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Sample records for recurrent severe epistaxis

  1. Severe thrombocytopenia and recurrent epistaxis associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tilden, William; Valliani, Shahnawaz

    2015-04-09

    Infectious mononucleosis, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), generally follows a benign, yet protracted course, with the majority of symptoms being systemic somatic symptoms. Rarely, the clinical picture can be complicated by more acute severe haemotological sequelae of the disease, requiring hospitalisation and causing diagnostic uncertainty, particularly when distinguishing between a viral illness and a lymphoproliferative disorder. We describe the case of a young male patient who presented with headache, recurrent epistaxis and severe thrombocytopenia.

  2. [Treatment of recurrent posterior epistaxis].

    PubMed

    Bro, Søren Pauli; Bille, Jesper; Petersen, Kristian Bruun

    2017-08-21

    30% of the patients presenting with epistaxis at emergency wards and otorhinolaryngeal specialist departments have posterior bleeding. Traditional treatment with packing often leads to initial treatment failure, and many patients experience recurrent bleeding within the following month. Recurrent posterior epistaxis should be treated with local electrocautery or endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine artery to reduce patient discomfort, hospital stay, risk of treatment failure and recurrence.

  3. Efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of severe recurrent epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: results of a prospective phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Quaglia, Federica; Klersy, Caherine; Pagella, Fabio; Ornati, Federica; Chu, Francesco; Matti, Elina; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Plumitallo, Sara; Grignani, Pierangela; Olivieri, Carla; Bastia, Raffaella; Bellistri, Francesca; Danesino, Cesare; Benazzo, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. Severe recurrent epistaxis is the most common presentation, frequently leading to severe anemia. Multiple therapeutic approaches have been tried, but they are largely palliative with variable results.We aimed to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in reducing epistaxis in patients with HHT refractory to standard therapy. Methods HHT patients with severe recurrent epistaxis refractory to mini-invasive surgical procedures were included in an open label, phase II, prospective, non-randomized, single-centre study. Thalidomide was administered at a starting dose of 50 mg/day orally. In the event of no response, thalidomide dosage was increased by 50 mg/day every four weeks until response to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day. After response achievement, patients were treated for eight to16 additional weeks. Monthly follow-up was based on the epistaxis severity score and transfusion need, with adverse events being reported (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01485224). Findings Thirty-one patients, mean age 62∙6 (SD 11∙1) years, were enrolled (median follow-up 15∙9 months, 25th-75th 10∙1-22∙3). Treatment induced cessation of bleeding in three cases (9∙7%) and a significant decrease in all epistaxis parameters in 28 cases (90∙3%). Twenty-five patients (80∙7%) obtained remission with 50 mg/day of thalidomide, five (16∙1%) with 100 mg/day and one (3∙2%) with 150 mg/day. Treatment significantly increased hemoglobin levels (p<0∙001), and abolished or greatly decreased the transfusion need (p<0∙001).Only nonserious, grade I, adverse effects were observed, including constipation and drowsiness. Median time to relapse after the end of therapy was 6∙4 months. No correlation was found between genetic or clinical features and response to thalidomide or toxicity. Interpretation Low-dose thalidomide is safe and very effective in reducing

  4. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas.

  5. Recurrent Massive Epistaxis from an Anomalous Posterior Ethmoid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Francesco; Alberici, Maria Paola; Presutti, Livio

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man, with no previous history of epistaxis, was hospitalized at our facility for left recurrent posterior epistaxis. The patient underwent surgical treatment three times and only the operator's experience and radiological support (cranial angiography) allowed us to control the epistaxis and stop the bleeding. The difficult bleeding management and control was attributed to an abnormal course of the left posterior ethmoidal artery. When bleeding seems to come from the roof of the nasal cavity, it is important to identify the ethmoid arteries always bearing in mind the possible existence of anomalous courses. PMID:28025632

  6. Severe Epistaxis from an Intracranial Vascular Bleed from Grenade Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Severe Epistaxis from an Intracranial Vascular Bleed from Grenade Injury Radiology Corner Case 27 Severe Epistaxis from an Intracranial ...neck injuries. In particular, this case focuses on an intracranial vascular injury generated by a hand grenade with the diagnosis assisted by...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Severe Epistaxis from an Intracranial Vascular Bleed from Grenade Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  7. Correlation of severity of epistaxis with nasal telangiectasias in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients.

    PubMed

    Pagella, Fabio; Colombo, Andrea; Matti, Elina; Giourgos, Georgios; Tinelli, Carmine; Olivieri, Carla; Danesino, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. The presence of telangiectasias in nasal mucosa leads to recurrent epistaxis that affects up to 96% of patients but with unpredictable severity. Some authors have previously explained that endonasal morphology and distribution of telangiectasias can be variable too. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any possible relationship between the severity of epistaxis and the different morphology and distribution of nasal telangiectasias in HHT patients. A review was performed of nasal endoscopy records of 76 consecutive HHT patients treated for epistaxis between 2003 and 2007 at our institution. An evaluation was performed of severity of epistaxis in the same patient group using a questionnaire and considering frequency, intensity, duration of nosebleeds, and need for blood transfusions. Comparison of data collected on morphology and distribution of nasal telangiectasias with data collected on severity of epistaxis was performed. Morphology and distribution of nasal telangiectasias showed a statistically significant correlation with frequency and intensity of epistaxis. Presence of telangiectasias endoscopically appearing as large and prominent correlates with higher frequency of epistaxis. An increase in number of nasal subsites involved correlates with higher intensity of nosebleeds. Our data suggest that to reduce frequency and intensity of epistaxis in HHT patients, treatments should be directed also at lesions located in the posterior part of nasal fossae and especially on telangiectasias endoscopically appearing as large and prominent.

  8. The frequency and severity of epistaxis in children with sickle cell anaemia in eastern Uganda: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nardo-Marino, Amina; Williams, Thomas N; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There are a paucity of data on epistaxis as it pertains to sickle cell anaemia. Some case studies suggest epistaxis to be a significant complication in patients with sickle cell anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa; however, no robust studies have sought to establish the epidemiology or pathophysiology of this phenomenon. We conducted a case-control study with the aim of investigating the importance of epistaxis among children presenting with sickle cell anaemia at the Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in eastern Uganda. Cases were children aged 2-15 years with an existing diagnosis of laboratory confirmed sickle cell anaemia, while controls were children without sickle cell anaemia who were frequency matched to cases on the basis of age group and gender. The frequency and severity of epistaxis was assessed using a structured questionnaire developed specifically for this study. Odds ratios controlled for age group and gender were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. A total of 150 children were included, 73 children with sickle cell anaemia and 77 children without sickle cell anaemia. The overall prevalence of epistaxis among children with sickle cell anaemia and children without sickle cell anaemia was 32.9 and 23.4% respectively. The case-control odds ratios for epistaxis, recurrent epistaxis and severe epistaxis were, 1.6 (95%CI 0.8-3.4; p = 0.2), 7.4 (1.6-34.5; 0.01), and 8.3 (1.0-69.8; 0.05) respectively. Our results suggest that in eastern Uganda, children with sickle cell anaemia experience epistaxis more frequently and with greater severity than children without sickle cell anaemia. Further studies are indicated to confirm this conclusion and investigate aetiology.

  9. Severe epistaxis after nasogastric tube insertion requiring arterial embolisation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Vishesh; Kupfer, Yizhak; Tessler, Sidney

    2013-01-18

    A 53-year-old dialysis patient was admitted with symptoms of a respiratory tract infection, abdominal pain and vomiting. She aspirated and required intubation. A nasogastric tube was placed with slight difficulty and the patient developed severe epistaxis. The bleeding could not be controlled with mechanical pressure and nasal packing. Angiography revealed extravasation from a pseudoaneurysm arising from the inferior pharyngeal branch of the ascending pharyngeal trunk. The vessel was successfully embolised with cessation of bleeding. We emphasise that even a seemingly easy procedure like insertion of a nasogastric tube, can lead to a life-threatening complication.

  10. Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Recurrent Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Al Balushi, Ali; Kitchener, Jacob; Edgell, Randall C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral expanding traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the ophthalmic arteries, due to a gunshot. The aneurysms presented with epistaxis. After a failure of conservative management, coil embolization of the aneurysms resulted in complete occlusion, with preservation of flow in the parent vessels. PMID:28243345

  11. The Wexham Criteria: defining severe epistaxis to select patients requiring sphenopalatine artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Raj; Syed, Irfan; Qureishi, Ali; Bleach, Nigel

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to provide guidance regarding patient selection and timing of intervention with sphenopalatine artery (SPA) ligation by defining 'severe epistaxis'. An analysis of all patients undergoing SPA ligation (January 2002-2010) was performed. SPA ligation was deemed necessary if at least one of the four identified criteria was fulfilled. The same analysis was also performed on all patients admitted with epistaxis who did not undergo SPA ligation over a 6-month period. All 27 patients who underwent SPA ligation met at least one of the criteria selected. Uncontrolled epistaxis (21/27) was fulfilled most often. In comparison, only 4/71 patients admitted with epistaxis who did not undergo SPA ligation fulfilled any single criterion. All criteria were satisfied in a significantly higher number of cases in the SPA group (p < 0.001) The criteria studied proved helpful in identifying patients admitted to hospital with epistaxis who had failed conservative measures.

  12. Effectiveness of a nasal saline gel in the treatment of recurrent anterior epistaxis in anticoagulated patients.

    PubMed

    Massick, Doug; Hurtuk, Agnes

    2011-09-01

    We believe that the use of cauterization in patients with anterior epistaxis in the absence of acute bleeding should be discouraged because it does not address the underlying cause and because it may even worsen the condition by extending the degree of mucosal disruption. This is especially true in patients who are receiving anticoagulation therapy. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine if the use of a nasal saline gel as monotherapy would be an effective alternative to invasive measures in treating recurrent epistaxis in anticoagulated patients. Our study group consisted of 74 patients-43 men and 31 women (mean age: 64.4 yr)-who had been seen in our department over an 18-month period and whose bleeding had originated in the anterior portion of the nasal vault. Most patients had been experiencing epistaxis for at least 6 months. Patients were given the saline nasal gel and taught to gently apply it to the mucosa of the anterior nasal vault with a cotton-tipped applicator at the first sign of recurrent bleeding. Patients were then followed up periodically over the next 3 months. Among the 74 patients, 69 (93.2%) had experienced a cessation of their epistaxis at 3 months. The results of our study suggest that this simple, painless technique has considerable value as a treatment option in this cohort of patients.

  13. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538

  14. Epistaxis in end stage liver disease masquerading as severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2014-10-14

    To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.

  15. A prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of petroleum jelly/Vaseline for recurrent paediatric epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Loughran, S; Spinou, E; Clement, W A; Cathcart, R; Kubba, H; Geddes, N K

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if petroleum jelly was an effective treatment for paediatric epistaxis. A single-blind, prospective, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in an otolaryngology outpatient clinic of a paediatric hospital from March 2001 to March 2002. A total of 105 children referred with recurrent epistaxis were randomized into the study, 52 into the treatment arm and 53 into the control arm. Children in the treatment arm applied Vaseline twice a day bilaterally for 4 weeks and were monitored for any bleeds for the next 4 weeks. Children in the control arm were simply given an 8-week appointment and the number of bleeds were monitored for the 4 weeks prior to their appointment. The outcome measure was the proportion of children in each group without nosebleeds in the preceding 4 weeks. Both groups were equally distributed in age, duration of symptoms and duration of each bleed. Fourteen of 51 (27.5%) patients of the treatment arm and 18 of 53 (34%) of the control arm did not bleed in the 4 weeks before review (chi-square test, P = 0.472). It can be concluded that Vaseline alone confers no benefit over simple observation in recurrent childhood epistaxis.

  16. High-Output Heart Failure Contributing to Recurrent Epistaxis Kiesselbach Area Syndrome in a Patient With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattad, Venugopal Brijmohan; Bowman, Jennifer N.; Panchal, Hemang B.; Paul, Timir K.

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare genetic blood disorder that leads to abnormal bleeding due to absent capillaries and multiple abnormal blood vessels known as arteriovenous malformations. A feature of HHT is high-output heart failure due to multiple arteriovenous malformations. High-output heart failure can lead to recurrent epistaxis Kiesselbach area syndrome (REKAS), further exacerbating heart failure through increased blood loss and resultant anemia. We report a patient with HHT who presented with high-output heart failure contributing to REKAS. In patients with REKAS, we propose if anemia is present, REKAS can be avoided by correcting the anemia by increasing the hemoglobin level to greater than 9 to 10 g/dL. This decreases hyperdynamic circulation and reduces pressure in the blood vessels of the nose. PMID:28210642

  17. FATAL EPISTAXIS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Francis Berchmans

    1961-01-01

    The instances in which nosebleed is potentially fatal are those in which there is a history of recent head injury, severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an underlying vascular tumor in the nasal chambers. Fatal nasal bleeding has not been reported in children. An awareness on the part of the physician of the potentially fatal significance of his patient's nosebleed is the very best insurance against such an event. Intelligent history-taking, careful physical and x-ray examination, generous sedation, precise local cauterization and packing, estimation of hemoglobin mass and a search for bleeding and clotting disorders are the best weapons of the physician called to treat epistaxis. These procedures, coupled with adequate blood replacement and an informed attitude toward surgical interruption of the blood supply to the bleeding region should forestall death from fatal nosebleed. PMID:13738727

  18. Long-term efficacy of Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation vs. liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream in the treatment of recurrent epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Qiu, Rongxing; Wei, Chunsheng

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation with that of liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream in the management of recurrent epistaxis. Eighty consecutive patients who suffered from recurrent anterior epistaxis presented to the Otolaryngology Department at the Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University between February 2011 and June 2011. These patients with histories of recurrent epistaxis were randomly assigned to receive treatment in an outpatient setting consisting of either a combination of liquid paraffin plus antiseptic cream (Group 1) or Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation (Group 2). the following outcome measures were assessed: bleeding intensity; bleeding frequency 2 years after treatment (0 = no bleeding, 1 = reduced bleeding, 2 = the same, 3 = worse), participant's perception of discomfort during the management (grade 0-10, where 10 is the worst pain), and complications. Finally, 70 patients remain in our study. At 2 years, 86 % of laser patients versus 31 % of control patients had no reported bleeding. The outcome score at 2 years after treatment showed a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.000, P < 0.01). The median and mean ± SD pain levels experienced were 5.0 and 5.2 ± 2.2. Both groups had no complications. It can be further concluded that Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation is a preferable therapy in the treatment of recurrent epistaxis in long-term efficacy. The level of pain associated with the procedure was well tolerated. It is a simple, easy, safe and rapid therapy, which can be performed in an office setting.

  19. Radiological Diagnosis and Management of Epistaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Krajina, Antonín; Chrobok, Viktor

    2013-11-15

    The majority of episodes of spontaneous posterior epistaxis treated with embolisation are idiopathic in nature. The angiographic findings are typically normal. Specific angiographic signs are rare and may include the following: a tumour blush, telangiectasia, aneurysm, and/or extravasation. Selective internal carotid artery (ICA) angiography may show rare causes of epistaxis, such as traumatic or mycotic aneurysms, which require different treatment approaches. Complete bilateral selective external and internal carotid angiograms are essential to evaluation. The images should be analysed for detection of central retinal blush in the external carotid artery (ECA) and anastomoses between the branches of the ECA and ICA. Monocular blindness and stroke are two of the most severe complications. Embolisation aims to decrease flow to the bleeding nasal mucosa while avoiding necrosis of the nasal skin and palate mucosa. Embolisation is routinely performed with a microcatheter positioned in the internal maxillary artery distal to the origin of the meningeal arteries. A guiding catheter should be placed in the proximal portion of the ECA to avoid vasospasm. Embolisation with microparticles is halted when the peripheral branches of the sphenopalatine artery are occluded. The use of coils is not recommended because recurrent epistaxis may occur due to proximal embolization; moreover, the option of repeat distal embolisation is lost. The success rate of embolisation therapy (accounting for late recurrence of bleeding) varies between 71 and 94 %. Results from endoscopic surgery are quite comparable. When epistaxis is refractory to nasal packing or endoscopic surgery, embolisation is the treatment of choice in some centres.

  20. [Utility of the surgical treatment for severe epistaxis by endoscopic approach of sphenopalatine and ethmoidal arteries].

    PubMed

    Rejas Ugena, E; Trinidad Ruiz, G; Alvarez Domínguez, J; Carrasco Claver, F; Pino Rivero, V; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the treatments used for controlling epistaxis, particularly compared with the surgical endoscopic ligation or cauterization of sphenopalatine (SP) and anterior ethmoid (AE) arteries, a intervention prospective-retrospective study is presented with the aim of assessing the feasibility of these surgical techniques as an alternative to conventional treatments. 184 consecutive patients admitted in the ENT ward between the years 1997 and 2005 were included in the study, and distributed into three groups depending on the last treatment applied to control their bleeding: AP group.- anterior packing (n=98); PP group.- posterior packing (n=66), and ES group.- endoscopic ligation and/or cauterization of SP or AE (n=20). Highly significant differences were found between the groups, not only regarding the efficacy (90% for surgical treatment compared with 41.3% for AP and 63.1% for PP), but also the length of postreatment hospital stay (AP.- 4.92 days; PP.- 6.3 days; ES.- 2.15 days). The lack of efficacy of conventional treatment and the increasing risk factors that condition nasal bleeding, together with the advance of endoscopic and anesthesic procedures have brought along the possibility of a surgical solution for these patients. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of these techniques as alternative for nasal packing in the treatment of posterior epistaxis, and even its ethical and economical convenience as a substitutive to posterior packing.

  1. Chapter 3: Epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Raymond; Sacks, Peta-Lee; Chandra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem that may range in severity from a minor nuisance to hemodynamically significant bleeding. Vascular anatomy allows for predictable identification of suspicious bleeding sites. Historically, packing was the workhorse of management, but, currently, more directed interventions have become available. These modalities may result in improvements in both cost-effectiveness and patient comfort.

  2. Anterior epistaxis: a new nasal tampon for fast, effective control.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D E

    1986-03-01

    Epistaxis is the second most common cause of spontaneous bleeding. Of the two categories of epistaxis, mundane and severe, the mundane, usually anterior epistaxis, is the more common. It has been reported that 60% of individuals report at least one episode of epistaxis during their lifetime. Eighty percent of epistaxis occurs in Kiesselbach's plexus, a vascular network in the anterior portion of the nasal septum. We have designed a nasal tampon to control this common variety of epistaxis which is a fast, efficient, and cost-effective method of anterior epistaxis control. The material used in the manufacture of the device (MerocelTM) has been used for over 5 years by the author, both in treatment of severe epistaxis and as a postoperative nasal packing. The design presented here has been used for anterior epistaxis for 18 months without untoward sequelae and with universal success.

  3. Diode laser coagulation for the treatment of epistaxis in a Scottish fold cat

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takuma; Madarame, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoko; Kanai, Eiichi; Ito, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old, castrated 4.2-kg Scottish fold cat with recurrent epistaxis that was unresponsive to medical therapy. Diathermocoagulation of the nasal mucosa with a diode laser controlled the epistaxis and there was no significant recurrence of epistaxis during 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26130838

  4. Diode laser coagulation for the treatment of epistaxis in a Scottish fold cat.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takuma; Madarame, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoko; Kanai, Eiichi; Ito, Tetsuro

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old, castrated 4.2-kg Scottish fold cat with recurrent epistaxis that was unresponsive to medical therapy. Diathermocoagulation of the nasal mucosa with a diode laser controlled the epistaxis and there was no significant recurrence of epistaxis during 1 year of follow-up.

  5. An outcomes analysis of anterior epistaxis management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Newton, E; Lasso, A; Petrcich, W; Kilty, S J

    2016-04-11

    Many treatment options exist for the management of anterior epistaxis. However, little is known about treatment outcomes. The objective was to identify the currently utilised methods of management and outcomes for patients with anterior epistaxis presenting to the emergency department (ED) at a Canadian tertiary care center. A retrospective review of ED visits from January 2012-May 2014 for adult patients with a diagnosis of anterior epistaxis was performed. Patient demographic data, comorbidities, and treatment methods were documented. The effectiveness of different treatment modalities was determined. Three hundred fifty-three primary anterior epistaxis cases were included. Mean patient age was 70 years and 49% of patients were female. Comorbidities included hypertension (56%), diabetes (19%), CAD (28%), and atrial fibrillation (27%). A large proportion of the cohort (61%) was on at least one anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. The most common utilised treatment modalities were silver nitrate cauterization, Merocel®, petroleum gauze packing, nasal clip and 15% were simply observed. Initial treatment success was achieved in 74% of cases. Of patients receiving specific treatment modalities, silver nitrate cauterization had the highest success rate at 80%. 26% of patients returned to the ED for recurrence of epistaxis with highest rates occurring in the nasal clip (59%), Merocel® (26%), and petroleum gauze packing (42%) groups. The differences in recurrence rate among the different treatment modalities observed may be due to true differences in effectiveness or differences in treatment selection by the ED physicians based on severity of epistaxis. Cauterization with silver nitrate, however, offers the added benefit of no need for follow up. Further study is needed to elucidate the most efficacious treatment modality based on epistaxis severity.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disruptive behavior disorders are risk factors for recurrent epistaxis in children: A prospective case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Aksu, Hatice; Gürbüz-Özgür, Börte; Başak, Hatice Sema; Eskiizmir, Görkem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other disruptive behavior disorders in children with recurrent epistaxis (RE). Children aged between 6-11 years were enrolled according to presence (n=34) and absence (n=103) of RE. Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale was applied to parents. Moreover, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version was performed. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and ADHD were determined in 17.6% and 32.4% of patients, respectively. When psychiatric diagnoses between both groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found in terms of ADHD and ODD (p=0.028 and p=0.003). In children with RE, the frequency of ADHD and ODD are higher than children without RE. A referral to a child psychiatrist should be considered, if a child with RE also has symptoms of increased activity, inattention and/or body-injurious behaviors.

  7. Superselective microcoil embolization in severe intractable epistaxis: an analysis of 12 consecutive cases from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view.

