rui M B; Toledo, Sergio P A

    2015-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of germline mutations of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is vital for the proper recommendation of preventive thyroidectomy in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)-prone carriers. To gain information regarding the most disputed variant of RET, ATA-A Y791F, we sequenced blood DNA samples from a cohort of 2904 cancer-free elderly individuals (1261 via Sanger sequencing and 1643 via whole-exome/genome sequencing). We also accessed the exome sequences of an additional 8069 individuals from non-cancer-related laboratories and public databanks as well as genetic results from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) project. The mean allelic frequency observed in the controls was 0.0031, with higher occurrences in Central European populations (0.006/0.008). The prevalence of RET Y791F in the control databases was extremely high compared with the 40 known RET pathogenic mutations (P=0.00003), while no somatic occurrence has been reported in tumours. In this study, we report new, unrelated Brazilian individuals with germline RET Y791F-only: two tumour-free elderly controls; two individuals with sporadic MTC whose Y791F-carrying relatives did not show any evidence of tumours; and a 74-year-old phaeochromocytoma patient without MTC. Furthermore, we showed that the co-occurrence of Y791F with the strong RET C634Y mutation explains the aggressive MTC phenotypes observed in a large affected family that was initially reported as Y791F-only. Our literature review revealed that limited analyses have led to the misclassification of RET Y791F as a probable pathogenic variant and, consequently, to the occurrence of unnecessary thyroidectomies. The current study will have a substantial clinical influence, as it reveals, in a comprehensive manner, that RET Y791F only shows no association with MTC susceptibility. PMID:25425582

  5. Mitochondria-Targeted Nitroxide, Mito-CP, Suppresses Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. For MTC therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, multikinase inhibitors targeting RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or hepatocyte growth factor. Nevertheless, not all patients with the progressive MTC respond to these drugs, requiring the development of additional therapeutic modalities that have distinct activity. Objective: We aimed to evaluate mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl (Mito-CP), a mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive agent, for its tumor-suppressive efficacy against MTC. Design: In vitro cultures of 2 human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, and TT xenografts in mice were treated with Mito-CP in comparison with vandetanib. The effects on cell survival/death, RET expression, mitochondrial integrity, and oxidative stress were determined. Results: Contrary to vandetanib, Mito-CP induced RET downregulation and strong cytotoxic effects in both cell lines in vitro, including caspase-dependent apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative stress in cells. Intriguingly, Mito-CP–induced cell death, but not RET downregulation, was partially inhibited by the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine, indicating that Mito-CP mediates tumor-suppressive effects via redox-dependent as well as redox-independent mechanisms. Orally administered Mito-CP effectively suppressed TT xenografts in mice, with an efficacy comparable to vandetanib and relatively low toxicity to animals. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Mito-CP can effectively suppress MTC cell growth/survival via a mechanism distinct from vandetanib effects. Mitochondrial targeting may be a potential strategy for MTC therapy. PMID:23509102

  6. Selective Mitochondrial Uptake of MKT-077 Can Suppress Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro

    2015-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. Not all patients with progressive MTC respond to current therapy inhibiting RET, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We recently demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial metabolism using a mitochondria-targeted agent or by depleting a mitochondrial chaperone effectively suppressed human MTC cells in culture and in mouse xenografts by inducing apoptosis and RET downregulation. These observations led us to hypothesize that mitochondria are potential therapeutic targets for MTC. This study further tests this hypothesis using1-ethyl-2-[[3-ethyl-5-(3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-yliden)]-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidenemethyl] pyridinium chloride (MKT-077), a water-soluble rhodocyanine dye analogue, which can selectively accumulate in mitochondria. Methods The effects of MKT-077 on cell proliferation, survival, expression of RET and tumor protein 53 (TP53), and mitochondrial activity were determined in the human MTC lines in culture and in mouse xenografts. Results MKT-077 induced cell cycle arrest in TT and MZ-CRC-1. Intriguingly, MKT-077 also induced RET downregulation and strong cell death responses in TT cells, but not in MZ-CRC-1 cells. This discrepancy was mainly due to the difference between the capacities of these cell lines to retain MKT-077 in mitochondria. The cytotoxicity of MKT-077 in TT cells was mainly attributed to oxidative stress while being independent of TP53. MKT-077 also effectively suppressed tumor growth of TT xenografts. Conclusion MKT-077 can suppress cell survival of certain MTC subtypes by accumulating in mitochondria and interfering with mitochondrial activity although it can also suppress cell proliferation via other mechanisms. These results consistently support the hypothesis that mitochondrial targeting has therapeutic potential for MTC. PMID:26485469

  7. Octreotide-targeted liposomes loaded with CPT-11 enhanced cytotoxicity for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Yuko; Maitani, Yoshie

    2011-04-04

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare endocrine tumor that frequently metastasizes, but treatment with irinotecan (CPT-11) is limited because of side effects. MTC is known to overexpress the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2). Octreotide (Oct) is a somatostatin analogue that has a high binding affinity for SSTR and can be used as a tumor-targeting ligand. We prepared Oct-targeted liposomes loaded with CPT-11 using Oct-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid and evaluated Oct-mediated association and cytotoxicity of the liposomes with an MTC cell line TT. The association of higher concentrations of modified Oct-targeted liposomes with TT cells was significantly higher than PEGylated liposomes and was significantly inhibited by empty Oct-targeted liposomes but not by free Oct. With exposure for 96 h, the cytotoxicity of Oct-targeted liposomal CPT-11 (IC50: 1.05 ± 0.47 μM) was higher than free CPT-11 (IC50: 3.76 ± 0.61 μM) or PEGylated liposomal CPT-11 (IC50: 3.05 ± 0.28 μM). In addition, empty Oct-targeted liposomes showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than empty nontargeted liposomes at a concentration where free Oct did not show cytotoxicity, suggesting that Oct as a ligand showed cytotoxicity. Moreover, Oct-targeted liposomal CPT-11 led to significantly higher antitumor activity and prolonged the survival time compared with nontargeted liposomal and free CPT-11 at a one-third dose and lower administration times with free CPT-11. These findings indicated that Oct-targeted liposomes loaded with CPT-11 may offer considerable potential for MTC chemotherapy because cytotoxicity of both CPT-11 and Oct was enhanced by effective cellular uptake via SSTR2.

  8. Twenty years of lesson learning: how does the RET genetic screening test impact the clinical management of medullary thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Romei, Cristina; Tacito, Alessia; Molinaro, Eleonora; Agate, Laura; Bottici, Valeria; Viola, David; Matrone, Antonio; Biagini, Agnese; Casella, Francesca; Ciampi, Raffaele; Materazzi, Gabriele; Miccoli, Paolo; Torregrossa, Liborio; Ugolini, Clara; Basolo, Fulvio; Vitti, Paolo; Elisei, Rossella

    2015-06-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare disease that can be inherited or sporadic; its pathogenesis is related to activating mutations in the RET gene. This study describes our 20-year experience regarding RET genetic screening in MTC. We performed RET genetic screening in 1556 subjects, 1007 with an apparently sporadic MTC, 95 with a familial form and 454 relatives of RET-positive patients with MTC. A germline RET mutation was found in 68 of 1007 (6·7%) patients with sporadic MTC, while 939 patients with MTC were negative for germline RET mutations. We then identified a total of 137 gene carriers (GC). These subjects initiated a clinical evaluation for the diagnosis of MEN 2. A total of 139 MEN 2 families have been followed: 94 FMTC, 33 MEN 2A and 12 MEN 2B. Thirty-three different germline RET mutations were identified. Codon 804 was the most frequently altered codon particularly in FMTC (32/94, 34%), while codon 634 was the most frequently altered codon in MEN 2A (31/33, 94%); MEN 2B cases were exclusively associated with an M918T mutation at exon 16. Our 20-year study demonstrated that RET genetic screening is highly specific and sensitive, and it allows the reclassification as hereditary of apparently sporadic cases and the identification of GC who require an adequate follow-up. We confirmed that FMTC is the most prevalent MEN 2 syndrome and that it is strongly correlated with noncysteine RET mutations. According to these findings, a new paradigm of follow-up of hereditary MTC cases might be considered in the next future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C.

  10. Genetic screening of patients with medullary thyroid cancer in a referral center in Greece during the past two decades.

    PubMed

    Sarika, H-L; Papathoma, A; Garofalaki, M; Saltiki, K; Pappa, T; Pazaitou-Panayiotou, K; Anastasiou, E; Alevizaki, M

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in the RET gene are responsible for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and may vary between ethnic groups. We report the spectrum of mutations detected in patients with MTC in a referral center in Greece. Screening for RET mutations was performed in 313 subjects from 188 unrelated families: 51 patients had clinical suspicion for familial disease, 133 were apparently sporadic, four patients had only C cell hyperplasia, and 125 were family members. Exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 were screened. A total of 58 individuals (30.85%) were RET mutations carriers, 120 (63.8%) were finally classified as sporadic, 13 apparently sporadic cases (9.8%) were identified with RET mutation: ten carried the exon 8 at codon 533 mutation (previously reported), two the exon 14 at codon 804 mutation, and one the exon 13 at codon 768 mutation. Six patients (3.19%) with clinical features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and negative for RET mutations were classified as 'unknown cause'. The mutations of hereditary cases were as follows: 21 cases (36.2%) in exon 8 codon 533, 19 (32.8%) in exon 11 codon 634, nine (15.5%) in exon 10, five (8.6%) in exon 16, three (5.2%) in exon 14 codon 804, and one in exon 13 codon 768 (1.7%). The spectrum of RET mutations in Greece differs from that in other populations and the prevalence of familial cases is higher. The exon 8 (Gly533Cys) mutation was the most prevalent in familial cases unlike other series, followed by exon 11 (codon 634) mutations which are the most frequent elsewhere. The wide application of genetic screening in MTC reveals new molecular defects and helps to characterize the spectrum of mutations in each ethnic group. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Mitochondria-targeted nitroxide, Mito-CP, suppresses medullary thyroid carcinoma cell survival in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2013-04-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. For MTC therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved vandetanib and cabozantinib, multikinase inhibitors targeting RET and other tyrosine kinase receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or hepatocyte growth factor. Nevertheless, not all patients with the progressive MTC respond to these drugs, requiring the development of additional therapeutic modalities that have distinct activity. We aimed to evaluate mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl (Mito-CP), a mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive agent, for its tumor-suppressive efficacy against MTC. In vitro cultures of 2 human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, and TT xenografts in mice were treated with Mito-CP in comparison with vandetanib. The effects on cell survival/death, RET expression, mitochondrial integrity, and oxidative stress were determined. Contrary to vandetanib, Mito-CP induced RET downregulation and strong cytotoxic effects in both cell lines in vitro, including caspase-dependent apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased oxidative stress in cells. Intriguingly, Mito-CP-induced cell death, but not RET downregulation, was partially inhibited by the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine, indicating that Mito-CP mediates tumor-suppressive effects via redox-dependent as well as redox-independent mechanisms. Orally administered Mito-CP effectively suppressed TT xenografts in mice, with an efficacy comparable to vandetanib and relatively low toxicity to animals. Our results suggest that Mito-CP can effectively suppress MTC cell growth/survival via a mechanism distinct from vandetanib effects. Mitochondrial targeting may be a potential strategy for MTC therapy.

  12. Novel withanolides target medullary thyroid cancer through inhibition of both RET phosphorylation and the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Abbas K.; Bazzill, Joseph; Zhang, Xuan; Gallagher, Rob; Zhang, Hauping; Gollapudi, Rao; Kindscher, Kelly; Timmermann, Barbara; Cohen, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite development of current targeted therapies for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), long-term survival remains unchanged. Recently isolated novel withanolide compounds from Solanaceae physalis are highly potent against MTCs. We hypothesize that these withanolides uniquely inhibit RET phosphorylation and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in MTC cells as a mechanism of antiproliferation and apoptosis. Methods MTC cells were treated with novel withanolides and MTC-targeted drugs. In vitro studies assessed cell viability and proliferation (MTS; trypan blue assays), apoptosis (flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining; confirmed by Western blot analysis), long-term cytotoxic effects (clonogenic assay), and suppression of key regulatory proteins such as RET, Akt, and mTOR (by Western blot analysis). Results The novel withanolides potently reduced MTC cell viability (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 270–2,850 nmol/L; 250–1,380 nmol/L for vandetanib; 360–1,640 nmol/L for cabozantinib) with induction of apoptosis at <1,000 nmol/L of drug. Unique from other targeted therapies, withanolides suppressed RET and Akt phosphorylation and protein expression (in a concentration- and time-dependent manner) as well as mTOR activity and translational activity of 4E-BP1 and protein synthesis mediated by p70S6kinase activation at IC50 concentrations. Conclusion Novel withanolides from Physalis selectively and potently inhibit MTC cells in vitro. Unlike other MTC-targeted therapies, these compounds uniquely inhibit both RET kinase activity and the Akt/mTOR prosurvival pathway. Further translational studies are warranted to evaluate their clinical potential. PMID:23158190

  13. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Faquin, William; Wei, Nancy; Barbesino, Giuseppe; Stephen, Antonia E

    2011-07-01

    Paragangliomas in the region of the thyroid gland are rare tumors that can present a diagnostic challenge by mimicking follicular and c-cell derived thyroid tumors. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas are likely a subset of laryngeal paragangliomas and, although quite rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular thyroid nodule. The preoperative diagnosis of thyroid-associated paragangliomas can be challenging since the cytologic and histologic features overlap with more common primary thyroid neoplasms, in particular medullary carcinoma. Differential expression of a panel of immunohistochemical markers, including neuro-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, keratin, and S100, can be used to distinguish thyroid-associated paragangliomas from primary thyroid tumors. Intraoperatively, thyroid-associated paragangliomas may be associated with significant intraoperative bleeding and are often densely adherent to surrounding tissues, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Interestingly, the aggressive local behavior of these tumors does not correspond to potential for malignancy, as there are no patients with malignant thyroid-associated paragangliomas reported in the medical literature. Therefore, these tumors may be treated with limited resection. Postoperatively, patients with paragangliomas should receive hormonal evaluation for functional disease, imaging evaluation for multicentric and metastatic disease, and genetic counseling. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas are an important part of the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular thyroid nodule, especially in a patient with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma, but with unremarkable serum calcitonin levels. Consideration of a thyroid-associated paraganglioma also has important operative and postoperative implications for determining the extent of thyroid resection as well as follow-up testing.

  14. Impending Atypical Femoral Fracture in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer With Skeletal Metastasis Treated With Long-term Bisphosphonate and Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Gokita, Tabu; Toda, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-24

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) occur in osteoporosis patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate. Atypical femoral fractures also occur in cancer patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, but the prevalence is low. We describe a 53-year-old woman with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and skull metastasis who was prescribed bisphosphonate for 6 years and denosumab for 1.5 years, consecutively. Bone scintigraphy performed because of spontaneous groin pain showed uptake in the lateral aspect of the left femur, which was confirmed as impending AFF. In oncological patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, AFF should be included as a differential diagnosis with focal femoral findings.

  15. Assessment of recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J; Smith, B; Dougherty, T; Ayshford, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is disparity in the reported incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy following thyroidectomy. Much of the disparity is due to the method of assessing vocal cord function. We sought to identify the incidence and natural history of temporary and permanent vocal cord palsy following thyroid surgery. The authors wanted to establish whether intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation aids in prognosis when managing vocal cord palsy. Methods Prospective data on consecutive thyroid operations were collected. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation, using an endotracheal tube mounted device, was performed in all cases. Endoscopic examination of the larynx was performed on the first postoperative day and at three weeks. Results Data on 102 patients and 123 nerves were collated. Temporary and permanent RLN palsy rates were 6.1% and 1.7%. Most RLN palsies were identified on the first postoperative day with all recognised at the three-week review. No preoperative clinical risk factors were identified. Although dysphonia at the three-week follow-up visit was the only significant predictor of vocal cord palsy, only two-thirds of patients with cord palsies were dysphonic. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation did not predict outcome in terms of vocal cord function. Conclusions Temporary nerve palsy rates were consistent with other series where direct laryngoscopy is used to assess laryngeal function. Direct laryngoscopy is the only reliable measure of cord function, with intraoperative monitoring being neither a reliable predictor of cord function nor a predictor of eventual laryngeal function. The fact that all temporary palsies recovered within four months has implications for staged procedures. PMID:24780671

  16. Development and Application of a Novel Sensitive Immunometric Assay for Calcitonin in a Large Cohort of Patients with Medullary and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Thyroid Nodules, and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Cléber P.; Lindsey, Susan C.; Kasamatsu, Teresa S.; Machado, Alberto L.; Martins, João Roberto M.; Biscolla, Rosa Paula M.; Dias da Silva, Magnus R.; Vieira, José Gilberto H.; Maciel, Rui M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum calcitonin (sCT) is a useful biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Consensus has not been reached concerning sCT measurements in the evaluation of nodular thyroid disease (NTD). Objective and Methods We developed a new immunofluorometric assay for sCT and have validated it in samples from 794 patients [203 with MTC, 205 with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD), 248 with NTD, 80 with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) ‘free of disease’, 58 with chronic renal failure (CRF)] and 178 normal individuals, including samples after pentagastrin tests and samples from the washout of 92 FNA procedures in patients with NTD or MTC. We also compared some samples from patients with low or high calcitonin levels using both this assay and the Nichols Institute Diagnostics (NID) assay. Results The assay's analytical sensitivity was 1.0 pg/ml. Considering MTC patients prior to surgery, the cut-off values for the 95% reference range were 11.1 pg/ml for males and 5.5 pg/ml for females and employing the ROC curve were 18.4 pg/ml for males and 7.8 pg/ml for females. sCT in patients with MTC was strongly correlated with disease status. Patients with NTD and ATD did not present false-positive results. sCT measurements were significantly correlated with age (excluding MTC and CRF). The NID test had a strong correlation with our assay. A hook effect was observed only with concentrations >200,000 pg/ml. Conclusions We developed a novel sCT assay and validated it in healthy subjects, as well as in a large cohort of patients with MTC, NTD, ATD, DTC, and CRF. PMID:25114875

  17. Composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma concomitant with adrenal metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Mutsushi; Sato, Yoshiyasu; Nomura, Takeo; Sato, Fuminori; Uchino, Shinya; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-02-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome with major components of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism. MEN2B is the most aggressive and rarest of the MEN2 variants. Pheochromocytoma in MEN2 is virtually always located in the adrenal medulla, but MEN2-associated extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (paraganglioma) are rare. A 59-year-old man who has been diagnosed with MEN2B consulted our hospital for surgical treatment of a 10-mm left adrenal mass and a 30-mm retroperitoneal mass. He had paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure and in urinary metanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid values. Laparoscopic excision of the left adrenal gland and retroperitoneal mass was performed. We experienced an extremely rare case of composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma concomitant with adrenal metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with MEN2B. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. New Treatment of Medullary and Papillary Human Thyroid Cancer: Biological Effects of Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel Loaded With Quercetin Alone or in Combination to an Inhibitor of Aurora Kinase.

    PubMed

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Armenia, Emilia; Aurilio, Caterina; Rosso, Francesco; Clemente, Ottavia; de Sena, Gabriele; Barbarisi, Manlio; Barbarisi, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is based on the use of a hyaluronic acid hydrogel of Quercetin tested alone and in combination to an inhibitor of Aurora Kinase type A and B (SNS-314) on human medullary and papillary thyroid cancer cells. Biological investigations were focused on the cellular uptake of the hydrogel, cell viability, antioxidant, and cytokines secretion studies. Quercetin delivered from hydrogel show a time and CD44 dependent interaction with both cell lines with significant anti-inflammatory effects. Combination of Quercetin and SNS-314 leads to a synergistic cytotoxic effect on medullary TT and papillary BCPAP cell lines with a significant reduction of the IC50 value. These results, highlights the importance of synergistic effect of the hyaluronic acid hydrogel of Quercetin with SNS-314 in the regulation of human thyroid cancer cell proliferation and emphasize the anti-tumor activity of these molecules. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1784-1795, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term clinical and biochemical follow-up in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a single institution's experience over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Cupisti, Kenko; Wolf, Achim; Raffel, Andreas; Schott, Matthias; Miersch, Daniel; Yang, Qin; Eisenberger, Claus F; Röher, Hans D; Knoefel, Wolfram T

    2007-11-01

    Many patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) have reoperative surgery in different hospitals, which makes their follow-up difficult. To comprehend these complex courses and to find relevant prognostic factors we report a 20-year single center experience of 289 patients with MTC or precursor C-cell-hyperplasias. Between April 1986 and May 2006, 289 consecutive patients with MTC or MEN2 gene carriers were treated at the Department of Surgery at the University Hospital Düsseldorf. Tumor stages were documented according to the classification of the International Union against Cancer 5th edition, 1997 (Schott. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006;13:779-795). A system to easily comprehend operative procedures is suggested. There were 159 female and 130 male patients (f/m ratio 1.22). Mean age at time of diagnosis was 32 years (4-77) in the familial cases and 53 years (23-84) years in the sporadic cases. Sixty-six patients (23%) had multifocal disease. Twelve MEN2-patients had only C-cell-hyperplasia (pT0). Tumor stage was pT1 in 86 patients, pT2 in 106 patients, pT3 in 25 patients, pT4 in 52 patients and unclear in 8 patients. In the 289 patients 648 operations were performed. One hundred seventy patients had more than 1 operation (59%). Ninety-nine patients (34%) are calcitonin-negative and 91 patients (31%) live with elevated calcitonin. Median follow-up time of the surviving 211 patients was 8.9 years (range, 0.3-30.7 years). The 5- and 10-year survival of all tumor patients was 86% and 68%, respectively. The chance to achieve biochemical cure in MTC is clearly dependent on the primary tumor size. The chance for long-term biochemical cure in a pT4-tumor is almost nil even after multiple and extended reoperations, whereas a pT1 tumor can be cured in up to 67% of the patients. Long-term survival, however, can be achieved even in pT4 tumor patients in almost 50%.

  20. How to Treat a Signal? Current Basis for RET-Genotype-Oriented Choice of Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Hugo; Torres, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernando; Couto, Joana P.; Vinagre, João; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The significance of RET in thyroid cancer comes from solid evidence that, when inherited, an RET activating mutation primes C-cells to transform into medullary carcinomas. Moreover, environmental exposure to radiation also induces rearranged transforming RET “isoforms” that are found in papillary thyroid cancer. The RET gene codes for a tyrosine kinase receptor that targets a diverse set of intracellular signaling pathways. The nature of RET point mutations predicts differences in the mechanisms by which the receptor becomes activated and correlates with different forms of clinical presentation, age of onset, and biological aggressiveness. A number of RET-targeting Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) are currently undergoing clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness in the treatment of thyroid cancer, and it is conceivable that the RET genotype may also influence response to these compounds. The question that now emerges is whether, in the future, the rational for treatment of refractory thyroid cancer will be based on the management of an abnormal RET signal. In this paper we address the RET-targeting TKIs and review studies about the signaling properties of distinct RET mutants as a means to predict response and design combinatorial therapies for the soon to be available TKIs. PMID:21765992

  1. Investigation of factors potentially influencing calcitonin levels in the screening and follow-up for medullary thyroid carcinoma: a cautionary note

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The malignant transformation of thyroid C cells is associated with an increase in human calcitonin (hCT), which can thus be helpful in the early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). For this reason, hCT levels should be determined in all patients with nodular goitre. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, nodular goitre and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are factors reported to influence basal serum hCT concentrations. The diagnostic role of mildly to moderately increased hCT levels is thus a matter of debate. In this study, we attempt to clarify the role of the aforementioned factors. Methods From 2008 to 2009, we collected data from 493 patients who were divided into five groups. We assessed whether there were significant differences in hCT levels between patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, patients with nodular goitre, patients with PPI therapy, and healthy control subjects. In addition, we investigated whether a delayed analysis of blood samples has an effect on serum hCT concentrations. Results Immunoradiometric assays (Calcitonin IRMA magnum, MEDIPAN) revealed that the time of analysis did not play a role when low levels were measured. Delayed analysis, however, carried the risk of false low results when serum hCT concentrations were elevated. Men had significantly higher serum hCT levels than women. The serum hCT concentrations of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and nodular goitre were not significantly different from those of control subjects. Likewise, PPI therapy did not lead to a significant increase in serum hCT concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of nodular goitre. Conclusions Increases in serum hCT levels are not necessarily attributable to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, nodular goitre or the regular use of PPIs and always require further diagnostic attention. PMID:24188348

  2. Recurrent High-Flow Arterio-Venous Malformation of the Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Borchert, D H; Massmann, A; Kim, Y J; Bader, C A; Wolf, G; Eisele, R; Minko, P; Bücker, A; Glanemann, M

    2015-09-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas of the thyroid gland are rare disorders. The first case of a patient with recurrent high-flow arterio-venous malformation of the right thyroid gland involving the right endolarynx is presented. In June 2013, a 42-year-old female patient presented to the surgical department with recurrent hoarseness and a soft, vibrating mass on the right side of her neck. In 1993, she underwent right subtotal hemithyroidectomy with embolization on the day before surgery for a high-flow arterio-venous malformation of the thyroid gland. Diagnostic work-up in 2013 demonstrated a complex recurrent high-flow arterio-venous malformation on the right side of her neck involving the endolarynx. Full function of the right vocal fold could not be ascertained. The lesion was embolized again and excised the following day. Intraoperative gross bleeding and scar tissue prevented visualization and monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Gross bleeding was also noted on hemithyroidectomy after embolization in 1993. No therapy was needed for the endolaryngeal part of the lesion. Histology showed large arterio-venous malformations with thyroid tissue. She remains well without signs of recurrence 18 month later but with a definitive voice handicap. This is the first report of a recurrent high-flow arterio-venous malformation originally developing from the right thyroid gland involving the right endolarynx. Counseling, diagnostic, and therapeutic work-up of the patient was possible only with an interdisciplinary team. The endolaryngeal part of the hemangioma dried out after embolization and completion hemithyroidectomy. Her hoarseness has greatly improved but a definitive voice handicap remains. High-flow arterio-venous malformations of the thyroid gland are a rare disease, and recurrent lesions have not been reported. Interdisciplinary management of these patients is mandatory due to the complex nature of the underlying pathology. Recurrence might develop

  3. Treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer with an alternating combination of 5 FU-streptozocin and 5 FU-dacarbazine. The Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs a Calcitonine (GETC).