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Remmert, S; Brassel, F; Schlunz-Hendann, M; Meila, D

    2015-11-01

    From 2006 to 2013, 12 patients with severe epistaxis refractory to prior conservative and surgical therapy were treated by superselective embolization of nasal arteries. Supersoft platinum microcoils with smallest diameters were used as the sole embolic agent in all cases. Coils were applied far distally in a stretched position for obtaining ideal target vessel superselectivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate efficacy and complications of superselective coil embolization for treatment of severe intractable epistaxis and to discuss results from an otorhinolaryngologic and an interventional neuroradiologic point of view. Retrospectively, all epistaxis inpatients between 2006 and 2013 were identified and subdivided by form of treatment: conservative, surgical and interventional therapy. Medical records of interventionally treated patients were reviewed for demographics, medical history, risk factors, clinical data, complications and short-term success, and patients were followed up for long-term success. Mean follow-up was 37 months. In 12 patients, 14 embolizations were carried out, with short-term success in 9 patients (75%), while early post-interventional rebleeding occurred in 3 patients (25%). Of 9 patients with short-term success, 1 died during stay, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 had minor re-bleeding after 30 months. Six patients had short-term and long-term success. Before the first embolization, 3 ± 1 conservative and/or surgical procedures had been undertaken. Length of stay was 12.8 ± 3.6 days. 8 patients (67%) received red cell concentrates. Most frequent complications were mucosal damage and nasal pain, but these were related to repeated packing and surgery. Typical embolic complications as neurological or visual impairment or soft tissue necrosis were not observed in any patient. From the otorhinolaryngologic point of view, surgery is the treatment of choice in severe refractory epistaxis, but in case of repeated failure, superselective

  8. Intractable epistaxis due to isolated primary telangiectasias.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Timothy; Loehrl, Todd A; Hunt, Bryan C; Poetker, David M

    2014-02-01

    Epistaxis is the most common otolaryngologic emergency in the United States. Most cases are controlled with first-line measures, but intractable epistaxis can be a challenging clinical problem requiring posterior nasal packing and surgical or endovascular intervention. Bleeding from nasal telangiectasias is well known in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, but there are no reports in the literature of recurrent epistaxis due to isolated telangiectasias not associated with systemic disease. This report describes a series of cases in which intractable epistaxis due to isolated primary telangiectasias was effectively controlled with bipolar electrosurgery. We describe a patient with intractable epistaxis that had failed management with posterior packing and embolization. We also report a series of 16 cases of epistaxis, 6 of which were intractable, in adults without hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia who received treatment between 2009 and 2012. These cases reveal a common pattern of bleeding from telangiectasias on the anterior septum (8 cases [42%]), nasal sidewall (3 [16%]), inferior meatus (2 [10%]), posterior septum (2 [10%]), nasal floor (2 [10%]), middle turbinate (1 [5%]), and inferior turbinate (1 [5%]). Telangiectasias not associated with systemic disease are a previously unreported source of significant nasal bleeding that, when identified endoscopically, can be treated successfully with bipolar electrosurgery rather than with more invasive and costly surgical and endovascular measures.

  9. Fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Ankur; George, Ajith; Pfleiderer, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 63‐year‐old woman who presented to the emergency department with epistaxis and haemodynamic instability is reported. Subsequent investigation showed renal failure and multiple pulmonary nodules. A positive proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test supported the diagnosis of fulminant Wegener's granulomatosis, requiring urgent dialysis, plasma exchange and immunosuppression. This is the first report in the emergency literature of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting as acute epistaxis. Emergency physicians should consider Wegener's granulomatosis in patients with atypical epistaxis. In patients presenting with clinically severe, active disease early proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody testing is recommended. PMID:17351208

  10. Epistaxis as a Common Presenting Symptom of Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia, a Rare Qualitative Platelet Disorder: Illustrative Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Chitlur, Meera; Lam, Derek; Sarnaik, Syana; Rajpurkar, Madhvi; Cooper, David L.; Gunawardena, Sriya

    2017-01-01

    Children often present to emergency departments (EDs) with uncontrollable nose bleeding. Although usually due to benign etiologies, epistaxis may be the presenting symptom of an inherited bleeding disorder. Whereas most bleeding disorders are detected through standard hematologic assessments, diagnosing rare platelet function disorders may be challenging. Here we present two case reports and review diagnostic and management challenges of platelet function disorders with a focus on Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT). Patient 1 was a 4-year-old boy with uncontrolled epistaxis. His medical history included frequent and easy bruising. Previous laboratory evaluation revealed only mild microcytic anemia. An otolaryngologist stopped the bleeding, and referral to a pediatric hematologist led to the definitive diagnosis of GT. Patient 2 was a 2.5-year-old girl with severe epistaxis and a history of milder recurrent epistaxis. She had a bruise on her abdomen with a palpable hematoma and many scattered petechiae. Previous assessments revealed no demonstrable hemostatic anomalies. Platelet aggregation studies were performed following referral to a pediatric hematologist, leading to the diagnosis of GT. As evidenced by these cases, the ED physician may often be the first to evaluate severe or recurrent epistaxis and should recognize indications for coagulation testing and hematology consultation/referral for advanced hematologic assessments. PMID:28299211

  11. [Epistaxis in Rendu-Weber-Osler disease. The role of brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Turcato, G; Pizzi, G B; Polico, R; Antonello, M; Busetto, M

    1996-12-01

    Rendu-Weber-Osler disease is a rare autosomic disorder. Its most common symptom is epistaxis with transitory periods of remission and of ingravescent exacerbation compromising normal daily activities and forcing the patient to give up his normal life-style for prolonged periods of time. Often it proves difficult to control the recurrent epistaxis and the treatments available today are not always totally satisfactory. The authors present the results obtained using endonasal brachytherapy in 8 patients (13 treatments) epistaxis stemming from previously diagnosed Rendu-Weber-Osler disease. Brachytherapy employs thin plastic tubes, positioned in the nostril with the heaviest epistaxis. These tubes are then filled with Iridum192. The total dose, prescribed against the reference isodose, strictly adjacent to the nasal fossae mucosa, was 30 Gy over a period ranging from two to four days (average 2.5 days). Four patients required a second treatment to the controlateral nostril as the symptoms returned after a period ranging from 36 to 60 months (average 47.1 months). Only one patient required a second treatment in the same nostril 9 years later. The episodes of epistaxis were scored by symptom severity on a scale from 0 to 5. Of the 13 treatments administered (mono and bilateral treatments), 12 can be considered satisfactory as the epistaxis was reduced from the initial pre-treatment score of 4-5 to 2 or less (5 were reduced to 0, 3 to 1 and 4 to 2). In only 1 case was the score 3. Remission of symptoms lasted for a period ranging from 11 to 108 months with an average of 51.6 months. No complications arose from the use of brachytherapy. Only one patient required embolization 3 years after the endonasal brachytherapy treatment.

  12. [Indications for selective arterial embolization in the treatment of epistaxis].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, M; Marina, R; Sordo, L; Gaini, R M

    2000-10-01

    After posterior packing has failed, the treatment of choice for severe, recurrent posterior epistaxis is arterial ligature, usually through a transantral approach to the Internal Maxillary artery (LTA) or selective percutaneous embolization (EP). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed by various Authors. A critical review of the literature brings to light the discrepancies between the results of various studies: in a series by Strong et al. and in a review of the literature EP proved more effective than LTA (90-94% vs. 85-89%). On the contrary, using personal data Cullen and Tami reported that the results are analogous. As regards complications, these proved slightly more frequent, but minor, with LTA while the rare complications with EP were more serious. The per-patient costs fundamentally depend on the type of hospital management and the availability of a treatment center; the results of the various studies are not analogous in this regard. The specific indications for the choice of which technique to use include: LTA: ethmoid artery hemorrhage, severe arteriosclerosis of the carotid compartment and allergy to the contrast medium; EP: cardiovascular instability, severe anemia and all conditions which are contraindications for general anesthesia. In the cases studied by the Authors, of the total 203 patients admitted to hospital for posterior epistaxis between May 1995 and November 1999, 12 (5.9%; on the average 2.6 pt/yr) showed values lower than those found at other Centers. A total of 13 EP procedures were performed and the result was positive (stopping the hemorrhage) in 11 (91.7%). In one post-traumatic case there was a recurrence which could not be controlled by EP and thus the Authors resorted to surgical ligature. All the patients underwent fibroscopy after the posterior packing was removed and before establishing the indications for EP. A full 50% of the patients treated showed arterial hypertension and in all patients except

  13. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    QUESTION A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? ANSWER The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur. PMID:17279232

  14. Epistaxis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nasal vestibule: is it a cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Seckin; Babaoglu, Gulcin; Catli, Tolgahan; San, Turhan; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between epistaxis and nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus in a population of patients with recurrent epistaxis. A total of 361 men and women were recruited, 245 patients with epistaxis (114 had crusting in the nasal vestibule; 131 did not) and 116 control subjects. A microbiology swab was taken from the anterior nasal cavity of each subject. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be more common in the epistaxis group when compared with the control group with a percentage of 31.8% and 4.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the prevalence of S. aureus between the crust and non-crust groups (P > 0.05). When positive cultures were grouped and compared according to season, it was observed that the positive culture with epistaxis was much higher (44.82 %) in the autumn period. Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nasal vestibule is more likely to be observed in individuals who have recurrent epistaxis than in those who do not have. It seems that this colonization may have a role in the etiology of epistaxis. However, with an altered medium of the nasal vestibule after each epistaxis period, it is also possible to speculate that this colonization is may be the consequence of epistaxis itself.

  15. Outcomes analysis in epistaxis management: development of a therapeutic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Shargorodsky, Josef; Bleier, Benjamin S; Holbrook, Eric H; Cohen, Jeffrey M; Busaba, Nicolas; Metson, Ralph; Gray, Stacey T

    2013-09-01

    This study explored the outcomes of epistaxis treatment modalities to optimize management and enable the development of a therapeutic algorithm. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care hospital. Adult patients presenting between 2005 and 2011 with epistaxis underwent cauterization, tamponade, and/or proximal vascular control. Outcomes of treatment modalities were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for coagulopathy, hypertension, and bleeding site. The population included 147 patients (94 men, 53 women). For initial epistaxis, nondissolvable packing demonstrated the highest initial treatment failure rate of 57.4% (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.33-8.59 compared with cautery). No significant differences were noted among initial posterior epistaxis treatment modalities. Length of nondissolvable pack placement for 3, 4, or 5 days had no significant impact on recurrence. Among patients who failed initial management, those who next underwent cautery or proximal vascular control required a significantly shorter inpatient stay of 5.3 vs 6.8 days compared with those who underwent packing (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.68). There were no treatment failures following surgical arterial ligation. Initial management of anterior epistaxis with chemical cautery had a higher success rate and a lower number of total required interventions than did nondissolvable packing. Duration of packing did not affect recurrence. In patients who failed initially, progression to cautery or proximal vascular control led to significantly shorter inpatient stays than did packing.

  16. Evidence-based management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Syed, I; Sunkaraneni, V S

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no guidelines in the UK for the specific management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The authors aimed to review the literature and provide an algorithm for the management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The Medline and Embase databases were interrogated on 15 November 2013 using the search items 'hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia' (title), 'epistaxis' (title) and 'treatment' (title and abstract), and limiting the search to articles published in English. A total of 46 publications were identified, comprising 1 systematic review, 2 randomised, controlled trials, 27 case series, 9 case reports, 4 questionnaire studies and 3 in vitro studies. There is a lack of high-level evidence for the use of many of the available treatments for the specific management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Current management should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach involving both a hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia physician and an ENT surgeon, especially when systemic therapy is being considered. The suggested treatment algorithm considers that the severity of epistaxis merits intervention at different levels of the treatment ladder. The patient should be assessed using a reproducible validated assessment tool, for example an epistaxis severity score, to guide treatment. More research is required, particularly in the investigation of topical agents targeting the development and fragility of telangiectasiae in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  17. N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Proved Beneficial to Avoid a Nontarget Embolization of the Ophthalmic Artery in Endovascular Management of Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, A.; Gunnarsson, T.; Klurfan, P.; Larrazabal, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Epistaxis is a common disorder affecting equally both genders. Posterior origin of epistaxis in some instances requires endovascular treatment. Anastomoses between external carotid artery and internal carotid or ophthalmic arteries heighten the risk of stroke or blindness, if particles of polyvinyl alcohol are used for embolization. We report a case of 90-year-old man for whom successful embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate glue was performed as an alternative treatment for recurrent epistaxis. PMID:21561554

  18. Heritability of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racehorse population.

    PubMed

    Velie, B D; Raadsma, H W; Wade, C M; Knight, P K; Hamilton, N A

    2014-11-01

    Post exercise epistaxis, the manifestation of a severe form of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), has been observed in many equine racing populations. Although multiple analyses have suggested that non-genetic factors may lead to the development of this condition, relatively little consensus has been reached regarding its genetic aetiology. The objective of this study was to provide insight into both genetic and non-genetic factors that may contribute to the expression of epistaxis in the Australian Thoroughbred racing population. Racing records and reported epistaxis occurrences were acquired for 117,088 horses entered in races and official barrier trials from 1 August 2000 until 22 February 2011. Heritability was estimated using two different logistic generalised linear mixed models (lifetime epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.27 and individual race epistaxis risk h(2) = 0.50). Sex, age, and year of birth were shown to be significant; however, trainer, jockey, race distance, condition of the track (i.e. 'going'), racecourse, track surface, number of race starters, year and month of race were not significant. Evidence suggests genetic and non-genetic links to EIPH expressed as epistaxis.

  19. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). Epistaxis and high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Michel, J; Prulière Escabasse, V; Bequignon, E; Vérillaud, B; Robard, L; Crampette, L; Malard, O

    2017-02-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) on epistaxis in high blood pressure. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. It is recommended to measure the blood pressure of patients in acute-phase epistaxis (Grade A); to control high blood pressure medically in the acute phase of bleeding, to reduce its duration; to monitor blood pressure at the waning of nosebleed; and to control high blood pressure medically in the waning phase to reduce the risk of recurrence. In case of persistent high blood pressure on waning of severe epistaxis, it is recommended to prescribe cardiovascular evaluation to screen for underlying hypertensive disease (Grade B). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Lidocaine Toxicity During Attempted Epistaxis Cautery.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Elizabeth; Thornton, Matthew D

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem that occurs in up to 60% of the general population, and is a common emergency department (ED) complaint. The use of lidocaine for analgesia is common when cauterization is required for bleeds that are refractory to manual compression. Although the use of lidocaine is generally thought of as a benign intervention, it is not completely without risk. We present the case of a 19-year-old man who presented to the ED with persistent anterior epistaxis. He developed severe lidocaine toxicity resulting from topical anesthesia applied prior to intranasal cautery for the epistaxis. This toxicity, which manifested as seizures, bradycardia, hypotension, nausea, and emesis, was rapidly recognized and appropriately treated, with a good clinical outcome for the patient. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of the potential complications of the intranasal use of topical lidocaine, something that is generally considered a benign intervention. We also discuss the pathophysiology and management of lidocaine toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Çetinkol, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Hakan; Batmaz, Timur

    2016-03-01

    Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly.

  2. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Çetinkol, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Hakan; Batmaz, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Conclusion: Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly. PMID:27403392

  3. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a) Identification. An epistaxis balloon is a device consisting of an inflatable balloon intended to control...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4100 - Epistaxis balloon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epistaxis balloon. 874.4100 Section 874.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4100 Epistaxis balloon. (a)...

  8. Microcatheter Embolization of Intractable Idiopathic Epistaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Leppaenen, Martti; Seppaenen, Seppo; Laranne, Jussi; Kuoppala, Katriina

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of microcatheter embolization in the treatment of intractable idiopathic epistaxis. Methods: Thirty-seven patients underwent microcatheter embolization in 1991-1998. We evaluated retrospectively the technical and clinical outcome, the number of complications, the duration of embolization in each case, and the number of blood transfusions needed. All embolizations were done with biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) equipment. The procedure was carried out under local anesthesia using transfemoral catheterization, except in one case where the translumbar route was used. Tracker 18 or 10 microcatheters were advanced as far as possible to the distal branches of the sphenopalatine artery. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles were used for embolization in most cases, while platinum coils or a combination of these two materials were occasionally used. The primary outcome was always assessed immediately by angiography. Follow-up data were obtained from patient records, by interviewing patients on the telephone or by postal questionnaires when necessary. The mean follow-up time was 21 months. Results: The embolization was technically successful in all 37 cases. A curative outcome was achieved in 33 cases (89%). The mean duration of the procedure was 110 min. Four patients (8%) had mild transient complications, but no severe or persistent complications were encountered. Twenty-three patients needed a blood transfusion. Slight rebleeding occurred in three patients during the follow-up; all responded to conservative treatment. One patient suffered two episodes of rebleeding within 2 months after primary embolization. Re-embolizations successfully stopped the bleeding. Conclusion: Embolization is the primary invasive modality for treating intractable idiopathic epistaxis. It proved both safe and effective over a relatively long follow-up.

  9. Aciduric Microbiota and Mutans Streptococci in Severe and Recurrent Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher V.; Dahlan, Mohammed; Papadopolou, Eleftheria; Kent, Ralph L.; Loo, Cheen Y.; Pradhan, Nooruddin S.; Lu, Shulin C.; Bravoco, Alexandra; Mathney, Jennifer M.J.; Tanner, Anne C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The current study determined Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and acid-tolerant counts in severe-ECC. Methods Children (2–6 years) with severe-ECC (n=77) or who were caries-free (n=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries. Results Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus counts and proportions of S. mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower post treatment than pre-treatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy. Conclusions We conclude that severe and recurrent ECC were better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. S. mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries. PMID:22583872

  10. Eyelash resection procedure for severe, recurrent, or segmental cicatricial entropion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert Y; Thakker, Manoj M; Wladis, Edward J; Weinberg, David A

    2010-01-01

    To study the safety, efficacy, and cosmetic outcome of the eyelash resection procedure for treatment of severe, recurrent, or segmental cicatricial entropion. Retrospective consecutive case series of patients with severe, recurrent, or segmental cicatricial entropion treated with eyelash resection at the Moran Eye Center and the University of Vermont. Investigators performed chart reviews of these patients and evaluated effectiveness of the treatment and outcome data, including age, gender, diagnoses, method of repair, recurrence of trichiasis, and cosmetic satisfaction. There were no exclusionary characteristics specified in the study. A total of 26 eyelids were operated on in 5 male and 11 female patients. The mean age was 74 years, with the following diagnoses: idiopathic (6), ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (2), postoperative (2), ocular pseudopemphigoid (drug related) (1), graft-versus-host disease (1), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (1), trachoma (1), linear IgA bullous dermatosis (1), and trauma (1). Mean postoperative follow-up was 13 months. The functional success rate was 90.5%, and the cosmetic success rate was 100%. The eyelash resection procedure is a safe, effective, and cosmetically acceptable procedure for treatment of severe, recurrent, or segmental cicatricial entropion.

  11. Changing Trends in the Management of Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Traboulsi, Henri; Alam, Elie; Hadi, Usamah

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis is a very common complaint seen by many types of physicians including otolaryngologists, family physicians, and others. Management of epistaxis is often challenging and requires many types of intervention. The following review describes the different types of past and current treatment modalities including cautery, nasal packing, maxillary artery ligation, anterior artery ligation, and sphenopalatine artery ligation. The paper also proposes an algorithm for managing such cases. PMID:26351457

  12. Changing Trends in the Management of Epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Henri; Alam, Elie; Hadi, Usamah

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis is a very common complaint seen by many types of physicians including otolaryngologists, family physicians, and others. Management of epistaxis is often challenging and requires many types of intervention. The following review describes the different types of past and current treatment modalities including cautery, nasal packing, maxillary artery ligation, anterior artery ligation, and sphenopalatine artery ligation. The paper also proposes an algorithm for managing such cases.

  13. Outcomes of recalcitrant idiopathic epistaxis in children: Septoplasty as a surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Levi, Jessica M; McKee-Cole, Katherine M; Barth, Patrick C; Brody, Robert M; Reilly, James S

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to measure short- and long-term outcomes of children presenting with recalcitrant idiopathic epistaxis. The study was an 11-year (2000-2011) retrospective chart review of children evaluated and treated for epistaxis. A retrospective review of patients with diagnostic International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 784.7 (epistaxis) and 21.5/21.88 (septoplasty) was completed reviewing age at presentation, type of surgery, and number of bleeding events prior to and after surgery. In our cohort, almost 100% of children with idiopathic recurrent epistaxis responded to topical treatments. About 0.2% were refractory (20/9239), and 90% of those (18/20) resolved with either a traditional septoplasty (14/20) or modified septoplasty (6/20) without cartilage excision, with a mean follow-up of 35 months. One of the patients who did not show resolution was found to have Von Willebrand disease, which likely contributed to this outcome. Septoplasty surgery, with or without cartilage removal, appears beneficial for refractory idiopathic epistaxis in children.

  14. Endovascular management of a carotid aneurysm into the sphenoid sinus presenting with epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gascou, Grégory; Trévillot, Vincent; Bonafé, Alain; Crampette, Louis; Machi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-traumatic cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are rare, and favour the occurrence of massive recurrent epistaxis, which is associated with a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 67-year-old woman presenting a ruptured ICA aneurysm extending into the sphenoid sinus, revealed by epistaxis. Selective coil embolization of the aneurysm was performed. Flow-diverter stents were deployed in order to utterly exclude the aneurysm and prevent revascularization. Anti-platelet treatment was provided to lower the risk of in-stent thrombosis. A left frontal hematoma associated with a subarachnoid haemorrhage occurred at day 2. Outcome was favourable with no neurological sequelae, and no clinical recurrence of epistaxis occurred. A 4 months follow-up digital subtraction angiography showed a complete exclusion of the aneurysm. In addition, a magnetic resonance cerebral angiography at 16 months showed stable results. Thus, this two-stage endovascular procedure has proven its effectiveness in preventing epistaxis recurrence while preserving the ICA patency. PMID:26494406

  15. Management of Epistaxis - A Single Centre Experience and Economic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Keane, E; Subramaniam, T; Khan, A H; Patil, N

    2016-06-10

    Epistaxis represents the most common ENT emergency and its management has been a focus of audit recently, with consideration given to the associated economic burden. The aim of our study is to evaluate the management of epistaxis in terms of treatments used, duration of stay, recurrence and cost. A retrospective review of hospital inpatient enquiry (HIPE) data from a single secondary referral centre was undertaken during a four year period. Four hundrefd and thirty-four patients were identified. The majority (n= 262, 60.3%) were male and the average age was 64.2 years. The vast majority (n=362, 83.4%) were managed non-operatively. Only 15 patients (3.4%) were managed surgically. The average length of stay was 2.5 days and did not vary greatly between the treatment groups. The recurrence rate was 8.2% (n=36). Approximate costs of packing vs EUA and cautery suggest that packing alone is more economical but more data is needed to fully compare the options.

  16. Severe cochlear dysplasia causing recurrent meningitis: a surgical lesson.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Proops, D W; Phelps, P D

    1993-08-01

    Meningitis may be the sole presenting sign of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula of the temporal bone. An eight-year-old boy suffering from recurrent meningitis was found to have bilateral severe cochlear dysplasia. Bilateral tympanotomies were performed, planning to obliterate each vestibule. In the right ear a stapedectomy was performed, resulting in a torrential 'CSF gusher' and difficulty in packing the vestibule. CSF rhinorrhoea requiring revision surgery and two episodes of gram-negative bacterial meningitis complicated the post-operative management, resulting in a prolonged hospital stay. Subsequently, the left ear was managed in a different fashion, leaving the stapes in situ, with grafts placed to seal the oval window niche. We would recommend this alternative procedure in cases of severe cochlear dysplasia, where abnormalities of the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea mean that performing a stapedectomy to pack the vestibule may result in a severe 'CSF gusher', by opening directly into the subarachnoid space.

  17. Embolization for the treatment of intractable epistaxis: 12 month outcomes in a two centre case series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Anthony E; McAuliffe, William; Phillips, Timothy J; Phatouros, Constantine C; Singh, Tejinder P

    2017-10-03

    Embolization is a treatment option for intractable epistaxis, however concerns regarding tissue necrosis, stroke and blindness persist in the literature. A retrospective review of patients from September 2010 - January 2016 treated with embolization for epistaxis was performed. No patient was excluded. Followup was 12 months and no patient was lost. 62 embolizations on 59 patients occurred. 21 cases were taking anticoagulants, P2Y12 inhibiting agents or had a systemic coagulopathy. Embolized territories typically involved bilateral distal internal maxillary arteries with unilateral or bilateral facial arteries with polyvinyl alcohol particles. 60 cases had procedural general anesthesia. There were no major complications. 6 died of unrelated causes. Of the surviving 53 patients, excluding the 3 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, 5 had recurrent epistaxis post embolization. Four were taking P2Y12 inhibiting and/or anticoagulants, none of which required surgery, prolonged packing or repeat embolization. This group had a propensity to recur compared to cases taking aspirin only or no antiplatelet/anticoagulant (77.8% vs 97.1%, p=0.04). The fifth underwent repeat embolization after previously only having ipsilateral distal internal maxillary and facial arteries treated. Embolization for epistaxis is safe and effective. Of those who had recurrent epistaxis post embolization, most were taking P2Y12 inhibition and/or anticoagulation. We prefer bilateral distal internal maxillary artery and unilateral facial artery embolization under general anesthesia for optimal safety and efficacy. Advances in knowledge: Embolization with this technique seems to facilitate superior outcomes without complications despite the large proportion of patients taking anticoagulating or P2Y12 inhibiting agents.

  18. Acute and recurrent herpes simplex in several strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Harbour, D A; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A

    1981-07-01

    Acute and recurrent herpes simplex was studied after infection in the ear of two outbred and five inbred strains of mice. In all strains tested there was clinical evidence of infection, and a proportion of the mice became latently infected in the cervical ganglia. Six weeks after infection, when attempts were made to induce recurrent desease by stripping the ears of the mice with cellophange tape, a proportion of animals of each strain developed recurrent disease, characterized by erythema in the skin. At monthly intervals thereafter, the ears were stripped again and, on each occasion, a proportion of the animals developed recurrent disease, with the exception of Balb/c mice. The different reaction of Balb/c and other inbred strains might prove useful in studies on the mechanism of control of recurrent herpes simplex.

  19. Role of season, temperature and humidity on the incidence of epistaxis in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classical dogma holds that epistaxis is more common in winter months but there is significant variability reported in the literature. No study has yet examined the effect of season, humidity and temperature on epistaxis in a location with as severe weather extremes as seen in Alberta, Canada. The objective of the study is to evaluate for an effect of these meteorological factors on the incidence of epistaxis in Alberta. Method A retrospective review of consecutive adult patients presenting to the Emergency room (ER) in Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta over a three-year period was performed. Daily temperature and humidity data was recorded from the respective airports. Statistical analysis with Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed. Results 4315 patients presented during the study period. Mean daily temperatures ranged from a low of -40°C to a high of +23°C. A significant negative correlation was found for mean monthly temperature with epistaxis (Pearson’s r = -0.835, p = 0.001). A significant correlation was also present for daily temperature and epistaxis presentation (Pearson’s r = -0.55, p = 0.018, range 1.8 to 2.2 events/day). No correlation was identified with humidity and no significant seasonal variation was present. Conclusions A negative correlation was found to exist for both daily and mean monthly temperature with rates of epistaxis. A seasonal variation was seen in Edmonton but not in Calgary. No correlation was found for humidity when compared to both presentation rates and admissions. PMID:24755112

  20. Licorice-induced severe hypokalemia with recurrent torsade de pointes.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Rawahi, Najib

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old obese woman presented with recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to persistent hypokalemia necessitating more than 40 DC shocks. All endocrine investigations for hypokalemia were negative with impression of "mysterious hypokalemia." On repeated inquiry, a hidden history of licorice use was elicited causing persistent hypokalemia. The case highlights a life threatening complication of licorice use. In addition, it reiterates the importance of repeated history taking in a patient with undiagnosed hypokalemia and torsade de pointes which avoided a device therapy.

  1. Comparison of Local Sclerotherapy With Lauromacrogol Versus Nasal Packing in the Treatment of Anterior Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Farneti, Paolo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Sciarretta, Vittorio; Macrì, Giovanni; Gramellini, Giulia; Pirodda, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epistaxis is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic emergencies representing more than 12% of conditions managed at the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Emergency Consulting Room of our Otorhinolaryngologic Unit each year. The elevated frequency of this pathology makes it necessary to adopt the most effective and least expensive therapeutic strategy available. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, costs and morbidity of nasal packing (NP), which is the mainstay of treatment for anterior epistaxis in our ENT Emergency Consulting Room versus submucosal infiltrations of lauromacrogol (LA). Methods A retrospective study was designed from August 2012 to April 2013 involving 53 patients suffering from anterior epistaxis. Anterior NP was used in 27 patients versus 26 patients undergoing 27 procedures performed with submucosal infiltrations of LA (or polidocanol). Outcomes for each treatment were evaluated. Patients in group 1 were treated with LA 400 injection next to the bleeding point: 0.5- to 1-mL single or multiple infiltrations with a 27-gauge needle. The whitening of the nasal mucosa around the bleeding point during infiltration was considered a marker of correct procedure in order to achieve the best results. Bilateral treatment was also performed at the same time. Patients in group 2 were treated with standard NP. Results Bleeding recurrence was higher in the NP group even if it was not statistically significant (P=0.2935). However, the LA infiltrations were better tolerated with lower morbidity and costs as compared to NP. No complications were observed in either group. Conclusion LA infiltrations were shown to be a viable alternative in anterior epistaxis treatment. They are safe, easy to use with good efficacy and have a low cost. PMID:27090277

  2. A styletted tracheal tube with a posterior-facing bevel reduces epistaxis during nasal intubation: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kazuna; Manabe, Yozo; Kohjitani, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Epistaxis is a common complication of nasal intubation. Ease of insertion of the tracheal tube may be influenced by bevel orientation and tip bending. We examined ease of insertion and epistaxis with two tubes with different orientations and with or without a stylet to modify tip bending. Two hundred patients scheduled to undergo oral or maxillofacial surgery were randomized into four groups according to method of nasal intubation used after induction of anesthesia. In one group, a Portex(®) tracheal tube was inserted with bevel facing left (Portex Group). In the second group, a Parker Flex-Tip(®) tube (Parker Group) was inserted with the bevel facing posteriorly, and in the last two groups, a stylet bent at 60° anteriorly was used with the Portex tube (Stylet-Portex Group) or Parker tube (Stylet-Parker Group). When the tube advanced without resistance, insertion was defined as "smooth", and when resistance was encountered, insertion was defined as "impinged". Severity of epistaxis was evaluated as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Smooth insertion was observed in 60% of patients in the Portex Group; 80% in the Parker Group; 100% in the Stylet-Portex Group; and 100% in the Stylet-Parker Group. Epistaxis was found in 50%, 24%, 20%, and 4% of patients, respectively. The styletted tip (difference: 30%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3 to 38.5; P < 0.0001) was found to improve ease of insertion. Both the posterior-facing bevel (difference: 21%; 95% CI: 9.0 to 32.1; P = 0.0005) and stylet (difference: 25%; 95% CI: 13.1 to 35.9; P < 0.0001) contributed significantly to absence of epistaxis. Using a styletted tracheal tube with a posterior-facing bevel improves ease of insertion through the nasopharynx and decreases the severity of epistaxis during nasal intubation. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), UMIN000011327.

  3. Epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation: a randomized trial of the Parker Flex-Tip™ nasal endotracheal tube with a posterior facing bevel versus a standard nasal RAE endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Earle, Rosie; Shanahan, Enda; Vaghadia, Himat; Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Nasotracheal intubation is a widely performed technique to facilitate anesthesia induction during oral, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries. The technique poses several risks not encountered with oropharyngeal intubation, most commonly epistaxis due to nasal mucosal abrasion. The purpose of this study was to test whether the use of the Parker Flex-Tip™ (PFT) nasal endotracheal tube (ETT) with a posterior facing bevel reduces epistaxis when compared with the standard nasal RAE ETT with a leftward facing bevel. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients undergoing oral or maxillofacial surgery with nasotracheal intubation were recruited. Patients were randomized to either a standard nasal RAE ETT or a PFT nasal ETT. The ETT was thermosoftened and lubricated for both study groups prior to insertion, and the size of the tube was chosen at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologist. The primary outcome was the incidence of epistaxis, with a secondary outcome of epistaxis severity (scored as none, mild, moderate, or severe). An investigator measured both outcomes five minutes after intubation was completed. Mild or moderate epistaxis was experienced by 22 of 30 (73%) patients in the PFT group compared with 21 of 30 (70%) patients in the standard nasal RAE ETT group (absolute risk reduction, 3%; 95% confidence interval, -19 to 25; P = 0.78). There were no occurrences of severe epistaxis in either group. There was no difference in the incidence or severity of epistaxis following nasal intubation using the Parker Flex-Tip nasal ETT when compared with a standard nasal RAE ETT. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02315677.

  4. Incident and recurrent major depressive disorder and coronary artery disease severity in acute coronary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jeanne; Shimbo, Daichi; Haas, Donald C; Davidson, Karina W; Rieckmann, Nina

    2008-07-01

    There is recent evidence that acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with first time incident major depressive disorder (MDD) and those with recurrent MDD represent different subtypes among individuals with ACS and comorbid depression. However, few studies have examined whether or not these subtypes differ in coronary artery disease (CAD) severity. We assessed whether those with incident MDD (in-hospital MDD and negative for history of MDD) or recurrent MDD (in-hospital MDD and a positive history of MDD) differ in angiographically documented CAD severity. Within 1 week of admission for ACS, 88 patients completed a clinical interview to assess current and past diagnosis of MDD. CAD severity was assessed in all patients by coronary angiography. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that neither in-hospital MDD status, nor history of MDD were significant predictors of CAD severity, but the interaction term between in-hospital MDD status and history of MDD was a significant predictor of CAD severity, after controlling for age, sex and ethnicity. Follow-up analyses showed that patients with first time, incident MDD had significantly more severe CAD compared to patients with recurrent MDD (p=0.043). To conclude, our study adds to the growing evidence that patients with incident MDD should be considered as a clinically distinct subtype from those with recurrent MDD. Possible mechanisms for differing CAD severity by angiogram between these two subtypes are proposed and implications for prognosis and treatment are discussed.

  5. A systematic review of anti-thrombotic therapy in epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, K M; Powell, J

    2016-12-01

    There is limited guidance available to clinicians regarding the management of antithrombotic therapy during epistaxis, whilst there has been an increase in the use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. In addition, the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban, over the last decade has significantly increased the complexity of managing the anticoagulated epistaxis patient. We undertook a systemic literature review investigating potential management strategies for each class of anti-thrombotic therapy during epistaxis. A PubMED and Cochrane Library search was performed on 10/03/16 using, but not limited to, the search terms epistaxis, nosebleed, nose bleeding, nasal haemorrhage, nasal bleeding AND each of the following search terms: antithrombotic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and tranexamic acid. This yielded 3815 results, of which 29 were considered relevant. Other sources such as national and international guidelines related to the management of anti-thrombotics were also utilised. We present the findings related to the management of each class of anti-thrombotic therapy during epistaxis. Overall we found a lack of evidence regarding this topic and further high quality research is needed. This is an area growing in complexity and the support of colleagues in Haematology and Cardiology is increasingly important.

  6. Predicting recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kron, Irving L; Hung, Judy; Overbey, Jessica R; Bouchard, Denis; Gelijns, Annetine C; Moskowitz, Alan J; Voisine, Pierre; O'Gara, Patrick T; Argenziano, Michael; Michler, Robert E; Gillinov, Marc; Puskas, John D; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael J; Smith, Peter K; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor; Gardner, Timothy J; Ailawadi, Gorav; Zeng, Xin; O'Sullivan, Karen; Parides, Michael K; Swayze, Roger; Thourani, Vinod; Rose, Eric A; Perrault, Louis P; Acker, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network recently reported no difference in the primary end point of left ventricular end-systolic volume index at 1 year postsurgery in patients randomized to repair (n = 126) or replacement (n = 125) for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation. However, patients undergoing repair experienced significantly more recurrent mitral regurgitation than patients undergoing replacement (32.6% vs 2.3%). We examined whether baseline echocardiographic and clinical characteristics could identify those who will develop moderate/severe recurrent mitral regurgitation or die. Our analysis includes 116 patients who were randomized to and received mitral valve repair. Logistic regression was used to estimate a model-based probability of recurrence or death from baseline factors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed from these estimated probabilities to determine classification cut-points maximizing accuracy of prediction based on sensitivity and specificity. Of the 116 patients, 6 received a replacement before leaving the operating room; all other patients had mild or less mitral regurgitation on intraoperative echocardiogram after repair. During the 2-year follow-up period, 76 patients developed moderate/severe mitral regurgitation or died (53 mitral regurgitation recurrences, 13 mitral regurgitation recurrences and death, and 10 deaths). The mechanism for recurrent mitral regurgitation was largely mitral valve leaflet tethering. Our model (including age, body mass index, sex, race, effective regurgitant orifice area, basal aneurysm/dyskinesis, New York Heart Association class, history of coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, or ventricular arrhythmias) yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. The model demonstrated good discrimination in identifying patients who will survive 2 years without recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair. Although our

  7. Efficacy of ice packs in the management of epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Teymoortash, A; Sesterhenn, A; Kress, R; Sapundzhiev, N; Werner, J A

    2003-12-01

    There are no uniformly accepted criteria for the management of epistaxis. The usefulness of ice application in the treatment of epistaxis as a first aid method is not generally accepted, but is widespread. In order to evaluate the effect of cold application on the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa, their blood flow and blood content were investigated on 56 healthy volunteers before and after exposure to cold in the neck area. Nasal mucosal microcirculatory blood flow was measured directly by non-invasive laser Doppler flowmetry in Kiesselbach's area. Changes in the nasal mucosal blood content were estimated using a conventional computer-aided rhinomanometer by measuring alterations in nasal airflow. After ice application in the neck area, no statistically significant effects on the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa were seen. These results do not support the usefulness of this manoeuvre in the treatment of epistaxis.

  8. Epistaxis: the factors involved in determining medicolegal liability.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohemmed N; Blake, Danielle M; Vazquez, Alejandro; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine litigation involving epistaxis and analyze factors that determine liability. Jury verdicts and settlements regarding cases involving epistaxis were gathered utilizing the Westlaw database. Factors involved in litigation gathered included demographics, defendant specialty, procedure, alleged cause of malpractice, outcome, monetary award, and other variables. A total of 26 cases were analyzed. The majority of cases (57.7%) were decided in favor of the plaintiff or settled out of court. Total awards amounted to $24,501,252. Average awards for cases decided in favor of the plaintiff were $2,260,893 and ranged from $499,845 to $9,022,643. Settlements averaged $1,084,375 and ranged from $300,000 to $3,800,000. Common causes of malpractice encountered included delay in diagnosis, complications from medical procedures, and failure to recognize complications in a timely manner. Contrary to previous reports analyzing malpractice for varying medical procedures and complications, litigation in epistaxis is more commonly resolved in favor of the plaintiff or resolved through out-of-court settlements. Substantial financial awards and therapeutic complications from blindness to death make epistaxis a candidate for litigation. Of importance from a medicolegal stand is the fact that 30.8% (8) of the patients involved in epistaxis litigation died, either from complications of therapy or from experiencing epistaxis as a complication of another procedure/pathology. Using necessary diagnostic imaging, ensuring proper management techniques, and recognizing complications in a timely manner can serve to limit legal liability and enhance patient safety. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis: Indications, Management, and Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Strach, Katharina; Schroeck, Andreas; Wilhelm, Kai; Greschus, Susanne; Tschampa, Henriette; Moehlenbruch, Markus; Naehle, Claas P.; Jakob, Mark; Gerstner, Andreas O. H.; Bootz, Friedrich; Schild, Hans H.; Urbach, Horst

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Epistaxis is a common clinical problem, and the majority of bleedings can be managed conservatively. However, due to extensive and sometimes life-threatening bleeding, further treatment, such as superselective embolization, may be required. We report our experience with endovascular treatment of life-threatening epistaxis. Methods: All patients presenting with excessive epistaxis, which received endovascular treatment at a German tertiary care facility between January 2001 and December 2009, were retrospectively identified. Demographic data, etiology, origin and clinical relevance of bleeding, interventional approach, therapy-associated complications, and outcome were assessed. Results: A total of 48 patients required 53 embolizations. Depending on the etiology of bleeding, patients were assigned to three groups: 1) idiopathic epistaxis (31/48), 2) traumatic or iatrogenic epistaxis (12/48), and 3) hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (5/48). Eleven of 48 patients required blood transfusions, and 9 of these 11 patients (82%) were termed clinically unstable. The sphenopalatine artery was embolized unilaterally in 10 of 53 (18.9%) and bilaterally in 41 of 53 (77.4%) procedures. During the same procedure, additional vessels were embolized in three patients (3/53; 5.7%). In 2 of 53(3.8%) cases, the internal carotid artery (ICA) was occluded. Long-term success rates of embolization were 29 of 31 (93.5%) for group 1 and 11 of 12 (91.7%) for group 2 patients. Embolization of patients with HHT offered at least a temporary relief in three of five (60%) cases. Two major complications (necrosis of nasal tip and transient hemiparesis) occurred after embolization. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment proves to be effective for prolonged and life-threatening epistaxis. It is easily repeatable if the first procedure is not successful and offers a good risk-benefit profile.

  10. Is antibiotic prophylaxis in nasal packing for anterior epistaxis needed?

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisco; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-07

    Epistaxis is an extremely common problem that sometimes requires anterior nasal packing. Antibiotics are frequently indicated to prevent infectious complications, although the role of this measure is controversial. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including three primary studies, none of them randomized. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce infectious complications in patients with nasal packing for anterior epistaxis because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  11. Recurrent first hitting times in Wiener diffusion under several observation schemes.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, G A; Ramsay, T; Aaron, S D

    2012-04-01

    Recurrent events are commonly encountered in the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine. The theory of renewal and regenerative processes provides an elegant mathematical foundation for idealized recurrent event processes. In real-world applications, however, the contexts tend to be complicated by a variety of practical intricacies, including observation schemes with different phase and data structures. This paper formulates a recurrent event process as a succession of independent and identically distributed first hitting times for a Wiener sample path as it passes through successive equally-spaced levels. We develop exact mathematical results for statistical inferences based on several observation schemes that include observation initiated at a renewal point, observation of a stationary process over a finite window, and other variants. We also consider inferences drawn from different data structures, including gap times between renewal points (or fragments thereof) and counts of renewal events occurring within an observation window. We explore the precision of estimates using simulated scenarios and develop empirical regression functions for planning the sample size of a recurrent event study. We demonstrate our results using data from a clinical trial for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in which the recurrent events are successive exacerbations of the condition. The case study demonstrates how covariates can be incorporated into the analysis using threshold regression.

  12. Recurrent Severe Anaemia: A Rare Presentation of Parvovirus B19 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Gian; Charan, Shiv; Arora, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pure red cell aplasia is usually seen in immunocompromised hosts or patients who have chronic haemolytic anaemia, which is caused by blood transfusion related transmission. The present patient, a 30-year-old immunocompetent female, presented several times with recurrent severe anaemia, over a period of one and half years. Her history, clinical examination and investigations did not reveal any indigenous drug intake, previous blood transfusions, haemolytic disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, pregnancies, autoimmune diseases or thymoma. She was found to have a thalassaemia minor trait, on the basis of which severity and recurrence of anaemia could not be explained, and on further evaluation, she was diagnosed to have acute aplastic crisis caused by Parvovirus B19 induced, acquired pure red cell aplasia. The co- existence of these two haematological disorders in an immunocompetent, non-transfusion dependent individual is rare, which makes our case report unique. PMID:24959472

  13. [Evaluation of factors associated with recurrent and/or severe infections in patients with Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciana M A; Jacob, Cristina M A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Kim, Chong A E; Fomin, Angela B F; Castro, Ana Paula B M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial aspects of patients with Down syndrome, who present recurrent and/or severe infections, as well as to evaluate the presence of immunodeficiency in this population. Patients with Down syndrome diagnosed by chromosome analysis with recurrent and/or severe infections, followed at the Allergy and Immunology Unit of Children's Institute from 1990 to 1999, were submitted to an epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial protocol, including immunological aspects. Sex distribution was 1.6 M:1 F, with age ranging from 1 to 12 years and 10 months (average = 2y7m). Forty patients reported recurrent infections and five, sepsis. Out of all patients with recurrent infection, 31 fulfilled the repeated infection criteria, with pneumonia and rhinopharyngitis as the most common infections. Congenital heart diseases were found in 62.2% of cases, more frequent in the repeated pneumonia group. Immunological evaluation showed two cases with IgG2 deficiency, two with low lymphocytes CD4+ count, and two cases with reduced blastogenic response to mitogens. Five cases had reduced NK cells function. Seropositivity for CMV was found in 22 of 36 cases analyzed (61.1%). Although the data found in this study are valid for this specific population, the authors point out the necessity of the immunodeficiency research in Down syndrome patients with maintenance of infection besides the appropriated control of associated diseases.

  14. [Endovascular and surgical associated treatment of post-traumatic epistaxis].

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, Bogdan; Juszkat, Robert; Matusiak, Monika; Zarzecka, Małgorzata Anna

    2008-01-01

    We report on two cases of patients, in whom endovascular embolization of the maxillary artery and next surgical ligation of the anterior ethmoidal artery was performed due to posttraumatic intracrable epistaxis. In those patients, conservative treatment failed, hence endovascular embolization was made. Due to persisted bleeding, right anterior ethmoidal artery were surgically ligated in both patients. After the procedures, bleeding completely stopped.

  15. Recurrent blood eosinophilia in ulcerative colitis is associated with severe disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Barrie, Arthur; Mourabet, Marwa El; Weyant, Katherine; Clarke, Kofi; Gajendran, Mahesh; Rivers, Claudia; Park, Seo Young; Hartman, Douglas; Saul, Melissa; Regueiro, Miguel; Yadav, Dhiraj; Binion, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Eosinophils are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A subset of IBD patients develops blood eosinophilia and the clinical profile of these patients is undefined. We sought to characterize IBD patients with and without eosinophilia. Methods We studied a prospective registry of 1176 IBD patients followed in a tertiary referral center. Patients who developed eosinophilia at any time were identified by electronic medical record query. We performed a chart review case-control study comparing patients with recurrent eosinophilia versus randomly selected disease matched patients with no history of eosinophilia. Histological analysis was performed on selected cases and controls. Results Eosinophilia at any time was more prevalent in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients than Crohn’s disease patients (22.2% vs. 12.7%), as was recurrent eosinophilia (3.4% vs. 0.7%). UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia were predominantly male compared to the control UC population (81.3% vs. 46.9%) and had higher rates of colectomy for either medically refractory disease or dysplasia/cancer than control UC patients (56.3% vs. 15.6%). Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) occurred in 37.5% of UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia compared to only 3.1% in the UC controls. Histological analysis of random diagnostic samples from UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia demonstrated a normal eosinophil pattern as seen in the control UC population. Conclusions Eosinophilia-associated UC is a subgroup of IBD associated with severe colitis and PSC. Further studies are warranted to characterize molecular mechanisms underlying eosinophilia-associated UC and to determine optimal approaches for therapy. PMID:22855293

  16. Recurrent blood eosinophilia in ulcerative colitis is associated with severe disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Arthur; Mourabet, Marwa El; Weyant, Katherine; Clarke, Kofi; Gajendran, Mahesh; Rivers, Claudia; Park, Seo Young; Hartman, Douglas; Saul, Melissa; Regueiro, Miguel; Yadav, Dhiraj; Binion, David G

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A subset of IBD patients develops blood eosinophilia, and the clinical profile of these patients is undefined. We sought to characterize IBD patients with and without eosinophilia. We studied a prospective registry of 1,176 IBD patients followed in a tertiary referral center. Patients who developed eosinophilia at any time were identified by electronic medical record query. We performed a chart review case-control study comparing patients with recurrent eosinophilia versus randomly selected disease-matched patients with no history of eosinophilia. Histological analysis was performed on selected cases and controls. Eosinophilia at any time was more prevalent in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients than Crohn's disease patients (22.2 versus 12.7%), as was recurrent eosinophilia (3.4 versus 0.7%). UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia were predominantly male compared with the control UC population (81.3 versus 46.9%) and had higher rates of colectomy for either medically refractory disease or dysplasia/cancer than control UC patients (56.3 versus 15.6%). Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) occurred in 37.5% of UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia compared with only 3.1% in the UC controls. Histological analysis of random diagnostic samples from UC patients with recurrent eosinophilia demonstrated a normal eosinophil pattern as seen in the control UC population. Eosinophilia-associated UC is a subgroup of IBD associated with severe colitis and PSC. Further studies are warranted to characterize molecular mechanisms underlying eosinophilia-associated UC and to determine optimal approaches for therapy.