    PubMed Central

    Schlumberger, M.; Abdelmoumene, N.; Delisle, M. J.; Couette, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Combinations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and streptozocin and 5-FU and dacarbazine were given alternately to 20 patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Three partial responses and 11 long-term stabilizations were observed. No unexpected toxicity occurred. PMID:7530987

  4. Case report of severe Cushing's syndrome in medullary thyroid cancer complicated by functional diabetes insipidus, aortic dissection, jejunal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia: remission with sorafenib without reduction in cortisol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Duaiji, Najla; Mutairi, Ghazi; Aklabi, Sabah; Qattan, Nasser; Abouzied, Mohei El-Din M; Sous, Mohamed W

    2015-09-09

    Normalization of cortisol concentration by multikinase inhibitors have been reported in three patients with medullary thyroid cancer-related Cushing's syndrome. Aortic dissection has been reported in three patients with Cushing's syndrome. Diabetes insipidus without intrasellar metastasis, intestinal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia have not been reported in medullary thyroid cancer. An adult male with metastatic medullary thyroid cancer presented with hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypertension, acne-like rash, and diabetes insipidus (urine volume >8 L/d, osmolality 190 mOsm/kg). Serum cortisol, adrenocorticoitropic hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, and urinary free cortisol were elevated 8, 20, 4.4, and 340 folds, respectively. Pituitary imaging was normal. Computed tomography scan revealed jejunal intussusception and incidental abdominal aortic dissection. Sorafenib treatment was associated with Cushing's syndrome remission, elevated progesterone (>10 fold), normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, but persistently elevated cortisol concentration. Newly-developed proximal lower limb weakness and decreased salivation were associated with elevated ganglionic neuronal acetylcholine receptor (alpha-3) and borderline P/Q type calcium channel antibodies. Extreme cortisol concentration may have contributed to aortic dissection and suppressed antidiuretic hormone secretion; which combined with hypokalemia due cortisol activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, manifested as diabetes insipidus. This is the first report of paraneoplastic dysautonomia and jejunal intussusception in medullary thyroid cancer, they may be related to medullary thyroid cancer's neuroendocrine origin and metastasis, respectively. Remission of Cushing's syndrome without measurable reduction in cortisol concentration suggests a novel cortisol-independent mechanism of action or assay cross-reactivity. Normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione

  5. Exploring the role of technitium-99m dimercaptosuccinyl acid (V) scan in medullary carcinoma thyroid patients with postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia in the era of positron emission tomography-computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Kumar, Ramachandran Krishna; Ravishankaran, Praveen; Ramshankar, Vijayalaksmi; Balkis Begum, Ahamed Sultan; Rangarajan, Gomadam Kuppuswamy

    2014-07-01

    Many radio-pharmaceuticals have been used over the years to localize the recurrences in patients with medullary carcinoma thyroid (MCT), including iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine, thallium-201, technitium-99m dimercaptosuccinyl acid [Tc-99m DMSA (V)], Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitril, Tc-99 ethylenediamine diacetic acid/hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr (3)-octreotide, and In-111 diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-octreotide with varying sensitivities and specificities. The aim of this study is to explore the role of Tc-99m DMSA (V) scan in MCT patients with postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia in the positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) era. A retrospective review of 53 patients with proven sporadic MCT, who presented to our institution over a period 28 years from 1985 to 2012, was performed. Patients with persistently elevated levels of serum calcitonin (>150 pg/ml) were initially evaluated by a DMSA scan if conventional imaging failed to localize any focus of disease. Our study showed that the postoperative levels of serum calcitonin significantly correlated with the overall survival of our patients and can possibly serve as a good prognostic marker. Tc-99m DMSA (V) scans demonstrated a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 56%, a positive predictive value of 50%, and a negative predictive value of 80% in detecting metastasis in postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia. Our study showed that Tc-99m DMSA (V) scanning is an affordable and a reasonably sensitive imaging agent for localization of recurrent/metastatic disease. PET-CT seems to be a useful complementary tool and needs to be kept in the armamentarium for diagnosis of recurrence especially in cases of discordance between Tc-99m DMSA (V) scan and the serum calcitonin levels.

  6. Exploring the role of technitium-99m dimercaptosuccinyl acid (V) scan in medullary carcinoma thyroid patients with postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia in the era of positron emission tomography-computerized tomography

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Kumar, Ramachandran Krishna; Ravishankaran, Praveen; Ramshankar, Vijayalaksmi; Balkis Begum, Ahamed Sultan; Rangarajan, Gomadam Kuppuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many radio-pharmaceuticals have been used over the years to localize the recurrences in patients with medullary carcinoma thyroid (MCT), including iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine, thallium-201, technitium-99m dimercaptosuccinyl acid [Tc-99m DMSA (V)], Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitril, Tc-99 ethylenediamine diacetic acid/hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr (3)-octreotide, and In-111 diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-octreotide with varying sensitivities and specificities. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore the role of Tc-99m DMSA (V) scan in MCT patients with postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia in the positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) era. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 53 patients with proven sporadic MCT, who presented to our institution over a period 28 years from 1985 to 2012, was performed. Patients with persistently elevated levels of serum calcitonin (>150 pg/ml) were initially evaluated by a DMSA scan if conventional imaging failed to localize any focus of disease. Results and Conclusions: Our study showed that the postoperative levels of serum calcitonin significantly correlated with the overall survival of our patients and can possibly serve as a good prognostic marker. Tc-99m DMSA (V) scans demonstrated a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 56%, a positive predictive value of 50%, and a negative predictive value of 80% in detecting metastasis in postoperative persistent hypercalcitoninemia. Our study showed that Tc-99m DMSA (V) scanning is an affordable and a reasonably sensitive imaging agent for localization of recurrent/metastatic disease. PET-CT seems to be a useful complementary tool and needs to be kept in the armamentarium for diagnosis of recurrence especially in cases of discordance between Tc-99m DMSA (V) scan and the serum calcitonin levels. PMID:25210279

  7. Pathogenesis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss in thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Twig, Gilad; Shina, Avi; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity is the most prevalent autoimmune state that affects up to 4% of women during the age of fertility. A growing body of clinical studies links thyroid autoimmunity as a cause of infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes that includes miscarriage or preterm deliveries. Importantly, these adverse effects are persistent in euthyroid women. In the current review we elaborate on the pathogenesis that underlies infertility and increased pregnancy loss among women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Such mechanisms include thyroid autoantibodies that exert their effect in a TSH-dependent but also in a TSH-independent manner. The later includes quantitative and qualitative changes in the profile of endometrial T cells with reduced secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 along with hypersecretion of interferon-γ. Polyclonal B cells activation is 2-3 time more frequent in thyroid autoimmunity and is associated with increased titers of non-organ specific autoantibodies. Hyperactivity and Increased migration of cytotoxic natural killer cells that alter the immune and hormonal response of the uterus is up to 40% more common in women with thyroid autoimmunity. Lack of vitamin D was suggested as a predisposing factor to autoimmune diseases, and was shown to be reduced in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. In turn, its deficiency is also linked to infertility and pregnancy loss, suggesting a potential interplay with thyroid autoimmunity in the context of infertility. In addition, thyroid autoantibodies were also suggested to alter fertility by targeting zona pellucida, human chorionic gonadotropin receptors and other placental antigens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Nonanaplastic Thyroid Cancer: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Terezakis, Stephanie A. Lee, Kyungmouk S.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Rivera, Michael; Tuttle, Robert M.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Wong, Richard J.; Patel, Snehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plays a controversial role in the management of nonanaplastic thyroid cancer. We reviewed our institution's outcomes in patients treated with EBRT for advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and April 2006, 76 patients with nonanaplastic thyroid cancer were treated with EBRT. The median follow-up for the surviving patients was 35.3 months (range, 4.2-178.4). The lesions were primarily advanced and included Stage T2 in 5 (7%), T3 in 5 (7%), and T4 in 64 (84%) patients. Stage N1 disease was present in 60 patients (79%). Distant metastases before EBRT were identified in 27 patients (36%). The median total EBRT dose delivered was 6,300 cGy. The histologic features examined included medullary in 12 patients (16%) and nonmedullary in 64 (84%). Of the 76 patients, 71 (93%) had undergone surgery before RT, and radioactive iodine treatment was used in 56 patients (74%). Results: The 2- and 4-year overall locoregional control rate for all histologic types was 86% and 72%, respectively, and the 2- and 4-year overall survival rate for all patients was 74% and 55%, respectively. No significant differences were found in locoregional control, overall survival, or distant metastases-free survival for patients with complete resection, microscopic residual disease, or gross residual disease. Grade 3 acute mucositis and dysphagia occurred in 14 (18%) and 24 (32%) patients, respectively. Late adverse toxicity was notable for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube use in 4 patients (5%). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that EBRT is effective for locoregional control of selected locally advanced or recurrent nonanaplastic thyroid malignancies, with acceptable acute toxicity.

  9. Reports of clinical benefit of plitidepsin (Aplidine), a new marine-derived anticancer agent, in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Faivre, Sandrine; Ciruelos, Eva; Domínguez, María J; López-Martín, José A; Izquierdo, Miguel A; Jimeno, José; Raymond, Eric

    2010-04-01

    To assess clinical benefit of plitidepsin (Aplidine) in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We retrospectively reported the outcome of 10 patients with advanced MTC among 215 patients who have entered the phase I program with plitidepsin. Median number of cycles was 5. Using World Health Organization criteria, 1 among 5 patients with measurable disease displayed a confirmed partial response, whereas 8 patients experienced a stable disease, and 1 patient had a progressive disease, corresponding to a disease control rate of 90%. Two patients treated at the maximum tolerated dose experienced muscular dose-limiting toxicity possibly related to palmitoyl transferase inhibition. One of these 2 patients was able to continue therapy with no dose reduction with the prophylactic addition of l-carnitine, which is used in the treatment of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency type 2. Plitidepsin seems to be able to induce clinical benefit in patients with pretreated MTC, and its toxicity has been manageable at the recommended dose.

  10. LOWER RATES OF RESIDUAL/RECURRENT DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH INCIDENTALLY DISCOVERED THYROID CARCINOMA.

    PubMed

    Shakil, Jawairia; Ansari, Mohammed Z; Brady, Jett; Xu, Jiaqiong; Robbins, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Incidentally discovered thyroid cancers (IDTCs) have contributed to the rapid rise in thyroid cancer incidence over the past 20 years. Since death rates from thyroid cancer are not increasing, we hypothesized that IDTCs are less aggressive compared to clinically apparent thyroid cancer (CATC). A retrospective study of patients and tumor characteristics of IDTCs and their rates of residual/recurrent (R/R) disease were determined at a median follow-up of 27 months in the setting of a large academic medical center. Patient analysis groups (IDTC [n = 46] and CATC [n = 126]) were based upon how the cancer was initially discovered. Patients were followed clinically and by biochemical testing and ultrasonography. We also compared time to progression between these groups. Patients in the two groups had similar demographic and tumor characteristics. At the close of the study, R/R status in the IDTC group was 6.7%, compared to 20.8% in the CATC group (P = .04). Of the 28 individuals in our overall cohort who had R/R disease, 3 were from the IDTC group and 25 were from the CATC group (P = .04). All three of the IDTC recurrences occurred within the first 6 months of follow-up. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend for longer progression-free survival in the IDTC group (P = .08). Compared to CATC patients, IDTC patients have a significantly less aggressive course and a trend toward longer progression-free survival. If confirmed by further studies, it may be reasonable to subject them to less intense surveillance and more conservative therapeutic approaches. CATC = clinically apparent thyroid cancers CT = computed tomography HMH = Houston Methodist Hospital IDTC = incidentally discovered thyroid cancer MRI = magnetic resonance imaging PET = positron emission tomography PTMC = papillary thyroid microcarcinoma R/R = residual/recurrent RRA = radioiodine remnant ablation Tg = thyroglobulin TgAb = anti-thyroglobulin antibody TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone

  11. Serum calcitonin may falsely estimate tumor burden in chronic hypercalcemia: a case of prostatic and multiple bone metastases from medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Bae, Woo Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Shim, Hyun Jeong; Yoon, Jee Hee; Kang, Ho-Cheol

    2014-03-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a calcitonin (Ct)-secreting tumor of the parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid gland. Higher serum Ct levels are associated with larger tumor size, distant metastases, and prognosis. We report herein a case of prostate and multiple bone metastases of nonfamilial MTC with mildly elevated Ct levels. A 73-year-old man who was found to have a 2.5 cm MTC in the left thyroid lobe with cervical lymph node metastases presented with confused mental status because of severe hypercalcemia (albumin-modified serum calcium concentration 15.2 mg/dL) associated with multiple bone metastases. Prostate biopsy was performed because the patient had frequent urination with mildly elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (5.297 ng/mL). Histologically, the prostate was diagnosed as MTC metastasis, forming a tissue architecture closely resembling the previously diagnosed MTC, and the cells were positive for Ct, carcinoembryonic antigen, and thyroid transcription factor 1. Although the patient had multiple MTC metastases, basal and calcium-stimulated serum Ct levels were not significantly elevated, measuring 22.7 pg/mL (normal <10 pg/mL) and 22.1 pg/mL, respectively. A chronic hypercalcemic state may exhaust Ct reserves and diminish the Ct response to an acute intravenous calcium injection. Therefore, the Ct level of a patient in a hypercalcemic state should be carefully interpreted. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature in which serum Ct levels were not significantly increased when associated with hypercalcemia, and an MTC metastasis to the prostate.

  12. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in treatment of recurrent nodular goiter and thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, Oleg V.; Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Demidov, A. K.; Faizrakhmanov, Alexey B.; Yarovoy, Nicolay N.

    2001-10-01

    Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy was performed in 29 patients with recurrent nodular and multinodular goiter, and in 3 patients with recurrent inoperable thyroid cancer. There were used transcutaneous puncture under ultrasonic control, diode lasers with wavelength 805, 980, and 1060 nm, quartz monofibers, special computerized thermometer with microthermocouples. Disappearance or significant reduction of nodes in the most goiter cases, and regress of tumor in the cancer cases were marked during observation period (0.5 - 2.5 years).

  13. [Method of detection of residual tissues in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Gostimskiĭ, A V; Romanchishen, A F; Zaĭtseva, I V; Kuznetsova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    A search of residual tissues is complicated in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland. The Saint-Petersburg Centre of Surgery of the Endocrine System and Oncology developed the method of detection of residual tissues of the thyroid gland with the aim of preoperative chromothyroidolymphography under control of ultrasound. The method consisted of US performance during 15-20 minutes before the operation and an introduction of 1% sterile water solution of methylene blue in revealed residual tissues of the thyroid gland. The volume of injected coloring agent was 0.5-2 ml in the residual tissue volume smaller than 9 cm3 and 2-3 ml injected in case of more than 9 cm3. The residual tissues of the thyroid gland accurately visualized during the following operation. Described method gives the possibility to detect all regions of residual tissues which should be removed and at the same time it shortens a revision and surgery trauma.

  14. Castleman disease mimicking nodal recurrence of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi-Hong; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Chun-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    A 54-year-old woman who had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment for papillary thyroid cancer presented with elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels and negative I-131 scan. Ultrasonography revealed suspicious lateral neck lymph nodes, which were FDG-avid. Neck dissection led to a diagnosis of Castleman disease.

  15. Cervix carcinoma and incidental finding of medullary thyroid carcinoma by 18F-FDG PET/CT--clinical case.

    PubMed

    Chaushev, Borislav; Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Anelia; Yordanov, Kaloyan; Encheva, Elitsa; Dancheva, Jivka; Yordanova, Cvetelina; Hristozov, Kiril; Krasnaliev, Ivan; Radev, Radoslav; Nenkov, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are encountered in clinical practice during the diagnostic procedures or patients' follow-up due to other diseases quite far from the thyroid gland with prevalence 4-50% in general population, depending on age, diagnostic method and race. The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age and their clarification should be done for their adequate treatment. An 18F-FDG PET/CT was done with a PET/CT scanner (Philips Gemini TF), consisting of dedicated lutetium orthosilicate full ring PET scanner and 16 slice CT. The PET/CT scan of the whole-body revealed on the CT portion a hypodense nodular lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with increased uptake of 18F-FDG on the PET with SUVmax 10.3 and demonstrated a complete response to the induction therapy of the main oncological disease of the patient--squamous cell carcinoma. This clinical case demonstrates that whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT has an increasingly important role in the early evaluation of thyroid cancer as a second independent malignant localization. Focal thyroid lesion with high risk of thyroid malignancy was incidentally found on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  16. Central compartment reoperation for recurrent/persistent differentiated thyroid cancer: patterns of recurrence, morbidity, and prediction of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Chan Il

    2011-05-01

    Incidence rates of hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord paralysis are high following central compartment reoperation, but few prospective studies have assessed morbidities and factors predictive of hypocalcemia after reoperation. We investigated recurrence patterns, morbidity, and factors predictive of postoperative hypocalcemia in patients undergoing central compartment reoperation for recurrent/persistent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We prospectively evaluated 45 consecutive patients with recurrent/persistent DTC. Thyroid remnants or recurrent cancers were removed in 16 patients, the unilateral or bilateral central compartment was cleared in all patients, and the lateral compartment on the diseased side was comprehensively removed from 24 patients. Recurrence patterns were assessed histopathologically, morbidities were monitored, and serum concentrations of calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured in all patients. Eleven patients (24.4%) had tumor invasion into the recurrent laryngeal nerve and/or the tracheoesophagus. Central nodal involvement occurred frequently (86.7%), and the ipsilateral jugular nodes of the lateral compartment were frequently involved. Temporary and permanent vocal cord paralysis developed in 10 (22.2%) and 8 (17.8%) patients, respectively, due primarily to intentional nerve resection following tumor invasion. Of 41 patients without preoperative hypoparathyroidism, 21 (46.3%) had temporary and 2 (4.9%) had permanent hypocalcemia. Multivariate analysis showed that bilateral central compartment dissection and low iPTH levels (<12.0 pg/ml) were independent predictors of postoperative hypocalcemia. Most patients with recurrent/persistent DTC harbor lesions in the central compartment. Central compartment reoperation may lead to high rates of morbidity, including hypoparathyroidism, which can be predicted by surgical extent and low serum iPTH levels.

  17. Can the Serum Level of Myostatin be Considered as an Informative Factor for Cachexia Prevention in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer?

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Nozhat, Zahra; Hannani, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine neoplasia, consists of four main types of carcinomas: papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, all with thyroid follicular origin, and medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) related to para-follicular cells. Cronic diseases such as diverse cancers may be associated with cachexia, especially at advanced stage. Cancer-induced cachexia is associated with diminished quality of life, functional performance, reduced response to antitumor therapy, and increased morbidity and mortality. Myostatin (Mst) is one of the outstanding molecules in the skeletal muscle loss process in cancer and it may be released by both skeletal muscle and cachexia-inducing tumors. Recently changes in serum levels of Mst have been identified as an important factor of cancer-induced cachexia. The goal of this study was to assessserum Mst levels in MTC patients. In this descriptive and case-control study, 90 participants were selected, comprising 45 MTC patients (20 males, 29±13.9 years, 25 females, 29±14.5 years) and 45 control individuals (25 males, 23.1±11.6 years, 20 females, 31.5±14.4 years). Serum Mst was determined using an ELISA kit and body mass index (BMI) was calculated by weight and height measurements. The Kolmogorov Simonov test showed a normal distribution for log transformed Mst serum levels in both case and control groups. Geometric means were 5.9 and 8.2 ng/ml respectively, and a significant difference was found according to the independent t-test results (P<0.01) . There was also a significant difference mean of Mst between females in control and MTC groups, but not for the males. Pearson correlation test showed no correlation between age and BMI with Mst serum levels. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that Mst serum levels may have a potential ability for early diagnosis of cachexia in MTC patients, especially in females.

  18. Medullary and papillary tumors are frequently associated in the same thyroid gland without evidence of reciprocal influence in their biologic behavior.

    PubMed

    Biscolla, Rosa Paula; Ugolini, Clara; Sculli, Mariangela; Bottici, Valeria; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Romei, Cristina; Cosci, Barbara; Molinaro, Eleonora; Faviana, Pinuccia; Basolo, Fulvio; Miccoli, Paolo; Pacini, Furio; Pinchera, Aldo; Elisei, Rossella

    2004-11-01

    Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC), is a very frequent incidental finding with a frequency varying from a few percent to 35% at postmortem histopathologic examinations. However, the presence of mPTC in patients undergoing thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter (MNG) and for Graves' disease (GD) has been found to be lower. Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) association have been published as anecdotal case reports, as well as kindred with familial MTC or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A with some members simultaneously affected by MTC and PTC. We studied the prevalence and the biological behavior of MTC associated with PTC, with particular attention to those cases in which a mPTC was incidentally found. Twenty-seven of 196 (13.8%) MTC cases showed an association with PTC and in particular 21 of 190 (11.05%) with an incidental mPTC. This percentage is higher than that reported in the literature on the association of mPTC with GD (2.8%-4.5%) and MNG (3%). Also the percentage of the more general association of MTC/PTC, not restricted to mPTC, found in our series (13.8%) is higher than that reported in studies that analyzed the prevalence of PTC (any size) in patients treated for MNG (7.5%). A similarly high percentage of MTC/PTC had not been reported before and in particular there are no reports on large series of MTC/PTC. We also analyzed the epidemiologic, clinical, and pathologic features of MTC associated and not associated with PTC without finding any difference. In particular the outcome of the MTC did not appear to be influenced by the presence of the PTC and the specific radioiodine treatments. Moreover, although we cannot completely exclude a shared pathogenic event as the cause of both MTC and PTC, the molecular analysis of RET gene alterations did not show any common mutation.

  19. Electrophysiologic nerve stimulation for identifying the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: review of 70 consecutive thyroid surgeries.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, A; Flexon, P B

    1998-04-01

    To describe a simple technique for identifying the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) with a nerve stimulator to prevent damage to the nerve during thyroid surgery. A retrospective review of 70 thyroidectomies performed from October 1989 to January 1995 by one surgeon using electrophysiologic nerve stimulation to identify the RLN was conducted. The technique is described. Outpatient flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in all patients. From 70 thyroidectomies, 80 RLNs were identified to be at risk for injury. Five patients had transient unilateral vocal cord paresis postoperatively. No RLN transection or permanent vocal cord paralysis occurred. This is the first large series of patients undergoing the use of electrophysiologic nerve stimulation for identifying the RLN during thyroid surgery. We found the technique to be useful and safe for identifying the RLN. We present this technique as a less costly and time-consuming alternative to intraoperative RLN monitoring.

  20. Consensus on management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology (SEEN) and the Spanish Task Force Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI).

    PubMed

    Grande, E; Santamaría Sandi, J; Capdevila, J; Navarro González, E; Zafón Llopis, C; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, T; Gómez Sáez, J M; Jiménez-Fonseca, P; Riesco-Eizaguirre, G; Galofré, J C

    2016-08-01

    Of all thyroid cancers, <5 % are medullary (MTC). It is a well-characterized neuroendocrine tumor arising from calcitonin-secreting C cells, and RET gene plays a central role on its pathogeny. The electronic search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Quality assessments of selected current articles, guidelines and reviews of MTC were performed. This consensus updates and summarizes biology, treatment and prognostic considerations of MTC. Multidisciplinary teams and specialized centers are recommended for the management of MTC patients. In the metastatic setting, those patients with large volume of disease are candidates to start systemic treatment mainly if they are symptomatic and the tumor has progressed in the last 12-14 months. Wait and see strategy should be offered to patients with: disseminated disease with only high levels of calcitonin and no macroscopic structural disease, low burden and absence of progression.