  17. Management of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia by Nd:YAG laser and quality of life assessment using the HR-QoL questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Karapantzos, Ilias; Tsimpiris, Nikolaos; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Van Hoecke, Helen; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Danielides, Vasilis

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the results of Nd:YAG laser application in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients and to measure the Health-Related Quality of Life (HR-QoL) in patients with HHT before and after Nd:YAG laser application in a prospective, clinical trial at a university hospital. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with HHT and mild to moderate degrees of epistaxis were followed-up for 2 years after Nd:YAG laser treatments. Recurrence of epistaxis after Nd:YAG laser application and measurement of HR-QoL using the International Quality of Life Assessment questionnaire, version 1.1 (IQOLA 1.1), was found. Eight patients (30%) received only one Nd:YAG laser treatment, 15 (56%) had a recurrence and received a second treatment and 4 (14%) had two recurrences and received three Nd:YAG laser treatments. HR-QoL was improved 2 years after the first Nd:YAG laser application in both its Physical Health Dimension (47.5+/-2.9 vs. 38.1+/-2.3 before treatment, P <0.05) and Mental Health Dimension (45.1+/-2.7 vs. 39.6+/-2.4 before treatment, P <0.05). Although no curative treatment for HHT exists, Nd:YAG laser treatment seems to constitute a simple and efficient method of epistaxis control, resulting in a significant improvement in quality of life.

  18. Topical management of anterior epistaxis: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kara, N; Spinou, C; Gardiner, Q

    2009-01-01

    The use of nasal creams and ointments in the conservative management of anterior epistaxis is well documented and supported. This study set out to obtain a national opinion, in order to establish current practice. A survey of all Scotland-based otolaryngology clinicians was conducted. Participants were asked which topical treatment they used in their practice, how often and for how long they advocated its use, and how they advised their patients to apply it. The overall response rate was 91 per cent. We discuss and compare the varying responses for the questions posed, and discuss the possible reasons for these in greater detail. This study demonstrates a high degree of variation in this practice, arising from a lack of concrete evidence and influenced by anecdotal experience and personal preferences. Definitive comparative studies are required if a 'gold standard' topical approach for the management of anterior epistaxis is to emerge.

  19. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Controlling Severe Bleeding From Recurrent Locally-Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Şefika; Akçe, Bülent; Kılıçkesmez, Özgür; Gürsü, Rıza Umar; Çakır, Mehmet Semih; Nazlı, Mehmet Ali; Aren, Acar

    2016-01-01

    One of the rare but most challenging issues in the management of the locally-advanced breast cancer (LABC) is life-threatening bleeding from the fungating and/or ulcerating focus (foci) of these tumors. Breast surgeons may need the assistance of interventional radiologists to solve this urgent condition if surgery cannot provide sufficient benefit. Herein, we report a case of recurrent locally-advanced breast cancer that presented with sudden severe bleeding, which was stopped by an interventional radiologist via transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). In addition, we evaluate the role of interventional radiology in patients with breast cancer who present with bleeding from the breast by reviewing the relevant literature.

  20. The efficacy of treatment of patients with severe constipation or recurrent pseudo-obstruction with pyridostigmine.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, C J; Brookes, J H; Wattchow, D A

    2010-06-01

    Disorders of colonic motility, such as severe constipation and pseudo-obstruction, remain difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood, but previous studies suggest a deficiency of cholinergic innervation and an imbalance in autonomic regulation of colonic motor function as contributing factors. Therefore, increasing the availability of acetylcholine in the bowel wall with a cholinesterase inhibitor, such as pyridostigmine, may improve symptoms. We studied thirteen patients with severe constipation (slow transit type) or recurrent pseudo-obstruction. The six patients with slow transit constipation had mechanical obstruction and pelvic floor dysfunction excluded, and normal calibre colon and slow transit confirmed. These patients were offered pyridostigmine in an attempt to avoid surgery. The seven patients with pseudo-obstruction had dilated bowel on imaging, and mechanical obstruction was excluded. These patients received pyridostigmine when symptoms recurred, despite previous treatments. Pyridostigmine was initiated at 10 mg b.i.d. and increased if required. One of the six patients with slow transit constipation reported improvement of symptoms and had concurrently weaned anti-psychotic medications. Pyridostigmine was ceased in the remaining five patients due to lack of efficacy and/or side effects. Four patients proceeded to surgery for refractory symptoms. All seven patients with pseudo-obstruction had some improvement of symptoms with few side effects. Of these, two later had surgery for recurrent symptoms. In patients with slow transit constipation, treatment with pyridostigmine does not improve symptoms. However, it does improve symptoms in patients with recurrent pseudo-obstruction with few side effects, offering an extra treatment option for these patients.

  1. Ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery and topical treatment for the prevention of epistaxis from guttural pouch mycosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Cousty, M; Tricaud, C; De Beauregard, T; Picandet, V; Bizon-Mercier, C; Tessier, C

    2016-01-09

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ligation of the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with various antimycotic treatments for the prevention of epistaxis in horses with guttural pouch mycosis. For each case, ipsilateral ligation of the CCA was performed, followed by application of various topical medications under endoscopic guidance. Frequency and number of treatments, outcome and recurrence of haemorrhage were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-four horses were included. Topical medication was administered by detachment of the diphtheric membrane and spraying (n=16) or by intralesional injection directly in the plaques using a transendoscopic needle (n=8). Epistaxis recurred in five horses (20.8 per cent), causing death of four horses (16.6 per cent). The mean number of treatments was 6.3±4.0 (range 2-14) for all topical treatments. Ligation of the ipsilateral CCA and topical medication carries a fair prognosis for avoidance of recurrent episodes of epistaxis, but fatal haemorrhage can occur. Removal of the fungal plaque and topical treatment of the underlying lesion appeared to speed up resolution of the mycotic mucosal lesions. The described technique is a salvage procedure when financial or technical constraints prevent the use of transarterial catheter occlusion techniques.

  2. Key factors controlling microbial community response after a fire: importance of severity and recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombao, Alba; Barreiro, Ana; Martín, Ángela; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in forest ecosystems, especially after fire when vegetation is destroyed and soil is bared. Fire severity and recurrence might be one of main factors controlling the microbial response after a wildfire but information about this topic is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of fire regimen (recurrence and severity) on soil microbial community structure by means of the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA). The study was performed with unburned and burned samples collected from the top layer of a soil affected by a high severity fire (Laza, NW Spain) heated under laboratory conditions at different temperatures (50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, 150°C, 175°C, 200°C, 300°C) to simulate different fire intensities; the process was repeated after further soil recovery (1 month incubation) to simulate fire recurrence. The soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and used to calculate the degree-hours as estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The PLFA analysis was used to estimate total biomass and the biomass of specific groups (bacteria, fungi, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria) as well as microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) and PLFA data were analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify main factors determining microbial community structure. The results of PCA, performed with the whole PLFA data set, showed that first component explained 35% of variation and clearly allow us to differentiate unburned samples from the corresponding burned samples, while the second component, explaining 16% of variation, separated samples according the heating temperature. A marked impact of fire regimen on soil microorganisms was detected; the microbial community response varied depending on previous history of soil heating and the magnitude of changes in the PLFA pattern was related to the amount of heat supplied to the

  3. Importance of parental conceptual model of illness in severe recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Crushell, Ellen; Rowland, Marion; Doherty, Mairin; Gormally, Siobhan; Harty, Sinead; Bourke, Billy; Drumm, Brendan

    2003-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) affects up to 15% of children. A biopsychosocial approach to the treatment of children with RAP has been proposed as an alternative to the traditional medical model. The aim of this study was to examine whether the parental conceptual model of illness is a factor in the long-term outcome of children with severe RAP. The study was undertaken in 2 parts: 1) a review of the medical and psychiatric records (including Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL]) of all children with RAP of sufficient severity to necessitate hospitalization during a 5-year period and 2) a structured telephone interview to collect information on ongoing abdominal pain, other somatic symptoms, school attendance, and the parents' opinion as to the cause of the child's pain. Twenty-eight of 30 children who were identified were available for follow-up. Twenty-three (82%) were tertiary referrals from other pediatric services, and 20 had pain for >6 months. On admission 7 (25%) of 28 had a depressive disorder, and 8 (29%) had an anxiety/depressive disorder. Twenty-one of 28 parents completed the CBCL, and on analysis of the CBCL, 11 (52%) children had scores in the clinical range (>65). At follow-up (mean: 3.56 years; standard deviation: 1.59), 14 (50%) of 28 continued to complain of pain. These children also complained of multiple other somatic complaints and had repeated school absences. Only 1 (7%) of 14 parents of children with ongoing pain believed that there was a psychological cause for their child's pain, whereas 11 (78%) of 14 parents of the children who had recovered believed that the cause was attributable to psychological factors (odds ratio: 47.67; 95% confidence interval: 3.56-1511.6). The acceptance by parents of a biopsychosocial model of illness is important for the resolution of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

  4. Leukocyte oxygen radical production determines disease severity in the recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mossberg, Natalia; Andersen, Oluf; Nordin, Magnus; Nilsson, Staffan; Svedhem, Ake; Bergström, Tomas; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Movitz, Charlotta

    2010-08-08

    The recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome (RGBS) is characterized by at least two GBS episodes with intervening remission. In a previous study of monophasic GBS, we reported that the magnitude of oxygen radical production ("respiratory burst") in peripheral blood leukocytes was inversely correlated to disease severity. The present study sought to establish a similar correlation in patients with RGBS. Oxygen radical production in leukocytes was induced by formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF), Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-Met-NH2 (WKYMVM), or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and assessed by quantifying superoxide anion formed by the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. Disease severity, assessed using the MRC score, was negatively correlated to superoxide anion production triggered by fMLF or WKYMVM (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively; n = 10). Superoxide anion production also was significantly lower in RGBS patients with incomplete recovery after stimulation with fMLF (p = 0.004) or WKYMVM (p = 0.003). We conclude that a lower respiratory burst in leukocytes is strongly associated with a severe course of RGBS.

  5. Leukocyte oxygen radical production determines disease severity in the recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome (RGBS) is characterized by at least two GBS episodes with intervening remission. In a previous study of monophasic GBS, we reported that the magnitude of oxygen radical production ("respiratory burst") in peripheral blood leukocytes was inversely correlated to disease severity. The present study sought to establish a similar correlation in patients with RGBS. Methods Oxygen radical production in leukocytes was induced by formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF), Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-Met-NH2 (WKYMVM), or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and assessed by quantifying superoxide anion formed by the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. Results Disease severity, assessed using the MRC score, was negatively correlated to superoxide anion production triggered by fMLF or WKYMVM (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively; n = 10). Superoxide anion production also was significantly lower in RGBS patients with incomplete recovery after stimulation with fMLF (p = 0.004) or WKYMVM (p = 0.003). Conclusion We conclude that a lower respiratory burst in leukocytes is strongly associated with a severe course of RGBS. PMID:20691112

  6. Risk factors for epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing.

  7. Daclatasvir combined with sofosbuvir or simeprevir in liver transplant recipients with severe recurrent hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Robert J; Brown, Robert S; Moreno-Zamora, Ana; Prieto, Martin; Joshi, Shobha; Londoño, Maria-Carlota; Herzer, Kerstin; Chacko, Kristina R; Stauber, Rudolf E; Knop, Viola; Jafri, Syed-Mohammed; Castells, Lluís; Ferenci, Peter; Torti, Carlo; Durand, Christine M; Loiacono, Laura; Lionetti, Raffaella; Bahirwani, Ranjeeta; Weiland, Ola; Mubarak, Abdullah; ElSharkawy, Ahmed M; Stadler, Bernhard; Montalbano, Marzia; Berg, Christoph; Pellicelli, Adriano M; Stenmark, Stephan; Vekeman, Francis; Ionescu-Ittu, Raluca; Emond, Bruno; Reddy, K Rajender

    2016-04-01

    Daclatasvir (DCV) is a potent, pangenotypic nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral efficacy when combined with sofosbuvir (SOF) or simeprevir (SMV) with or without ribavirin (RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we report efficacy and safety data for DCV-based all-oral antiviral therapy in liver transplantation (LT) recipients with severe recurrent HCV. DCV at 60 mg/day was administered for up to 24 weeks as part of a compassionate use protocol. The study included 97 LT recipients with a mean age of 59.3 ± 8.2 years; 93% had genotype 1 HCV and 31% had biopsy-proven cirrhosis between the time of LT and the initiation of DCV. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 13.0 ± 6.0, and the proportion with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) A/B/C was 51%/31%/12%, respectively. Mean HCV RNA at DCV initiation was 14.3 × 6 log10 IU/mL, and 37% had severe cholestatic HCV infection. Antiviral regimens were selected by the local investigator and included DCV+SOF (n = 77), DCV+SMV (n = 18), and DCV+SMV+SOF (n = 2); 35% overall received RBV. At the end of treatment (EOT) and 12 weeks after EOT, 88 (91%) and 84 (87%) patients, respectively, were HCV RNA negative or had levels <43 IU/mL. CTP and MELD scores significantly improved between DCV-based treatment initiation and last contact. Three virological breakthroughs and 2 relapses occurred in patients treated with DCV+SMV with or without RBV. None of the 8 patient deaths (6 during and 2 after therapy) were attributed to therapy. In conclusion, DCV-based all-oral antiviral therapy was well tolerated and resulted in a high sustained virological response in LT recipients with severe recurrent HCV infection. Most treated patients experienced stabilization or improvement in their clinical status.

  8. Developing a laddered algorithm for the management of intractable epistaxis: a risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Randy M; Smith, Timothy L; Rudmik, Luke

    2015-05-01

    For patients with epistaxis in whom initial interventions, such as anterior packing and cauterization, had failed, options including prolonged posterior packing, transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (TESPAL), and embolization are available. However, it is unclear which interventions should be attempted and in which order. While cost-effectiveness analyses have suggested that TESPAL is the most responsible use of health care resources, physicians must also consider patient risk to maintain a patient-centered decision-making process. To quantify the risk associated with the management of intractable epistaxis. A risk analysis was performed using literature-reported probabilities of treatment failure and adverse event likelihoods in an emergency department and otolaryngology hospital admissions setting. The literature search included articles from 1980 to May 2014. The analysis was modeled for a 50-year-old man with no other medical comorbidities. Severities of complications were modeled based on Environmental Protection Agency recommendations, and health state utilities were monetized based on a willingness to pay $22 500 per quality-adjusted life-year. Six management strategies were developed using posterior packing, TESPAL, and embolization in various sequences (P, T, and E, respectively). Total risk associated with each algorithm quantified in US dollars. Algorithms involving posterior packing and TESPAL as first-line interventions were found to be similarly low risk. The lowest-risk approaches were P-T-E ($2437.99 [range, $1482.83-$6976.40]), T-P-E ($2840.65 [range, $1136.89-$8604.97]), and T-E-P ($2867.82 [range, $1141.05-$9833.96]). Embolization as a first-line treatment raised the total risk significantly owing to the risk of cerebrovascular events (E-T-P, $11 945.42 [range, $3911.43-$31 847.00]; and E-P-T, $11 945.71 [range, $3919.91-$31 767.66]). Laddered approaches using TESPAL and posterior packing appear to provide the lowest

  9. Combined conservative treatment and lymphatic venous anastomosis for severe lower limb lymphedema with recurrent cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Makoto; Hara, Hisako; Tsubaki, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takiko; Yamada, Naomi; Kawahara, Mari; Murai, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    Lymphedema may be treated either conservatively or surgically. Although conservative therapy is the first-line treatment, some patients are refractory to it and repeat severe cellulitis. We usually perform lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) for lymphedema patients, and LVA can reduce the frequency of cellulitis. A 67-year-old woman who had undergone a radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer at the age 50 years. She developed lymphedema in both legs, and high-pressure compression stockings caused lymphorrhea in the groin and thigh, resulting in recurrent episodes of cellulitis. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed dilation of the lymphatic vessels in both legs. Results of an indocyanine green test revealed dermal backflow throughout the lower body. After wearing low-pressure stocking, we performed LVA to reduce cellulitis. After confirming the result of LVA, the patients started wearing high-pressure stocking. The patient underwent a subsequent LVA, 3 months after the first, to further improve edema. The lymphorrhea resolved, and cellulitis did not recur. The combination of surgical treatment and conservative treatment is important for severe lymphedema treatment. Although conservative treatment is usually said to be the first-line treatment, LVA can antecede in cases refractory to conservative treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Recurrent Hypoxia-Ischemia in Preterm White Matter Injury Severity

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Matthew W.; Riddle, Art; McClendon, Evelyn; Gong, Xi; Shaver, Daniel; Srivastava, Taasin; Dean, Justin M.; Bai, Ji-Zhong; Fowke, Tania M.; Gunn, Alistair J.; Jones, Daniel F.; Sherman, Larry S.; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the spectrum of white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants is shifting from cystic necrotic lesions to milder forms, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that recurrent hypoxia-ischemia (rHI) will exacerbate the spectrum of WMI defined by markers of inflammation and molecules related to the extracellular matrix (hyaluronan (HA) and the PH20 hyaluronidase) that regulate maturation of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage after WMI. Methods We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. The response to rHI was compared against corresponding early or later single episodes of HI. An ordinal rating scale of WMI was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microglial activation. Late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) were quantified by stereology. Analysis of hyaluronan and the hyaluronidase PH20 defined the progressive response of the extracellular matrix to WMI. Results rHI resulted in a more severe spectrum of WMI with a greater burden of necrosis, but an expanded population of preOLs that displayed reduced susceptibility to cell death. WMI from single episodes of HI or rHI was accompanied by elevated HA levels and increased labeling for PH20. Expression of PH20 in fetal ovine WMI was confirmed by RT-PCR and RNA-sequencing. Conclusions rHI is associated with an increased risk for more severe WMI with necrosis, but reduced risk for preOL degeneration compared to single episodes of HI. Expansion of the preOL pool may be linked to elevated hyaluronan and PH20. PMID:25390897

  11. Severe reaction in a child with asymptomatic codfish allergy: Food challenge reactivating recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old child during the first year of life manifested severe atopic dermatitis and chronic diarrhea with mucorrhea and rectal bleeding; a fish-free diet was started based on weakly positive skin-prick tests to codfish extract. At the age of 4 years the child began to suffer of recurrent pancreatitis. When he came to our attention for the evaluation of his fish allergy, he was asymptomatic; a weak reactivity to codfish was observed (SPTs: cod, 4 mm, sIgE ImmunoCAP: cod, 1.30kU/l). The food challenge test with cod was negative. When the child ate cod again, within 5 minutes, developed anaphylactic reaction and complained of abdominal pain compatible with pancreatitis (enzyme serum levels risen and parenchymal oedema at ultrasonography), that resolved within 7 days after specific therapy. This case raises two issues: the elimination diet in asymptomatic food allergy on the basis only of SPT and the ethicality of food challenge in gastrointestinal chronic disease. PMID:22571554

  12. Effect of telmisartan and ramipril on atrial fibrillation recurrence and severity in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome and recurrent symptomatic paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Fogari, Roberto; Mugellini, Amedeo; Zoppi, Annalisa; Preti, Paola; Destro, Maurizio; Lazzari, Pierangelo; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of telmisartan, ramipril, and amlodipine on atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence and severity in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. A total of 391 hypertensive outpatients with metabolic syndrome, in sinus rhythm but with at least 2 episodes of AF in the previous 6 months were randomized to telmisartan, ramipril, or amlodipine for 1 year. At the first AF, ventricular rate (VR) and plasma cardiac troponin I (TnI) were evaluated. P-wave dispersion (PWD) and procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIP) were evaluated before and after 12 months of treatment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were similarly and significantly reduced by all treatments (P < .001). In all, 49% of patients treated with amlodipine had a recurrence of AF as did 25.5% of patients with ramipril and 12.9% of patients with telmisartan (P < .01 vs amlodipine and P < .05 vs ramipril). Ventricular rate and TnI at the first AF recurrence were significantly lower with telmisartan and ramipril than with amlodipine. P-wave dispersion was reduced by ramipril (-5.1 ms, P < .05) and even more by telmisartan (-11 ms, P < .01). Telmisartan and ramipril induced a similar PIP reduction (-52.8 and -49.8 µg/L, respectively, P < .01). These findings suggested that in these patients telmisartan was more effective than ramipril in reducing AF recurrence and severity as well as in improving PWD, despite a similar BP reduction and a similar improvement in cardiac fibrosis. This could be related to a specific effect of telmisartan on atrial electric remodeling.

  13. Thromboelastography Utilization in Delayed Recurrent Coagulopathy after Severe Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Envenomation.

    PubMed

    McBride, Katherine M; Bromberg, William; Dunne, James

    2017-04-01

    Venomous snakebites are fairly common in the United States and can present with a wide range of symptoms. A 48-year-old man presented after Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake envenomation. His hospital course was complicated by right leg compartment syndrome and delayed recurrent coagulopathy, requiring multiple doses of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) antivenom and transfusions. Thromboelastography was used as an adjunct to standard coagulation studies in monitoring his delayed recurrent coagulopathy.

  14. Relationships between epistaxis, migraines, and triggers in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Elphick, Amy; Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-07-01

    To identify whether relationships exist between epistaxis and migraines in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), to potentially provide further preventative and therapeutic options for the debilitating nosebleeds that are often very difficult to manage in clinical practice. Study participants were recruited from a UK specialist service, and online following advertisement by the HHT Foundation International. They completed a nonbiased questionnaire in which paired questions on nosebleeds and migraines were separated by at least 17 other questions. Migraines were defined as headaches with associated autonomic and/or neurological features. The reported frequencies and precipitants of epistaxis and migraines were compared using numerical scales applied equally for each condition. The 220 HHT-affected respondents reported frequent nosebleeds, 153 (69.5%) used iron tablets, and 39 (17.7%) had received at least 10 blood transfusions. Migraines displaying typical features were reported by 51 (23.2%), and were more common with pulmonary or cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Thirty of 51 (58.8%) migraine sufferers reported that nosebleeds occurred at the same time as their migraines. More frequent migraines were reported by patients with more frequent nosebleeds (r2=15%, P=.007), or transfusions (r2=16.9%, P=.004). In menstrual, lifestyle, and dietary analyses, consistency was observed between factors having no effect, and those provoking both nosebleeds and migraines in multiple patients (premenses; activity; lack of sleep; stress; caffeine, cheese, alcohol, and chocolate). We demonstrate an unexpected and provocative association between nosebleeds and migraines in HHT patients. Evaluation of whether antimigraine approaches limit HHT nosebleeds may be appropriate. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Use of thalidomide for severe recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a multicenter cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hello, Muriel; Barbarot, Sébastien; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Revuz, Jean; Chosidow, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Severe recurrent aphthous stomatitis (SRAS) is a rare, disabling disorder of unknown etiology. Thalidomide is an effective second-line therapy for SRAS, but is suppressive rather than curative, and adverse events limit its use. Few reports describe the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of thalidomide, and how it is actually used as long-term (maintenance) therapy for SRAS. Therefore, we conducted this study to describe thalidomide use in the real-life management of a cohort of patients with SRAS. This multicenter retrospective cohort study covered a period of 5 years and 5 months (January 2003-May 2008). Patients who had started thalidomide monotherapy for SRAS during the 2003-2006 period were eligible. Data were collected from patients' medical charts and supplemented by patients' responses during a targeted telephone interview. Ninety-two patients followed at 14 centers were included: 76 had oral or bipolar aphthosis, and 16 had Behçet disease. Thalidomide was rapidly effective: 85% (78/92) entered complete remission (CR) within a median of 14 days. Response time was independent of the initial thalidomide dose (r = 0.04). Thalidomide was continued for > or =3 months (maintenance therapy) by 77/92 (84%) of the patients on 1 of 2 maintenance regimens: continuous therapy with regular intake (60/77) or intermittent therapy in response to attacks (17/77). Although intermittent therapy was less restrictive than continuous therapy, medical supervision under the former was less rigorous. The median maintenance dose was 100 mg/week, and did not reflect the initial dose (r = 0.18). The intermittent-treatment group's median dose was significantly lower and its median duration of thalidomide intake significantly longer than for patients on continuous therapy (19 vs. 150 mg/wk; p < 0.0001, and 32 vs. 19 mo; p = 0.002, respectively). Adverse events were reported by 84% (77/92) of patients. They were mostly mild (78% of patients), but sometimes severe (21%). Nevertheless, after

  16. Association between recurrence of acute kidney injury and mortality in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Emilio; Suberviola, Borja; Santibáñez, Miguel; Belmar, Lara; Castellanos, Álvaro; Heras, Milagros; Rodríguez-Borregán, Juan Carlos; de Francisco, Angel Luis Martín; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in more than half critically ill patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU) and increases the mortality risk. The main cause of AKI in ICU is sepsis. AKI severity and other related variables such as recurrence of AKI episodes may influence mortality risk. While AKI recurrence after hospital discharge has been recently related to an increased risk of mortality, little is known about the rate and consequences of AKI recurrence during the ICU stay. Our hypothesis is that AKI recurrence during ICU stay in septic patients may be associated to a higher mortality risk. We prospectively enrolled all (405) adult patients admitted to the ICU of our hospital with the diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock for a period of 30 months. Serum creatinine was measured daily. 'In-ICU AKI recurrence' was defined as a new spontaneous rise of ≥0.3 mg/dl within 48 h from the lowest serum creatinine after the previous AKI episode. Excluding 5 patients who suffered the AKI after the initial admission to ICU, 331 patients out of the 400 patients (82.8%) developed at least one AKI while they remained in the ICU. Among them, 79 (19.8%) developed ≥2 AKI episodes. Excluding 69 patients without AKI, in-hospital (adjusted HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.47-4.19), 90-day (adjusted HR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.55-4.16) and end of follow-up (adjusted HR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.36-2.84) mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with recurrent AKI, independently of sex, age, mechanical ventilation necessity, APACHE score, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, complete recovery and KDIGO stage. AKI recurred in about 20% of ICU patients after a first episode of sepsis-related AKI. This recurrence increases the mortality rate independently of sepsis severity and of the KDIGO stage of the initial AKI episode. ICU physicians must be aware of the risks related to AKI recurrence while multiple episodes of AKI should be highlighted in electronic medical

  17. Epistaxis in a low level hydrogen fluoride exposed industrial staff.

    PubMed

    Graff, Pål; Bozhkov, Georgi; Hedenlöf, Karin; Johannesson, Olof; Flodin, Ulf

    2009-03-01

    To assess the effect of exposure to hydrogen fluoride (HF) on the airway mucosa in an industrial setting. A cross-sectional study encompassing 33 industrial workers in a flame soldering plant and 44 assembly workers unexposed to HF was performed by means of a questionnaire on symptoms and diagnosis regarding upper and lower airways as well as through conduct of a clinical examination of the exposed group. Air concentrations of HF that were monitored in winter amounted to 1.0 mg/m(3) and in summer time to 0.15 mg/m(3). A threefold risk for epistaxis (RR = 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-11.0) was observed in the exposed group. Time from the start of exposure to HF until debut of a nose bleeding period varied from 1 month to 6 years. Mean induction (latency) time was 42 months. Mean duration of symptoms was 26 months, range 3-72 months, indicating that the exposure level in summer time was sufficient to maintain the propensity of almost daily nose bleeding. HF is an irritating vapor, even at relatively low air concentrations. We recommend an 8 hr TLV lower than 1.0 mg/m(3).

  18. [Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a child with severe malnutrition and recurrent fever].

    PubMed

    Gramage Tormo, J; Gavilán Martín, C; Atienza Almarcha, T

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare inflammatory disease, characterized by replacement of renal parenchyma with granulomatous tissue. Initial clinical presentation includes abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms related to recurrent urinary infections. The microorganisms most commonly involved are Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Final diagnosis is made by histopathology, and the only curative treatment is total or partial nephrectomy. A recently diagnosed case in our unit is presented, as well as an update on the knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardio-haemodynamic assessment and venous lactate in severe dengue: Relationship with recurrent shock and respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Sophie; Trung, Trieu Huynh; Lam, Phung Khanh; Thien, Vuong Huynh Ngoc; Hai, Duong Ha Thi; Phan, Tu Qui; Nguyet, Oanh Pham Kieu; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Simmons, Cameron Paul; Broyd, Christopher; Screaton, Gavin Robert; Wills, Bridget

    2017-07-01

    Dengue can cause plasma leakage that may lead to dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In approximately 30% of DSS cases, recurrent episodes of shock occur. These patients have a higher risk of fluid overload, respiratory distress and poor outcomes. We investigated the association of echocardiographically-derived cardiac function and intravascular volume parameters plus lactate levels, with the outcomes of recurrent shock and respiratory distress in severe dengue. We performed a prospective observational study in Paediatric and adult ICU, at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Patients with dengue were enrolled within 12 hours of admission to paediatric or adult ICU. A haemodynamic assessment and portable echocardiograms were carried out daily for 5 days from enrolment and all interventions recorded. 102 patients were enrolled; 22 patients did not develop DSS, 48 had a single episode of shock and 32 had recurrent shock. Patients with recurrent shock had a higher enrolment pulse than those with 1 episode or no shock (median: 114 vs. 100 vs. 100 b/min, P = 0.002), significantly lower Stroke Volume Index (SVI), (median: 21.6 vs. 22.8 vs. 26.8mls/m2, P<0.001) and higher lactate levels (4.2 vs. 2.9 vs. 2.2 mmol/l, P = 0.001). Higher SVI and worse left ventricular function (higher Left Myocardial Performance Index) on study days 3-5 was associated with the secondary endpoint of respiratory distress. There was an association between the total IV fluid administered during the ICU admission and respiratory distress (OR: 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.001). Admission lactate levels predicted patients who subsequently developed recurrent shock (P = 0.004), and correlated positively with the total IV fluid volume received (rho: 0.323, P = 0.001) and also with admission ALT (rho: 0.764, P<0.001) and AST (rho: 0.773, P<0.001). Echo-derived intravascular volume assessment and venous lactate levels can help identify dengue patients at high risk of recurrent

  20. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin as a Novel Approach to Reduce Severity of Recurrent Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sampedro, Georgia R.; DeDent, Andrea C.; Becker, Russell E. N.; Berube, Bryan J.; Gebhardt, Michael J.; Cao, Hongyuan; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Staphyococcus aureus frequently causes recurrent skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI). In the pediatric population, elevated serum antibody targeting S. aureus α-toxin is correlated with a reduced incidence of recurrent SSTI. Using a novel model of recurrent SSTI, we demonstrated that expression of α-toxin during primary infection increases the severity of recurrent disease. Antagonism of α-toxin by either a dominant-negative toxin mutant or a small molecule inhibitor of the toxin receptor ADAM10 during primary infection reduces reinfection abscess severity. Early neutralization of α-toxin activity during S. aureus SSTI therefore offers a new therapeutic strategy to mitigate primary and recurrent disease. PMID:24740631

  1. Recurrent Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Ectasia: Implication of Antithrombotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshitaka; Shioiri, Hiroki; Koyama, Jiro; Inoue, Kanichi

    2016-12-12

    BACKGROUND Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be caused not only by plaque rupture/erosion, but also by many other mechanisms. Thromboembolism due to atrial fibrillation and coronary thrombosis due to coronary artery ectasia are among the causes. Here we report on a case of recurrent myocardial infarction with coronary artery ectasia. CASE REPORT Our case was a 78-year-old woman with hypertension. Within a one-month interval, she developed AMI twice at the distal portion of her right coronary artery along with coronary artery ectasia. On both events, emergent coronary angiography showed no obvious organic stenosis or trace of plaque rupture at the culprit segment after thrombus aspiration. After the second acute event, we started anticoagulation therapy with warfarin to prevent thrombus formation. In the chronic phase, we confirmed, by using coronary angiography, optimal coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound, that there was no plaque rupture and no obvious thrombus formation along the coronary artery ectasia segment of the distal right coronary artery, which suggested effectiveness of anticoagulant. Furthermore, by Doppler velocimetry we found sluggish blood flow only in the coronary artery ectasia lesion but not in the left atrium which is generally the main site of systemic thromboembolism revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the two AMI events at the same coronary artery ectasia segment were caused by local thrombus formation due to local stagnant blood flow. Although it has not yet been generally established, anticoagulation therapy may be effective to prevent thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery ectasia regardless of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation.

  2. Recurrent Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Ectasia: Implication of Antithrombotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshitaka; Shioiri, Hiroki; Koyama, Jiro; Inoue, Kanichi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Acute myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be caused not only by plaque rupture/erosion, but also by many other mechanisms. Thromboembolism due to atrial fibrillation and coronary thrombosis due to coronary artery ectasia are among the causes. Here we report on a case of recurrent myocardial infarction with coronary artery ectasia. Case Report: Our case was a 78-year-old woman with hypertension. Within a one-month interval, she developed AMI twice at the distal portion of her right coronary artery along with coronary artery ectasia. On both events, emergent coronary angiography showed no obvious organic stenosis or trace of plaque rupture at the culprit segment after thrombus aspiration. After the second acute event, we started anticoagulation therapy with warfarin to prevent thrombus formation. In the chronic phase, we confirmed, by using coronary angiography, optimal coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound, that there was no plaque rupture and no obvious thrombus formation along the coronary artery ectasia segment of the distal right coronary artery, which suggested effectiveness of anticoagulant. Furthermore, by Doppler velocimetry we found sluggish blood flow only in the coronary artery ectasia lesion but not in the left atrium which is generally the main site of systemic thromboembolism revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusions: These results suggest that the two AMI events at the same coronary artery ectasia segment were caused by local thrombus formation due to local stagnant blood flow. Although it has not yet been generally established, anticoagulation therapy may be effective to prevent thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery ectasia regardless of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. PMID:27941711

  3. A comparison of slip rate, recurrence interval, and slip per event on several well-characterized faults (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, R. J.; Lippoldt, R. C.; Scharer, K.; Streig, A. R.; Langridge, R. M.; Madugo, C. M.; Biasi, G. P.; Dawson, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid growth in the application of LiDAR and other modern geodetic techniques has led to an explosion in the number of micro-geomorphic offsets along faults that can be interpreted as displacement in one or several earthquakes. As a result of this new data there are an increasing number of places along faults for which data are available for the slip rate (based on the dated offset of a feature that is old enough to average out the seismic cycle), recurrence interval (based on a representative number of dated paleo-earthquakes), and slip per event (based on an adequate sample of micro-geomorphic or 3D-excavated offsets). Because these three datasets are largely independent, but related by accumulation and release of strain across the fault, comparing them can provide insight into how faults balance size and frequency of earthquakes. We discuss several examples of faults with closely co-located slip rate, recurrence interval, and slip per event data, including the Ana River fault, a small normal fault in Central Oregon, and portions of the San Andreas fault, the principal plate boundary fault in California. The Ana River fault offsets more than 11 Pleistocene shorelines different amounts that we have measured using a combination of LiDAR, ground-based surveying, and a DEM generated from a USGS topographic map with 5 foot contours. The ages of ~10 paleo-earthquakes are determined from trenches and other exposures into deep-water lacustrine deposits that contain ~50 dated volcanic ashes. The long-term slip rate, 0.05 mm/yr, is known from the total offset of dated late Pliocene basalts. We also use new data from the Santa Cruz segment of the northern San Andreas fault (NSAF) and the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF: Parkfield to Bombay Beach). On the NSAF, earthquakes in 1838, 1890, and 1906 have a total slip of 4 - 6 m while the slip rate (17 mm/yr) suggests it would take 2 - 3 centuries to accumulate this much strain. Data for the SSAF, which have recently been

  4. Type D personality is related to severity of acute coronary syndrome in patients with recurrent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Petrova, Dafina; Arrebola-Moreno, Antonio; Catena, Andrés; Ramírez-Hernández, José A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between Type D (distressed) personality and cardiac biomarkers of disease severity in patients with acute coronary syndrome. To identify potential mechanisms behind the effect of Type D personality on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional. Patients (N = 215) with acute coronary syndrome completed a survey including a measure of Type D personality. Blood samples including a lipid profile and cardiac enzymes were taken within 3 days after the cardiovascular event. Data were analysed using simple correlations, multiple regressions, and mediation analyses. Type D personality was more predictive of severity of the acute coronary syndrome among patients with previous CVD compared to patients without previous CVD. Among patients with previous CVD, Type D personality was associated with the presence of ST elevation (R(2)  =.07) and more damage to the myocardium as indicated by higher troponin-I (R(2)  = .05) and myoglobin (R(2)  = .07) levels. These effects were independent from demographics, CV risk factors, and depression. Lower HDL cholesterol levels mediated the relationship between Type D personality and disease severity (Κ(2)  = .12 [95% CI 0.02, 0.28]) for myoglobin and Κ(2)  = .08 [95% CI 0.01, 0.21] for troponin-I). Type D personality was related to a worse lipid profile and more severe acute coronary syndrome in patients with previous history of CVD. Given the strong relationship between disease severity and subsequent mortality, these results suggest that severity of the myocardial infarction may be a potential mechanism explaining increased mortality in Type D patients with recurrent CVD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Type D personality has been related to worse outcomes in cardiac patients. However, recent studies show mixed results, suggesting the need to clarify potential mechanisms. What does this study add? Type D personality is related to severity of acute coronary

  5. Severe recurrent pancreatitis in a child with ADHD after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin).

    PubMed

    Artul, Suheil; Artoul, Faozi; Habib, George; Nseir, William; Bisharat, Bishara; Nijim, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin) due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate) Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  6. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    PubMed Central

    Bisharat, Bishara; Nijim, Yousif

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin) due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate) Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin. PMID:24711932

  7. Recurrent Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Owing to Severe Iron Deficiency Anemia Caused by Inappropriate Habitual Bloodletting

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Na, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Eun Gyu; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Zo, Joo-Hee; Hong, Jung Ae; Kim, Kwangyoun; Kim, Myung-A

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman visited the emergency department twice with symptoms of acute heart failure including shortness of breath, general weakness, and abdominal distension. Laboratory findings showed extremely low level of serum hemoglobin at 1.4 g/dL. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated dilated left ventricular cavity with systolic dysfunction and moderate amount of pericardial effusion. In this patient, acute heart failure due to severe iron deficiency anemia was caused by inappropriate habitual bloodletting. PMID:26755934

  8. Recurrent Mudflows at Popocatepetl Volcano: Impact on the Population over several Thousand Years and possible Precursors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. L.; Nieto, A.; Portocarrero, J.; Jaimes-Viera, M. D. C.; Fonseca, R.

    2014-12-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano in central Mexico has been erupting since 1994 with relatively small Strombolian and Vulcanian eruptions, expect for the 2 larger eruptions in 1997 and 2001 that produced more widespread pumice and ash fall, mud flows and in 2001, pumice flows. As part of the recent studies that have focused on monitoring eruptive behavior for risk reduction in this heavily populated area, we are updating the Hazard Map (1995). Here we present the results of the new data for the northwestern sector of the volcano where large mudflows reached 40km from the volcano toward Mexico City (14Ka). The 5Ka mudflows are overlain by several flows that covered pre-Columbian pre-classic settlements at around 2Ka BP. Buildings with ceramics from the classic and postclassic periods (around 1.5Ka and 0.9Ka BP) also indicate that settlements were abandoned and resettled several hundred years later. So far, it seems that inhabitants fled at the beginning of these larger eruptions, since no bodies have been found in the excavations. Since the XVI century, several smaller mudflows have reached the towns, but many are related with secondary deposits (for example, the Nexapa 2010 mudflow reached 15 km from the crater). Although this area has been inhabited for thousands of years, increased population shows that risk is considerable.

  9. A Case of Periodontal Necrosis following Embolization of Maxillary Artery for Epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Hirai, Toshinori; Yumoto, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Embolization of the maxillary artery (MA) is a common treatment modality for refractory epistaxis. Tissue necrosis after embolization of the MA is a rare complication. Here, we reported the first case of the development of necrosis of soft tissue and alveolar bone in the periodontium after embolization. A 48-year-old man with poor oral hygiene and a heavy smoking habit was referred to our clinic due to intractable epistaxis. After treatment with anterior-posterior nasal packing (AP nasal packing), the epistaxis relapsed. Therefore, he underwent embolization of the MA. Although he did not experience epistaxis after embolization, periodontal necrosis developed gradually. The wound healed with necrotomy, administration of antibiotics and prostaglandin, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We speculated that the periodontal necrosis was provoked by reduction of blood supply due to embolization and AP nasal packing based on this preexisting morbid state in the periodontium. Poor condition of the oral cavity and smoking may increase the risk of periodontal necrosis after embolization. PMID:27990309

  10. Percutaneous tricuspid valve-In-ring replacement for the treatment of recurrent severe tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Condado, Jose; Leonardi, Robert; Babaliaros, Vasilis

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous tricuspid valve-in-ring replacement can be an alternative to surgery for high-risk patients with symptomatic severe tricuspid regurgitation that recurs after surgical ring repair. Practitioners must pay attention to the specific technical details associated with this procedure that include: using the ring as a fluoroscopic landmark, sizing the valve area with multi-modality imaging, choosing the appropriate device based on the patients anatomy, and dealing with the inevitable paravalvular leak (created by the ring deformation in the absence of valve-specific devices). Our case demonstrates that percutaneous tricuspid valve-in-ring replacement is a feasible treatment that can result in both hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement.

  11. Systemic Treatment in Severe Cases of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: An Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Maria Angela Martins; Hirota, Silvio Kenji; Sugaya, Norberto Nobuo; Sanches, José Antonio; Migliari, Dante Antonio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the systemic drugs thalidomide, dapsone, colchicine, and pentoxifylline in the treatment of severe manifestations of RAS. METHODS An open, 4-year clinical trial was carried out for 21 consecutive patients with severe RAS. Initially, patients were given a 2-week course of prednisone to bring them to a baseline status. Simultaneously, one of the four test drugs was assigned to each patient to be taken for a period of 6 months. During the course of the trial, patients were switched to one of the other three drugs whenever side effects or a lack of satisfactory results occurred, and the 6-month limit of the treatment was then reset. RESULTS The most efficient and best-tolerated drug was thalidomide, which was administered to a total of eight patients and resulted in complete remission in seven (87.5%). Dapsone was prescribed for a total of nine patients, of whom eight (89%) showed improvement in their symptoms, while five showed complete remission. Colchicine was administered to a total of ten patients, with benefits observed in nine (90%), of whom four showed complete remission. Pentoxyfilline was administered to a total of five patients, with benefits observed in three (60%), of whom one patient showed complete remission. CONCLUSION The therapeutic methods used in this trial provided significant symptom relief. Patients experienced relapses of the lesions; however, this occurred after withdrawal of their medication during the follow-up period. PMID:19330244

  12. [Molecular diagnosis of mutations responsible for recurrent and severe forms of primary congenital glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Plásilová, M; Gerinec, A; Ferák, V

    1998-01-01

    A PCR-based test has been developed that makes it possible to detect a G to A substitution in the cytochrome P4501B1 gene. This mutation brings about a substitution of glutamic acid to lysine in the cytochrome P4501B1 molecule, and has been shown to be responsible, in homozygous form, for a severe and prognostically unfavourable form of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). This type of PCG has been previously demonstrated to be extremely frequent in the population of Gypsies (Roms) in Slovakia. In this study, all 33 PCG Gypsy patients examined were found homozygous for this particular mutation, and among 101 unrelated healthy screened subjects from the Gypsy ethnic community, almost 14% of mutation carriers were identified. The test sugesed here makes it possible to perform a direct DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of PCG in the families at risk, as well as to screen for gene carriers.

  13. Association of severity of organ involvement with mortality and recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Martin, Paul J.; Storer, Barry E.; Palmer, Jeanne; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Pidala, Joseph; Flowers, Mary E. D.; Arora, Mukta; Jagasia, Madan; Arai, Sally; Chai, Xiaoyu; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health global score for chronic graft-versus-host disease was devised by experts but was not based on empirical data. We hypothesized that analysis of prospectively collected data would enable derivation of a more accurate model for estimating mortality risk. We analyzed 574 adult patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease enrolled in a multicenter, observational study, using multivariate time-varying analysis accounting for serial changes in severity of involvement of eight individual organ sites over time. In the training set, severity of skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, liver and lung involvement were independently associated with the risk of non-relapse mortality. Weighted mortality points were assigned to individual organs based on the hazard ratios and were summed. The population was divided into three risk groups based on the total mortality points. The three new risk groups were validated in an independent validation set, but did not show better discriminative performance than the National Institutes of Health global score. As compared to a moderate or mild global score, a severe global score was associated with increased risks of non-relapse and overall mortality across time but not with a decreased risk of recurrent malignancy. The National Institutes of Health global score predicts patients’ mortality risk throughout the course of their chronic graft-versus-host disease. Further research is required in order to improve outcomes in patients with severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, since their risk of mortality remains elevated. PMID:24997150

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A; Lee, Roland R; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection.