  1. Consensus on the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology (SEEN) and the Spanish Task Force Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI).

    PubMed

    Galofré, Juan C; Santamaría Sandi, Javier; Capdevila, Jaume; Navarro González, Elena; Zafón Llopis, Carles; Ramón Y Cajal Asensio, Teresa; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Riesco Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Grande, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    In Spain medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) would not exceed 80 new cases per year and less than half of them would be good candidates for systemic treatment with novel agents. Relevant literature was reviewed, including PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus summarizes the clinical outcomes in terms of activity and toxicity of each of the available drugs. A brief summary of the minimum requirements in terms of follow up and genetic counseling around MTC is also included. Only those patients with objective imaging progression in the last 12-14 months with large volume of disease are clear candidates to start systemic treatment. However, those patients with low disease volume should be considered for 'wait and see' strategy until symptoms of the disease appear. Multidisciplinary approach for the management of MTC patient is mandatory nowadays. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation exposure does not significantly contribute to the risk of recurrence of Chernobyl thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, Pavel O; Saenko, Vladimir A; Ilyin, Alexey A; Stepanenko, Valery F; Rumyantseva, Ulyana V; Abrosimov, Aleksandr Yu; Lushnikov, Evgeny F; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Shibata, Yoshisada; Mitsutake, Norisato; Tsyb, Anatoly F; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients exposed to environmental radioiodine after the Chernobyl accident is thought to have a relatively aggressive clinical course. Long-term results of treatment are not well known, especially in comparison with sporadic PTC. The determination of risk factors for PTC recurrence in a controlled for baseline factors group of patients with radiation-related and sporadic PTC. Retrospective cohort study involving patients treated for PTC and followed-up in 1991-2008. Risk factors were assessed by stratified analysis using the proportional hazard model. Referral center-based. A total of 497 patients were enrolled. Patients exposed to radioiodine were 172 individuals with reconstructed individual radiation thyroid doses ranging 51-3170 mGy. Patients with sporadic PTC included 325 individuals matched to exposed patients for sex, age ± 5 yr and time to treatment ± 2 yr. Cancer recurrence. Nodal disease increased the recurrence rate (HR = 5.21; 95% CI = 1.63-16.7) while the presence of tumor capsule (HR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.06-0.45) and, particularly, treatment according to the Revised American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer significantly reduced it (HR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.06-0.42). None of the tested variables interacted with radiation factor. PTC developing after internal exposure to radioiodine does not display specific risk factors for recurrence different from those in sporadic PTC. Common treatment approaches for patients with PTC should be recommended regardless of a history of radiation exposure.

  3. Outcomes of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer risk-stratified according to the American thyroid association and Latin American thyroid society risk of recurrence classification systems.

    PubMed

    Pitoia, Fabián; Bueno, Fernanda; Urciuoli, Carolina; Abelleira, Erika; Cross, Graciela; Tuttle, R Michael

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to validate the proposed Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) risk of recurrence stratification system and to compare the findings with those of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk of recurrence stratification system. This study is a retrospective review of papillary thyroid cancer patients treated with total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine at a single experienced thyroid cancer center and followed according to the LATS management guidelines. Each patient was risk-stratified using both the LATS and ATA staging systems. The primary endpoints were (i) the best response to initial therapy defined as either remission (stimulated thyroglobulin [Tg] <1 ng/mL, negative ultrasonography) or persistent disease (biochemical and/or structural), and (ii) clinical status at final follow-up defined as no evidence of disease (suppressed Tg <1 ng/mL, negative ultrasonography), biochemical persistent disease (suppressed Tg >1 ng/mL in the absence of structural disease), structural persistent disease (locoregional or distant metastases), or recurrence (biochemical or structural disease identified after a period of no evidence of disease). One hundred seventy-one papillary thyroid cancer patients were included (mean age 45 ± 16 years, followed for a median of 4 years after initial treatment). Both the ATA and LATS risk stratification systems provided clinically meaningful graded estimates with regard to (i) the likelihood of achieving remission in response to initial therapy, (ii) the likelihood of having persistent structural disease in response to initial therapy and at final follow-up, (iii) the likely locations of the persistent structural disease (locoregional vs. distant metastases), (iv) the likelihood of recurrence, and (v) the likelihood of being no evidence of disease at final follow-up. The likelihood of having persistent biochemical evidence of disease was not significantly different across the staging categories. Both the

  4. Risk factors influencing the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Zhuoying

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors influencing the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This meta-analysis used MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and CNKI including all cohort studies reporting the risk factors influencing the recurrence after the initial operation on PTC up to February 23, 2014. Software RevMan 5.2 was used for meta-analysis. Thirteen studies with a total of 7048 patients were included in our meta-analysis. Of all variables, gender, extrathyroid extension, LNM, tumor size, distance metastasis, thyroid surgery types and 131-I given or not were significantly correlated with recurrence, While overall recurrence was similar between the group of ≤ 45 years and > 45 years, multifolicality and solitary. However, when stratified the participants by study location (ie, Asian including China, Korea, Japan, Western country including America, France, Italy, Australia), a statistically significant summary odds ratio for age were found in Western country but none in Asian. The risk factors influencing recurrence includes male, extrathyroid extension, LNM, tumor size more than 2 cm, distance metastasis and subtotal thyroidectomy. However, selection of operation mode should be based on not only the recurrence but the comprehensive consideration of the clinical features.

  5. TERT Promoter Mutations and Tumor Persistence/Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jae Kyung; Kwak, Byung Kuk; Lim, Jung Ah; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Min Joo

    2016-07-01

    A telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation was identified in thyroid cancer. This TERT promoter mutation is thought to be a prognostic molecular marker, because its association with tumor aggressiveness, persistence/recurrence, and disease-specific mortality in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been reported. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the impact of the TERT promoter mutation on PTC persistence/recurrence is independent of clinicopathological parameters. Using propensity score matching, 39 patients with PTC persistence or recurrence were matched with 35 patients without persistence or recurrence, with a similar age, sex, tumor size, multifocality, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. The TERT promoter and the BRAF V600E mutations were identified from PTC samples. The TERT promoter mutation was detected in 18% of PTC patients (13/74). No significant difference in the frequency of the TERT promoter mutation was observed between the persistence/recurrence group and the non-recurrence group. These results suggest that the prognostic implications of the TERT promoter mutation are dependent on clinicopathological parameters.

  6. Long-term outcomes of ethanol injection therapy for locally recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Seok-Mo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Bup-Woo; Lim, Chi Young; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2017-06-29

    The standard treatment regimen for locally recurrent lesions is total thyroidectomy, or complete removal of the recurrent thyroid lesion within the thyroid bed. However, reoperation increases the risk of complications and patients have to undergo general anesthesia. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy represents a far less invasive procedure without general anesthesia and with lower risk of complications. Thirty-four patients who received PEIT at Yonsei University Medical Center between October 2002 and August 2009 for recurrent cervical nodal metastases of differentiated papillary thyroid cancer were included in this retrospective study. During a minimum follow-up of 60 months, treatment outcomes were determined by measuring the lesion size prior to the first injection and 3 months after the last injection. A total of 46 recurrent lesions were detected in 34 patients. Five patients underwent surgery and PEIT was administered to the remaining 19 and 22 lesions in the central compartment and lateral neck lymph nodes, respectively. Size increases were observed in seven (17.1%) lesions, whereas no changes in size and decreases were detected in 10 (24.4%) and 24 (58.5%) lesions. Patients with increased lymph nodes were significantly older (65.3 ± 14.4 vs. 48.2 ± 16.3 years; p = 0.02) and had smaller sizes (9.3 ± 1.0 vs. 12.3 ± 6.4 mm; p = 0.012). Although reoperation remains the first-line treatment for recurrent thyroid cancer, PEIT may be considered as a treatment option in selected patients with lesions larger than 1 cm who are ineligible for surgery or have refused reoperation.

  7. Expression of Tenascin C, EGFR, E-Cadherin, and TTF-1 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and the Correlation with RET Mutation Status.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Florian; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Rendl, Gundula; Rodrigues, Margarida; Pirich, Christian

    2016-07-09

    Tenascin C expression correlates with tumor grade and indicates worse prognosis in several tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in driving proliferation in many tumors. Loss of E-cadherin function is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is involved in rearranged during transfection (RET) transcription in Hirschsprung's disease. Tenascin C, EGFR, E-cadherin, TTF-1-expression, and their correlations with RET mutation status were investigated in 30 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (n = 26) or C-cell hyperplasia (n = 4). Tenascin C was found in all, EGFR in 4/26, E-cadherin in 23/26, and TTF-1 in 25/26 MTC. Tenascin C correlated significantly with tumor proliferation (overall, r = 0.61, p < 0.005; RET-mutated, r = 0.81, p < 0.01). E-cadherin showed weak correlation, whereas EGFR and TTF-1 showed no significant correlation with tumor proliferation. EGFR, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 showed weak correlation with proliferation of RET-mutated tumors. Correlation between TTF-1 and tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR was r = -0.10, 0.37, and 0.21, respectively. In conclusion, MTC express tenascin C, E-cadherin, and TTF-1. Tenascin C correlates significantly with tumor proliferation, especially in RET-mutated tumors. EGFR is low, and tumors expressing EGFR do not exhibit higher proliferation. TTF-1 does not correlate with RET mutation status and has a weak correlation with tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR expression.

  8. Are there disparities in the presentation, treatment and outcomes of patients diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer?—An analysis of 634 patients from the California Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christine; Chen, Yingjia; Cress, Rosemary; Semrad, Alison M.; Semrad, Thomas; Gosnell, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Race, gender and socioeconomic disparities have been suggested to adversely influence stage at presentation, treatment options and outcomes in patients with cancer. Underserved minorities and those with a low socioeconomic status (SES) present with more advanced disease and have worse outcomes for differentiated thyroid cancer, but this relationship has never been evaluated for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Methods We used the California Cancer Registry (CCR) to evaluate disparities in the presentation, treatment and outcomes of patients diagnosed with MTC. Results We identified 634 patients with MTC diagnosed between 1988 and 2011. Almost everyone (85%) underwent thyroidectomy with 50% having a central lymph node dissection (CLND). There were no statistically significant differences by age, race or SES in mean tumor size or the proportion of patients diagnosed with localized disease, but men were diagnosed with larger tumors than women and were less likely to be diagnosed at a localized stage. Younger patients and women were more likely to be treated with a thyroidectomy. There were no statistically significant differences in surgical treatment by race or SES. Patients in the highest SES category had a better overall survival, but not disease specific survival, than those in the lowest SES (HR =0.3, CI =0.1–0.7). Patients treated with thyroidectomy had a better overall and cause specific survival, but the effect of CLND was not statistically significant after adjustment for other factors. Conclusions In MTC, we did not find that race, gender or SES influenced the presentation, treatment or outcomes of patients with MTC. Men with MTC present with larger tumors and are less likely to have localized disease. Half of the MTC patients in California do not undergo a CLND at the time of thyroidectomy, which may suggest a lack appropriate care across a range of healthcare systems. PMID:27563561

  9. Calcitonin measurement in aspiration needle washout fluids has higher sensitivity than cytology in detecting medullary thyroid cancer: a retrospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Cremonini, Nadia; Ceriani, Luca; Saggiorato, Enrico; Guidobaldi, Leo; Romanelli, Francesco; Ventura, Claudio; Laurenti, Oriana; Messuti, Ilaria; Solaroli, Erica; Madaio, Raffaele; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Orlandi, Fabio; Crescenzi, Anna; Valabrega, Stefano; Giovanella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Only few studies analysed the capability of cytology in detecting medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and they reported a low accuracy of this diagnostic technique. Recently, calcitonin (CT) measurement in aspiration needle washout (FNA-CT) of thyroid and neck lesions has been reported as a sensitive tool for MTC. The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity of FNA-CT and cytology in detecting MTC and to assess a cut-off value of FNA-CT for clinical practice. Thirty-eight MTC lesions from 36 patients were retrospectively studied, diagnosed and treated in four different centres. Furthermore, 52 nonmedullary lesions from subjects undergone biopsy following increased serum CT were collected as a control group. Cytology detected MTC in 21/37 lesions with 56·8% sensitivity. The median FNA-CT value was 2000 pg/ml (range 58-10 000 pg/ml) in MTC and 2·7 pg/ml (range <2-13 pg/ml) in controls (P < 0·001). Using a cut-off of 39·6 pg/ml, MTC lesions could be identified with 100% sensitivity and specificity. As the most important finding, 14 histologically proved MTC lesions could be detected by FNA-CT, despite they were cytologically diagnosed as benign or nonconclusive. This study shows, as the first in a multicentre series, that FNA-CT sensitivity is higher than that of cytology in diagnosing MTC. To avoid false-negative MTC by cytology, CT measurement in aspiration needle washout is to be performed in all patients undergoing biopsy following high serum CT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of Tenascin C, EGFR, E-Cadherin, and TTF-1 in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and the Correlation with RET Mutation Status

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Florian; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Rendl, Gundula; Rodrigues, Margarida; Pirich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tenascin C expression correlates with tumor grade and indicates worse prognosis in several tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in driving proliferation in many tumors. Loss of E-cadherin function is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is involved in rearranged during transfection (RET) transcription in Hirschsprung’s disease. Tenascin C, EGFR, E-cadherin, TTF-1-expression, and their correlations with RET mutation status were investigated in 30 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (n = 26) or C-cell hyperplasia (n = 4). Tenascin C was found in all, EGFR in 4/26, E-cadherin in 23/26, and TTF-1 in 25/26 MTC. Tenascin C correlated significantly with tumor proliferation (overall, r = 0.61, p < 0.005; RET-mutated, r = 0.81, p < 0.01). E-cadherin showed weak correlation, whereas EGFR and TTF-1 showed no significant correlation with tumor proliferation. EGFR, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 showed weak correlation with proliferation of RET-mutated tumors. Correlation between TTF-1 and tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR was r = −0.10, 0.37, and 0.21, respectively. In conclusion, MTC express tenascin C, E-cadherin, and TTF-1. Tenascin C correlates significantly with tumor proliferation, especially in RET-mutated tumors. EGFR is low, and tumors expressing EGFR do not exhibit higher proliferation. TTF-1 does not correlate with RET mutation status and has a weak correlation with tenascin C, E-cadherin, and EGFR expression. PMID:27409604

  11. Fine needle aspiration and medullary thyroid carcinoma: the risk of inadequate preoperative evaluation and initial surgery when relying upon FNAB cytology alone.

    PubMed

    Essig, Garth F; Porter, Kyle; Schneider, David; Debora, Arpaia; Lindsey, Susan C; Busonero, Giulia; Fineberg, Daniel; Fruci, Barbara; Boelaert, Kristien; Smit, Johannes W; Meijer, Johannes Arnoldus Anthonius; Duntas, Leonidas; Sharma, Neil; Costante, Giuseppe; Filetti, Sebastiano; Sippel, Rebecca S; Biondi, Bernadette; Topliss, Duncan J; Pacini, Furio; Maciel, Rui M B; Walz, Patrick C; Kloos, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to preoperatively diagnose medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) among multiple international centers and evaluate how the cytological diagnosis alone could impact patient management. We performed a retrospective chart review of sporadic MTC (sMTC) patients from 12 institutions over the last 29 years. FNAB cytology results were compared to final pathologic diagnoses to calculate FNAB sensitivity. To evaluate the impact of cytology sensitivity for MTC according to current practice and to avoid confounding results by local treatment protocols, changes in treatment patterns over time, and the influence of ancillary findings (e.g., serum calcitonin), therapeutic interventions based on FNAB cytology alone were projected into 1 of 4 treatment categories: total thyroidectomy (TT) and central neck dissection (CND), TT without CND, diagnostic hemithyroidectomy, or observation. A total of 313 patients from 4 continents and 7 countries were included, 245 of whom underwent FNAB. FNAB cytology revealed MTC in 43.7% and possible MTC in an additional 2.4%. A total of 113 (46.1%) patients with surgical pathology revealing sMTC had FNAB findings that supported TT with CND, while 37 (15.1%) supported TT alone. In the remaining cases, diagnostic hemithyroidectomy and observation were projected in 32.7% and 6.1%, respectively. FNAB is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, but the low sensitivity of cytological evaluation alone in sMTC limits its ability to command an optimal preoperative evaluation and initial surgery in over half of affected patients.

  12. Intraoperative high-dose calcium stimulation test in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma is highly accurate in predicting lateral neck metastases.

    PubMed

    De Crea, Carmela; Raffaelli, Marco; Milano, Valentina; Carrozza, Cinzia; Zuppi, Cecilia; Bellantone, Rocco; Lombardi, Celestino Pio

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative measurement of calcitonin is not highly accurate in predicting the completeness of the operative resection after total thyroidectomy combined with central neck dissection (TT-CND) in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We evaluated whether an intraoperative, high-dose calcium stimulation test (IO-CST) after TT-CND can predict lateral neck involvement. Eleven patients who underwent primary operation for sporadic MTC were included. High-dose (25 mg/kg) calcium gluconate was administered after TT-CND with calcitonin measured at 2, 5, and 10 minutes after the calcium gluconate infusion. There were 2 males and 9 females (mean age, 51 years; range, 18-88). Three patients showed lateral neck metastases. At a mean follow-up of 7.0 months (range, 2-10), 1 patient showed distant metastases and 1 a slightly increased calcitonin level. After IO-CST, serum calcitonin increased in all the 3 patients with lateral neck metastases, and it remained unchanged or decreased in the other patients without lateral neck metastases. Percent variation of serum calcitonin after IO-CST was 92% in patients with lateral neck metastases and -3.1 ± 4.9% in patients without lateral neck metastases. Calcitonin measurement after IO-CST in patients with sporadic MTC can be highly accurate in predicting lateral neck nodes involvement. These results could represent a stimulus toward the development of a quick calcitonin assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of germline sequence variants of GFRA1, GFRA2, and GFRA3 genes in a cohort of Spanish patients with sporadic medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Salud; Fernández, Raquel M; Dziema, Heather; Japón, Miguel A; Marcos, Irene; Eng, Charis; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2002-11-01

    The etiology of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) remains elusive. While germline gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene cause hereditary MTC, somatic RET mutations have been described in a variable number of sMTC. So far, S836S of RET, is the only variant whose association with sMTC has been found in several European cohorts. Because RET variants seem to be associated with MTC, it is plausible that variants in genes encoding for RET coreceptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of sMTC. Recently, we described two possible low penetrance susceptibility alleles in the gene encoding RET coreceptor GFRalpha1, -193C > G and 537T > C, in a German series of sMTC. In this study, we have genotyped nine polymorphisms within GFRA1-3 genes for 51 Spanish sMTC, and 100 normal controls. Our results show that no statistical signification was found when Spanish sMTC patients were compared to controls. Taken together with the observations in the German sMTC series, the present findings suggest that GFRA1-193C > G and 537T > C could be in linkage disequilibrium with other loci responsible for the disease with a founder effect in Germany. Alternatively, the combined observations might also suggest that, if indeed the polymorphisms are functional, the effect is small.

  14. Targeting of RET oncogene by naphthalene diimide-mediated gene promoter G-quadruplex stabilization exerts anti-tumor activity in oncogene-addicted human medullary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tortoreto, Monica; Doria, Filippo; Beretta, Giovanni L.; Zuco, Valentina; Freccero, Mauro; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia; Richter, Sara N.; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Folini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) relies on the aberrant activation of RET proto-oncogene. Though targeted approaches (i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are available, the absence of complete responses and the onset of resistance mechanisms indicate the need for novel therapeutic interventions. Due to their role in regulation of gene expression, G-quadruplexes (G4) represent attractive targets amenable to be recognized or stabilized by small molecules. Here, we report that exposure of MTC cells to a tri-substituted naphthalene diimide (NDI) resulted in a significant antiproliferative activity paralleled by inhibition of RET expression. Biophysical analysis and gene reporter assays showed that impairment of RET expression was consequent to the NDI-mediated stabilization of the G4 forming within the gene promoter. We also showed for the first time that systemic administration of the NDI in mice xenotransplanted with MTC cells resulted in a remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our findings indicate that NDI-dependent RET G4 stabilization represents a suitable approach to control RET transcription and delineate the rationale for the development of G4 stabilizing-based treatments for MTC as well as for other tumors in which RET may have functional and therapeutic implications. PMID:27351133

  15. Cell-specific induction of sensitivity to ganciclovir in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Minemura, K; Takeda, T; Minemura, K; Nagasawa, T; Zhang, R; Leopardi, R; DeGroot, L J

    2000-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene transfer followed by ganciclovir administration is a common strategy for experimental cancer therapy. To evaluate the feasibility of using the human calcitonin promoter to target medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we developed adenovirus vectors containing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene under the control of the CALC-I promoter (AdCTlacZ), or the human cytomegalovirus promoter (AdCMVlacZ). Beta-galactosidase activity driven by the CALC-I promoter was higher than by the CMV promoter in rat MTC cells after infection with adenovirus vectors. AdCTlacZ induced an equal or lower expression level of beta-galactosidase in TT (human MTC), T98G, Cos1, HepG2, and HeLa cells compared with AdCMVlacZ. To inhibit the growth of MTC cells, we developed two adenovirus vectors, AdCMVtk carrying HSVtk driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter and AdDCTtk containing a human CALC-I minigene under the control of the CALC-I promoter. HSVtk is fused to a portion of calcitonin coded in exon 4 to direct cell-specific regulation of splicing. All cell lines infected with AdCMVtk were rendered sensitive to ganciclovir, whereas T98G and Cos1 cells infected with AdDCTtk were not affected. Cell killing was also observed in HeLa, HepG2, rat MTC and TT cells infected with AdDCTtk.

  16. A rapid screening method for the detection of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma families

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, D.J.; Andrew, S.; Richardson, A.L. |

    1994-09-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes with incomplete penetrance. Following the identification of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene that segregate with the disease phenotype in MEN2A, MEN2B, and FMTC, genetic screening of individuals with mutations in RET may be performed. The authors have employed restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products as an alternative to sequence analysis for rapid identification of mutant gene carriers in families in which MEN2A and RMTC are segregating. Twenty-one Australasian MEN2A and FMTC families have been screened for mutations in a cysteine-rich region of the RET proto-oncogene. Seven independent mutations were identified in key individuals in 16 of these families. The authors have identified a mutation in codon 620, 2053 T {r_arrow}C (Cys620Arg), and two mutations in codon 634 of exon 11 of RET, 2095 T {r_arrow} C (Cys634Arg) and 2096 G {r_arrow} A (Cys634Tyr), all three of which were present in both MEN2A and FMTC families. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Role of RET codonic mutations in the surgical management of medullary thyroid carcinoma in pediatric age multiple endocrine neoplasm type 2 syndromes.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Claudio; Di Giacomo, Martina; Costanzo, Sara; Elisei, Rossella; Miccoli, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) therapy is surgical resection. Because the genetic screening was available, the early diagnosis of the disease has been possible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the genetic test in the management of these children and to draw some information about the surgical timing. Thirteen patients underwent total thyroidectomy at our institute between 1995 and 2007. Seven patients underwent a curative thyroidectomy, and 6 patients underwent a prophylactic thyroidectomy. Two patients were operated with a minimally invasive video-assisted technique. We studied the following parameters: age, risk level associated to the RET gene mutations, aim of surgery (curative or prophylactic), tumor histopathologic features, lymph node involvement, and distal metastases. We found a statistical association between cancer maximum diameter and some parameters analyzed: age of patients, aim of surgery, single or multifocal MTC, and number of organs involved by distal metastases. Cancer diameter at the moment of diagnosis seems to increase according to the aggressiveness of RET gene mutation found. The best strategy to cure MTC is to prevent it. Genetic screening could be a fundamental tool in the management of multiple endocrine neoplasm type 2 children. An improvement of scientific knowledge regarding RET gene alterations and an early and appropriate use of genetic tests could allow a better understanding of the correct surgical timing and a wider use of less aggressive surgical procedures. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Study of RET protooncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasm 2A and in familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical pathological findings in asymptomatic carriers].