  16. Prediction of severity of additional blood pressure elevation after tracheal intubation in hypertensive patients by pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Myung-Kul; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Kyungsik

    2001-03-01

    In hypertensive patients, an additional blood pressure elevation frequently occurs after endotracheal intubation during general anesthesia. We tried to determine whether the severity of the elevation could be predicted using pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates in the hypertensive patients. Twenty-four newly diagnosed hypertensive patients were included. We defined the degree of the blood pressure elevation as triangleup BP = maximal mean blood pressure after the intubation - mean blood pressure before the general anesthesia. Using pre-anesthetic heart rate data, we calculated classical linear and nonlinear indices of heart rate dynamics, and performed recurrence quantification analysis to calculate three preanesthetic recurrence indices, percent recurrence (%REC) , percent determinism (%DET), and maximal length of recurrence (ML). All pre-anesthetic classical linear and nonlinear indices showed no significant difference between the mild (triangleup BP <= 35mmHg, n=12) and severe group (triangleup BP > 35mmHg, n=12) and showed no significant linear correlation with the triangleup BP. However, the ML was significantly higher in severe than in mild group (16.10 ± 3.79 vs 7.90 ± 0.73, p<0.005) and, moreover, was significantly linearly correlated with the triangleup BP (r=0.691, p=0.001). In hypertensive patients, the severity of additional blood pressure elevation after general anesthesia and tracheal intubation can be predicted by the pre-anesthetic recurrence quantification analysis of heart rates.

  17. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  18. Recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding and malabsorption due to extensive habitual megacolon

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Ingo; Leibig, Markus; Weber, Christof; Schmidbauer, Stefan; Folwaczny, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Dilatation of the colon and the rectum, which is not attributable to aganglionosis, is a rare finding and can be the result of intractable chronic constipation. We report a rare case of a 29-year-old male patient with impressive megacolon, in whom Hirschsprung’s or Chagas disease was ruled out. In the present case, dilatation of the colon was most likely due to a behavioral disorder with habitual failure of defecation. Chronic stool retention led to a bizarre bulging of the large bowel with displacement of the other abdominal organs and severe occult blood loss. Because of two episodes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding despite conventional treatment of constipation, a surgical approach for bowel restoration was necessary. Temporary loop ileostomy had to be performed for depressurization of the large bowel and the subsequent possibility for effective antegrade colonic lavage to remove impacted stools. Shortly after the operation, the patient was healthy and could easily manage the handling of the ileostomy. However, the course of the megacolon in this young adult cannot be predicted and the follow-up will have to reveal if regression of this extreme colonic distension with reestablishment of regular rectal perception will occur. PMID:16437700

  19. Can Iron Treatments Aggravate Epistaxis in Some Patients With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia?

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Clare; Busbridge, Mark; Patel, Dilip; Shi, Chenyang; Dina, Roberto; Abdulla, F. Naziya; Awan, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To examine whether there is a rationale for iron treatments precipitating nosebleeds (epistaxis) in a subgroup of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Study Design Survey evaluation of HHT patients, and a randomized control trial in healthy volunteers. Methods Nosebleed severity in response to iron treatments and standard investigations were evaluated by unbiased surveys in patients with HHT. Serial blood samples from a randomized controlled trial of 18 healthy volunteers were used to examine responses to a single iron tablet (ferrous sulfate, 200 mg). Results Iron tablet users were more likely to have daily nosebleeds than non–iron‐users as adults, but there was no difference in the proportions reporting childhood or trauma‐induced nosebleeds. Although iron and blood transfusions were commonly reported to improve nosebleeds, 35 of 732 (4.8%) iron tablet users, in addition to 17 of 261 (6.5%) iron infusion users, reported that their nosebleeds were exacerbated by the respective treatments. These rates were significantly higher than those reported for control investigations. Serum iron rose sharply in four of the volunteers ingesting ferrous sulfate (by 19.3–33.1 μmol/L in 2 hours), but not in 12 dietary controls (2‐hour iron increment ranged from −2.2 to +5.0 μmol/L). High iron absorbers demonstrated greater increments in serum ferritin at 48 hours, but transient rises in circulating endothelial cells, an accepted marker of endothelial damage. Conclusions Iron supplementation is essential to treat or prevent iron deficiency, particularly in patients with pathological hemorrhagic iron losses. However, in a small subgroup of individuals, rapid changes in serum iron may provoke endothelial changes and hemorrhage. Level of Evidence 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2468–2474, 2016 PMID:27107394

  20. Can Iron Treatments Aggravate Epistaxis in Some Patients With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia?

    PubMed

    Shovlin, Claire L; Gilson, Clare; Busbridge, Mark; Patel, Dilip; Shi, Chenyang; Dina, Roberto; Abdulla, F Naziya; Awan, Iman

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether there is a rationale for iron treatments precipitating nosebleeds (epistaxis) in a subgroup of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Survey evaluation of HHT patients, and a randomized control trial in healthy volunteers. Nosebleed severity in response to iron treatments and standard investigations were evaluated by unbiased surveys in patients with HHT. Serial blood samples from a randomized controlled trial of 18 healthy volunteers were used to examine responses to a single iron tablet (ferrous sulfate, 200 mg). Iron tablet users were more likely to have daily nosebleeds than non-iron-users as adults, but there was no difference in the proportions reporting childhood or trauma-induced nosebleeds. Although iron and blood transfusions were commonly reported to improve nosebleeds, 35 of 732 (4.8%) iron tablet users, in addition to 17 of 261 (6.5%) iron infusion users, reported that their nosebleeds were exacerbated by the respective treatments. These rates were significantly higher than those reported for control investigations. Serum iron rose sharply in four of the volunteers ingesting ferrous sulfate (by 19.3-33.1 μmol/L in 2 hours), but not in 12 dietary controls (2-hour iron increment ranged from -2.2 to +5.0 μmol/L). High iron absorbers demonstrated greater increments in serum ferritin at 48 hours, but transient rises in circulating endothelial cells, an accepted marker of endothelial damage. Iron supplementation is essential to treat or prevent iron deficiency, particularly in patients with pathological hemorrhagic iron losses. However, in a small subgroup of individuals, rapid changes in serum iron may provoke endothelial changes and hemorrhage. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2468-2474, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. The Laryngoscope published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society Inc, “The Triological Society” and American Laryngological Association (ALA).

  1. Reduction of Severity of Recurrent Psychotic Episode by Sustained Treatment with Aripiprazole in a Schizophrenic Patient with Dopamine Supersensitivity: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Shigenori; Nonomura, Naho; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis (DSP) is a type of acute exacerbation of recurrent psychosis caused by long-term treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients. Although DSP is exceedingly troublesome for clinicians, effective treatment has not yet been established. Based on clinical research and our animal study, we hypothesize that aripiprazole, an atypical anti-psychotic, may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from schizophrenia with DSP. In this case, sustained treatment with a high dose of aripiprazole gradually reduced the severity of her recurrent psychotic episodes. In conclusion, sustained treatment with aripiprazole may reduce the exacerbation of recurrent psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients with DSP, and may be an effective treatment of DSP. PMID:28138118

  2. Epistaxis as first clinical presentation in a child with giant prolactinoma: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Pramod Kumar; Singh, Daljit; Meher, Sujeet; Saran, R. K.; Singh, Hukum

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumour have a wide way of presentation. Epistaxis due to pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported. There is no report of bleeding from nose as clinical first presentation in a child. We report the first case in literature where a child had epistaxis for eight months before deterioration of vision. He was found to be having a invasive prolactinoma with normal prolactin levels. PMID:22408665

  3. The severity, extent and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to HIV status and CD4+ T cell count.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Reality; Feller, Liviu; Blignaut, Elaine

    2010-10-01

    South Africa ranks among the three countries with the highest prevalence of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, with an estimated 29.5% of women attending antenatal clinics being infected. Necrotizing periodontal disease is a well recognized HIV-associated oral condition. The objective of this investigation was to determine a possible correlation between the extent, severity and treatment outcome of necrotizing periodontal disease in relation to a person's HIV status and CD4+ T cell count. Data from 105 consecutive patients presenting with necrotizing periodontal disease at an academic oral health centre in South Africa were analysed. All patients were provided with an opportunity to undergo voluntary counseling and testing for HIV infection, were treated for necrotizing periodontal disease and followed over a period of nine months. The mean age of the cohort was 28 years old (range 12 - 52). Of 98 (93.3%) patients unaware of their HIV serostatus at the initial visit, 59 (56.2%) consented to testing. In total 45 (42.9%) were HIV-seropositive with a mean CD4+ T cell count of 222.7 cells/microl and 14 (13.3%) were HIV-seronegative, with a significantly higher mean CD4+ T cell count of 830 cells/microl (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001), while the status of 46 (43.8%) remained unknown. In 101 (96.2%) patients, > or = 5 tooth sites were affected, and in 27 (26%) > or = 4 mm of gingival tissue were affected. This study, which included HIV-seropositive, HIV-seronegative and persons of unknown HIV status, revealed no statistical evidence that HIV infection was associated with the extent, severity or relapse of necrotizing periodontal disease. No statistically significant association could be demonstrated between the extent, severity and recurrence of necrotizing periodontal disease and a CD4+ T cell count < or = 200 cells/microl among HIV-seropositive patients.

  4. An observation of the effects of paraffin paste on nasal epistaxis balloons.

    PubMed

    Ong, C C; Odutoye, T

    1996-01-01

    There have been many conflicting reports on the effects of paraffin paste on rubber nasal balloons used in the treatment of epistaxis. We set up a bench top experiment to observe the effects of paraffin paste (Vaseline) on three types of commonly used nasal balloons, namely Brighton balloons, Simpson balloons and Foley catheters whilst simulating their use in clinical practice. Our observations show that paraffin paste damages the rubber balloons of Foley catheter and causes them to rupture within seventy-two hours. Brighton and Simpson balloons did not rupture during the five days of our study. We conclude that Brighton and Simpson epistaxis balloons are better designed to withstand rupture when used in conjunction with paraffin paste.

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine in epistaxis: a point worth considering during the patient's history.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Trinidade, Aaron; McCluney, Neil; Clive, Brewis

    2010-02-01

    A large number of patients take complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of reasons, but most do not inform their physicians. This has implications for safety, as many forms of herbal CAM are thought to have a variety of side-effects and may interact with conventional medicines with potentially adverse consequences. We present the case of an otherwise healthy 25-year-old man with difficult-to-control epistaxis. On further questioning, we learnt that he had recently started self-medicating with a combination of aspirin, garlic tablets and milk thistle. Garlic increases bleeding time and milk thistle alters the function of liver enzymes, both of which may have contributed to the difficulty in his management of epistaxis. This case highlights the importance of asking about CAM use when taking a patient's history, as it may have implications for management.

  6. The rate of spontaneous epistaxis is not linked to the lunar cycle but shows seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Duvdevani, Shay Izhak; Migirov, Lela; Wolf, Michael; Yakirevitch, Arkadi

    2014-08-01

    Since 50-60% of the human body consists of water, the physiology of blood circulation might be affected by a full moon differently than during other days of the month. This study analyzed a potential association among lunar phases, seasonal variations, and the rate of spontaneous epistaxis. Consecutive admissions solely for spontaneous epistaxis to an otolaryngology emergency room of a single medical center during 1 year were evaluated. The applied tests failed to show changes of admissions during different lunar phases. According to multiple comparisons, admissions were significantly less frequent during the summer months, similar to findings from other countries of the northern hemisphere with varying climates, suggesting an influence of circannual rhythms rather than of environmental conditions.

  7. Transient microbiota exposures activate dormant Escherichia coli infection in the bladder and drive severe outcomes of recurrent disease

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens often inhabit the body asymptomatically, emerging to cause disease in response to unknown triggers. In the bladder, latent intracellular Escherichia coli reservoirs are regarded as likely origins of recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI), a problem affecting millions of women worldwide. However, clinically plausible triggers that activate these reservoirs are unknown. Clinical studies suggest that the composition of a woman’s vaginal microbiota influences her susceptibility to rUTI, but the mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that the urinary tract is routinely exposed to vaginal bacteria, including Gardnerella vaginalis, a dominant member of the vaginal microbiota in some women. Using a mouse model, we show that bladder exposure to G. vaginalis triggers E. coli egress from latent bladder reservoirs and enhances the potential for life-threatening outcomes of the resulting E. coli rUTI. Transient G. vaginalis exposures were sufficient to cause bladder epithelial apoptosis and exfoliation and interleukin-1-receptor-mediated kidney injury, which persisted after G. vaginalis clearance from the urinary tract. These results support a broader view of UTI pathogenesis in which disease can be driven by short-lived but powerful urinary tract exposures to vaginal bacteria that are themselves not “uropathogenic” in the classic sense. This “covert pathogenesis” paradigm may apply to other latent infections, (e.g., tuberculosis), or for diseases currently defined as noninfectious because routine culture fails to detect microbes of recognized significance. PMID:28358889

  8. A recurrent 16p12.1 microdeletion suggests a two-hit model for severe developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Antonacci, Francesca; Siswara, Priscillia; Itsara, Andy; Vives, Laura; Walsh, Tom; McCarthy, Shane E.; Baker, Carl; Mefford, Heather C.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Browning, Sharon R.; Browning, Brian L.; Dickel, Diane E.; Levy, Deborah L.; Ballif, Blake C.; Platky, Kathryn; Farber, Darren M.; Gowans, Gordon C.; Wetherbee, Jessica J.; Asamoah, Alexander; Weaver, David D.; Mark, Paul R.; Dickerson, Jennifer; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Ellingwood, Sara A.; Smith, Rosemarie; Banks, Valerie C.; Smith, Wendy; McDonald, Marie T.; Hoo, Joe J.; French, Beatrice N.; Hudson, Cindy; Johnson, John P.; Ozmore, Jillian R.; Moeschler, John B.; Surti, Urvashi; Escobar, Luis F.; El-Kechen, Dima; Gorski, Jerome L.; Kussman, Jennifer; Salbert, Bonnie; Lacassie, Yves; Biser, Alisha; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Haan, Eric; Friend, Kathryn L.; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Gécz, Jozef; deLisi, Lynn E.; Sebat, Jonathan; King, Mary-Claire; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Eichler, Evan E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the identification of a recurrent 520-kbp 16p12.1 microdeletion significantly associated with childhood developmental delay. The microdeletion was detected in 20/11,873 cases vs. 2/8,540 controls (p=0.0009, OR=7.2) and replicated in a second series of 22/9,254 cases vs. 6/6,299 controls (p=0.028, OR=2.5). Most deletions were inherited with carrier parents likely to manifest neuropsychiatric phenotypes (p=0.037, OR=6). Probands were more likely to carry an additional large CNV when compared to matched controls (10/42 cases, p=5.7×10-5, OR=6.65). Clinical features of cases with two mutations were distinct from and/or more severe than clinical features of patients carrying only the co-occurring mutation. Our data suggest a two-hit model in which the 16p12.1 microdeletion both predisposes to neuropsychiatric phenotypes as a single event and exacerbates neurodevelopmental phenotypes in association with other large deletions or duplications. Analysis of other microdeletions with variable expressivity suggests that this two-hit model may be more generally applicable to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:20154674

  9. Does the continuation of warfarin change management outcomes in epistaxis patients?

    PubMed

    Bola, S; Marsh, R; Braggins, S; Potter, C; Hickey, S

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare management, readmission rates and length of in-patient stay amongst warfarinised and non-warfarinised patients to ascertain future treatment protocols. A 12-month retrospective review was conducted of ENT epistaxis admissions. Admission details such as length of in-patient stay, clotting profile and management plan were recorded. Comparisons of management and outcome for warfarinised and non-warfarinised patients were made using the Fisher's exact paired t-test. Of 176 epistaxis patients admitted, 31 per cent were warfarinised, 18 per cent were on another form of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy, and 51 per cent were not on any medication that might impose a bleeding risk. The international normalised ratio at admission was high in 13 per cent of warfarinised patients; the remaining patients had therapeutic or sub-therapeutic international normalised ratios and so warfarin was continued. The mean in-patient stay was similar for all cohorts; however, warfarinised patients had a higher readmission rate. Warfarinised epistaxis patients may be safely managed without stopping their anticoagulation therapy, provided their international normalised ratio is at therapeutic or sub-therapeutic levels. By continuing regular anticoagulation therapy, warfarinised patients may be discharged without delay.

  10. Endoscopic ligation of the internal maxillary artery for treatment of intractable posterior epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Pritikin, J B; Caldarelli, D D; Panje, W R

    1998-02-01

    Lack of universal success with both transantral ligation of the internal maxillary artery and percutaneous embolization of the distal branches of the internal maxillary distribution has led to consideration of alternative techniques to control intractable posterior epistaxis. One such technique takes advantage of advances in endoscopic technology and instrumentation, as well as a nearly constant anatomic configuration. The internal maxillary artery divides into terminal branches within the pterygomaxillary fossa, sending branches through the bony maxilla to exit the posterolateral nasal wall in the posterior aspect of the middle meatus. Endoscopic identification and ligation of these terminal branches of the internal maxillary artery (the sphenopalatine and nasopalatine arteries) as they exit the maxilla has been performed on 10 patients with a 100% success rate and no morbidity or mortality associated with the procedure. These results compare favorably to the average reported success rates of 89% for transantral ligation and 94% for percutaneous embolization, and average complication rates of 28% and 27%, respectively. This endonasal procedure has been performed for spontaneous epistaxis as well as postsurgical nasal bleeding with equal success. The ascending scale of treatment previously outlined in the literature may be amended, as a potentially definitive procedure is available, and we believe that this technique is easier to perform, has less associated morbidity, and has equal efficacy in comparison to transantral ligation or percutaneous embolization in the treatment of intractable posterior epistaxis.

  11. Long-term outcomes of a transmastoid lateral semicircular canal approach to congenital CSF otorrhea in children associated with recurrent meningitis and severe inner ear malformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Li, Yongxin; Chen, Shubin; Hao, Xinping

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the long-term effectiveness of transmastoid lateral semicircular canal approach (TMLSCCA) to repair cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in children associated with recurrent meningitis and severe congenital inner malformation. A retrospective study was conducted in a university hospital, academic medical center. Fifteen children with recurrent meningitis, secondary to severe congenital inner ear malformation, were included in the study. All of them had CSF associated otorrhea and treated using TLSCCA to repair CSF otorrhea by packing the vestibule with muscle and fascia. Observation of the status of postoperative CSF leakage, recurrence of meningitis and complication were conducted. None of the cases had recurrent meningitis and CSF leakage after their TLSCCA procedure in the follow-up period of 1-8.5 years. One case presented with transient facial nerve paralysis and completely recovered 3 months later. TLSCCA for CSF otorrhea in children with recurrent meningitis secondary to congenital inner ear malformation is an alternative approach that offers some advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracranial hemorrhage recurrence on vitamin K antagonist: severity of the first episode and HASBLED score fail to identify high-risk patients from the CHIRONE study.

    PubMed

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia; Dentali, Francesco; Testa, Sophie; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2017-01-01

    The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk. The study included 267 patients from 27 Italian centers. The treatment of the index ICH, surgical or medical was recorded; modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or more was used to define patients with severe neurological impairment; HASBLED score of 3 or more was used to identify high bleeding risk patients. During follow-up, 20 patients (7.5%) had ICH recurrence (rate of 2.56 × 100 patient-years). No difference in the type of treatment [hazard ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-4.74] and neurological impairment with modified Rankin Scale 3 or more (hazard ratio = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.31-2.83) were found in relation to ICH recurrence. The mean HASBLED score was similar between the two groups (P = 0.54). In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that neither the severity of the index ICH at presentation nor the HASBLED clinical prediction rule should be used to assess the risk of recurrence in patients who need VKAs resumption after a previous ICH.

  13. Recurrent Bleeding Within 24 Hours After Uterine Artery Embolization for Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage: Are There Predictive Factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, Sebastien Chabrot, Pascal Kastler, Adrian; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Cassagnes, Lucie; Gallot, Denis; Boyer, Louis

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively identify predictive factors of recurrent bleeding within 24 h after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Materials and Methods: A total of 194 patients underwent UAE for PPH between August 1999 and April 2009 at our institution. Twelve patients experienced recurrent bleeding within the next 24 h; a second attempt at UAE was thus necessary, which was successful in 10 cases. In two cases, hemostatic hysterectomy was performed. Epidemiological, gynecological-obstetrical, anatomic, and biological data were analyzed. Results: Complete data were available for 148 of the 194 (76%) included patients. Sixty-four (43%) were primiparous, 18 (12.2%) had a placenta accreta, 21 (14%) had a coagulopathy, and 28 (18.9%) had an anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature. Mean age and pregnancy term were similar in both recurring and nonrecurrent bleeding groups. After multivariate analysis, three criteria emerged as risk factors of recurrent bleeding: primiparity (10 patients, 83%; odds ratio [OR] = 18.84; P = 0.014), coagulation disorders (6 patients, 50%; OR = 12.08; P = 0.006), and anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature (28 patients; OR = 9.83; P = 0.003). Conclusions: earch for uterine collaterals must be performed before UAE for PPH. Primiparity and coagulation disorders increase the risk of recurrent bleeding after UAE for PPH.

  14. Recurrent bleeding within 24 hours after uterine artery embolization for severe postpartum hemorrhage: are there predictive factors?

    PubMed

    Bros, Sébastien; Chabrot, Pascal; Kastler, Adrian; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Cassagnes, Lucie; Gallot, Denis; Boyer, Louis

    2012-06-01

    To retrospectively identify predictive factors of recurrent bleeding within 24 h after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). A total of 194 patients underwent UAE for PPH between August 1999 and April 2009 at our institution. Twelve patients experienced recurrent bleeding within the next 24 h; a second attempt at UAE was thus necessary, which was successful in 10 cases. In two cases, hemostatic hysterectomy was performed. Epidemiological, gynecological-obstetrical, anatomic, and biological data were analyzed. Complete data were available for 148 of the 194 (76%) included patients. Sixty-four (43%) were primiparous, 18 (12.2%) had a placenta accreta, 21 (14%) had a coagulopathy, and 28 (18.9%) had an anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature. Mean age and pregnancy term were similar in both recurring and nonrecurrent bleeding groups. After multivariate analysis, three criteria emerged as risk factors of recurrent bleeding: primiparity (10 patients, 83%; odds ratio [OR]=18.84; P=0.014), coagulation disorders (6 patients, 50%; OR=12.08; P=0.006), and anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature (28 patients; OR=9.83; P=0.003). Search for uterine collaterals must be performed before UAE for PPH. Primiparity and coagulation disorders increase the risk of recurrent bleeding after UAE for PPH.

  15. Meningioma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Bencze, János; Varkoly, Gréta; Kouhsari, Mahan C; Klekner, Álmos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meningioma accounts for more than 30% of all intracranial tumours. It affects mainly the elderly above the age of 60, at a female:male ratio of 3:2. The prognosis is variable: it is usually favourable with no progression in tumour grade and no recurrence in WHO grade 1 tumours. However, a minority of tumours represent atypical (grade 2) or anaplastic (grade 3) meningiomas; this heterogeneity is also reflected in histopathological appearances. Irrespective of the grade, the size of the tumour and the localisation may have severe, sometimes lethal consequences. Following neurosurgical interventions to remove the tumour, recurrence and progression in WHO grade may occur. Our knowledge on predisposing histomorphological and molecular factors of recurrence is rather limited. These can be classified as I) demographic II) environmental, III) genetic and epigenetic IV) imaging, V) neuropathological, and VI) neurosurgical. In view of the complex background of tumour recurrence, the recognition of often subtle signs of increased risk of recurrence requires close collaboration of experts from several medical specialties. This multidisciplinary approach results in better therapy and fewer complications related to tumour recurrence. PMID:28352788

  16. Comparison of microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and Ankaferd Blood Stopper in a rabbit epistaxis model.

    PubMed

    Yurttas, Veysel; Sereflican, Murat; Terzi, Elçin Hakan; Ozyalvaçlı, Gulzade; Kazaz, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological impact, effectiveness, and safety of two hemostatic agents, Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and microporous polysaccharide hemospheres (MPH), in an experimental rabbit epistaxis model. Rabbits were randomly assigned, using a computerized random number generator, to the following three groups of six animals: group 1 (control, irrigated with saline); group 2 (ABS-treated); and group 3 (MPH-treated). In all groups, a standardized rabbit epistaxis model was used. Hemostasis time and extent of nasal bleeding were measured to compare the hemostatic effect of ABS and MPH among groups. Septums were removed for histopathological analysis, 7 days after the procedure. ABS reduced hemostasis time to 104.2 s and amount of bleeding to 20.5 mg. MPH reduced hemostasis time to 71.7 s and amount of bleeding to 11.5 mg. Mean bleeding time in wounds administered ABS and MPH was significantly shorter compared with wounds administered isotonic saline solution (p = 0.004). ABS and MPH application decreased bleeding significantly compared with the control group (p = 0.004). Bleeding time and amount in the MPH group was significantly reduced compared with the ABS group (p = 0.013 and p = 0.004, respectively). There was no significant difference in the histopathological evaluation results between the ABS, MPH, and control groups. Our data indicate that both ABS and MPH represent safe, effective, and fast-acting hemostatic agents in the management of epistaxis. MPH was more effective than ABS in terms of hemostasis time and amount of bleeding.

  17. Office-Based vs Traditional Operating Room Management of Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: Impact of Patient Characteristics and Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Emel Çadalli; Kupfer, Robbi A; Barry, Jonnae Y; Allen, Clint T; Merati, Albert L

    2017-01-01

    Management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in adults has evolved to include office-based laser techniques. To determine whether demographic or disease characteristics differ between patients undergoing office-based (office group) vs traditional operating room (OR group) surgical approaches for RRP. This study was a medical record review of adult patients with RRP treated between January 2011 and September 2013 at a tertiary care center. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the setting in which the patient had the most procedures during the past 2 years. Demographic and disease characteristics were compared between patients receiving predominantly office-based vs predominantly OR management. Of 57 patients (47 male and 10 female, with a mean [SD] age of 53.5 [16.4] years) treated during the 2-year period, 34 patients underwent predominantly office-based management and 23 patients underwent predominantly OR management. Sex, age, and weight were not statistically significantly different between the 2 groups. Patients in the OR group had a younger age at RRP diagnosis (mean [SD], 28.7 [22.0] years in the OR group and 45.5 [20.5] years in the office group), with a mean difference of 16.8 years (95% CI, -28.3 to -5.4 years). Patients in the OR group also had a significantly higher Derkay score (mean [SD], 15.1 [5.7] in the OR group and 10.7 [5.0] in the office group), with a mean difference of 4.4 (95% CI, 1.6-7.3). No statistically significant differences in comorbidities were observed between the 2 groups except for type 1 or 2 diabetes, which was more common in the OR group. There were 5 patients (22%) with diabetes in the OR group and 1 patient (3%) with diabetes in the office group, with a mean difference of 19% (95% CI, 2.7%-35%). In a subanalysis that excluded patients with juvenile-onset RRP, Derkay score (mean [SD], 13.9 [4.5] in the OR group and 10.8 [5.1] in the office group), with a mean difference of 3.1 (95% CI, 0.5-6.1), and the

  18. “8 Plate”: An Alternative Device to Fix Highly Recurrent Traumatic Anterior Gleno-Humeral Instability in Patients with Severe Impairment of the Anterior Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tudisco, C; Bisicchia, S; Savarese, E; Ippolito, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is still debate about the best treatment option for highly recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in patients with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and/or recurrence after either arthroscopic or open capsulorrhaphy. Materials and Methods: The clinical and radiological findings of 7 patients treated with an open capsulorrhaphy stabilized with an “8 plate” for a highly recurrent traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation with severe impairment of the anterior capsule and a large Bankart lesion were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up evaluation included VAS for pain, Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, ASES, UCLA, Quick DASH, Rowe, Walsch-Duplay scores, as well as X-rays of the operated shoulder. Results: At follow-up none of the patients reported subsequent dislocations. Range of motion of the shoulder was complete in all cases, but one. Results of the functional scoring systems were satisfactory. X-rays showed no osteolysis and good position of the plate. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature about an open capsular tensioning and Bankart lesion repair performed with an “8 plate”. We believe that this is a reliable and effective procedure to address traumatic anterior re-dislocation of the gleno-humeral joint when the capsule is extensively torn and frayed or in revision cases. Moreover the “8 plate” is ideal to be applied in such a narrow space on the slant surface of the scapular neck close to the glenoid rim. PMID:25621080

  19. Transient desialylation in combination with a novel antithrombin deficiency causing a severe and recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Revilla, Nuria; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Miñano, Antonia; López-Gálvez, Raquel; Toderici, Mara; Padilla, José; García-Avello, Ángel; Lozano, María Luisa; Lefeber, Dirk J.; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    An in-depth focused study of specific cases of patients with recurrent thrombosis may help to identify novel circumstances, genetic and acquired factors contributing to the development of this disorder. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed and sequential analysis of samples from a patient suffering from early and recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. We performed thrombophilic tests, biochemical, functional, genetic and glycomic analysis of antithrombin and other plasma proteins. The patient carried a new type I antithrombin mutation (p.Ile218del), whose structural relevance was verified in a recombinant model. Experiments with N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase suggested a nearly full desialylation of plasma proteins, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of transferrin glycoforms. However, partial desialylation and normal patterns were detected in samples collected at other time-points. Desialylation was noticeable after arterial events and was associated with low antithrombin activity, reduced platelet count and glomerular filtration rate. This is the first description of a global and transient desialylation of plasma proteins associated with thrombosis. The decrease in the strong electronegative charge of terminal glycans may modulate hemostatic protein-protein interactions, which in combination with a strong prothrombotic situation, such as antithrombin deficiency, could increase the risk of thrombosis. PMID:28303970

  20. Transient desialylation in combination with a novel antithrombin deficiency causing a severe and recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Nuria; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Miñano, Antonia; López-Gálvez, Raquel; Toderici, Mara; Padilla, José; García-Avello, Ángel; Lozano, María Luisa; Lefeber, Dirk J; Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

    2017-03-17

    An in-depth focused study of specific cases of patients with recurrent thrombosis may help to identify novel circumstances, genetic and acquired factors contributing to the development of this disorder. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed and sequential analysis of samples from a patient suffering from early and recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. We performed thrombophilic tests, biochemical, functional, genetic and glycomic analysis of antithrombin and other plasma proteins. The patient carried a new type I antithrombin mutation (p.Ile218del), whose structural relevance was verified in a recombinant model. Experiments with N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase suggested a nearly full desialylation of plasma proteins, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis of transferrin glycoforms. However, partial desialylation and normal patterns were detected in samples collected at other time-points. Desialylation was noticeable after arterial events and was associated with low antithrombin activity, reduced platelet count and glomerular filtration rate. This is the first description of a global and transient desialylation of plasma proteins associated with thrombosis. The decrease in the strong electronegative charge of terminal glycans may modulate hemostatic protein-protein interactions, which in combination with a strong prothrombotic situation, such as antithrombin deficiency, could increase the risk of thrombosis.

  1. Long-term course of severe depression: late remission and recurrence may be found in a follow-up after 38–53 years

    PubMed Central

    Crona, Lisa; Brådvik, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study is a follow-up of inpatients diagnosed with severe depression/melancholia between 1956 and 1969. During this period, all inpatients at the Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund, were rated on a multidimensional diagnostic schedule on discharge. There were 471 patients born from 1920 onward. In the present follow-up, 2006 to 2010, 169 survivors could be traced. They were asked to participate in the study involving a telephone interview, in which a structured life chart was used. Of the patients contacted, 16 were ill or confused and 3 did not remember ever being depressed, leaving 150 who could participate. Seventy-five of these agreed to participate in the study. Long-term course of depression was evaluated by cluster analysis and compared to background variables, such as heredity for depression, perceived parental rearing behaviour, and treatment of index depressive episode. Using a cluster analysis the patients could be separated into six clusters describing the course: i) single or few episodes followed by long-lasting remission; ii) single or few episodes followed by long-lasting remission, although shorter; iii) single or few episodes followed by late recurrence; iv) single or few episodes, but more frequently ill, followed by late recurrence; v) several episodes followed by lasting remission; vi) chronic course of episodes. Remission or recurrence could therefore occur even after more than a decade. In summary, there was a short-term course with or without recurrence or a chronic course with or without late remission. Heredity for depression was significantly related to a chronic course with or without late remission. PMID:25478118

  2. Recurrent novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent novae seem to be a rather inhomogeneous group: T CrB is a binary with a M III companion; U Sco probably has a late dwarf as companion. Three are fast novae; two are slow novae. Some of them appear to have normal chemical composition; others may present He and CNO excess. Some present a mass-loss that is lower by two orders of magnitude than classical novae. However, our sample is too small for saying whether there are several classes of recurrent novae, which may be related to the various classes of classical novae, or whether the low mass-loss is a general property of the class or just a peculiarity of one member of the larger class of classical novae and recurrent novae.

  3. Evaluation of Etiology and Treatment Methods for Epistaxis: A Review at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Epistaxis is one of the most common emergencies in Otorhinolaryngology. It is usually managed with simple conservative measures but occasionally it is a life threatening condition. Identification of the cause is important, as it reflects the management plan being followed. Aims and Objectives. To analyze the etiology and treatment methods for patients with epistaxis. Methods. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal. The study period was from May 2014 to April 2015. Results. A total of 84 patients had epistaxis; 52 were males and 32 were females. The most common cause of epistaxis was idiopathic (38.09%) followed by hypertension (27.38%), trauma (15.47%), and coagulopathy (8.33%). Regarding treatment methods, most (52.38%) of our patients required anterior nasal packing. Chemical cautery was sufficient to stop bleeding in 14.28% of patients while electrocautery and posterior nasal packing were performed in 2.38% and 16.66% patients, respectively. Two (2.38%) patients required endoscopic sphenopalatine arterial ligation. Conclusion. Hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy were the most common etiological factors among the patients in whom etiology was found although in most of the patients etiology could not be found. Anterior nasal packing was the most common treatment method applied to these patients. PMID:26346242

  4. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation versus nasal packing as first-line treatment for posterior epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj C; Desai, Shamit S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lee, Stella; Schaitkin, Barry M; Snyderman, Carl H; Wang, Eric W

    2013-07-01

    The advent of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (ESPAL) for the control of posterior epistaxis provides an effective, low-morbidity treatment option. In the current practice algorithm, ESPAL is pursued after failure of posterior packing. Given the morbidity and limited effectiveness of posterior packing, we sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of first-line ESPAL compared to the current practice model. A standard decision analysis model was constructed comparing first-line ESPAL and current practice algorithms. A literature search was performed to determine event probabilities and published Medicare data largely provided cost parameters. The primary outcomes were cost of treatment and resolution of epistaxis. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed for key parameters. Costs for the first-line ESPAL arm and the current practice arm were $6450 and $8246, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed for key variables including duration of packing. The baseline difference of $1796 in favor of the first-line ESPAL arm was increased to $6263 when the duration of nasal packing was increased from 3 to 5 days. Current practice was favored (cost savings of $437 per patient) if posterior packing duration was decreased from 3 to 2 days. This study demonstrates that ESPAL is cost-saving as first-line therapy for posterior epistaxis. Given the improved effectiveness and patient comfort of ESPAL compared to posterior packing, ESPAL should be offered as an initial treatment option for medically stable patients with posterior epistaxis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    PubMed

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  6. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones. PMID:24149657

  7. Real-world experience with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for post-liver transplant HCV recurrence and severe liver disease.

    PubMed

    Herzer, Kerstin; Welzel, Tania M; Spengler, Ulrich; Hinrichsen, Holger; Klinker, Hartwig; Berg, Thomas; Ferenci, Peter; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Inderson, Akin; Zhao, Yue; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Optimizing therapy of post-transplant HCV recurrence remains important, especially in advanced liver disease. We evaluated daclatasvir (DCV) plus sofosbuvir (SOF), with or without ribavirin (RBV), in patients with post-liver transplant recurrence in a real-world European cohort at high risk of decompensation or death within 12 months. Recommended treatment was DCV 60 mg plus SOF 400 mg once daily for 24 weeks; RBV use/shorter treatment duration was at physicians' discretion. Patients (N = 87) were 70% male, 93% white, and mostly infected with HCV genotypes 1b (48%), 1a (32%), or 3 (9%); 37 (43%) had cirrhosis (16 decompensated), five had fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) was 94% (80/85) in a modified intention-to-treat analysis: 95% (58/61) without RBV and 92% (22/24) with RBV, with no virologic failures. SVR12 was 100% (80/80) in an as-observed analysis excluding five nonvirologic failures. Four patients (5%) discontinued therapy for adverse events (AEs); 16 (18%) experienced serious AEs. One patient died on treatment and five during follow-up. Most AEs were associated with advanced liver disease and unrelated to therapy. No clinically significant drug-drug interactions were observed. DCV + SOF ± RBV was well tolerated and achieved high SVR12 (94%) in patients with post-transplant HCV recurrence, including patients with severe liver disease.

  8. Associating pancreaticostomy and biliary-irrigation for staged pancreaticoduodenectomy approach to pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with recurrent cholangitis and severe jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Lou, Siyuan; Zhou, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patient concerns: A 63-year-old man was hospitalized with history of abdominal pain since more than 1 year, and that of fever with chills since 2 weeks. Diagnoses: Based on the laboratory investigations and radiologic findings, a preliminary diagnosis of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with recurrent cholangitis and severe jaundice was made. Interventions: An initial attempt at endoscopic and image-guided drainage proved unsuccessful. Due to cholangitis, liver dysfunction, and hypoalbuminemia, the patient was deemed to be medically unfit for radical surgery. Therefore we considered a novel strategy of associating pancreaticostomy and biliary-irrigation for staged pancreaticoduodenectomy (APBSP). In the first stage, biliary tract double irrigation (endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and T-tube) in combination with pancreaticostomy was performed, which alleviated the symptoms and helped improve the general condition of the patient. In the second stage, radical pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Outcomes: Over a follow-up period of 23 months, no recurrence occurred. Lessons: In this report, we present a previously unreported treatment strategy for pancreatic IPMN with recurrent cholangitis and jaundice. The innovative treatment approach may help advance the understanding and management of this condition. PMID:27902614

  9. Recurrent sclerema in a young infant presenting with severe sepsis and severe pneumonia: an uncommon but extremely life-threatening condition.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Farzana; Pietroni, Mark A C; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2013-12-01

    A one month and twenty-five days old baby girl with problems of acute watery diarrhoea, severe dehydration, severe malnutrition, and reduced activity was admitted to the gastrointestinal unit of Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. The differentials included dehydration, dyselectrolytaemia and severe sepsis. She was treated following the protocolized management guidelines of the hospital. However, within the next 24 hours, the patient deteriorated with additional problems of severe sepsis, severe pneumonia, hypoxaemia, ileus, and sclerema. She was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In the ICU, she was managed with oxygen supplementation, intravenous antibiotics, intravenous fluid, including a number of blood transfusions, vitamins, minerals, and diet. One month prior to this admission, she had been admitted to the ICU also with sclerema, septic shock, and urinary tract infection due to Escherichia coli and was discharged after full recovery. On both the occasions, she required repeated blood transfusions and aggressive antibiotic therapy in addition to appropriate fluid therapy and oxygen supplementation. She fully recovered from severe sepsis, severe malnutrition, ileus, sclerema, and pneumonia, both clinically and radiologically and was discharged two weeks after admission. Consecutive episodes of sclerema, resulting in two successive hospitalizations in a severely-malnourished young septic infant, have never been reported. However, this was managed successfully with blood transfusion, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and correction of electrolyte imbalance.

  10. 29-year-old man presenting with progressive dyspnea, oculocutaneous albinism, and epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Asefi, Golriz; Lahiji, Arta; Kamangar, Nader

    2015-06-01

    A 29-year-old man with a history of oculocutaneous albinism presented to the ED complaining of progressive dyspnea on exertion. One month prior to admission, the patient had begun to experience worsening dyspnea provoked by routine household activities. Additionally, he had developed a nonproductive cough, exacerbated by cold weather. He denied associated chest pain, hemoptysis, fever, chills, or night sweats. He denied any new exposures or sick contacts in the recent past. A review of systems was significant for a history of epistaxis and frequent bruising. Born in Honduras, he had immigrated to the United States approximately 10 years prior to his presentation to our facility. Furthermore, there was no family history of albinism, bleeding disorders, or pulmonary disease.

  11. Hepatic sonography in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia hospitalized for epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Draghi, F.; Presazzi, A.; Danesino, G.M.; de Matthaeis, N.; Rapaccini, G.L.; Danesino, C.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the presence of telangiectasias and arteriovenous malformations in various organs and organ systems, including the liver. The most frequent clinical manifestation of HHT is epistaxis. In 2010 (January–December inclusive) 51 patients with HHT were admitted to the ENT ward of our hospital for epistaxis, and in accordance with routine protocols, all 51 underwent abdominal ultrasonography in our department to detect hepatovascular lesions. They included 27 males (53%) and 24 (47%) females ranging in age from 11 to 86 years (mean 48.5 years). The sample was selected in an arbitrary manner to take maximum advantage of the hospital stay and monitor patients from regions other than our own. Retrospective analysis of the findings from these sonographic examinations revealed hepatic HHT in 27 (53%) of the 51 patients. Nineteen (70%) of these (age range 40–86 years, mean 63) had vascular malformations of various dimensions but no portal hypertension; the other eight (30%) (age range 39–81 years, mean 60) had vascular malformations plus portal hypertension. Our retrospective analysis indicates that a significant number of patients can have unrecognized hepatic involvement; that the appearance of hepatic lesions can be fairly unpredictable, even when the HHT has been diagnosed for years and the patients are already symptomatic; and that the hepatic lesions are frequently progressive. Therefore, regular sonographic follow-up is advisable for patients with HHT. The limitations of this study are related to the small number of patients examined and to the fact that all of them were symptomatic. Further study is therefore needed (especially in asymptomatic patients) to define the indications for hepatic sonography and the optimum examination schedule. PMID:23449465

  12. Budget impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes who experience severe recurrent hypoglycemic episodes in Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marga; Elías, Isabel; Álvarez, María; Quirós, Carmen; Conget, Ignacio

    Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective. Budget impact was based on a retrospective, observational study evaluating the efficacy of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus conducted at Hospital Clínic i Universitari in Barcelona, where one of the main indications for switching to CSII were recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes. The mean number of annual episodes was 1.33 in the two years prior to CSII start and 0.08 in the last two years of follow up (p=0.003). Costs of treatment and major hypoglycemic events over a four-year period were considered. Costs were taken from different Spanish data sources and expressed in € of 2016. Treatment with CSII increased costs by €9,509 per patient as compared to multiple daily insulin injections (€11,902-€2,393). Cost associated to severe hypoglycemic events decreased by €19,330 per patient treated with CSIII (€1,371-€20,701). Results suggest mean total savings of €9,821 per patient during the four-year study period. The higher costs associated to CSII therapy may be totally offset by the severe hypoglycemic events prevented. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrent recurrent gallstone ileus.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Z; Ahmed, M S; Alexander, D J; Miller, G V; Chintapatla, S

    2010-07-01

    We describe the second reported case of three consecutive episodes of gallstone ileus and ask the question whether recurrent gallstone ileus justifies definitive surgery to the fistula itself or can be safely managed by repeated enterotomies.

  14. Preventing melasma recurrence: prescribing a maintenance regimen with an effective triple combination cream based on long-standing clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Arellano, I; Cestari, T; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Azulay-Abulafia, L; Bezerra Trindade Neto, P; Hexsel, D; Machado-Pinto, J; Muñoz, H; Rivitti-Machado, M C; Sittart, J A; Trindade de Almeida, A R; Rego, V; Paliargues, F; Marques-Hassun, K

    2012-05-01

    The relapsing nature of melasma emphasizes the need to maintain efficacy achieved after acute treatment. To compare clinical efficacy and safety of two 6-month Triple Combination (TC; containing fluocinolone acetonide, hydroquinone and tretinoin) maintenance regimens in subjects with moderate to severe melasma, after daily treatment up to 8 weeks. This randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled study had a maintenance phase of 6 months. Sixteen centres in Brazil and Mexico enrolled 242 subjects 18 years or older attaining no or mild melasma after 8 weeks of daily TC applications. Subjects were randomized to receive TC in a twice weekly or tapering regimen [3/week (1st month), 2/week (2nd month), 1/week (4th month)]. Efficacy and safety measurements included median time to relapse and relapse-free rate, Global Severity Score, Melasma Area and Severity Index score (MASI), subject's assessment, quality of life questionnaire (MelasQol), and adverse events. The majority (78.8%) had no or mild melasma (GSS ≤ 1) at week 8 and entered maintenance phase. After 6 months, 53% of patients remained relapse-free with improved quality of life, and time to relapse was similar between groups (about 190 days). Melasma severity at study entry, not maintenance baseline, influenced relapse rate. The twice weekly regimen tended to show better effectiveness in postponing relapse in severe melasma. Both regimens were safe. After resolution of melasma with TC, maintenance therapy over 6 months was successful in preventing relapse in over half of the patients who entered maintenance phase. Prescribing medicines should be adapted to patients based on melasma severity. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Combined supracondylar femoral derotation osteotomy and patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for recurrent patellar dislocation and severe femoral anteversion syndrome: surgical technique and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Nelitz, Manfred; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Williams, Sean Robert March; Dornacher, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Severly increased femoral anteversion is an important risk factor for patellofemoral instability. Recurrent dislocations cause a traumatic disruption of the medial patellofemoral ligament. Therefore a procedure that combines femoral derotation osteotomy and patellofemoral ligament reconstruction should be considered for patients with severely increased femoral anteversion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective and objective outcomes after combined femoral derotation osteotomy and anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL. 12 consecutive patients (12 knees) with patellofemoral instability and severely increased femoral anteversion underwent combined femoral derotation osteotomy and anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL. Preoperative radiographic examination included AP and lateral views to assess patella alta. MRI was performed to evaluate trochlear dysplasia and tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance. Additionally, MRI assessment of the rotational profile was performed. Evaluation included evaluation of cartilage injuries, preoperative and postoperative physical examination, visual analog scale (VAS), Kujala score, International Knee Documentation Committee score (IKDC), Activity Rating Scale (ARS) and Tegner activity score. The average age at the time of operation was 18.2 years (range, 15-26 years). The average follow-up after operation was 16.4 months postoperatively (range, 12-28 months). No recurrent dislocation occurred. The results showed a significant improvement of the Kujala score, IKDC score and VAS (p < 0.01). The activity level according to the Tegner activity score and ARS did not show statistically significant changes (p = 0.75; p = 1.0). Combined anatomical reconstruction of the MPFL and femoral derotation osteotomy resulted in significant improvement of knee function and good patient satisfaction in young patients with severely increased femoral anteversion. No re-dislocation of the patella occured.