    PubMed

    Belli, Susana; Storani, María E; Dourisboure, Ricardo J; Podestá, Ernesto J; Solano, Angela R

    2003-01-01

    Twenty five percent of the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is hereditary and 5% is familiar (FMTC), or considered as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (17%) or 2B (3%). These diseases are the result of the autosomic dominant inheritance of a mutation in the RET protooncogene, in one out of 12 different known codons. We analyzed 7 families (2 MEN 2A and 5 FMTC). Six mutations were detected in the most frequent codon, 634 (2 MEN 2A y 4 FMTC) and one family with FMTC presented a novel mutation: a transition T > C at codon 630, resulting a C630A change. Among 57 individuals studied, 25 (43.85%) presented the mutation. Seven (28%) were asymptomatic carriers, including 5 children aged 11 +/- 3.2 years. The children underwent total thyroidectomy. The histopathologic examination showed C cells hyperplasia and microcarcinoma focus in both lobes, even in the presence of normal, basal or pentagastrine stimulated, calcitonine levels. In conclusion, we describe a germine novel mutation in the RET protooncogene: C630A; and the corresponding findings of C-cell disease in gene mutated carriers that emphasize the importance of prophylactic thyroidectomy as soon as the molecular diagnosis is confirmed.

  19. Usefulness of Serum Calcitonin in Patients Without a Suspicious History of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and with Thyroid Nodules Without an Indication for Fine-Needle Aspiration or with Benign Cytology.

    PubMed

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of serum calcitonin (Ctn) in subjects without a suspicious history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or with benign cytology. This was a prospective study that evaluated 421 patients with nodular disease without an indication for FNA and 602 patients with benign cytology. Patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml were submitted to calcium stimulation testing. Patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were submitted to total thyroidectomy. Basal Ctn was<10 pg/ml in 1001 patients (97.8%). Among patients with basal Ctn>10 pg/ml, 16/22 exhibited stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml. Two of these 16 patients had MTC. The 2 patients with MTC had undetectable basal Ctn 6 months after surgery. Using a cut-off of 30 pg/ml in women and 60 pg/ml in men for basal Ctn, the 2 cases of MTC of our series would have been identified and there would have been no false-positive case. It should be noted that 14/16 patients with stimulated Ctn>100 pg/ml were false-positive cases. Although uncommon, even subjects without a suspicious history and with nodular thyroid disease without an indication for FNA or with benign cytology can have MTC. The measurement of Ctn permits the diagnosis of these cases. Our results favor the hypothesis that basal Ctn could be superior to stimulated Ctn. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Radioactive Iodine Therapy Decreases Recurrence in Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Creach, Kimberly M.; Siegel, Barry A.; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The most appropriate therapy for papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) is controversial. Methods. We reviewed the therapy and outcome of 407 patients with PMC. Results. Three hundred-eighty patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 349 patients received I-131 therapy. The median followup was 5.3 years. Forty patients developed recurrent disease. On univariate analysis, development of disease recurrence was correlated with histological tumor size > 0.8 cm (P = 0.0104), age < 45 years (P = 0.043), and no I-131 therapy (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, histological tumor size > 0.8 cm, positive lymph nodes, and no I-131 therapy were significant. The 5-year RFS for patients treated with I-131 was 95.0% versus 78.6% (P < 0.0001) for patients not treated with I-131. Patients with lymph node metastasis who did not receive I-131 had a 5-year RFS of 42.9% versus 93.2% (P < 0.0001) for patients who received I-131. Conclusions. Recommend I-131 remnant ablation for patients with PMC, particularly patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:22462017

  1. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and RET proto-oncogene: mutation spectrum in the familial cases and a meta-analysis of studies on the sporadic form.

    PubMed

    Figlioli, Gisella; Landi, Stefano; Romei, Cristina; Elisei, Rossella; Gemignani, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon malignant tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyroid. It accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers, and it mostly occurs as a sporadic entity (sMTC), but a familial pattern (fMTC) is also possible. RET proto-oncogene germline mutations are crucial for the onset and the progression of fMTC, and the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms could predispose to the sporadic form. In order to clarify the role of this gene in MTC, we carefully reviewed the PubMed database using appropriate terms. First, we summarized current knowledge of the germline RET mutations, mutation spectrum, and prevalence. We then performed a meta-analysis on the available case-control association studies for sMTC. Finally, we carried out in silico predictions of the best associated variants in the attempt to better define their role in the disease. To date, a total of 39 different RET germline mutations have been identified in fMTC families. The most affected codons are 609, 611, 618, 620 (exon 10) and 634 (exon 11), encoding for the extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and codons 768 (exon 13) and 804 (exon 14) of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Six polymorphisms with at least three studies were included in the meta-analysis (A45A [rs1800858], G691S [rs1799939], L769L [rs1800861], S836S [rs1800862], S904S [rs1800863], and IVS1-126G>T [rs2565206]). The meta-analysis demonstrated a modest association of sMTC susceptibility with S836S and a strong association with the IVS1-126G>T polymorphism. Besides RET polymorphisms, we also investigated the role of a few other low-penetrance alleles of genes involved in the RET pathway or in xenobiotic metabolism, but none of these were confirmed. Thus, despite the well-known molecular basis of fMTC, the genetic variants of the sporadic form are still poorly understood, and functional analyses are needed to better understand the consequence of such RET

  2. MiR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Adriana; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Moulatlet, Ana Carolina Bernardini; da Silva Victor, Elivane; de Castro, Marilia Germanos; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Severino, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Despite low mortality rates, nodal recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma occurs in up to 20 % of patients. Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated microRNAs are implicated in the process of metastasis. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b levels are predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. Using macro-dissection followed by quantitative real-time PCR, we measured miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b expression levels in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 66 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma categorized into two groups: the recurrent group (n = 19) and the non-recurrent group (n = 47). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and were followed for at least 120 months after surgery to be considered recurrence-free. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model in order to identify associations between multiple clinical variables and microRNA expression levels and papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. MiR-9 and miR-21 expression levels were found to be significant prognostic factors for recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (HR = 1.48; 95 % CI 1.24-1.77, p < 0.001; and HR = 1.52; 95 % CI 1.18-1.94, p = 0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis involving the expression level of miR-9 and miR-21 and various clinical parameters identified the expression of these microRNAs as independent prognostic factors for papillary thyroid cancer patients. In conclusion, our results support the potential clinical value of miR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Does microscopically involved margin increase disease recurrence after curative surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Shek, Tony W H; Wan, Koon Yat

    2016-05-01

    The prognostic significance of microscopically involved margin in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) following curative surgery remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an involved margin and its location (anterior vs. posterior) on disease recurrence. Of the 638 eligible patients, 538 (85.9%) did not have an involved margin (group I) while 100 (14.1%) did (group II). The latter group was further classified according to its location relative to the surface of the thyroid gland (anterior or posterior). A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent factors for recurrence risk. After a mean of 130.1 ± 93.5 months, 22 patients had disease recurrence. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in group II (95.0% vs. 97.0%, P = 0.011). After adjusting other significant factors, involved margin was not an independent risk factor for disease recurrence (P = 0.358). Compared to a negative margin, an anterior involved margin did not pose increased recurrence risk (HR = 1.21, 95%CI = 0.93-500.00, P = 0.368), whereas a posterior involved margin had almost 23 times higher recurrence risk (HR = 22.95; 95%CI = 4.33-121.70, P < 0.001). Overall, a microscopically involved margin was not an independent factor for DFS. However, although an anterior involved margin itself did not increase disease recurrence, a posterior involved margin did. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:635-639. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Surgical complications and recurrence after central neck dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Sohn, Jin Ho; Park, Ji Young

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate surgical complications and recurrence patterns after central neck dissection (CND) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A retrospective analysis was performed on 361 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with or without CND for PTC from 2000 to 2007. Clinicopathological results and recurrence were stratified according to treatment modality. Incidence of occult central metastasis of PTC was 64.3%. With respect to surgical morbidities, the total thyroidectomy (TT) with CND group exhibited a significantly higher incidence of transient vocal fold paralysis (10.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.029) and permanent hypocalcaemia (11.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.041), and significantly prolonged mean operating time (195.8min vs 153.0min, p<0.001) than the TT alone group. Analysis of the recurrence patterns revealed that level IV was most commonly involved in both groups. When the location of recurrence was categorised into central and lateral neck, the recurrence rate in the lateral neck was significantly higher than that in the central neck, regardless of initial CND. CND was associated with permanent hypocalcaemia and transient vocal fold paralysis. The lateral neck was mainly involved in recurrence regardless of initial CND, suggesting the clinical benefit of CND may be small. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis due to Both Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in the Same Three Patients.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ashley; Puthenpura, Vidya; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are the 2 most common autoimmune disease processes affecting the thyroid gland. The relationship between the two is complex and not clearly understood. It has been theorized that HT and GD are 2 separate disease processes due to unique genetic differences demonstrated by genome studies. On the other hand, based on occurrence of both HT and GD in monozygotic twins and within the same family, they have been regarded to represent 2 ends of the same spectrum. This case report describes 3 patients who presented with thyrotoxicosis due to both GD and HT. The initial presentation was thyrotoxicosis due to GD treated with antithyroid medication followed by temporary resolution. They all subsequently experienced recurrence of thyrotoxicosis in the form of Hashitoxicosis due to HT, and then eventually all developed thyrotoxicosis due to GD, requiring radioablation therapy.

  6. Multilayer OMIC Data in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Identifies the STAT3 Pathway as a Potential Therapeutic Target in RET(M918T) Tumors.

    PubMed

    Mancikova, Veronika; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Perales-Paton, Javier; Fernandez, Agustin; Santacana, María; Jodkowska, Karolina; Inglada-Pérez, Lucia; Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Borrego, Salud; Encinas, Mario; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Fraga, Mario; Robledo, Mercedes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare disease with few genetic drivers, and the etiology specific to each known susceptibility mutation remains unknown. Exploiting multilayer genomic data, we focused our interest on the role of aberrant DNA methylation in MTC development.Experimental Design: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling assessing more than 27,000 CpGs in the largest MTC series reported to date, comprising 48 molecularly characterized tumors. mRNA and miRNA expression data were available for 33 and 31 tumors, respectively. Two human MTC cell lines and 101 paraffin-embedded MTCs were used for validation.Results: The most distinctive methylome was observed for RET(M918T)-related tumors. Integration of methylation data with mRNA and miRNA expression data identified genes negatively regulated by promoter methylation. These in silico findings were confirmed in vitro for PLCB2, DKK4, MMP20, and miR-10a, -30a, and -200c. The mutation-specific aberrant methylation of PLCB2, DKK4, and MMP20 was validated in 25 independent MTCs by bisulfite pyrosequencing. The methylome and transcriptome data underscored JAK/Stat pathway involvement in RET(M918T) MTCs. Immunostaining [immunohistochemistry (IHC)] for the active form of signaling effector STAT3 was performed in a series of 101 MTCs. As expected, positive IHC was associated with RET(M918T)-bearing tumors (P < 0.02). Pharmacologic inhibition of STAT3 activity increased the sensitivity to vandetanib of the RET(M918T)-positive MTC cell line, MZ-CRC-1.Conclusions: Multilayer OMIC data analysis uncovered methylation hallmarks in genetically defined MTCs and revealed JAK/Stat signaling effector STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of RET(M918T) MTCs. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1334-45. ©2016 AACR.

  7. Classical point mutations of RET, BRAF and RAS oncogenes are not shared in papillary and medullary thyroid cancer occurring simultaneously in the same gland.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, R; Romei, C; Pieruzzi, L; Tacito, A; Molinaro, E; Agate, L; Bottici, V; Casella, F; Ugolini, C; Materazzi, G; Basolo, F; Elisei, R

    2017-01-01

    Papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC) thyroid carcinomas represent two distinct entities, but quite frequently, they may occur simultaneously. To provide genetic analysis of PTC and MTC occurring in the same patient (PTC/MTC) to elucidate their origin. Sequencing analysis of RAS, BRAF and RET oncogenes hot spots mutations in tumoral and normal tissues of 24 PTC/MTC patients. Two of 24 patients (8.3 %) were affected by familial MTC (FMTC) harboring RET germline mutations in all tissues. Eight of 22 (36.4 %) sporadic cases did not show any somatic mutation in the three tissue components. Considering the MTC component, 10/22 (45.4 %) patients did not show any somatic mutation, 7 of 22 (31.8 %) harbored the M918T RET somatic mutation and 4/22 (18.2 %) presented mutations in the H-RAS gene. In an additional case (1/22, 4.6 %), H-RAS and RET mutations were simultaneously present. Considering the PTC component, 1 of 24 (4.2 %) patients harbored the V600E BRAF mutation, 1 of 24 (4.2 %) the T58A H-RAS mutation and 1 of 24 (4.2 %) the M1T K-RAS mutation, while the remaining PTC cases did not show any somatic mutation. In one case, the MTC harbored a RET mutation and the PTC a BRAF mutation. None of the mutations found were present in both tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing a possible involvement of RET, BRAF and RAS oncogene mutations in PTC/MTC. These data clearly suggest that the classical activating mutations of the oncogenes commonly involved in the pathogenesis of PTC and MTC may not be responsible for their simultaneous occurrence.

  8. Localization of medullary thyroid carcinoma after surgery using (11)C-methionine PET/CT: comparison with (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Won; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Ji In; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shin, Hyun Won; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Tumor localization is difficult in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) that have persistent hypercalcitoninemia after thyroidectomy. In this study, the (11)C-methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was compared with the (18)F-FDG PET/CT for diagnostic sensitivity in detecting residual or metastatic disease. (11)C-methionine PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT were performed on 16 consecutive patients with MTC that had persistent hypercalcitoninemia after surgery in this prospective, single-center study. Patient- and lesion-based analyses were performed using a composite reference standard which was the sum of the lesions confirmed by all combined modalities, including neck ultrasonography (US) with or without fine needle aspiration cytology, CT, bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgery. By patient-based analysis, the sensitivities of (11)C-methionine PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT were both 63%. By lesion-based analysis, the sensitivity of (11)C-methionine PET/CT was similar to (18)F-FDG PET/CT (73% vs. 80%). Excluding hepatic lesions, which could not be detected because of physiological uptake of methionine by the liver, the sensitivity of (11)C-methionine PET/CT was better than (18)F-FDG PET/CT especially for detecting cervical lymph node lesions; however, it was not superior to US. All patients with serum calcitonin levels ≥370 pg/mL showed uptake by (11)C-methionine PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. This preliminary data showed that despite its similar sensitivity to (18)F-FDG PET/CT for detecting residual or metastatic MTC, (11)C-methionine PET/CT provided minimal additional information compared to combined (18)F-FDG PET/CT and neck US.

  9. All in the family? Analyzing the impact of family history in addition to genotype on medullary thyroid carcinoma aggressiveness in MEN2A patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Kristin L; Etzel, Carol; Rich, Thereasa; Hyde, Samuel; Perrier, Nancy D; Graham, Paul H; Lee, Jeffrey E; Hu, Mimi I; Cote, Gilbert J; Gagel, Robert; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2017-04-01

    Several guidelines for patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN2A) take into account genotype and family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) disease aggressiveness. We sought to determine if an association exists independent of genotype, which could provide important information for counseling MEN2A patients in management of their MTC. Pedigrees of patients with ≥5 family members with MEN2A were retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed among kindreds with the most frequently observed codon mutation (RET 634). Familial MTC disease aggressiveness was evaluated using: (1) mean age at diagnosis of MTC, (2) current mean age of carriers without MTC, (3) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastatic disease at diagnosis, (4) proportion of kindred with MTC with metastasis/death from MTC as worst outcome, and (5) proportion of kindred with disease progression. 170 affected patients from 12 different MEN2A kindreds met inclusion criteria. The number of affected family members available for study per kindred ranged from 8 to 43 individuals. A difference in mean age of MTC diagnosis was found in screened patients (p = 0.01); mean age of MTC-free patients did not differ (p = 0.93). No differences were noted among kindreds in disease stage at presentation, worst outcome, or progression; marked variation in these measures was noted within families. In conclusion, a difference in age of MTC diagnosis among different RET 634 kindreds was identified. In contrast, notable intra-familial variability in disease aggressiveness was observed. Based on these findings, we recommend counseling patients with codon 634 mutations that their MTC disease course cannot be predicted by that of their relatives.

  10. Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  11. Recurrence-associated genes in papillary thyroid cancer: An analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Nan; Yang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Jie-Jen; Wang, Tao-Yeuan; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer is not uncommon, but incorporating clinicopathologic parameters to predict recurrence is suboptimal. The aim of this study was to identify systemically recurrence-associated genes using The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA sequencing database. A total of 504 patients with transcriptome sequencing data of the primary neoplasm were included in this study. High and low levels of expression of each gene were defined by median splits. Differences in recurrence-free survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Recurrence-associated genes were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotation databases and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We found that 1,807 genes were associated with recurrence-free survival. There were 676 genes of which high expression was associated with a greater risk of recurrence. These genes were enriched in pathways involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Among 1,131 genes of which low expression was associated with recurrence, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-annotated functions were metabolism, calcium signaling, glycan biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway. Canonical pathways identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis included RXR function, nitric oxide signaling, interleukin-8 signaling, and nutrient sensing. In addition, low expression of the majority of thyroid differentiation genes was associated with a significantly less recurrence-free survival. Upregulation of cell cycle-regulating and DNA repair genes appears to have a negative impact on recurrence-free survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Furthermore, recurrence is associated with thyroid dedifferentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  13. Recurrent EZH1 mutations are a second hit in autonomous thyroid adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Elisa S.; Eszlinger, Markus; Ronchi, Cristina L.; Godbole, Amod; Bathon, Kerstin; Guizzardi, Fabiana; de Filippis, Tiziana; Krohn, Knut; Jaeschke, Holger; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Gozu, Hulya Iliksu; Sancak, Seda; Niedziela, Marek; Strom, Tim M.; Fassnacht, Martin; Paschke, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous thyroid adenomas (ATAs) are a frequent cause of hyperthyroidism. Mutations in the genes encoding the TSH receptor (TSHR) or the Gs protein α subunit (GNAS) are found in approximately 70% of ATAs. The involvement of other genes and the pathogenesis of the remaining cases are presently unknown. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 19 ATAs that were paired with normal DNA samples and identified a recurrent hot-spot mutation (c.1712A>G; p.Gln571Arg) in the enhancer of zeste homolog 1 (EZH1) gene, which codes for a catalytic subunit of the polycomb complex. Targeted screening in an independent cohort confirmed that this mutation occurs with high frequency (27%) in ATAs. EZH1 mutations were strongly associated with known (TSHR, GNAS) or presumed (adenylate cyclase 9 [ADCY9]) alterations in cAMP pathway genes. Furthermore, functional studies revealed that the p.Gln571Arg EZH1 mutation caused increased histone H3 trimethylation and increased proliferation of thyroid cells. In summary, this study revealed that a hot-spot mutation in EZH1 is the second most frequent genetic alteration in ATAs. The association between EZH1 and TSHR mutations suggests a 2-hit model for the pathogenesis of these tumors, whereby constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway and EZH1 mutations cooperate to induce the hyperproliferation of thyroid cells. PMID:27500488

  14. Dynamic risk stratification for predicting the recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Elgin; Soydal, Cigdem; Nak, Demet; Kucuk, Nuriye O; Kir, Kemal M

    2017-09-27

    To analyze the predictive value of the dynamic risk stratification (DRS) system for assessing the risk of recurrent/persistent disease in our large group of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients. We retrospectively included 2184 consecutive patients who received radioiodine ablation therapy following a total or near total thyroidectomy in our department between 1998 and 2014. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) classification was used for initial risk classification. At the second year of follow-up period after radioiodine ablation therapy, DRS was performed also. The ATA and DRS risk classification results were compared with clinical outcome. According to DRS, more than half of the ATA high-risk patients (73.2%) moved to the DRS low-risk category and the 6.4% of ATA low-risk patients comprised the DRS high-risk category. In comparison of variables within the ATA and the DRS risk groups with clinical outcome, combined use of the ATA and the DRS systems was statistically significant to predict the recurrent/persistent disease (P<0.005). The present study revealed that the DRS system is a necessary stratification system in addition to the initial risk evaluation. The DRS can discriminate those patients who does not require closer follow-up in the long-term period.

  15. The Delayed Risk Stratification System in the Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walczyk, Agnieszka; Pałyga, Iwona; Gąsior-Perczak, Danuta; Gadawska-Juszczyk, Klaudia; Szymonek, Monika; Trybek, Tomasz; Lizis-Kolus, Katarzyna; Szyska-Skrobot, Dorota; Mikina, Estera; Hurej, Stefan; Słuszniak, Janusz; Mężyk, Ryszard; Góźdź, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Context There has been a marked increase in the detection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) over the past few years, which has improved the prognosis. However, it is necessary to adjust treatment and monitoring strategies relative to the risk of an unfavourable disease course. Materials and Methods This retrospective study examined data from 916 patients with DTC who received treatment at a single centre between 2000 and 2013. The utility of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) recommended systems for early assessment of the risk of recurrent/persistent disease was compared with that of the recently recommended delayed risk stratification (DRS) system. Results The PPV and NPV for the ATA (24.59% and 95.42%, respectively) and ETA (24.28% and 95.68%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for the DRS (56.76% and 98.5%, respectively) (p<0.0001). The proportion of variance for predicting the final outcome was 15.8% for ATA, 16.1% for ETA and 56.7% for the DRS. Recurrent disease was rare (1% of patients), and was nearly always identified in patients at intermediate/high risk according to the initial stratification (9/10 cases). Conclusions The DRS showed a better correlation with the risk of persistent disease than the early stratification systems and allows personalisation of follow-up. If clinicians plan to alter the intensity of surveillance, patients at intermediate/high risk according to the early stratification systems should remain within the specialized centers; however, low risk patients can be referred to endocrinologists or other appropriate practitioners for long-term follow-up, as these patients remained at low risk after risk re-stratification. PMID:27078258

  16. IL-4, IL-10 and high sensitivity-CRP as potential serum biomarkers of persistent/recurrent disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma with/without Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Stanciu, Adina E; Serdarevic, Nafija; Hurduc, Anca E; Stanciu, Marcel M

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the potential role of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as serum biomarkers of persistent/recurrent disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with/without Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Eighty consecutive patients (64 F/16 M, 43.2 ± 12.7 years) with PTC and 40 (37 F/3 M, 40.6 ± 12.3 years) with papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (PTC + HT) were evaluated before radioiodine therapy. A control group of 20 patients with HT without thyroid cancer (18 F/2 M, 47.3 ± 2.8 years) was included in the study for the comparison of cytokine levels. No meaningful differences were found in clinical outcomes between PTC and PTC + HT groups (47.5% vs. 45% persistent/recurrent disease). Serum IL-4, IL-10 and hs-CRP levels were higher in patients with persistent/recurrent disease compared to those without recurrence (p < 0.001). IL-4, IL-10 and hs-CRP were also found in substantially higher concentrations in PTC + HT patients with persistent/recurrent disease than in patients with HT or PTC (with or without recurrence) (p < 0.01). Positive correlations were observed between IL-4, IL-10, hs-CRP and thyroglobulin (Tg) (r between 0.48 and 0.56, p < 0.005) or antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) (r between 0.63 and 0.80, p < 0.002) in PTC and PTC + HT patients with persistent/recurrent disease. Increased levels of serum IL-4, IL-10 and hs-CRP are associated with persistent/recurrent disease in PTC and PTC + HT patients. Our results suggest that these biomarkers might be used to improve patient stratification according to the risk of recurrence, especially in patients with PTC + HT, where Tg levels are not reliable due to presence of TgAb.

  17. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, William F.; Wang, Laura Y.; Palmer, Frank L.; Nixon, Iain J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. Methods A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Conclusion Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. PMID:26994486

  18. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    McNamara, William F; Wang, Laura Y; Palmer, Frank L; Nixon, Iain J; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G; Ganly, Ian

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serial Thyroglobulin Variation Trend Shortly after Radioiodine Therapy in Poorly to Moderately Differentiated Recurrent Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    2016-06-10

    Objective To dynamically observe the early change of thyroglobulin(Tg) levels after (131)I therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer(DTC) patients. Methods The study enrolled 22 post-total-thyroidectomy DTC patients and they were stratified as low to intermediate recurrence according to the 2009 American Thyroid Association Guidelines. The clinical data including pre-ablation stimulated Tg (ps-Tg),corresponding thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) values,and the afterwards parameters were dynamically measured each week in the first month after (131)I therapy. Values collected at the first time were defined as Tg 0 and TSH0,while Tg1 and TSH1 were collected at the first week after (131)I therapy respectively. Then the variation trend curves of Tg were drawn,and factors influencing the variation of Tg were analyzed. Two groups were divided according to Tg levels:G1 (Tg≤0.1 ng/ml,n=9) and G2(Tg>0.1 ng/ml,n=13). Results The rates of negative Tg were 4.5%,18.0%,27.0%,36.0%,and 41.0%,respectively,exactly before (131)I therapy and the 1(st),2(nd),3(rd),and 4(th) week after the therapy. One-way analysis of variance showed that the two groups statistically differed in age (F=3.182,P=0.04) and remnant thyroid (U=4.849,P=0.026). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that early negative Tg was related to remnant thyroid tissue (OR:2.132;95%Cl:1.418-6.532,P=0.009).Conclusions Negative Tg can be achieved in nearly half of DTC patients by the end of first month after (131)I therapy. The negative conversion is closely related with the volume of remnant thyroid tissue.

  20. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  1. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  2. Association Between BRAF V600E Mutation and Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingzhao; Alzahrani, Ali S.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Tae Yong; Viola, David; Elisei, Rossella; Bendlová, Bela; Yip, Linwah; Mian, Caterina; Vianello, Federica; Tuttle, R. Michael; Robenshtok, Eyal; Fagin, James A.; Puxeddu, Efisio; Fugazzola, Laura; Czarniecka, Agnieszka; Jarzab, Barbara; O'Neill, Christine J.; Sywak, Mark S.; Lam, Alfred K.; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Santisteban, Pilar; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Tallini, Giovanni; Holt, Elizabeth H.; Sýkorová, Vlasta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients and Methods This was a retrospective multicenter study of the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and recurrence of PTC in 2,099 patients (1,615 women and 484 men), with a median age of 45 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34 to 58 years) and a median follow-up time of 36 months (IQR, 14 to 75 months). Results The overall BRAF V600E mutation prevalence was 48.5% (1,017 of 2,099). PTC recurrence occurred in 20.9% (213 of 1,017) of BRAF V600E mutation–positive and 11.6% (125 of 1,082) of BRAF V600E mutation–negative patients. Recurrence rates were 47.71 (95% CI, 41.72 to 54.57) versus 26.03 (95% CI, 21.85 to 31.02) per 1,000 person-years in BRAF mutation–positive versus –negative patients (P < .001), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.28), which remained significant in a multivariable model adjusting for patient sex and age at diagnosis, medical center, and various conventional pathologic factors. Significant association between BRAF mutation and PTC recurrence was also found in patients with conventionally low-risk disease stage I or II and micro-PTC and within various subtypes of PTC. For example, in BRAF mutation–positive versus –negative follicular-variant PTC, recurrence occurred in 21.3% (19 of 89) and 7.0% (24 of 342) of patients, respectively, with recurrence rates of 53.84 (95% CI, 34.34 to 84.40) versus 19.47 (95% CI, 13.05 to 29.04) per 1,000 person-years (P < .001) and an HR of 3.20 (95% CI, 1.46 to 7.02) after adjustment for clinicopathologic factors. BRAF mutation was associated with poorer recurrence-free probability in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in various clinicopathologic categories. Conclusion This large multicenter study demonstrates an independent prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for PTC recurrence in various clinicopathologic categories. PMID:25332244

  3. The modifier role of RET-G691S polymorphism in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma: functional characterization and expression/penetrance studies.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Carla; Minna, Emanuela; Rizzetti, Maria Grazia; Romeo, Paola; Lecis, Daniele; Persani, Luca; Mondellini, Piera; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela; Fugazzola, Laura; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by germ-line gain of function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, and a phenotypic variability among carriers of the same mutation has been reported. We recently observed this phenomenon in a large familial MTC (FMTC) family carrying the RET-S891A mutation. Among genetic modifiers affecting RET-driven MTC, a role has been hypothesized for RET-G691S non-synonymous polymorphism, though the issue remains controversial. Aim of this study was to define the in vitro contribution of RET-G691S to the oncogenic potential of the RET-S891A, previously shown to harbour low transforming activity. The RET-S891A and RET-G691S/S891A mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, transiently transfected in HEK293T cells and stably expressed in NIH3T3 cells. Their oncogenic potential was defined by assessing the migration ability by wound healing assay and the anchorage-independent growth by soft agar assay in NIH3T3 cells stably expressing either the single or the double mutants. Two RET-S891A families were characterised for the presence of RET-G691S. The functional studies demonstrated that RET-G691S/S891A double mutant displays a higher oncogenic potential than RET-S891A single mutant, assessed by focus formation and migration ability. Moreover, among the 25 RET-S891A carriers, a trend towards an earlier age of diagnosis was found in the MTC patients harboring RET-S891A in association with RET-G691S. We demonstrate that the RET-G691S non-synonymous polymorphism enhances in vitro the oncogenic activity of RET-S891A. Moreover, an effect on the phenotype was observed in the RET-G691S/S891A patients, thus suggesting that the analysis of this polymorphism could contribute to the decision on the more appropriate clinical and follow-up management.

  4. Somatostatin receptor expression in vivo and response to somatostatin analog therapy with or without other antineoplastic treatments in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vainas, I; Koussis, Ch; Pazaitou-Panayiotou, K; Drimonitis, A; Chrisoulidou, A; Iakovou, I; Boudina, M; Kaprara, A; Maladaki, A

    2004-12-01

    The long-term treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with somatostatin (SST) analogs was evaluated in 22 patients with persistant or relapsed disease and with in vivo positive SST receptor (SSTR) tumors. After surgical intervention all patients but one, initially or at a later time, had persistenly (15) or after relapse (7) elevated serum calcitonin (CT, 252-69482 pg/ml) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, 8-1130 ng/ml) concentrations; also, all of them showed positive uptake in 111In-pentetreotide scanning. Daily doses of 0.4-1.0 mg octreotide subcutaneously, or monthly doses of 20-30 mg long-acting octreotide (LAR) intramuscularly for 3-21 months were administered. Systemic chemotherapy (Ch) with or without external radiotherapy (eRT) was given to 13 patients simultaneously. A beneficial effect on pre-existing diarrhea was observed in 8 patients (subjective partial remmission, sPR 36.4%); 10 other patients showed stable disease, while in 4 a worsening of pre-existing diarrhea was observed. CT and CEA concentrations decreased more than 25% in 4 out of 22 patients (18%) and 11 patients showed a decrease of less than 25% (biological SD). No objective response in tumour growth was demonstrated. Patients (10 survivors in group B) treated with Ch+eRT plus Octerotide showed higher sR (92.5%), lower mortality (23.1%), longer mean time to death (130 months) and longer mean total survival (mts) time (145 months) in comparison to group A patients who had 66.7% sR, 33.3% mortality, only 88.5 months mean time to death and 101 months mts-time. Long-term octreotide and octreotide-LAR treatment offers a subjective and biological partial remission in one third and in one fourth of the MTC patients respectively, but it does not improve the natural course of the tumor. It remains to be answered if these drugs, combined with other antineoplastic therapies, have a synergistic effect relating to treatment response and to patient survival and mortality.

  5. Measurement of Calcitonin and Calcitonin Gene–Related Peptide mRNA Refines the Management of Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer and May Replace Calcitonin-Stimulation Tests

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Cléber P.; Lindsey, Susan C.; Melo, Maria Clara C.; Yang, Ji H.; Germano-Neto, Fausto; Valente, Flávia de O.F.; Lima, Thiago R.N.; Biscolla, Rosa Paula M.; Vieira, José G.H.; Cerutti, Janete M.; Maciel, Rui M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum calcitonin (sCT) is the main tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), but it has certain limitations. Various sCT assays may have important intra-assay or interassay variation and may yield different and sometimes conflicting results. A pentagastrin- or calcium-stimulation calcitonin (CT) test may be desirable in some situations. Alternatively, or in the absence of the stimulation test, mRNA detection offers the advantages of being more comfortable and less invasive; it only requires blood collection and has no side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of measuring calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (CALCA) gene transcripts (CT-CALCA and calcitonin gene–related peptide [CGRP]-CALCA) in patients with MTC and in relatives diagnosed with a RET mutation and to test mRNA as an alternative diagnostic tool for the calcitonin-stimulation test. Methods Twenty-three healthy controls and 26 individuals evaluated for MTC were selected, including patients with sporadic or hereditary MTC and RET mutation–carrying relatives. For molecular analysis, RNA was extracted from peripheral blood, followed by cDNA synthesis using 3.5 μg of total RNA. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed with SYBR Green and 200 nM of each primer for the two specific mRNA targets (CT-CALCA or CGRP-CALCA) and normalized with the ribosomal protein S8 as the reference gene. Results We detected CALCA transcripts in the blood samples and observed a positive correlation between them (r=0.946, p<0.0001). Both mRNAs also correlated with sCT (CT-CALCA, r=0.713, p<0.0001; CGRP-CALCA, r=0.714, p<0.0001). The relative expression of CT-CALCA and CGRP-CALCA presented higher clinical sensitivity (86.67 and 100, respectively), specificity (97.06 and 97.06), positive predictive value (92.86 and 93.75), and negative predictive value (94.29 and 100), than did sCT (73.33, 82.35, 64.71, and 87.50, respectively). In

  6. Effect of 3′UTR RET Variants on RET mRNA Secondary Structure and Disease Presentation in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin, Lucieli; Romitti, Mirian; Rodrigues Siqueira, Débora; Vaz Ferreira, Carla; Oliboni Scapineli, Jessica; Assis-Brazil, Beatriz; Vieira Maximiano, Rodolfo; Dias Amarante, Tauanne; de Souza Nunes, Miriam Celi; Weber, Gerald; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Background The RET S836S variant has been associated with early onset and increased risk for metastatic disease in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). However, the mechanism by which this variant modulates MTC pathogenesis is still open to discuss. Of interest, strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between RET S836S and 3'UTR variants has been reported in Hirschsprung's disease patients. Objective To evaluate the frequency of the RET 3’UTR variants (rs76759170 and rs3026785) in MTC patients and to determine whether these variants are in LD with S836S polymorphism. Methods Our sample comprised 152 patients with sporadic MTC. The RET S836S and 3’UTR (rs76759170 and rs3026785) variants were genotyped using Custom TaqMan Genotyping Assays. Haplotypes were inferred using the phase 2.1 program. RET mRNA structure was assessed by Vienna Package. Results The mean age of MTC diagnosis was 48.5±15.5 years and 57.9% were women. The minor allele frequencies of RET polymorphisms were as follows: S836S, 5.6%; rs76759170, 5.6%; rs3026785, 6.2%. We observed a strong LD among S836S and 3’UTR variants (|D’| = -1, r2 = 1 and |D’| = -1, r2 = 0,967). Patients harboring the S836S/3’UTR variants presented a higher percentage of lymph node and distant metastasis (P = 0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). Accordingly, RNA folding analyses demonstrated different RNA secondary structure predictions for WT(TCCGT), S836S(TTCGT) or 3’UTR(GTCAC) haplotypes. The S836S/3’UTR haplotype presented a greater number of double helices sections and lower levels of minimal free energy when compared to the wild-type haplotype, suggesting that these variants provides the most thermodynamically stable mRNA structure, which may have functional consequences on the rate of mRNA degradation. Conclusion The RET S836S polymorphism is in LD with 3’UTR variants. In silico analysis indicate that the 3’UTR variants may affect the secondary structure of RET mRNA, suggesting that these variants might play a

  7. Usefulness of PET/CT in the diagnosis of recurrent or metastasized differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LU, CUN-ZHI; CAO, SU-SHENG; WANG, WEI; LIU, JUN; FU, NING; LU, FENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the usefulness of the positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the detection of recurrence or metastasization of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in patients with abnormal thyroglobulin levels and negative findings on the 131I-diagnostic whole-body scanning (dWBS). Fifteen patients with DTC, abnormal thyroglobulin levels, and negative 131I-dWBS findings were scanned using the 18F-FDG PET/CT. Positive diagnosis was based on postoperative histologic findings, and clinical and imaging follow-up results obtained in the subsequent 6 months. In addition, preoperative and postoperative thyroglobulin levels were compared. Using the findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT and data on confirmed positive diagnosis, sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Sensitivity and PPV of PET/CT in detecting recurrence or metastasisization of DTC were 93.30 and 91.40%, respectively. Furthermore, postoperative thyroglobulin levels were markedly lower compared to the preoperative levels (respectively, 4.67±1.71 vs. 58.53±18.34 ng/ml; p<0.05). PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG is an informative technique for the detection of recurrent or metastasized DTC in patients with abnormal thyroglobulin levels and negative 131I-dWBS findings. PMID:27073490

  8. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies versus somatostatin analogs in the detection of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: are carcinoembryonic antigen and somatostatin receptor expression prognostic factors?

    PubMed

    Behr, T M; Gratz, S; Markus, P M; Dunn, R M; Hüfner, M; Schauer, A; Fischer, M; Munz, D L; Becker, H; Becker, W

    1997-12-15

    Surgery is currently the only potentially curative approach in the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In many instances however, postsurgically elevated or rising plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels indicate persistent metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and invasive venous catheterization) fail to localize the responsible lesions. Recently, anti-CEA antibodies and somatostatin analogs have shown promising results in the staging of MTC. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of both methodologies, especially for the detection of occult MTC, and to assess whether there may be correlations between the scintigraphic behavior and the patients' prognosis. A total of 26 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma were examined at our institution between 1977 and 1996. Ten of them had known disease, 14 had occult metastatic MTC, and 2 were free of disease at the time of presentation. Fourteen patients were investigated with anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (receiving a total of 35 injections: clones BW431/26, BW431/31, IMACIS, or F023C5, labeled with 99mTc, (111)In or (131)I), and 8 patients were studied with (111)In-labeled octreotide. Two patients received potentially therapeutic doses of (131)I-labeled anti-CEA antibodies. All patients underwent conventional radiologic evaluation (ultrasonography, CT, and MRI) and/or biopsy within 4 weeks. Additional imaging was performed with 99mTc-(V)-DMSA, (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 201thallium chloride, 99mTc-methylene diphosphate, and/or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Clinical follow-up was obtained. All patients with established disease had elevated plasma CEA (range, 6.8-345 ng/mL; calcitonin levels between 92 and 11,497 pg/mL), whereas in 9 of 14 occult cases, levels were < or = 5 ng/mL (range, 0.6-829 ng/mL; calcitonin, 72-2920 pg/mL). In patients with

  9. Successful treatment of thyroid storm presenting as recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiorgan failure by continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Soo; Kwon, Su Kyoung; Kim, Ye Na

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially life-threatening medical emergency. We experienced a case of thyroid storm associated with sepsis caused by pneumonia, which had a catastrophic course including recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF). A 22-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of Graves' disease was transferred to our emergency department (ED). She had a cardiac arrest at her home and a second cardiac arrest at the ED. Her heart recovered after 20 min of cardiac resuscitation. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with hyperthyroidism complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. Although full conventional medical treatment was given, she had progressive MOF and hemodynamic instability consisting of hyperthermia, tachycardia and hypotension. Because of hepatic and renal failure with refractory hypotension, we reduced the patient's dose of beta-blocker and antithyroid drug, and she was started on continuous veno-venous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with intravenous albumin and plasma supplementation. Subsequently, her body temperature and pulse rate began to stabilize within 1 h, and her blood pressure reached 120/60 mmHg after 6 h. We discontinued antithyroid drug 3 days after admission because of aggravated hyperbilirubinemia. The patient exhibited progressive improvement in thyroid function even after cessation of antithyroid drug, and she successfully recovered from thyroid storm and MOF. This is the first case of thyroid storm successfully treated by CRRT in a patient considered unfit for antithyroid drug treatment. The presenting manifestations of thyroid storm vary and can include cardiac arrest with multiorgan failure in rare cases.In some patients with thyroid storm, especially those with severe complications, conventional medical treatment may be ineffective or inappropriate.During thyroid storm, the initiation of CRRT can immediately lower body temperature and subsequently stabilize vital signs

  10. Functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes in Hurthle cell thyroid neoplasm - an association of GPX1 polymorphism and recurrent Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Goricar, Katja; Gazic, Barbara; Dolzan, Vita; Besic, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Hurthle cells of the thyroid gland are very rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes. As a high level oxidative metabolism may lead to higher level of oxidative stress and can be associated with an increased risk for cancer, we investigated whether common functional polymorphisms in antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, GPX, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1) are associated with the development or clinical course of Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC). Methods A retrospective study was performed in 139 patients treated by thyroid surgery for a Hurthle cell neoplasm. HCTC, Hurthle cell thyroid adenoma (HCTA) or Hurthle cell thyroid nodule (HCTN) were diagnosed by pathomorphology. DNA was extracted from cores of histologically confirmed normal tissue obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and genotyped for investigated polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used to compare genotype distributions between patient groups. Results HCTC, HCTA and HCTN were diagnosed in 53, 47 and 21 patients, respectively. Metastatic disease and recurrence of HCTC were diagnosed in 20 and 16 HCTC patients, respectively. Genotypes and allele frequencies of investigated polymorphisms did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in patients with HCTC, HCTA and HCTN. Under the dominant genetic model we observed no differences in the genotype frequency distribution of the investigated polymorphisms when the HCTA and HCTN group was compared to the HCTC group for diagnosis of HCTC or for the presence of metastatic disease. However, GPX1 polymorphism was associated with the occurrence of recurrent disease (p = 0.040). Conclusions GPX1 polymorphism may influence the risk for recurrent disease in HCTC. PMID:27679545

  11. Influence of thyroid gland status on the thyroglobulin cutoff level in washout fluid from cervical lymph nodes of patients with recurrent/metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Yi, Ha Woo; Kim, Bong Kyun; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroidectomy status on Tg in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) washout fluid is unclear. A total of 282 lymph nodes were prospectively subjected to FNAC, fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-Tg measurement, and frozen and permanent biopsies. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of several predetermined FNA-Tg cutoff values for recurrence/metastasis in lymph nodes according to thyroidectomy status. The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg varied according to thyroidectomy status. The optimized cutoff value of FNA-Tg was 2.2 ng/mL. However, among FNAC-negative lymph nodes, the FNA-Tg cutoff value of 0.9 ng/mL showed better diagnostic performance in patients with a thyroid gland. An FNA-Tg/serum-Tg cutoff ratio of 1 showed the best diagnostic performance in patients without a thyroid gland. Applying the optimal cutoff values of FNA-Tg according to thyroid gland status and serum Tg level facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of neck lymph node recurrences/metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1705-E1712, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Continuous intraoperative neural monitoring of the recurrent nerves in thyroid surgery: a quantum leap in technology

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Gregory W.; Barczynski, Marcin; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Wu, Che-Wei; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Machens, Andreas; Kamani, Dipti; Dralle, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The continuous intraoperative neural monitoring (CIONM) technique is increasingly acknowledged as a useful tool to recognize impending nerve injury and to abort the related manoeuvre to prevent nerve injury during thyroid surgery. CIONM provides valuable real-time information constantly, which is really useful during complex thyroid surgeries especially in the settings of unusual anatomy. Thus, CIONM overcomes the key methodological limitation inherent in intermittent nerve monitoring (IINOM); which is allowing the nerve to be at risk in between the stimulations. The clinically important combined electromyographic (EMG) event, indicative of impending recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, prevents the majority of traction related injuries to the anatomically intact RLN enabling modification of the causative surgical manoeuvre in 80% of cases. These EMG changes can progress to loss of EMG signal with postoperative vocal cord palsy (VCP) if corrective action is not taken. As a further extension, CIONM also helps to identify intraoperative functional nerve recovery with restitution of amplitude to ≥50% of initial baseline; this allows continuing of resection of contralateral side. CIONM facilitates for early corrective action before permanent damage to the nerve has been done. CIONM is a recent but rapidly evolving technique, constantly being refined by various studies focusing on improvement in its implementation and interpretation, as well as on the elimination of the technical snags. PMID:28149807

  13. Recurrence Incidence in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers and the Importance of Diagnostic Iodine-131 Scintigraphy in Clinical Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoğlu, Filiz; Karapolat, İnanç; Ömür, Özgür; Akgün, Ayşegül; Yanarateş, Ahmet; Kumanlıoğlu, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are tumors with good prognosis. However, local recurrence or distant metastasis can be observed. In our study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of recurrence and the importance of diagnostic iodine-131 whole body scan (WBS) in clinical follow-up in patients with DTC. Methods: The clinical data of 217 patients with DTC who were followed-up more than 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of recurrence was investigated in a group of patients who had radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment and showed no sign of residual thyroid tissue or metastasis with diagnostic WBS that was performed at 6-12 months after therapy and had a thyroglobulin (Tg) level lower than 2 ng/dl. Results: At the time of diagnosis, ten cases had thyroid capsule invasion, 25 cases had extra-thyroid soft tissue invasion, 11 patients showed lymph node metastasis and four patients had distant organ metastasis. One hundred forty-five patients had RAI treatment at ablation dose (75-100 mCi), whereas 35 patients had RAI treatment at metastasis dose (150-200 mCi). Thirty-seven patients with papillary microcarcinoma did not receive RAI treatment. In 12 (%7.5) of the 160 patients who were considered as “successful ablation”, a recurrence was identified. Recurrence was detected by diagnostic WBS in all cases and stimulated Tg level was <2 ng/dL with the exception of the two cases who had distant metastasis. Conclusion: Identification of pathological findings with WBS in patients who developed local recurrence in the absence of elevated Tg highlights the importance of diagnostic WBS in clinical follow-up. PMID:27277325

  14. F18-FDG-PET for recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haslerud, Torjan; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Reisæter, Lars; Küfner Lein, Regina; Heinecke, Achim; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Biermann, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluor-18-deoxy-glucose (FDG) is widely used for diagnosing recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). To assess the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for DTC in patients after ablative therapy. A systematic search was conducted in Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Open Grey looking for all English-language original articles on the performance of FDG-PET in series of at least 20 patients with DTC having undergone ablative therapy including total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic performance measures were pooled using Reitsma's bivariate model. Thirty-four publications between 1996 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9-84.1) and 79.4% (95% CI, 71.2-85.4), respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.858. F18-FDG-PET is a useful method for detecting recurrent DTC in patients having undergone ablative therapy. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  15. Vandetanib for the treatment of symptomatic or progressive medullary thyroid cancer in patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic disease: U.S. Food and Drug Administration drug approval summary.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Katherine; Kim, Geoffrey; Maher, V Ellen; Chattopadhyay, Somesh; Tang, Shenghui; Moon, Young Jin; Song, Pengfei; Marathe, Anshu; Balakrishnan, Suchitra; Zhu, Hao; Garnett, Christine; Liu, Qi; Booth, Brian; Gehrke, Brenda; Dorsam, Robert; Verbois, Leigh; Ghosh, Debasis; Wilson, Wendy; Duan, John; Sarker, Haripada; Miksinski, Sarah Pope; Skarupa, Lisa; Ibrahim, Amna; Justice, Robert; Murgo, Anthony; Pazdur, Richard

    2012-07-15

    On April 6, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved vandetanib (Caprelsa tablets; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP) for the treatment of symptomatic or progressive medullary thyroid cancer in patients with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic disease. Vandetanib is the first drug approved for this indication, and this article focuses on the basis of approval. Approval was based on the results of a double-blind trial conducted in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Patients were randomized 2:1 to vandetanib, 300 mg/d orally (n = 231), or to placebo (n = 100). The primary objective was demonstration of improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) with vandetanib compared with placebo. Other endpoints included evaluation of overall survival and objective response rate. The PFS analysis showed a marked improvement for patients randomized to vandetanib (hazard ratio = 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.53; P < 0.0001). The objective response rate for the vandetanib arm was 44% compared with 1% for the placebo arm. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities (>5%) were diarrhea and/or colitis, hypertension and hypertensive crisis, fatigue, hypocalcemia, rash, and corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. This approval was based on a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in PFS. Given the toxicity profile, which includes prolongation of the QT interval and sudden death, only prescribers and pharmacies certified through the vandetanib Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy Program are able to prescribe and dispense vandetanib. Treatment-related risks should be taken into account when considering the use of vandetanib in patients with indolent, asymptomatic, or slowly progressing disease.

  16. BRAFV600E status adds incremental value to current risk classification systems in predicting papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jason D.; Sadow, Peter M.; Hodin, Richard A.; Le, Long Phi; Gaz, Randall D.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Stephen, Antonia E.; Parangi, Sareh; Daniels, Gilbert H.; Lubitz, Carrie C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence risk is difficult to predict. No current risk classification system incorporates BRAF mutational status. Here, we assess the incremental value of BRAF mutational status in predicting PTC recurrence relative to existing recurrence risk algorithms. Methods Serial data were collected for a historical cohort having undergone total thyroidectomy for PTC over a five-year period. Corresponding BRAFV600E testing was performed and Cox proportional hazard regression modeling, with and without BRAF status, was used to evaluate existing recurrence risk algorithms. Results The five-year cumulative PTC recurrence incidence within our 356 patient cohort was 15%. 205 (81%) of associated archived specimens were successfully genotyped and 110 (54%) harbored the BRAFV600E mutation. The five-year cumulative recurrence incidence among BRAFV600E patients was 20%, versus 8% among BRAF wild type. BRAFV600E was significantly associated with time to recurrence when added to the following algorithms: AMES (HR 2.43 [1.08–5.49]), MACIS category (HR 2.46 [1.09–5.54]), AJCC-TNM (HR 2.51 [1.11, 5.66]), and ATA recurrence-risk category (HR 2.44 [1.08–5.50]), and model discrimination improved (incremental c-index range 0.046–0.109). Conclusions Addition of BRAF mutational status to established risk algorithms improves discrimination of recurrence risk in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for PTC. PMID:23158172

  17. BRAF V600E status adds incremental value to current risk classification systems in predicting papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Jason D; Sadow, Peter M; Hodin, Richard A; Le, Long Phi; Gaz, Randall D; Randolph, Gregory W; Stephen, Antonia E; Parangi, Sareh; Daniels, Gilbert H; Lubitz, Carrie C

    2012-12-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence risk is difficult to predict. No current risk classification system incorporates BRAF mutational status. Here, we assess the incremental value of BRAF mutational status in predicting PTC recurrence relative to existing recurrence risk algorithms. Serial data were collected for a historical cohort having undergone total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) during a 5-year period. Corresponding BRAF(V600E) testing was performed and Cox proportional hazard regression modeling, with and without BRAF status, was used to evaluate existing recurrence risk algorithms. The 5-year cumulative PTC recurrence incidence within our 356 patient cohort was 15%. A total of 205 (81%) of associated archived specimens were successfully genotyped, and 110 (54%) harbored the BRAF(V600E) mutation. The 5-year cumulative recurrence incidence among BRAF(V600E) patients was 20% versus 8% among BRAF wild type. BRAF(V600E) was significantly associated with time to recurrence when added to the following algorithms: AMES (hazard ratio [HR] 2.43 [confidence interval 1.08-5.49]), MACIS category (HR 2.46 [1.09-5.54]), AJCC-TNM (HR 2.51 [1.11-5.66]), and ATA recurrence-risk category (HR 2.44 [1.08-5.50]), and model discrimination improved (incremental c-index range 0.046-0.109). The addition of BRAF mutational status to established risk algorithms improves the discrimination of risk recurrence in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for PTC. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  19. Radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas and recurrent thyroid cancer using the "low sestamibi dose" protocol.

    PubMed

    Rubello, Domenico; Fig, Lorraine M; Casara, Dario; Piotto, Andrea; Boni, Giuseppe; Pelizzo, Maria R; Shapiro, Brahm; Sandrucci, Sergio; Gross, Milton D; Mariani, Giuliano

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the clinical efficacy of the "low sestamibi dose" (LSD) protocol to perform thyroid and parathyroid radioguided surgery in a large series of patients homogeneously studied and operated on by the same surgeon. The LSD protocol was initially developed in our center to cure primary hyperparathyroid (PHPT) patients with a high likelihood of a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA) by minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS). Since then, the same protocol has been applied to differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with 131I-negative, but sestamibi-positive, locoregional recurrent disease in order to obtain radical radioguided extirpation of tumoral lesions at reoperation. We reviewed the clinical charts of 453 consecutive patients referred at the surgical department at Padova University (Padova, Italy) to investigate a PHPT or a DTC recurrence: 336 patients (74.2%) met the inclusion criteria for radioguided surgery, and these patients were analyzed for the aim of this study. There were 298 patients affected by PHPT with a high likelihood of a solitary sestamibipositive PA and 38 DTC patients affected by 131I-negative, but sestamibi-positive, locoregional recurrence. All patients underwent a preoperative imaging work-up, including sestamibi scintigraphy (doubletracer subtraction scan in PHPT patients and single-tracer, wash-out scan in DTC patients) and high-resolution neck ultrasonography (US). The LSD protocol we developed consists of the intravenous injection of a very low (1 mCi) sestamibi dose in the operating theater just 10 minutes before commencing intervention for the purpose of radioguided surgery only. At variance with the traditional "high (20-25 mCi) sestamibi dose (HSD)" protocol in which imaging and radioguided surgery are obtained in the same day, in the LSD protocol, imaging and radioguided surgery are performed in different days. The LSD protocol allows some advantages over the HSD protocol: (1) more time for

  20. BRAF V600E mutation in prognostication of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Barczyński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) offers excellent prognosis, however relapse risk or persistent disease is related to ~30%. Currently, attention is paid to the possibility of patient group selection of different risk of unfavorable outcome to match a particular therapeutic approach. Therefore, interest in new prognostic and predictive markers known preoperatively is observed. BRAF V600E mutation is such a marker. Many studies analyzing the prevalence of the mutation and its relationship with other clinico-pathological risk factors were reported but with controversial conclusions. The prognostic significance of BRAF mutation was confirmed by some single centre studies, a few meta-analyses and a large multicenter retrospective international study. They confirmed a correlation between the mutation and the risk of recurrence. The strongest argument against using BRAF mutation as an independent prognostic and predictive factor in PTC is its high prevalence (30–80%). At present it seems that BRAF mutation is one of the factors influencing the prognosis and it should be analyzed in correlation with other prognostic factors. The most recent ATA recommendations do not indicate a routine application of BRAF status for initial risk stratification in differentiated thyroid cancer due to a lack of evident confirmation of a direct influence of mutation on the increase in relapse risk. However, ATA demonstrates the continuous risk scale for the relapse risk assessment, considering BRAF and/or TERT status. At present, researchers are working on determining the role of BRAF mutation in patients from a low-risk group and its correlations with others molecular events. Currently, BRAF mutation cannot be used as a single, independent predictive factor. However, its usefulness in the context of other molecular and clinico-pathological risk factors cannot be excluded. They may be used to make modern prognostic scales of relapse risk and be applied to individualized diagnostic and

  1. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... panel of genetic mutations linked to follicular or papillary thyroid cancer… Read More June 10, 2012 6 Cirugia De ... 2011 0 Gene Mutation Increases Risk of Recurrent Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Some Patients By admin | 2011 News Releases , ...

  2. Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  3. Successful treatment of thyroid storm presenting as recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiorgan failure by continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han Soo; Kim, Ye Na

    2017-01-01

    Summary Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially life-threatening medical emergency. We experienced a case of thyroid storm associated with sepsis caused by pneumonia, which had a catastrophic course including recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF). A 22-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of Graves’ disease was transferred to our emergency department (ED). She had a cardiac arrest at her home and a second cardiac arrest at the ED. Her heart recovered after 20 min of cardiac resuscitation. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with hyperthyroidism complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. Although full conventional medical treatment was given, she had progressive MOF and hemodynamic instability consisting of hyperthermia, tachycardia and hypotension. Because of hepatic and renal failure with refractory hypotension, we reduced the patient’s dose of beta-blocker and antithyroid drug, and she was started on continuous veno-venous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with intravenous albumin and plasma supplementation. Subsequently, her body temperature and pulse rate began to stabilize within 1 h, and her blood pressure reached 120/60 mmHg after 6 h. We discontinued antithyroid drug 3 days after admission because of aggravated hyperbilirubinemia. The patient exhibited progressive improvement in thyroid function even after cessation of antithyroid drug, and she successfully recovered from thyroid storm and MOF. This is the first case of thyroid storm successfully treated by CRRT in a patient considered unfit for antithyroid drug treatment. Learning points: The presenting manifestations of thyroid storm vary and can include cardiac arrest with multiorgan failure in rare cases. In some patients with thyroid storm, especially those with severe complications, conventional medical treatment may be ineffective or inappropriate. During thyroid storm, the initiation of CRRT can immediately lower body temperature and

  4. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    PubMed

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synchronous occurrence of medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient with cutaneous melanoma: determination of BRAFV600E in peripheral blood and tissues. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Benedetta; Pinzani, Pamela; Salvianti, Francesca; Rossi, Matteo; Petrone, Luisa; De Feo, Maria Laura; Panconesi, Roberto; Vezzosi, Vania; Bianchi, Simonetta; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Mangoni, Monica; Pertici, Maurizio; Forti, Gianni; Pupilli, Cinzia

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a case of concurrent medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma (MTC and PTC) and cutaneous melanoma and to analyze BRAF(V600E) mutation in plasma and tissues. We report the clinical history and the laboratory, imaging, and histopathological findings of a 47-year-old man affected by multinodular goiter. BRAF(V600E)-mutated DNA was quantified in plasma samples and in cancer sections by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At ultrasound examination, the dominant right nodule of the thyroid was weakly hyperechoic and hypervascularized, while the left one was hypoechoic without internal vascularization. Regional lymphadenomegalia was not detected. Basal plasma calcitonin was elevated, and the patient underwent total thyroidectomy and resection of central cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination identified two distinct foci of MTC and PTC and micrometastasis of well-differentiated carcinoma in one of the six resected lymph nodes. RET proto-oncogene germline mutations were not detected. Cutaneous melanoma of the thorax was subsequently diagnosed. BRAF(V600E) tissue DNA was detected in PTC and melanoma but not in MTC. The cell-free plasma percentage of BRAF(V600E) DNA was detected in pre-thyroidectomy peripheral blood and was drastically reduced after cancer treatments. This study confirms the occurrence of synchronous MTC and PTC and is the first evidence of the co-existence of melanoma and distinct thyroid cancers of different origin. BRAF(V600E) allele was detected in PTC and melanoma but not in MTC tissues. BRAF(V600E) molecular quantification in pre- and post-treatment blood supports our previous data, suggesting its possible role in diagnosis and follow-up of BRAF-positive tumors.

  6. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Newly Diagnosed Sarcomas, Wilms Tumor, or Other Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-16

    Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adult Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Adult Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Childhood Clear Cell Sarcoma of Soft Parts; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Ewing Sarcoma; Hepatoblastoma; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor

  7. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  8. Thyroid ablation with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) iodine-131 in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma at intermediate risk for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the medium- and long-term outcomes of thyroid ablation with 1.1 GBq (30 mCi) ¹³¹I in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who have a tumor >4 cm or accompanied by extrathyroid invasion or clinically detected lymph node metastases (cN1). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ablation with 30 mCi ¹³¹I in this subgroup of patients and to report the medium-term outcomes. We studied 152 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma submitted to total thyroidectomy with apparently complete tumor resection, who had a tumor >4 cm or 2-4 cm accompanied by extrathyroid invasion or lymph node metastases, or ≤2 cm accompanied by both extrathyroid invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with extensive extrathyroid invasion by the primary tumor were excluded. Lymph node involvement was detected by ultrasonography or palpation (cN1). Forty-two patients were prepared by administration of recombinant human thyrotropin and 110 by levothyroxine withdrawal. Posttherapy whole-body scanning revealed unequivocal ectopic uptake in three patients. When evaluated 9-12 months after ablation, 123 patients had achieved complete ablation (stimulated thyroglobulin [Tg] <1 ng/mL, negative anti-Tg antibodies, and neck ultrasonography); a new posttherapy whole-body scanning revealed persistent disease in 2 patients whose initial posttherapy whole-body scanning (obtained at the time of ablation) had already shown ectopic uptake; 12 patients presented with a Tg >1 ng/mL and 14 had positive anti-Tg antibodies without apparent metastases; 1 patient had metastases not detected at the time of ablation. Recurrence was observed in an additional 6 patients during follow-up (median 76 months). There was no case of death related to the disease. Therefore, an activity of 30 mCi failed in only 9 (6%) patients with persistent disease or recurrence after ablation. None of the variables analyzed (sex, age, tumor size, multicentricity

  9. Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, J.; Merino, M.J.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Ron, E.; Ain, K.B.; Alexander, H.R.; Norton, J.A.; Reynolds, J.

    1991-07-15

    This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer (to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer), medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references.

  10. Metastatic lymph node status in the central compartment of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A prognostic factor of locoregional recurrence.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Jin-Choon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, In-Ju; Son, Seok-Man; Mun, Mijin; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our focus on the lymph node status in the central compartment and evaluate the relevant factors and disease recurrence. Between January 2004 and December 2009, 1040 patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and underwent surgery. The number of metastatic lymph nodes was a significant predictor for recurrence conferring a hazard ratio of 1.36 (confidence interval = 1.103-1.680; p = .004). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine the cutoff number of lymph nodes that predicted recurrence with the highest sensitivity and specificity (area under the ROC curve, 0.794; SE, 0.077; p = .001). The sensitivity/specificity of >3 metastatic lymph nodes for predicting recurrence was 63.6%/77.0%, respectively. The number of metastatic lymph nodes in the central compartment was a statistical significant predictive factor associated with disease recurrence. Further study is required to confirm the relationship between the number of lymph nodes and disease recurrence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1172-E1176, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Protective effect of intraoperative nerve monitoring against recurrent laryngeal nerve injury during re-exploration of the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous thyroid or parathyroid surgery induces scarring or distorts anatomy, and increases the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury for a reoperation. The benefit of intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) for re-exploration (a second nerve exploration) and reoperation has not been established. Methods Two hundred and ten patients were given a thyroid or parathyroid reoperation at our hospital between 2001 and 2010. Using IONM, we re-explored 56 patients who had been operated on before June 2007. The injury rate in these patients was compared with that of the 15 patients re-explored without IONM between 2001 and 2006. Results Of the 70 nerves that were re-explored using IONM, only one was incidentally injured, significantly fewer than the three injured in the 15 nerves re-explored without using IONM (1.43% vs. 20%, P = 0.0164). Conclusions IONM helped prevent RLN damage when re-exploring nerves during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. We recommend the routine use of IONM in thyroid and parathyroid reoperations. PMID:23618223

  12. Germline Polymorphisms of the VEGF Pathway Predict Recurrence in Nonadvanced Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Sciammarella, Concetta; Capasso, Mario; Testori, Alessandro; Pivonello, Claudia; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Gambardella, Claudio; Grasso, Marica; Antonino, Antonio; Annunziata, Annamaria; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Pivonello, Rosario; Santini, Luigi; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Pezzullo, Luciano; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2017-02-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is determined by host genetic background rather than environment. Germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have demonstrated prognostic value in different tumors. Our main objective was to test the prognostic value of germline SNPs of the VEGF pathway in nonadvanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Secondarily, we sought to correlate analyzed SNPs with microvessel density (MVD). Multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Four referral centers. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive DTC patients. Genotyping was performed according to the TaqMan protocol, including 4 VEGF-A (-2578C>A, -460T>C, +405G>C, and +936C>T) and 2 VEGFR-2 (+1192 C>T and +1719 T>A) SNPs. MVD was estimated by means of CD34 staining. Rate of recurrent structural disease/disease-free survival (DFS). Difference in MVD between tumors from patients with different genotype. Two hundred four patients with stage I-II DTC (mean follow-up, 73 ± 64 months) and 240 patients with low- to intermediate-risk DTC (mean follow-up, 70 ± 60 months) were enrolled. Two "risk" genotypes were identified by combining VEGF-A SNPs -2578 C>A, -460 T>C, and +405 G>C. The ACG homozygous genotype was protective in both stage I-II (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 1.43; P = 0.018) and low- to intermediate-risk (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.01 to 1.13; P = 0.035) patients. The CTG homozygous genotype was significantly associated with recurrence in stage I-II (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 1.15 to 26.04; P = 0.018) and was slightly deleterious in low- to intermediate-risk (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 0.8 to 14.33; P = 0.079) patients. MVD of primary tumors from patients harboring a protective genotype was significantly lower (median MVD, 76.5 ± 12.7 and 86.7 ± 27.9, respectively; P = 0.024). Analysis of germline VEGF-A SNPs could empower a prognostic approach to DTC.

  13. The ima approach for the quick identification of the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Akira; Masuoka, Hiroo; Yabuta, Tomonori; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Minoru; Higashiyama, Takuya; Takamura, Yuuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    The right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is more difficult to identify than the left RLN. The superior, lateral and inferior approaches are currently used to identify the RLN. This report presents a new technique, called the ima approach (the most inferior approach) for the quick identification of the right RLN. The ima approach involves dissection along the right common carotid artery and division of the most lateral branch of the inferior thyroid veins. The right RLN is identified at the bottom of the RLN triangle. This technique and the conventional inferior approach were applied to 81 and 19 patients with thyroid cancer, respectively. The ima approach required a significantly shorter time in identifying the nerve than the inferior approach (9.6 ± 16.6 and 31.2 ± 24.4 s, respectively, p < 0.0001). The ima approach is an easy, quick and safe technique for identifying the right RLN.

  14. Occult lymph node metastasis and risk of regional recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer after bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection: A multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Chan; Na, Se Young; Park, Gi Cheol; Han, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seung Woo; Eun, Young Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of occult lymph node metastasis on regional recurrence after prophylactic central neck dissection for preoperative, nodal-negative papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. We investigated risk factors for regional lymph node recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection. Analysis was according to clinicopathologic characteristics and occult lymph node metastasis patterns. This multicenter study enrolled 211 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer without evidence of central lymph node metastasis on preoperative imaging. Clinicopathologic features and central lymph node metastasis patterns were analyzed for predicting regional recurrence. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent factors for recurrence. Median follow-up time was 43 months (24-95 months). Ten patients (4.7%) showed regional lymph node recurrence. The estimated 5-year, regional recurrence-free survival was 95.2%. Tumor size ≥1 cm, central lymph node metastasis, lymph node ratio, and prelaryngeal lymph node metastasis were associated with regional recurrence in univariate analysis (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, a lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was a significant risk factor for regional lymph node recurrence (odds ratio = 11.63, P = .003). Lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was an independent predictor of worse recurrence-free survival on Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio = 11.49, P = .002). Although no significant association was observed between the presence of occult lymph node metastasis and regional recurrence, lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was an independent predictor of regional lymph node recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Construction of human single-chain variable fragment antibodies of medullary thyroid carcinoma and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging in tumor-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Pang, Hua; Hu, Xiaoli; Li, Wenbo; Xi, Jimei; Xu, Lu; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare tumor of the endocrine system with poor prognosis as it exhibits high resistance against conventional therapy. Recent studies have shown that monoclonal antibodies labeled with radionuclide have become important agents for diagnosing tumors. To elucidate whether single-chain fragment of variable (scFv) antibody labeled with 131I isotope is a potential imaging agent for diagnosing MTC. A human scFv antibody library of MTC using phage display technique was constructed with a capacity of 3x10(5). The library was panned with thyroid epithelial cell lines and MTC cell lines (TT). Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify the biological characteristics of the panned scFv. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was also used to explore the optimal concentration of the TT cell proliferation inhibition rate. They were categorized into TT, SW480 and control groups using phosphate-buffered saline. Western blotting showed that molecular weight of scFv was 28 kDa, cell ELISA showed that the absorbance of TT cell group was significantly increased (P=0.000??) vs. the other three groups, and MTT assay showed that the inhibition rate between the two cell lines was statistically significantly different (P<0.05) when the concentration of scFv was 0.1, 1 and 10 µmol/l. The tumor uptake of 131I-scFv was visible at 12 h and clear image was obtained at 48 h using the single photon emission computed tomography. scFv rapidly and specifically target MTC cells, suggesting the potential of this antibody as an imaging agent for diagnosing MTC.

  16. A meta-analysis on the effect of operation modes on the recurrence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoqiao; Sang, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Whether total thyroidectomy reduces the recurrence rate in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is currently controversy. Conclusions of sporadic, inconsistent, and mono-institutional studies need a meta-analysis to evaluate. 525 relevant studies were obtained from initial search on PubMed, 511 studies were excluded by inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eligible data were extracted from each included study. The Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the difference in the recurrence rates between PTMC patients treated with total thyroidectomy and non-total thyroidectomy. OR and 95% CI were calculated using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. The Q statistic was used to evaluate homogeneity and Beggs test was used to assess publication bias. 14 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. The over all recurrence rates of pooled patients with total thyroidectomy and non-total thyroidectomy were 2.83% and 2.84% respectively. Primary random-effects model analysis showed, no significant difference of recurrence rates existed between two operation modes (OR = 0.732, 95% CI: 0.444 - 1.208), while, high heterogeneity among studies was found, I-squared index (I2) = 40.2%. After remove one study with high heterogeneity, the OR of the pooled recurrence rates of the total thyroidectomy and the non-total thyroidectomy groups was 0.786 (95% CI: 0.363 - 1.701), further suggesting no significant difference of the recurrence rate exists between two operation modes. Our meta-analysis demonstrated postoperative recurrence of PTMC is not reduced by total thyroidectomy, non-total thyroidectomy is also a good choice to treat PTMC patients. PMID:27756889

  17. Adenovirus-mediated tumor-specific combined gene therapy using Herpes simplex virus thymidine/ganciclovir system and murine interleukin-12 induces effective antitumor activity against medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masanori; Straus, Francis H; Messina, Marinella; Robinson, Bruce G; Takeda, Teiji; Hashizume, Kiyoshi; DeGroot, Leslie J

    2004-01-01

    The present treatment of advanced and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is unsatisfactory. Tissue-specific cancer gene therapy is a novel alternative approach. We developed a recombinant adenovirus expressing Herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (HSVtk) driven by a modified CALC-I promoter TCP (AdTCPtk). Infection with this virus showed efficient cytotoxic effect on MTC cell lines (rMTC and TT cells) after treatment with ganciclovir (GCV) in vitro. In a syngenic WAG/Rij rat model, the combination of AdTCPtk/GCV treatment with administration of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) expressing adenovirus under control of TCP (AdTCPmIL-12) resulted in effective growth suppression of tumor at the treated site and also at a distant untreated site, in comparison to treatment with AdTCPtk/GCV or AdTCPmIL-12 alone. Moreover, intravenous injection of AdTCPtk, or AdTCPtk+AdTCPmIL-12, followed by administration of GCV, did not cause evident toxicity after administration of GCV. These results indicate that this combined system can provide an effective therapy for metastatic MTC with minimal toxicity.

  18. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  19. The effect of routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade on adequacy of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation during thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S D; Boden, E; Serpell, J

    2015-07-01

    Testing of the integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery has become routine practice for many surgeons to aid dissection and minimise the chance of inadvertent nerve injury. We hypothesised that routine reversal of an intermediate-acting, non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent would improve conditions for stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We conducted a single-centre, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of patients undergoing thyroid surgery by the same surgeon. After randomisation, the participants received either neostigmine 2.5 mg with glycopyrrolate 0.4 mg or placebo, at 30 minutes after induction of anaesthesia and administration of 0.4 mg/kg of atracurium. The primary outcome was the subjective assessment by the surgeon as to whether the neuromuscular function was adequate for stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve using a neuromuscular integrity monitor (NIM). Time to NIM stimulation was 44.6 minutes in the placebo group and 41.4 minutes in the intervention group (P=0.268). Of the 21 patients who received the neuromuscular blockade reversal, 20 (95.2%) had adequate surgical conditions for NIM stimulation, compared to 9 out of 18 patients (50%) in the placebo group (P=0.002). Three of the ten patients (30%) with inadequate reversal showed no evidence of residual blockade assessed peripherally. The routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade at 30 minutes post induction appears to result in adequate surgical conditions for safe stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Return of neuromuscular function at a peripheral site does not guarantee adequate laryngeal muscle function for use of the NIM.

  20. Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis).

    PubMed

    Casciato, S; Di Bonaventura, C; Lapenta, L; Fattouch, J; Ferrazzano, G; Fanella, M; Di Fabio, F; Pasquini, M; Amendolea, M A; Manfredi, M; Prencipe, M; Giallonardo, A T

    2011-12-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE), also known as steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a rare condition whose pathogenesis is unknown, though autoimmune-mediated mechanisms are thought to be involved. The prevalent neurological manifestations of this disorder are epileptic seizures and psychocognitive disorders associated with EEG alterations. High anti-thyroid antibody titers (particularly in cerebrospinal fluid) and the effectiveness of steroid therapy are usually considered to be crucial elements in the diagnostic process. We describe a 19-year-old female patient who had been referred to the psychiatric unit because of behavioral disorders characterized predominantly by delirium with sexual content. She developed recurrent focal seizures characterized by atypical ictal semiology (repetitive forceful yawning) and a rare EEG pattern (recurrent seizures arising from the left temporal region without evident "encephalopathic" activity). The presence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies in her cerebrospinal fluid and a good response to steroids confirmed the diagnosis of HE. The atypical presentation in the case we describe appears to widen the electroclinical spectrum of HE and highlights its importance for differential diagnosis purposes in the neuropsychiatric setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic prediction of the risk of recurrence in patients over 60 years of age with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morosán, Yanina Jimena; Parisi, Carina; Urrutia, María Agustina; Rosmarin, Melanie; Schnitman, Marta; Serrano, Leonardo; Luciani, Wilfrido; Faingold, Cristina; Pitoia, Fabián; Brenta, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The reclassification of the risk according to the response to the initial treatment makes the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) vary in each individual. As the influence of age on this diagnostic strategy is unknown, we have decided to assess it in adults who are over 60 years of age. Ninety patients with DTC above 60 years old were enrolled, with total thyroidectomy plus radioiodine ablation, negative anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, follow-up ≥ 2 years and with clinical and pathological information to classify the risk of recurrence according to ATA (American Thyroid Association) and reclassify based on the response to initial therapy according to MSKCC (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center). The structural persistence at the end of the follow-up was the gold standard of our analysis. The structural persistence in ATA low, intermediate and high risk categories was 0, 38, and 100%, respectively. In the intermediate group, none of those with an excellent response to the initial treatment showed structural persistence, whereas 39% of those with an incomplete/indeterminate response showed structural persistence (p < 0.01). The re-stratification according to the response to the initial treatment in patients over 60 years of age with an ATA intermediate risk of recurrence allowed for the distinction of disease-free patients at the end of the follow-up from those with structural persistence and a worse clinical progression.

  2. Usefulness of Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using CyberKnife for Recurrent Lymph Node Metastasis of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Yoshida, Atsushi; Shiomi, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    A woman in her 60s presented with a recurrent lymph node metastasis from a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the right parapharyngeal space. She had already undergone total thyroidectomy, five resections for cervical lymph node metastases, and right carotid rebuilding. Surgical resection of the current metastasis was impossible. 131I-radioiodine therapy (RIT) with 3.7 GBq 131I was not effective; therefore, stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) using a CyberKnife radiotherapy system was scheduled. The prescription dose was 21 Gy, and a dose covering 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) in three fractions was administered. The PTV was 4,790 mm3. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging conducted 3 and 12 months after the SRT demonstrated a remarkable and gradual reduction of the recurrent lymph node metastasis in the right parapharyngeal space and no evidence of recurrence. For multidisciplinary therapy of unresectable and/or RIT unresponsive locoregional lymph node metastases and recurrences of DTC, SRT using the CyberKnife system should be considered.

  3. Targeted Therapy Shows Benefit in Rare Type of Thyroid Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Treatment with the multitargeted agent vandetanib (Caprelsa) improved progression-free survival in patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), according to findings from a randomized clinical trial.

  4. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Modified Neck Dissection for Reducing the Development of Lymph Node Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira; Kudo, Takumi; Kihara, Minoru; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Miya, Akihiro

    2017-09-01

    The most frequent recurrence site of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the cervical lymph nodes. The introduction of an electric linear probe for use with ultrasonography in 1996 improved preoperative lateral neck evaluations. Before 2006, however, our hospital routinely performed prophylactic modified neck dissection (p-MND) for N0 or N1a PTCs >1 cm to prevent node recurrence. In 2006, we changed our policy and the indications for p-MND to PTCs >3 cm and/or with significant extrathyroid extension. Here, we retrospectively compared lymph node recurrence-free survival between PTCs with/without p-MND. We examined the cases of N0 or N1 and M0 PTC patients who underwent initial surgery in 1992-2012. To compare lymph node recurrence-free survival between patients who did/did not undergo p-MND, we divided these patients into three groups (excluding those whose surgery was in 2006): the 2045 patients whose surgery was performed in 1992-1996 (Group 1), the 2989 with surgery between 1997 (post-introduction of ultrasound electric linear probes) and 2005 (Group 2), and the 5332 operated on in 2007-2012 (Group 3). The p-MND performance rate of Group 3 (9%) was much lower than that of Group 1 (80%), but the lymph node recurrence-free survival of the former was significantly better, probably due to differences in clinical features and neck evaluations by ultrasound between the two groups. Our analysis of the patients aged <75 years with 1.1-4-cm PTCs in Groups 2 and 3 showed that p-MND did not improve lymph node recurrence-free survival. p-MND did significantly improve lymph node recurrence-free survival for the extrathyroid extension-positive 3.1-4-cm PTCs, but not for the other subsets. Abolishing routine p-MND for PTCs in 2006 did not decrease lymph node recurrence-free survival, probably due to improved ultrasound preoperative neck evaluations and clinical feature changes. Selective p-MND for high-risk cases improved lymph node recurrence-free survival.

  5. Medullary sponge kidney.

    PubMed

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Danza, Francesco M; Fabris, Antonia

    2013-07-01

    After it was first described in 1939, medullary sponge kidney (MSK) received relatively little attention. This was because it was believed to have a low prevalence and because it was considered a benign condition. Studies in recent years have been changing these convictions however, hence the present review. Insight has been obtained on the genetic basis of this disease, supporting the hypothesis that MSK is due to a disruption at the 'ureteric bud-metanephric mesenchyme' interface. This explains why so many tubular defects coexist in this disease, and particularly a distal tubular acidification defect of which the highly prevalent metabolic bone disease is one very important consequence. In addition to the typical clinical phenotype of recurrent stone disease, other clinical profiles have now been recognized, that is, an indolent, almost asymptomatic MSK, and a rare form characterized by intractable, excruciating pain. Findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive clinical characterization of MSK patients. The genetic grounds for the condition warrant further investigation, and reliable methods are needed to diagnose MSK.

  6. Recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a focal neurologic deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.N.; Wu, S.Y.; Kim, D.D.; Kollin, J.; Prasasvinichai, S.

    1986-10-01

    Papillary-follicular thyroid carcinoma usually remains localized to the thyroid bed and, in cases of metastasis, almost always involves the lung, bone, or liver. The two patients described here presented with papillary carcinoma and neurologic dysfunction. Total body iodine 131 scans disclosed cerebral uptake, and cerebral masses were confirmed by computed tomographic scan. Both patients presented diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, and ultimately underwent craniotomy. One patient's cerebral metastasis recurred and was treated by a second craniotomy. The other patient received postoperative external cerebral radiotherapy and a novel intraoperative treatment: implantation of 22 iodine 125 seeds in the tumor bed, estimated to yield 16,000 rad (160 Gy) in one year. To date, cerebral metastases have not recurred in the latter patient, although tumor has reappeared in other sites. There is little reported in the medical literature concerning cerebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma, and the present report reviews this experience and discusses treatment alternatives.

  7. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  8. Dynamic monitoring of circulating microRNAs as a predictive biomarker for the diagnosis and recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqing; Xu, Desheng; Pan, Jiaqi; Yang, Zhengkai; Chen, Meijun; Han, Jun; Zhang, Sijia; Sun, Lulu; Qiao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are considered to be potential biomarkers for numerous types of cancer. However, previous investigations into the expression of miRNAs in the serum of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to predict diagnosis, prognosis and recurrence have reported conflicting results, and the role of miRNAs remains unclear. The present study dynamically assessed the circulating miRNA profile in patients with PTC and determined whether miRNAs in the serum could be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and recurrence of PTC. The expression levels of 3 reportedly upregulated miRNAs (miR-222, miR-221 and miR-146b) were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 106 patients with PTC, 35 patients with benign thyroid nodules (BTN) and 40 paired controls. Patients with either newly diagnosed PTC or BTN who were undergoing thyroidectomies were recruited for a dynamic analysis of preoperative and postoperative serum miRNA levels. The results indicated that the expression levels of serum miR-222, miR-221 and miR-146b were significantly increased in patients with newly diagnosed PTC compared with controls and patients with BTN. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that these miRNAs had a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for PTC prior to surgery. The expression of these three miRNAs in serum was significantly associated with poorer prognostic variables, including extrathyroidal invasion, metastatic lymph nodes and high-risk or advanced tumor node metastasis stage. More notably, the present study identified 2.36-, 2.69- and 5.39-fold reductions in the serum levels of miR-222, miR-221 and miR-146b, respectively, subsequent to patients undergoing a thyroidectomy. In addition, miR-222, miR-221 and miR-146b were overexpressed in the PTC with recurrence group compared with the PTC without recurrence group. Collectively, dynamic monitoring of circulating miRNAs may serve as a

  9. Radiofrequency Ablation and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection Treatment for Recurrent Local and Distant Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monchik, Jack M.; Donatini, Gianluca; Iannuccilli, Jason; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the long-term efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ethanol (EtOH) injection treatment of local recurrence or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WTC). Background: RFA and EtOH injection techniques are new minimally invasive surgical alternatives for treatment of recurrent WTC. We report our experience and long-term follow-up results using RFA or EtOH ablation in treating local recurrence and distant focal metastases from WTC. Methods: Twenty patients underwent treatment of biopsy-proven recurrent WTC in the neck. Sixteen of these patients had lesions treated by ultrasound-guided RFA (mean size, 17.0 mm; range, 8–40 mm), while 6 had ultrasound-guided EtOH injection treatment (mean size, 11.4 mm; range, 6–15 mm). Four patients underwent RFA treatment of focal distant metastases from WTC. Three of these patients had CT-guided RFA of bone metastases (mean size, 40.0 mm; range, 30–60 mm), and 1 patient underwent RFA for a solitary lung metastasis (size, 27 mm). Patients were then followed with routine ultrasound, 131I whole body scan, and/or serum thyroglobulin levels for recurrence at the treatment site. Results: No recurrent disease was detected at the treatment site in 14 of the 16 patients treated with RFA and in all 6 patients treated with EtOH injection at a mean follow-up of 40.7 and 18.7 months, respectively. Two of the 3 patients treated for bone metastases are free of disease at the treatment site at 44 and 53 months of follow-up, respectively. The patient who underwent RFA for a solitary lung metastasis is free of disease at the treatment site at 10 months of follow-up. No complications were experienced in the group treated by EtOH injection, while 1 minor skin burn and 1 permanent vocal cord paralysis occurred in the RFA treatment group. Conclusions: RFA and EtOH ablation show promise as alternatives to surgical treatment of recurrent WTC in patients with difficult reoperations

  10. Survival Analysis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Relation to Stage and Recurrence Risk: A 20-Year Experience in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aamna; Razi, Mairah; Riaz, Saima; Khalid, Madeeha; Nawaz, M Khalid; Syed, Aamir Ali; Bashir, Humayun

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall and progression-free survival of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), comparing the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline for risk of recurrence with the TNM staging system with dynamic assessment at 2 years. This study is a retrospective analysis of 689 PTC patients over a 20-year period at a single center. Disease-free survival based on the TNM staging and ATA recurrence risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Dynamic response assessment during the first 2 years was compared for both systems. Survival was calculated based on age, baseline resectability, and postthyroidectomy serum tumor marker levels. Six hundred eighty-nine (72.2%) of the total thyroid cancer patients had PTC. Four hundred sixty-nine patients were females, and 220 patients were males. The age range was 6 to 87 years. Five hundred thirty-five patients were resectable, and 56 patients were unresectable. One hundred fifty-one patients were excluded due to insufficient information on recurrence risk. By ATA categorization, 39% had low risk, no disease-related mortality; 44% had intermediate risk, 3 died; and 17% had high risk, 32 died. The 5-year disease-free survival was 54%, 26%, and 5% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. The log-rank test showed a significant difference in the percent survival (P < 0.01). TNM stage wise, in terms of survival, 1.3% in stage I, 2.2% in stage II, 0% in stage III, and 37.5% in stage IV died. The 20-year disease-free survival showed the following: stage I, 43%; stage II, 28%; stage III, 18%; and stage IV, 2%. There is significant difference in survival rate (P < 0.01). Both ATA risk classification and TNM staging were significant predictors of disease-free survival. On bivariate analysis, ATA classification (hazards ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-2.67; P = 0.001) was better predictive of overall survival versus TNM classification (hazards ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence

  11. [Thyroidectomy of completion and reoperations for thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Sterniuk, Iu M

    2013-06-01

    In 1990--2010 yrs there were operated 159 patients for differentiated thyroid gland cancer (THGC) and 89 - for medullary thyroid gland cancer (MTHGC). The recurrence rate in application of radical tactics of surgical treatment in the first operation for differentiated THGC, comparing with such after reoperation, is lesser - (2.7 +/- 1.5) and (7.3 +/- 4.0)%, accordingly (P < 0.05). The results of diagnostic lymphadenectomy constitute a secure criterion for indication to perform a dissection of a lateral basin of the lymph nodes. The indices of survival in patients, suffering MTHGC, in whom a radical tactics was used in the first operation, are by 29.4% (P = 0.024) better, than in patients, to whom it was applied while subsequent operations, the disease-free survival - by 45.6% (P= .0001). Reoperation is indicated in occurrence of any local and regional recurrences of the THGC. In anaplastic THGC reoperations are performed rarely.

  12. Management of the neck in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R

    1998-10-01

    The incidence of nodal metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer ranges between 40% to 75%. Elective neck dissection is generally not advised in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, if clinically apparent nodal disease is noted in the tracheoesophageal groove during surgery, central compartment clearance is advised. If clinically apparent nodal disease is present in the lateral compartment of the neck, modified neck dissection preserving the sternomastoid, accessory nerve, and jugular vein is advised. The "berry picking procedure" is generally not recommended because of the higher incidence of regional recurrence. Due consideration should be given for parathyroidal transplantation if the blood supply to the parathyroids is damaged during central compartment clearance. The incidence of lymph node metastasis is highest in young patients, however, lymph node metastasis has no bearing on long-term survival. There seems to be a higher incidence of regional recurrence in elderly individuals. If patients present with bulky nodal disease, consideration may be given for postoperative radioactive iodine dosimetry and ablation if necessary. Differentiated thyroid cancer represents a unique disease in the human body, where lymph node metastasis has no prognostic implication. Aggressive surgical clearance is advised in patients with medullary thyroid cancer in the central compartment and the jugular chain lymph nodes.

  13. Analysis of predictability of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk Kyeong; So, Young; Chung, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Young Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Won Woo

    2016-10-01

    Whether preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains unclear. Herein, we evaluated the potential of primary tumor FDG avidity for the prediction of tumor recurrence in PTC patients. A total of 412 PTC patients (72 males, 340 females; age: 47.2 ± 12.2 years; range: 17-84 years) who underwent FDG-PET/CT prior to total thyroidectomy (n = 350), subtotal thyroidectomy (n = 2), or lobectomy (n = 60) from 2007 to 2011 were analyzed. The predictive ability for recurrence was investigated among various clinicopathological factors, BRAF(V)(600E) mutation, and preoperative FDG avidity of the primary tumor using Kaplan-Meier (univariate) and Cox proportional hazards regression (multivariate) analyses. Of the 412 patients, 19 (4.6%) experienced recurrence, which was confirmed either by pathology (n = 17) or high serum thyroglobulin level (n = 2), during a mean follow-up period of 43.9 ± 16.6 months. Of the 412 patients, 237 (57.5%) had FDG-avid tumors (maximum standardized uptake value, 7.1 ± 7.0; range: 1.6-50.5). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that tumor size (P = 0.0054), FDG avidity of the tumor (P = 0.0049), extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.0212), and lymph node (LN) stage (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors for recurrence. However, only LN stage remained a significant predictor in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Patients with FDG-avid tumors had higher LN stage (P < 0.0001), larger tumor size (P < 0.0001), and more frequent extrathyroidal extension (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, FDG avidity of the primary tumor in preoperative FDG-PET/CT could not predict the recurrence of PTC. LN stage was the only identified predictor of PTC recurrence.

  14. Predictors for papillary thyroid cancer persistence and recurrence: a retrospective analysis with a 10-year follow-up cohort study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Taciana Padilha; Waissmann, William; Simões, Taynãna César; de Mello, Rossana Corbo R; Carvalho, Denise P

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine outcome predictors of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) persistence and recurrence, separately. The factors contributing to either persistence or recurrence of PTC are poorly defined, as both outcomes are usually evaluated together. In this 10-year follow-up cohort study, 190 PTC patients were evaluated (18-85 years old; registered from 1 January 1990 to31 December 1999 at a Brazilian Cancer Care referral Hospital). After initial surgery, we examined persistence (disease detected up to 1 year), recurrence (disease detected after 1 year) and PTC-free status (disease absence during follow-up). Outcome predictors were modelled using multinomial logit regression analysis. The univariate analysis showed that persistence and recurrence were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 12·33; OR = 2·84, respectively), local aggressiveness (OR = 5·22; OR = 3·35) and extrathyroidal extension (OR = 5·07; OR = 7·11). Persistence was associated with male sex (OR = 3·49), age above 45 years old at diagnosis (OR = 1·03), macroscopic lymph node metastasis (OR = 5·85), local aggressiveness (OR = 5·22), each 1-cm tumour size increase (OR = 1·34), a cancer care referral hospital as the place of initial surgery (OR = 2·3), thyroidectomy or near total thyroidectomy(OR = 3·03) and neck dissection (OR = 3·19). Recurrence was associated with the time of radioactive iodine ((131) I) therapy (OR = 3·71). After data modelling, persistence was associated with macroscopic lymph node metastasis (OR = 6·17), 1-cm increases in tumour size (OR = 1·30) and thyroidectomy or near total thyroidectomy (OR = 3·82), while recurrence was associated with surgery at referral hospital (OR = 3·79). The best predictors of persistence were tumour size and macroscopic lymph node metastasis; when the initial surgery is of quality, the recurrence depends more on tumour's biology aspects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Monitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury using an electromyographic endotracheal tube in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Anesthetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Martín Jaramago, J; Tamarit Conejeros, M; Escudero Torrella, M; Solaz Roldán, C

    2013-12-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury remains one of the main complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. When this injury is bilateral, an acute upper airway obstruction may occur, leading to a potentially life-threatening situation for the patient. The visual identification of the nerve during surgery is the best way to preserve its integrity. However identification of the nerves by means of electromyographic stimuli through electrodes attached to endotracheal tubes could help in decreasing nerve injury. In these cases the experience and role of the anesthetist is essential to correctly place the electromyographic endotracheal tube and ensure that the electrodes are in touch with the vocal cords during the surgery. Moreover, the results of the electromyography can be affected by the neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, the choice and dose must be adapted, in order to ensure a suitable anesthetic depth, and adequate response.

  16. Central lymph node metastasis of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma: patterns and factors predictive of nodal metastasis, morbidity, and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Chan Il

    2011-08-01

    Although subclinical cervical lymph node (LN) metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are common, the efficacy of prophylactic central LN dissection (CLND) is unclear. Few prospective studies have assessed the relationships between complete pathologic information regarding tumors and metastatic nodes in the central compartment. We therefore investigated the pattern and predictive indicators of central LN metastasis, morbidity, and recurrence in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic CLND for unilateral PTC and clinically node-negative neck (cN0) disease. This prospective study involved 184 patients with previously untreated unilateral PTC and cN0 who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral CLND. Nodal samples were divided into the prelaryngeal/pretracheal and ipsilateral and contralateral paratracheal regions, with each assessed for clinicopathologic predictors of central metastases. Postoperative morbidity and recurrence were assessed. Rates of metastasis to ipsilateral and contralateral central compartments were 42.9 and 9.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size >1 cm and extrathyroidal extension were independent predictors of ipsilateral metastasis, and ipsilateral metastases independently predicted contralateral metastases (P < 0.05 each). Permanent hypoparathyroidism and incidental recurrent nerve paralysis were found in 1.6 and 0% of patients, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 46 months, none of these patients had recurrence in the central compartment. Subclinical metastases are highly prevalent in the ipsilateral central neck of patients with PTC >1 cm. Contralateral central metastases, although uncommon, are associated with ipsilateral central metastases. These findings may guide the necessity and extent of prophylactic bilateral or unilateral CLND.

  17. New non-renal congenital disorders associated with medullary sponge kidney (MSK) support the pathogenic role of GDNF and point to the diagnosis of MSK in recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Ria, Paolo; Fabris, Antonia; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Zaza, Gianluigi; Lupo, Antonio; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2016-08-29

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a congenital renal disorder. Its association with several developmental abnormalities in other organs hints at the likelihood of some shared step(s) in the embryogenesis of the kidney and other organs. It has been suggested that the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene and the Glial cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) gene are defective in patients with MSK, and both RET and GDNF are known to have a role in the development of the central nervous system, heart, and craniofacial skeleton. Among a cohort of 143 MSK patients being followed up for nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease at our institution, we found six with one or more associated non-renal anomalies: one patient probably has congenital hemihyperplasia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with adipose metaplasia and mitral valve prolapse; one has Marfan syndrome; and the other four have novel associations between MSK and nerve and skeleton abnormalities described here for the first time. The discovery of disorders involving the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and craniofacial skeleton in MSK patients supports the hypothesis of a genetic alteration on the RET-GDNF axis having a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MSK, in a subset of patients at least. MSK seems more and more to be a systemic disease, and the identification of extrarenal developmental defects could be important in arousing the suspicion of MSK in recurrent stone formers.

  18. [The ultrasound diagnosis of regional recurrent cancer of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Bochkareva, O V; Siniukova, G T; Matiakin, E G; Kostiakova, L A; Titova, I A; Tsiklauri, V T

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 220 patients was performed using ultrasound investigation (USI) in B-regimen, color and energy Doppler encoding, 3D-reconstruction of image and sonoelastography. There were 49 recurrences in the regional lymph nodes. Main semiotic signs of regional recurrences were identified. USI with the application of the methods described is highly informative: sensitivity--94.2%, specificity--92.5%, accuracy--91.7%.

  19. Post-PET ultrasound improves specificity of 18F-FDG-PET for recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer while maintaining sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Biermann, Martin; Kråkenes, Jostein; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Heinecke, Achim; Akslen, Lars A; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Brauckhoff, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluor-18-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with or without computed tomography (CT) is generally accepted as the most sensitive imaging modality for diagnosing recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in patients with negative whole body scintigraphy with iodine-131 (I-131). To assess the potential incremental value of ultrasound (US) over 18F-FDG-PET-CT. Fifty-one consecutive patients with suspected recurrent DTC were prospectively evaluated using the following multimodal imaging protocol: (i) US before PET (pre-US) with or without fine needle biopsy (FNB) of suspicious lesions; (ii) single photon emission computed tomography (≥3 GBq I-131) with co-registered CT (SPECT-CT); (iii) 18F-FDG-PET with co-registered contrast-enhanced CT of the neck; (iv) US in correlation with the other imaging modalities (post-US). Postoperative histology, FNB, and long-term follow-up (median, 2.8 years) were taken as composite gold standard. Fifty-eight malignant lesions were identified in 34 patients. Forty lesions were located in the neck or upper mediastinum. On receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, 18F-FDG-PET had a limited lesion-based specificity of 59% at a set sensitivity of 90%. Pre-US had poor sensitivity and specificity of 52% and 53%, respectively, increasing to 85% and 94% on post-US, with knowledge of the PET/CT findings (P < 0.05 vs. PET and pre-US). Multimodal imaging changed therapy in 15 out of 51 patients (30%). In patients with suspected recurrent DTC, supplemental targeted US in addition to 18F-FDG-PET-CT increases specificity while maintainin sensitivity, as non-malignant FDG uptake in cervical lesions can be confirmed. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Perspectives of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Bruno Moulin; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-04-01

    Approximately 90% of non-medullary thyroid malignancies originate from the follicular cell and are classified as papillary or follicular (well-differentiated) thyroid carcinomas, showing an overall favourable prognosis. However, recurrence or persistence of the disease occurs in some cases associated with the presence of loco-regional or distant metastatic lesions that generally become resistant to radioiodine therapy, while glucose uptake and metabolism are increased. Recent advances in the field of tumor progression have shown that CTC (circulating tumour cells) are metabolic and genetically heterogeneous. There is now special interest in unravelling the mechanisms that allow the reminiscence of dormant tumour lesions that might be related to late disease progression and increased risk of recurrence. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is activated by the depletion in cellular energy levels and allows adaptive changes in cell metabolism that are fundamental for cell survival in a stressful environment; nevertheless, the activation of this kinase also decreases cell proliferation rate and induces tumour cell apoptosis. In the thyroid field, AMPK emerged as a novel important intracellular pathway, since it regulates both iodide and glucose uptakes in normal thyroid cells. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the AMPK pathway is highly activated in papillary thyroid carcinomas, although the clinical significance of these findings remains elusive. Herein we review the current knowledge about the role of AMPK activation in thyroid physiology and pathophysiology, with special focus on thyroid cancer.

  1. Perspectives of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruno Moulin; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 90% of non-medullary thyroid malignancies originate from the follicular cell and are classified as papillary or follicular (well-differentiated) thyroid carcinomas, showing an overall favourable prognosis. However, recurrence or persistence of the disease occurs in some cases associated with the presence of loco-regional or distant metastatic lesions that generally become resistant to radioiodine therapy, while glucose uptake and metabolism are increased. Recent advances in the field of tumor progression have shown that CTC (circulating tumour cells) are metabolic and genetically heterogeneous. There is now special interest in unravelling the mechanisms that allow the reminiscence of dormant tumour lesions that might be related to late disease progression and increased risk of recurrence. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is activated by the depletion in cellular energy levels and allows adaptive changes in cell metabolism that are fundamental for cell survival in a stressful environment; nevertheless, the activation of this kinase also decreases cell proliferation rate and induces tumour cell apoptosis. In the thyroid field, AMPK emerged as a novel important intracellular pathway, since it regulates both iodide and glucose uptakes in normal thyroid cells. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the AMPK pathway is highly activated in papillary thyroid carcinomas, although the clinical significance of these findings remains elusive. Herein we review the current knowledge about the role of AMPK activation in thyroid physiology and pathophysiology, with special focus on thyroid cancer. PMID:27919039

  2. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and toxicity studies required for regulatory approval of a phase I clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Theodosia; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; KolencPeitl, Petra; Garnuszek, Piotr; Nock, Berthold A.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Kroselj, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Maecke, Helmut; Mansi, Rosalba; Erba, Paola; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikolajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Introduction From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, 111In-CP04 (111In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of 111In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial. Materials and methods Acute and extended single dose toxicity of CP04 was tested in rodents, while the in vivo stability of 111In-CP04 was assessed by HPLC analysis of mouse blood samples. The biodistribution of 111In-CP04 prepared from a freeze-dried kit was studied in SCID mice bearing double A431-CCK2R(±) xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Further 4-h animal groups were either additionally treated with the plasma expander gelofusine or injected with 111In-CP04 prepared by wet-labelling. Pharmacokinetics in healthy mice included the 30 min, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h time points pi. Dosimetric calculations were based on extrapolation of mice data to humans adopting two scaling models. Results CP04 was well-tolerated by both mice and rats, with an LD50 > 178.5 μg/kg body weight for mice and a NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of 89 μg/kg body weight for rats. After labelling, 111In-CP04 remained >70% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 5 min pi. The uptake of 111In-CP04 prepared from the freeze-dried kit and by wet-labelling were comparable in the A431-CCK2R(+)-xenografts (9.24 ± 1.35%ID/g and 8.49 ± 0.39%ID/g, respectively; P > 0.05). Gelofusine-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced kidneys values (1.69 ± 0.15%ID/g vs. 5.55 ± 0.94%ID/g in controls, P < 0.001). Dosimetry data revealed very comparable effective tumour doses for the two scaling models applied, of 0.045 and 0.044 m

  3. TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of recurrence and death due to papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Martyn; Ren, Yan; O'Neill, Christine; Gill, Anthony; Aniss, Adam; Sywak, Mark; Sidhu, Stan; Delbridge, Leigh; Learoyd, Diana; de Vathaire, Florent; Robinson, Bruce G; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

    2016-08-01

    TERT promoter mutations have been associated with adverse prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). We investigated the association between TERT promoter mutations and survival from PTC. Retrospective observational cohort study. Eighty consecutive patients with PTC who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2003. TERT promoter was genotyped in DNA from 80 archival PTCs by Sanger sequencing. Median follow-up was 106 months (range 1-270). Outcomes analysis was stratified according to disease and overall survival status. For each parameter, relative risk (RR) adjusted for age at first surgery and gender was estimated. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression models. PTCs from 11 patients (14%) contained either C228T or C250T TERT promoter mutation. TERT mutations were significantly associated with adverse prognostic features such as older age (P = 0·002), male gender (P = 0·01) and Stage IV disease (P = 0·03). Four patients died from PTC during follow-up: 3 patients with TERT mutations (27%) and one without (1·5%). Disease-related mortality rate with or without TERT mutations was 33·7 vs 1·6 per 1000 patient-years respectively, that is 10 (95% CI = 1·0-104·1, P = 0·05) fold higher, after adjustment for age at first surgery and gender. The combination of TERT promoter mutation and BRAF(V) (600E) significantly increased disease-related death risk (P = 0·002). TERT mutations increased expression of a reporter gene in thyroid cells containing BRAF(V) (600E) . TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of death due to PTCs. Conversely, absence of TERT mutations portends better survival. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aberrant expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Globo H in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Ping; Yang, Po-Sheng; Chien, Ming-Nan; Chen, Ming-Jen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Chien-Liang

    2016-12-01

    The induction of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen results from altered glycosylation in transformed cells. Globo H is a hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid overexpressed on malignancies of epithelial origin and has become an attractive vaccine target. We aimed to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic value of Globo H in thyroid neoplasms. Globo H expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis using commercial and in-house tissue microarrays. The expression was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics in papillary thyroid cancer. Normal or benign thyroid lesions were negative for Globo H expression. Globo H was positive in 33% medullary, 24% papillary, 11% undifferentiated, and 8% follicular thyroid cancer. Globo H expression in papillary thyroid cancer was associated with extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.017), BRAF mutation (P = 0.010), AMES high risk (P = 0.045), and increased ATA risk of recurrence (P = 0.022). Globo H is specifically expressed in a subset of thyroid malignancies. In papillary thyroid cancer, Globo H expression is associated with invasiveness and BRAF mutation. Immunotherapy targeting Globo H may have potential applications in thyroid cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:853-858. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Conus medullaris stroke

    PubMed Central

    Alanazy, Mohammed H.

    2016-01-01

    Absent F wave in the stage of spinal shock has been described in cases of traumatic spinal cord injury. The role of F wave in predicting prognosis after conus medullaris infarct has not been described. We describe herein a middle aged-man with a conus medullaris infarct. Both tibial and peroneal F waves were absent on day 4. The left tibial F wave reappeared in the following study on day 18. All F waves reappeared on day 56 at which time the patient was still wheelchair bound. He regained walking on day 105. We hypothesize that reappearance of initially absent F waves post conus medullaris infarct is a good prognostic sign for the return of ambulation. The applicability of this observation requires further research. We also discuss clinical and diagnostic caveats in this case. PMID:27356660

  6. Comparison of hair thyroid hormones between first-episode and recurrent patients with depression in female Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Sun, Guizhi; Wei, Jinxue; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Liansheng; Wang, Yingcheng; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Li; Ma, Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hair thyroid hormone (TH) levels among first-episode patients with major depressive disorder (F-MDD), recurrent patients with major depressive disorder (R-MDD) and healthy controls (HC). The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were used to evaluate the clinical symptoms of patients. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used to measure the hair TH levels. We compared the differences in hair TH levels among F-MDD patients, R-MDD patients, and HC. Before the disease episode, hair T3 levels differed significantly between F-MDD patients and HC. In the disease episode, hair T3 levels differed significantly between F-MDD or R-MDD patients and HC; and hair T4 levels differed significantly between R-MDD patients and HC. Hair T3 levels significantly negative correlated with HAMD scores in F-MDD patients. Our findings suggested that disease duration of recurring episodes of depression may influence hair TH levels. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Electrophysiologic recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: international standards guideline statement.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gregory W; Dralle, Henning; Abdullah, Hisham; Barczynski, Marcin; Bellantone, Rocco; Brauckhoff, Michael; Carnaille, Bruno; Cherenko, Sergii; Chiang, Fen-Yu; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Finck, Camille; Hartl, Dana; Kamani, Dipti; Lorenz, Kerstin; Miccolli, Paolo; Mihai, Radu; Miyauchi, Akira; Orloff, Lisa; Perrier, Nancy; Poveda, Manuel Duran; Romanchishen, Anatoly; Serpell, Jonathan; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; Sloan, Tod; Van Slycke, Sam; Snyder, Samuel; Takami, Hiroshi; Volpi, Erivelto; Woodson, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) during thyroid and parathyroid surgery has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Despite the increasing use of IONM, review of the literature and clinical experience confirms there is little uniformity in application of and results from nerve monitoring across different centers. We provide a review of the literature and cumulative experience of the multidisciplinary International Neural Monitoring Study Group with IONM spanning nearly 15 years. The study group focused its initial work on formulation of standards in IONM as it relates to important areas: 1) standards of equipment setup/endotracheal tube placement and 2) standards of loss of signal evaluation/intraoperative problem-solving algorithm. The use of standardized methods and reporting will provide greater uniformity in application of IONM. In addition, this report clarifies the limitations of IONM and helps identify areas where additional research is necessary. This guideline is, at its forefront, quality driven; it is intended to improve the quality of neural monitoring, to translate the best available evidence into clinical practice to promote best practices. We hope this work will minimize inappropriate variations in monitoring rather than to dictate practice options.

  8. Recurrent thyroid cancer diagnosis: ROC study of the effect of a high-resolution head and neck 18F-FDG PET/CT scan.

    PubMed

    Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros T; Pianou, Nikoletta K; Kafiri, Georgia Th; Pavlou, Spyros N; Kallergi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has demonstrated significant value in the evaluation of patients with indication of recurrent thyroid cancer with negative conventional workup. The hypothesis of this study was that the addition of a dedicated, high-resolution head and neck scan (HNS) to the standard whole-body scan (WBS) improves the accuracy of the detection and diagnosis of recurrent thyroid cancer. Forty-three consecutive patients suspected for recurrent thyroid cancer, as indicated by increased tumor markers, prospectively underwent a WBS and a HNS with (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The patients were followed up to establish ground truth. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) study with two observers was conducted to evaluate the impact of the additional HNS on the detection and diagnosis of recurrent thyroid cancer. Indices of performance included the area under the ROC curve (AUC), the number of detected abnormal foci, and the size of the detected foci without and with the HNS images. ROC results showed that the addition of the HNS to the standard WBS increased the average AUC index of performance from 0.69 to 0.96, a statistically significant difference with a confidence interval (CI) of -0.33 to -0.19. Diagnosis was also improved with the average AUC increasing from 0.79 to 0.87 but differences were not statistically significant (CI, -0.19 to 0.04). Interreader agreement was "good" in the detection task and "excellent" in the diagnostic task. The addition of the HNS increased the number of detected foci in the positive patients by an average of 37%, whereas false-positive detections in the negative patients increased by an average of 10%. Reported average maximum lesion size also increased with the HNS addition by an average of 11%. The addition of a high-resolution HNS to the standard whole-body PET/CT imaging improves readers' performance in the detection and diagnosis of recurrent thyroid cancer and

  9. Image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy – a valuable salvage treatment approach for loco-regional recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Zhao, Hongfu; Han, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhipeng; Ge, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the treatment effect of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for refractory recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Case report This 66-year-old female presented with recurrence 5 years after thyroidectomy for PTC. Despite external irradiation and radioactive 131I, the lesion expanded as 3.7 × 3.0 × 2.3 cm3 and 2.0 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm3. The locoregional recurrent tumor was treated with image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The total dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions were delivered on the whole recurrent tumor. Results Removal of the recurrent tumor was securely achieved by HDR interstitial brachytherapy guided with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The refractory tumor in the patients healed uneventfully after HDR interstitial brachytherapy without recurrence during the 14 months of follow-up. Conclusions The image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy may be a valuable salvage treatment approach for refractory recurrence of PTC. PMID:27257420

  10. Role of prophylactic central neck dissection in clinically node-negative differentiated thyroid cancer: assessment of the risk of regional recurrence.

    PubMed

    Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Lombardi, Celestino Pio; Podda, Francesco; Sessa, Luca; Santini, Luigi; Conzo, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Prophylactic central neck dissection in clinically node-negative patients remains controversial. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to determine the rate of metastases in the central neck in clinically node-negative differentiated thyroid cancer patients, to examine the morbidity, and to assess the risk of regional recurrence in patients treated with total thyroidectomy with concomitant bilateral or ipsilateral central neck dissection compared with those undergoing total thyroidectomy alone. 258 consecutive clinically node-negative patients were divided into three groups according to the procedures performed: total thyroidectomy only (group A), total thyroidectomy with concomitant ipsilateral central neck dissection (group B), and total thyroidectomy combined with bilateral central neck dissection (group C). Mean operative time and postoperative stay were shorter in Group A (p < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism was lower in Group A (p = 0.03), whereas no differences in the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism and nerve palsy were present. Postoperative radioactive iodine administration was higher in group B and particularly C (p = 0.03) compared with group A. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of regional recurrence. Differentiated thyroid cancer has a high rate of central lymph node metastasis even in clinically node-negative patients; in the present study there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of locoregional recurrence between the three modalities of treatment. Total thyroidectomy appears to be an adequate treatment for clinically node-negative differentiated thyroid cancer. Prophylactic central neck dissection might be considered for differentiated thyroid cancer patients with large tumor size or extrathyroidal extension.

  11. Risk factors for nodal metastasis and recurrence among patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: differences in clinical relevance between nonincidental and incidental tumors.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Adolfo; Reccia, Isabella; Nardello, Oreste; Uccheddu, Alessandro

    2009-03-01

    Papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) is a subgroup of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring 1.0 cm or less in diameter. Herein we focused on the search for risk factors predicting nodal metastasis and recurrence in PMCs, analyzing differences in presentation, treatment, and prognosis between nonincidental and incidental tumors. From January 1998 to May 2007, 149 patients had a diagnosis of PMC in our department. A cross-sectional study of 76 patients with nonincidental and 73 patients with incidental PMC was carried out. Demographic data, diagnostic results, tumor characteristics, risk assessment, surgical treatment, and postoperative and follow up results were evaluated. Cytology detected thyroid cancer and nodal involvement in nonincidental PMC. Mean tumor size was significantly larger in nonincidental PMC (7.5 vs. 4.2 mm), which was commonly found within a normal thyroid gland or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, while incidental PMC was associated with a multinodular goiter. TNM staging system showed a higher cancer stage (IVA) in nonincidental. At multivariate analysis, capsular invasion and a nonincidental diagnosis were the two independent factors significantly affecting nodal metastasis. All patients with nonincidental PMC underwent iodine-131 ablation therapy after surgery compared with 49 patients with incidental. Nodal metastasis at diagnosis was the only factor influencing recurrence which was found in three nonincidental cases: two in the lateral and one in the central neck compartments. Several PMCs presented with risk-free clinical courses. Some nonincidental tumors had a more aggressive behavior and a tendency to recurrence. In these cases, early detection and aggressive treatment are mandatory as for conventional PTC according to risk stratification and cancer stage.

  12. Predictive factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients under 21 years of age and a meta-analysis of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Ji, Qing-Hai; Yang, Shu-Wen; Wei, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The influence of predictors for recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival was analyzed retrospectively in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients under 21 years of age who underwent primary surgical treatment and who had a pathological diagnosis of DTC between 1983 and 2012 at Fudan University Cancer Hospital. Recurrences were retrospectively analyzed using a Cox regression model for the hazard ratio (HR) according to the clinicopathological features. A meta-analysis was performed with respect to the potential predictors for recurrence from current related studies. In the present study, there were 146 young patients aged from 7 to 20 years, with a female/male ratio of 2.65/1. Female gender was the only factor significantly associated with recurrence according to univariate (HR = 2.812, P = 0.037) and multivariate (HR = 4.107, P = 0.024) Cox regression analyses. Meta-analyses revealed that multifocality (HR = 1.91, P < 0.05) and presentation at diagnosis (HR = 1.39, P < 0.05) were highly associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. However, female gender and other factors, such as age (≤10 vs. 11-20 years), PTC (PTC vs. FTC), extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, total thyroidectomy (total vs. less than total), radioiodine therapy, and radiation history, were not associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. In conclusion, multifocality and presentation at diagnosis are strong predictive factors of recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival. We recommend studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up to verify the influence of predictors for disease recurrence in young patients.

  13. Blood glucose and insulin levels, thyroid function, and serology in Ménière's disease, recurrent vestibulopathy, and psychogenic vertigo.

    PubMed

    Charles, D A; Barber, H O; Hope-Gill, H F

    1979-08-01

    Nineteen patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, 20 with psychogenic dizziness, and 20 with recurrent vestibulopathy (diagnostic criteria in text of paper) were found to have normal five hour glucose tolerance tests, serum thyroxine and effective thyroid indices, and serologic tests for syphilis. Hypothyroidism and hypoglycemia were absent in all groups. An unexplained finding of each diagnostic group was significant increase of fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and elevated insulin:glucose ratios, compared to a control group. There appears to be no diagnostic indication for performing these chemical and serologic studies in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease, psychogenic vertigo, or recurrent vestibulopathy. Reasons are given to support the view that recurrent vestibulopathy may be a specific vestibular disturbance.

  14. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor expression in the human thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Gier, Belinda; Butler, Peter C; Lai, Chi K; Kirakossian, David; DeNicola, Matthew M; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic therapy induces medullary thyroid neoplasia in rodents. We sought to establish whether C cells in human medullary thyroid carcinoma, C cell hyperplasia, and normal human thyroid express the GLP-1 receptor. Thyroid tissue samples with medullary thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), C cell hyperplasia (n = 9), papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 17), and normal human thyroid (n = 15) were evaluated by immunofluorescence for expression of calcitonin and GLP-1 receptors. Coincident immunoreactivity for calcitonin and GLP-1 receptor was consistently observed in both medullary thyroid carcinoma and C cell hyperplasia. GLP-1 receptor immunoreactivity was also detected in 18% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (three of 17 cases). Within normal human thyroid tissue, GLP-1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in five of 15 of the examined cases in about 35% of the total C cells assessed. In humans, neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions of thyroid C cells express the GLP-1 receptor. GLP-1 receptor expression is detected in 18% papillary thyroid carcinomas and in C cells in 33% of control thyroid lobes. The consequence of long-term pharmacologically increased GLP-1 signaling on these GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells in the thyroid gland in humans remains unknown, but appropriately powered prospective studies to exclude an increase in medullary or papillary carcinomas of the thyroid are warranted.

  15. Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Expression in the Human Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Gier, Belinda; Butler, Peter C.; Lai, Chi K.; Kirakossian, David; DeNicola, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic therapy induces medullary thyroid neoplasia in rodents. We sought to establish whether C cells in human medullary thyroid carcinoma, C cell hyperplasia, and normal human thyroid express the GLP-1 receptor. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples with medullary thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), C cell hyperplasia (n = 9), papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 17), and normal human thyroid (n = 15) were evaluated by immunofluorescence for expression of calcitonin and GLP-1 receptors. Results: Coincident immunoreactivity for calcitonin and GLP-1 receptor was consistently observed in both medullary thyroid carcinoma and C cell hyperplasia. GLP-1 receptor immunoreactivity was also detected in 18% of papillary thyroid carcinoma (three of 17 cases). Within normal human thyroid tissue, GLP-1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in five of 15 of the examined cases in about 35% of the total C cells assessed. Conclusions: In humans, neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions of thyroid C cells express the GLP-1 receptor. GLP-1 receptor expression is detected in 18% papillary thyroid carcinomas and in C cells in 33% of control thyroid lobes. The consequence of long-term pharmacologically increased GLP-1 signaling on these GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells in the thyroid gland in humans remains unknown, but appropriately powered prospective studies to exclude an increase in medullary or papillary carcinomas of the thyroid are warranted. PMID:22031513

  16. Unusual malignant tumors of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Diaconescu, M R; Costea, I; Glod, M; Grigorovici, M; Diaconescu, S

    2013-01-01

    Although situated on the last places among the statistical hierarchy of human malignancies, thyroid cancers (TC) are the most common tumors of the endocrine system. Follicular epithelium neoplasms account for more than 90% of these lesions with a favourable prognosis, while resting tumors (medullary, anaplastic, lymphoma, sarcoma etc) generally present a rapid unfavorable evolution with a low rate of survival. In a series of 464 thyropathies personally treated, 72 cases of TC (15.5%) were identified. Fifty-seven patients presented epithelial TC a 34 papillary variant, 20 follicular variant and 8 mixed forms. Alongside these there were two medullary TC, 9 anaplastic TC and insular TC, and primary lymphoma and metastasis to the thyroid of a lung carcinoma each single case. Four cases have been described in patients who were aged 2-6 years at the time of the Chernobyl disaster. Out of the common types, based on our own taxonomic criteria, we selected a group of 36 TC with unusual clinical, histological and behavioural characteristics or particular pathological associations. Seven cases of occult TC, 7 cases with precessive adenopathy TC and 11 patients with TC associated with hyperthyroidism were registered. All of them underwent adapted thyroidectomies in which the presence of cancer was decisive for the extent of surgery. Medullary, insular and anaplastic TC were the most aggressive lesions and even extended surgery and complementary therapy failed to improve the prognosis of these patients. In the same category we included the cases presenting the coexistence of two TC types, pathologic dedifferentiation in recurrences and concurrent presence of another endocrine or nonendocrine cervical lesion. The a surgical dogma of total thyroidectomy cannot always be respected, so complementary therapeutic solutions must be applied. RESULTS were complex, registering steady recoveries in occult, hyperfunctioning and even in coexisting pathological lesions, but many recurrences

  17. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  18. Multifactorial analysis of survival and recurrences in differentiated thyroid cancer. Comparative evaluation of usefulness of AGES, MACIS, and risk group scores in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cuevas, S; Labastida-Almendaro, S; Cortés-Arroyo, H; López-Garza, J; Barroso-Bravo, S

    2002-03-01

    Many risk factors have been identified in differentiated thyroid cancer, with them, some prognostic scores have been designed to asign the risk of recurrence and survival. In Mexican population, this type of study is scarce. This is a retrospective review of 180 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer completely treated at the Hospital de Oncologia, IMSS, in Mexico City from 1980 to 1990. All prognostic factors were analyzed and a score obtained either by the method of AGES, MACIS, or SKMH. Correlation of recurrences and survival was carried out according to score or risk assignment. There was a predominance of females (4.8:1), 48% had metastatic cervical nodes, median tumor size was 4 cm, 16% had multiple macroscopic thyroid tumors, in 12% resection was incomplete, 96% were papillary, and 4% follicular cancers. According to AGES, 46% were high risk patients, 49.4% with MACIS and 45.5% with SKMH, respectively. Median follow-up was 8.3 years. There were 67 (37%) recurrences. Ten-year overall survival was 89.4% and disease-free survival was 79.2%. There was no statistical significant difference of survival of AGES until the score reached 6 or more or the MACIS score reached 8 or more. Cox multivariate model showed that above the age of 45, tumor size of 5 cm or more, follicular histology, multiple macroscopic thyroid tumors, and extracapsular node invasion affected ten-year survival. In conclusions our patients are diagnosed at more advanced stages than patients in the U.S. or European countries. Nearly one half of our patients belonged to the high-risk group. This study confirms that patients over the age of 45, tumor size > 5 cm, and follicular histology are adverse prognostic factors and report that extracapsular node invasion and multiple macroscopic thyroid tumors are also adverse prognostic factors. In Mexican population, with 50% of high-risk patients, AGES and MACIS scores reached statistical differences with higher qualifications than observed in the U.S.

  19. Impact of lymph node metastases identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer: potential role of BRAFV600E mutation in defining CND.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-02-01

    The impact of metastasized cervical lymph nodes (CLN) identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence/persistence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and the extent of CND needed to reduce recurrence/persistence have not been firmly established. To assess the impact of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation on the recurrence/persistence of PTC and the potential of BRAF mutation in assisting CND. Analyses of 379 consecutive patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with (n=243) or without CND (n=136) at a tertiary-care academic hospital during the period 2001-2010 for their clinicopathological outcomes and BRAF mutation status. Increasingly aggressive tumor characteristics were found as the extent of CND was advanced following conventional risk criteria from non-CND to limited CND to formal CND. Disease recurrence/persistence rate also sharply rose from 4.7% to 15.7% and 40.5% in these CND settings respectively (P<0.0001). CLN metastasis rate rose from 18.0 to 77.3% from limited CND to formal CND (P<0.0001). An increasing rate of BRAF mutation was also found from less to more extensive CND. A strong association of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation with disease recurrence/persistence was revealed on Kaplan-Meier analysis and BRAF mutation strongly predicted CLN metastasis. CLN metastases found on CND are closely associated with disease recurrence/persistence of PTC, which are both strongly predicted by BRAF mutation. Current selection of PTC patients for CND is appropriate but higher extent of the procedure, once selected, is needed to reduce disease recurrence, which may be defined by combination use of preoperative BRAF mutation testing and conventional risk factors of PTC.

  20. Follow-up of patients with thyroglobulin-antibodies: Rising Tg-Ab trend is a risk factor for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    de Meer, Siegrid G A; Vorselaars, Wessel M C M; Kist, Jakob W; Stokkel, Marcel P M; de Keizer, Bart; Valk, Gerlof D; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Vriens, Menno R

    2017-05-16

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recurrences (5-20%) are the main reason for follow-up. Thyroglobulin (Tg) has proven to be an excellent disease marker, but thyroglobulin-antibodies (Tg-Ab) may interfere with Tg measurement, leading to over or underestimation. It is proposed that the Tg-Ab trend can be used as a marker for disease recurrence, yet few studies define trend and have a long-term follow-up. The objective of our study was to investigate the value of a well-defined Tg-Ab trend as a surrogate marker for disease recurrence during long-term follow-up. We retrospectively studied patients treated at the Nuclear Department of the University Medical Center Utrecht from 1998 to 2010 and the Netherlands Cancer Institute from 2000 to 2009. All patients with Tg-Ab 12 months after treatment were included. The definition of a rise was >50% increase of the Tg-Ab value in a 2 year time period. A decline as >50% decrease of the Tg-Ab value. Twenty-five patients were included. None of the patients with declining or stable Tg-Ab without a concomitant rise in Tg developed a recurrence. Four patients did suffer a recurrence. Three of these patients had a rising Tg-Ab trend, in two of these patients Tg was undetectable. Tg-Ab trend can be used as a crude surrogate marker for long-term follow-up of Tg-Ab patients. A rising trend in Tg-Ab warrants further investigation to detect recurrent disease. Stable or declining Tg-Ab levels do not seem to reflect a risk for recurrence.

  1. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Refractory Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-21

    Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Tall Cell Variant Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Oncocytic Follicular Carcinoma