  16. Long-term variability of heat waves in Argentina and recurrence probability of the severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Kyselý, Jan; Almeira, Gustavo; Lhotka, Ondřej

    2016-05-01

    Heat waves are one of the main concerns related to the impacts of climate change, because their frequency and severity are projected to increase in a future climate. The objectives of this work are to study the long-term variability of heat waves over Argentina and to estimate recurrence probability of the most severe 2008 heat wave in Buenos Aires. We used three definitions of heat waves that were based on (1) daily maximum temperature above the 90th percentile (MaxTHW), (2) daily minimum temperature above the 90th percentile (MinTHW) and (3) both maximum and minimum temperatures above the corresponding 90th percentiles (EHW). The minimum length of a heat wave was 3 days, and the analysis was performed over the October-March period. Decadal values in Buenos Aires experienced clear increases in heat waves according to MinTHW and EHW, with the highest frequency for both in the 2001-2010 decade, but at other stations, combinations of different trends and decadal variability resulted in some cases in a decrease of extreme heat waves. In the north-western part of the country, a strong positive change in the last decade was found, mainly due to the increment in the persistence of MinTHW but also accompanied by increases in MaxTHW. In general, other stations show a clear positive trend in MinTHW and decadal variability in MaxTHW, with the largest EHW cases in the last decade. We also estimated recurrence probability of the longest and most severe heat wave in Buenos Aires (over 1909-2010, according to intensity measured by the cumulative excess of maximum daily temperature above the 90th percentile) that occurred from 3 to 14 November 2008, by means of simulations with a stochastic first-order autoregressive model. The recurrence probability of such long and severe heat wave is small in the present climate but it is likely to increase substantially in the near future even under a moderate warming trend.

  17. Sphenopalatine arteriovenous fistula complicating transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A rare cause of delayed epistaxis treatable by endovascular embolization

    PubMed Central

    Eneling, Johanna; Karlsson, Per M.; Rossitti, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular injuries in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas are uncommon but can result in serious disability or death. Case Description: A 46-year-old man, who underwent resection of a pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension via a transsphenoidal approach, presented with massive epistaxis five days postoperatively. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between the right sphenopalatine artery and a deep vein draining to the right internal jugular vein, as well as contrast agent extravasation at the fistula point. The AVF was catheterized and successfully occluded with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusions: Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery can be complicated by massive epistaxis from a lesion of a small branch of the external carotid artery. Airway protection through intubation and investigation with conventional digital subtraction angiography is recommended. The treatment of choice is endovascular embolization because it can be done immediately at the angiography suite. PMID:28144482

  18. [Bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma associated with HPV 11 in a 15-year-old girl with a history of severe recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Saumet, L; Damay, A; Jeziorski, E; Cartier, C; Rouleau, C; Margueritte, G; Rodière, M; Segondy, M

    2011-07-01

    Malignant transformation of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare event and the cases reported have been mainly observed in adults. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a history of severe RRP who died of a HPV 11-associated bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma with pericardial invasion. HPV 11 was identified in nasopharyngeal and tracheal papillomas, as well as in the pericardial fluid. HPV 11 isolate was further analyzed by amplification and sequencing of the E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7 genes. Only one amino acid substitution in E4 due to natural polymorphism was observed. Exons 5-9 of the patient's tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene were sequenced and no mutations were identified. This observation confirms that malignant conversion of juvenile-onset RRP associated with HPV 11 to squamous cell carcinoma may arise in children. HPV 11-induced carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated.

  19. Selective endovascular embolization for refractory idiopathic epistaxis is a safe and effective therapeutic option: technique, complications, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Gomori, John M; Eliashar, Ron; Weinberger, Jeffrey; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-05-01

    Epistaxis generally responds to conservative management, but a more invasive approach, such as superselective embolization, is sometimes justified. We report our experience with endovascular procedures in 19 patients from 2002 to 2011 for the treatment of refractory idiopatic posterior epistaxis. The sphenopalatine artery and distal internal maxillary arteries were embolized in all patients. Unilateral embolization was performed in 12 patients (63%), bilateral embolization in seven (37%). Additional embolization of the descending palatine artery was performed in eight patients (42%) and embolization of the facial artery and palatine arteries in four (21%). In one patient the distal ophthalmic artery was embolized with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. No minor or major complications occurred in relation to the embolization procedures. The average hospital stay was 11.1±8.6 days, including an average 5.2±3.4 days after embolization. Average follow-up after discharge was 21.3±25.7 months. Superselective endovascular embolization proved safe and effective in controlling idiopathic epistaxis, refractory to other maneuvers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex.

  1. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex. PMID:9541101

  2. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency, and Factor V Leiden mutation in a patient with recurrent venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Awan, Zuhier; Aljenedil, Sumayah; Rosenblatt, David S; Cusson, Jean; Gilfix, Brian M; Genest, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid that is toxic to vascular endothelial cells, and plasma elevations have been associated with venous thromboembolism. Severe hyperhomocysteinemia (>100 μmol/L) may result from mutations in the genes coding for enzymes in the trans-sulfuration or the folate/vitamin B12-dependent re-methylation pathways. Here, we report the case of a young woman with severe, recurrent thrombo-embolic events associated with severe hyperhomocysteinemia (111 μmol/L). We identified a homozygous mutation in the cystathionine β -synthase gene (p.I278T) and the presence of the Factor V Leiden mutation. Family study shows segregation of elevated homocysteine in heterozygous relatives for the mutation in the cystathionine β -synthase gene. Management consisted of anticoagulation with warfarin and supplementation with folate, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and vitamin B12. After twelve years of follow-up, plasma homocysteine levels remain in the moderate range (~20 μmol/L, reference range 8-12 μmol/L) and no further thromboembolic events were identified.

  3. Microvascular omental transfer for the treatment of severe recurrent median neuritis of the wrist: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Goitz, Robert J; Steichen, James B

    2005-01-01

    The results of reoperation for recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome have been quite disappointing. In addition to a secondary external or internal neurolysis, multiple tissues and procedures have been used to decrease scar adherence of the reoperated median nerve including muscle, fascial or fat flaps, and vein wrapping. However, each technique has certain limitations, especially in the carpal tunnel that has previously undergone multiple operations, with diffuse scar and adherence over an extended length of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and symptomatic outcome following microvascular omental transfer for severe recalcitrant median neuritis. Between 1989 and 1993, 10 extremities in seven patients underwent omental transfer for severe recurrent median neuritis at the wrist. Nine extremities in six women were available for personal evaluation at an average follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 4.5 to 8.75 years). All extremities had undergone a minimum of two previous surgical procedures, and since 1991, all patients also failed local pedicle tissue coverage. Each patient completed a physical examination, a questionnaire, and electrophysiologic studies. At surgery, all median nerves were encased in dense adherent scar, which often extended proximal to the wrist crease. There were seven neural abnormalities in six extremities, three patent median arteries, and one aberrant palmaris longus muscle. The Functional Status Index was 3.1 +/- 0.7 and the Symptom Severity Index was 3.1 +/- 0.9, with a range of 1 (best) to 5. Most symptoms were improved but not completely alleviated. Four of nine extremities exhibited improved two-point discrimination and five of seven improved sensitivity, according to the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test. Grip strength increased an average of 73 percent in seven of nine extremities and pinch strength increased 101 percent in four of nine extremities. Five of six patients were satisfied with their

  4. A model of airflow in the nasal cavities: Implications for nasal air conditioning and epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Neil; Hanna, Brendan; Watterson, John; Gallagher, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    A friction force is generated when moving air contacts the nasal walls, referred to as wall shear stress. This interaction facilitates heat and mass transfer between the mucosa and air, i.e., air-conditioning. The objective of this research was to study the distribution of wall shear stress within the nasal cavity to identify areas that contribute significantly to air-conditioning within the nasal cavity. Three-dimensional computational models of the nasal airways of five healthy subjects (three male and two female subjects) were constructed from nasal CT scans. Numerical simulations of nasal airflow were conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code Fluent 6 (Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). Wall shear stress was derived from the numerical simulation. Air-conditioning was simulated to confirm the relationship with wall shear stress. Nasal airflow simulations predicted high wall shear stress along the anterior aspect of the inferior turbinate, the anteroinferior aspect of the middle turbinate, and within Little's area. The airflow simulations indicate that the inferior and middle turbinates and Little's area on the anterior nasal septum contribute significantly to nasal air-conditioning. The concentration of wall shear stress within Little's area indicates a desiccating and potentially traumatic effect of inhaled air that may explain the predilection for spontaneous epistaxis at this site.

  5. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity on surgical staging and RFS in EC according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) risk groups. Data of 729 women with EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2000 and December 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. RFS distributions according to body mass index (BMI) in each ESMO risk group were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival was evaluated using the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine influence of multiple variables. Distribution of the 729 women with EC according to BMI was BMI < 30 (n = 442; 60.6 %), 30 ≤ BMI < 35 (n = 146; 20 %) and BMI ≥ 35 (n = 141; 19.4 %). Nodal staging was less likely to be performed in women with a BMI ≥ 35 (72 %) than for those with a BMI < 30 (90 %) (p < 0.0001). With a median follow-up of 27 months (interquartile range 13-52), the 3-year RFS was 84.5 %. BMI had no impact on RFS in obese women in the low-/intermediate-risk groups, but a BMI ≥ 35 was independently correlated to a poorer RFS (hazard ratio 12.5; 95 % confidence interval 3.1-51.3) for women in the high-risk group. Severe obesity negatively impacts RFS in women with high-risk EC, underlining the importance of complete surgical staging and adapted adjuvant therapies in this subgroup of women.

  6. Effects of recurrent violence on post-traumatic stress disorder and severe distress in conflict-affected Timor-Leste: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Liddell, Belinda; Rees, Susan; Chey, Tien; Nickerson, Angela; Tam, Natalino; Zwi, Anthony B; Brooks, Robert; Sila, Lazaro Lelan; Steel, Zachary

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of recurrent episodes of communal violence on mental health in countries recovering from mass conflict. We report results of a 6-year longitudinal study in post-conflict Timor-Leste assessing changes in mental health after a period of communal violence. We assessed 1022 adults (600 from a rural village, 422 from an urban district) exposed to mass conflict during the Indonesian occupation after independence in 2004, and again in 2010-11, following a period of internal conflict. We took a census of all adults living at the two sites. The survey included measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe distress, traumatic events, poverty, ongoing conflict, and injustice. 1247 (80%) of 1554 invited adults participated in the baseline survey. 1038 (89% of those eligible) were followed up. The analysis included 1022 people who had sufficient data at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder increased from 23 of 1022 (2.3%) in 2004, to 171 of 1022 (16.7%) in 2010. The prevalence of severe distress also increased, from 57 of 1022 (5.6%) in 2004, to 162 of 1022 (15.9%) in 2010. Both these outcomes were associated with disability at follow-up. Having post-traumatic stress at follow-up was associated with being a woman (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.32), experience of human rights trauma (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47), or exposure to murder (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) during the Indonesian occupation (1975-99), human rights trauma during the period of internal violence in 2006-07 (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.03), and ongoing family or community conflict (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.80) or preoccupations with injustice for two or three historical periods (OR 4.06, 2.63-6.28). Severe distress at follow-up was associated with health stress (OR 1.47, 1.14-1.90), exposure to murder (OR 1.57, 1.27-1.95), and natural disaster (OR 1.65, 1.03-2.64) during the Indonesian occupation, conflict-related trauma during the internal

  7. Recurrent De Novo Dominant Mutations in SLC25A4 Cause Severe Early-Onset Mitochondrial Disease and Loss of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kyle; Majd, Homa; Dallabona, Christina; Reinson, Karit; King, Martin S; Alston, Charlotte L; He, Langping; Lodi, Tiziana; Jones, Simon A; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Fraenkel, Nitay D; Saada, Ann; Haham, Alon; Isohanni, Pirjo; Vara, Roshni; Barbosa, Inês A; Simpson, Michael A; Deshpande, Charu; Puusepp, Sanna; Bonnen, Penelope E; Rodenburg, Richard J; Suomalainen, Anu; Õunap, Katrin; Elpeleg, Orly; Ferrero, Ileana; McFarland, Robert; Kunji, Edmund R S; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-10-06

    Mutations in SLC25A4 encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC1 are well-recognized causes of mitochondrial disease. Several heterozygous SLC25A4 mutations cause adult-onset autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia associated with multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions, whereas recessive SLC25A4 mutations cause childhood-onset mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Here, we describe the identification by whole-exome sequencing of seven probands harboring dominant, de novo SLC25A4 mutations. All affected individuals presented at birth, were ventilator dependent and, where tested, revealed severe combined mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies associated with a marked loss of mitochondrial DNA copy number in skeletal muscle. Strikingly, an identical c.239G>A (p.Arg80His) mutation was present in four of the seven subjects, and the other three case subjects harbored the same c.703C>G (p.Arg235Gly) mutation. Analysis of skeletal muscle revealed a marked decrease of AAC1 protein levels and loss of respiratory chain complexes containing mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. We show that both recombinant AAC1 mutant proteins are severely impaired in ADP/ATP transport, affecting most likely the substrate binding and mechanics of the carrier, respectively. This highly reduced capacity for transport probably affects mitochondrial DNA maintenance and in turn respiration, causing a severe energy crisis. The confirmation of the pathogenicity of these de novo SLC25A4 mutations highlights a third distinct clinical phenotype associated with mutation of this gene and demonstrates that early-onset mitochondrial disease can be caused by recurrent de novo mutations, which has significant implications for the application and analysis of whole-exome sequencing data in mitochondrial disease. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between epistaxis and hypertension: a study of patients seen in the emergency units of two tertiary health institutions in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isezuo, S A; Segun-Busari, S; Ezunu, E; Yakubu, A; Iseh, K; Legbo, J; Alabi, B S; Dunmade, A E; Ologe, F E

    2008-12-01

    Both epistaxis and hypertension are common in the general population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hypertension among epistaxics, and the relationship between epistaxis and hypertension. Retrospective analysis of 62 adults comprising 31 each of males and females with a mean age of 41.4 +/- 16.6 years (range: 18-90 years) that presented in the emergency units of two tertiary health institutions seen over 11 years was done. Main outcome measure was the prevalence of hypertension amongst epistaxics. Seventy-six age and sex-matched patients with bleeding from sites other than the nostrils with no record of epistaxis were selected by simple random sampling as controls. Peak prevalence of epistaxis occurred during the months of January and March. Compared to the controls, the epistaxics had significantly higher blood pressures: (146.1 +/- 40.7 mmHg versus 123.2 +/- 16.3 mmHg systolic, P=0.001), and (91.3 +/- 24.8 mmHg versus 78.2 +/- 12.8 mmHg diastolic, P=0.001), and higher proportions of patients with previous history of hypertension (32.3% versus 7.9%; p<0.001) and family history of hypertension (12.9% versus 2.6%; p<0.02). The proportion of subjects with blood pressure elevation at presentation that remained sustained was significantly higher among the epistaxics than the nonepistaxics (87.5% versus 47.6%, chi2=8.1, P=0.005). The epistaxics had significantly higher prevalence of hypertension than the non-epistaxics (45.2% versus 13.2%, chi2=17.5, p=0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated association between epistaxis and hypertension (OR=5.4, 95% CI=2.4-12.5, P=0.001), and between epistaxis and age (OR=0.9, 95% CI=1.3-12.5, P=0.02). On multivariate analysis using logistic regression the association between epistaxis and hypertension persisted, after adjusting for age, sex, season and causes of epistaxis (OR=5.6, 95% CI=1.7-15.6, P=0.01). Our findings support an association between epistaxis and hypertension in the study population.

  9. Dosage-Dependent Severity of the Phenotype in Patients with Mental Retardation Due to a Recurrent Copy-Number Gain at Xq28 Mediated by an Unusual Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Joke; Van Esch, Hilde; Govaerts, Karen; Verbeeck, Jelle; Zweier, Christiane; Madrigal, Irene; Mila, Montserrat; Pijkels, Elly; Fernandez, Isabel; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Spaich, Christiane; Rauch, Anita; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2009-01-01

    We report on the identification of a 0.3 Mb inherited recurrent but variable copy-number gain at Xq28 in affected males of four unrelated families with X-linked mental retardation (MR). All aberrations segregate with the disease in the families, and the carrier mothers show nonrandom X chromosome inactivation. Tiling Xq28-region-specific oligo array revealed that all aberrations start at the beginning of the low copy repeat LCR-K1, at position 153.20 Mb, and end just distal to LCR-L2, at 153.54 Mb. The copy-number gain always includes 18 annotated genes, of which RPL10, ATP6AP1 and GDI1 are highly expressed in brain. From these, GDI1 is the most likely candidate gene. Its copy number correlates with the severity of clinical features, because it is duplicated in one family with nonsyndromic moderate MR, is triplicated in males from two families with mild MR and additional features, and is present in five copies in a fourth family with a severe syndromic form of MR. Moreover, expression analysis revealed copy-number-dependent increased mRNA levels in affected patients compared to control individuals. Interestingly, analysis of the breakpoint regions suggests a recombination mechanism that involves two adjacent but different sets of low copy repeats. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that an increased expression of GDI1 results in impaired cognition in a dosage-dependent manner. Moreover, these data also imply that a copy-number gain of an individual gene present in the larger genomic aberration that leads to the severe MECP2 duplication syndrome can of itself result in a clinical phenotype as well. PMID:20004760

  10. Mutation screening in patients with syndromic craniosynostoses indicates that a limited number of recurrent FGFR2 mutations accounts for severe forms of Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lajeunie, Elisabeth; Heuertz, Solange; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Martinovic, Jelena; Renier, Dominique; Le Merrer, Martine; Bonaventure, Jacky

    2006-03-01

    Crouzon Syndrome (CS), Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) and the phenotypically related Jackson-Weiss (JW) variant are three craniosynostotic conditions caused by heterozygous mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) genes. Screening a large cohort of 84 patients with clinical features of CS, PS or JW by direct sequencing of genomic DNA, enabled FGFR1, 2 or 3 mutation detection in 79 cases. Mutations preferentially occurred in exons 8 and 10 of FGFR2 encoding the third Ig loop of the receptor. Among the 74 FGFR2 mutations that we identified, four were novel including three missense substitutions causing CS and a 2 bp deletion creating a premature stop codon and producing JW phenotype. Five FGFR2 mutations were found in one of the two tyrosine kinase subdomains and one in the Ig I loop. Interestingly, two FGFR2 mutations creating cysteine residues (W290C and Y340C) caused severe forms of PS while conversion of the same residues into another amino-acid (W290G/R, Y340H) resulted in Crouzon phenotype exclusively. Our data provide conclusive evidence that the mutational spectrum of FGFR2 mutations in CS and PS is wider than originally thought. Genotype-phenotype analyses based on our cohort and previous studies further indicate that in spite of some overlap, PS and CS are preferentially accounted for by two distinct sets of FGFR2 mutations. A limited number of recurrent amino-acid changes (W290C, Y340C, C342R and S351C) is commonly associated with the most severe Pfeiffer phenotypes of poor prognosis.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, Hakan Soylu, Nur; Albayram, Sait; Selcuk, Dogan; Ozer, Harun; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan

    2005-04-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection.0.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, Hakan Soylu, Nur; Albayram, Sait; Selcuk, Dogan; Ozer, Harun; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan

    2005-04-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection.

  13. Prevalence, Severity, and Treatment of Recurrent Wheezing During the First Year of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study of 12,405 Latin American Infants

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Rosario, Nelson; Aguirre, Viviana; Chong, Herberto; Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Szulman, Gabriela; Niederbacher, Jurg; Arruda-Chavez, Erika; Toledo, Eliana; Sánchez, Lillian; Pinchak, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of recurrent wheezing (RW) defined as ≥3 episodes of wheezing, risk factors, and treatments prescribed during the first year of life in Latin American infants. Methods In this international, cross-sectional, and community-based study, parents of 12,405 infants from 11 centers in 6 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Uruguay) completed a questionnaire about wheezing and associated risk/protective factors, asthma medications, and the frequency of and indications for the prescription of antibiotics and paracetamol during the first year of life. Results The prevalence of RW was 16.6% (95% CI 16.0-17.3); of the 12,405 infants, 72.7% (95% CI 70.7-74.6) visited the Emergency Department for wheezing, and 29.7% (27.7-31.7) was admitted. Regarding treatment, 49.1% of RW infants received inhaled corticosteroids, 55.7% oral corticosteroids, 26.3% antileukotrienes, 22.9% antibiotics ≥4 times mainly for common colds, wheezing, and pharyngitis, and 57.5% paracetamol ≥4 times. Tobacco smoking during pregnancy, household income per month <1,000 USD, history of parental asthma, male gender, and nursery school attendance were significant risk factors for higher prevalence and severity of RW, whereas breast-feeding for at least 3 months was a significant protective factor. Pneumonia and admissions for pneumonia were significantly higher in infants with RW as compared to the whole sample (3.5-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively). Conclusions RW affects 1.6 out of 10 infants during the first year of life, with a high prevalence of severe episodes, frequent visits to the Emergency Department, and frequent admissions for wheezing. Besides the elevated prescription of asthma medications, there is an excessive use of antibiotics and paracetamol in infants with RW and also in the whole sample, which is mainly related to common colds. PMID:26540498

  14. 'How to stop a nosebleed': an assessment of the quality of epistaxis treatment advice on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Haymes, A T; Harries, V

    2016-08-01

    Video hosting websites are increasingly being used to disseminate health education messages. This study aimed to assess the quality of advice contained within YouTube videos on the conservative management of epistaxis. YouTube.com was searched using the phrase 'how to stop a nosebleed'. The first 50 videos were screened. Objective advice scores and subjective production quality scores were attributed by independent raters. Forty-five videos were analysed. The mean advice score was 2.0 out of 8 and the mean production quality score was 1.6 out of 3. There were no correlations between a video's advice score and its search results rank (ρ = -0.28, p = 0.068), its view count (ρ = 0.20, p = 0.19) or its number of 'likes' (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.18). The quality of information on conservative epistaxis management within YouTube videos is extremely variable. A high search rank is no indication of video quality. Many videos proffer inappropriate and dangerous 'alternative' advice. We do not recommend YouTube as a source for patient information.

  15. Reduction in overt and silent stroke recurrence rate following cerebral revascularization surgery in children with sickle cell disease and severe cerebral vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Erin M.; Leonard, Jeffrey; Smith, Jodi L.; Guilliams, Kristin P.; Binkley, Michael; Fallon, Robert J.; Hulbert, Monica L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and moyamoya may benefit from indirect cerebral revascularization surgery in addition to chronic blood transfusion therapy for infarct prevention. We sought to compare overt and silent infarct recurrence rates in children with SCD undergoing revascularization. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all children with SCD and moyamoya treated at two children’s hospitals. Clinical events and imaging studies were reviewed. Results Twenty-seven children with SCD and confirmed moyamoya receiving chronic transfusion therapy were identified, of whom 12 underwent indirect cerebral revascularization. Two subjects had post-operative transient ischemic attacks and another had a subarachnoid blood collection, none of which caused permanent consequences. Two subjects had surgical wound infections. Among these 12 children, the rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence decreased from 13.4 infarcts/100 patient-years before revascularization to 0 infarcts/100 patient-years after revascularization (p=0.0057); the post-revascularization infarct recurrence rate was also significantly lower than the overall infarct recurrence of 8.87 infarcts/100 patient-years in 15 children without cerebral revascularization (p=0.025). Conclusion The rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence was significantly lower following indirect cerebral revascularization. A prospective study of cerebral revascularization in children with SCD is needed. PMID:27106860

  16. Reduction in Overt and Silent Stroke Recurrence Rate Following Cerebral Revascularization Surgery in Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Severe Cerebral Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Erin M; Leonard, Jeffrey; Smith, Jodi L; Guilliams, Kristin P; Binkley, Michael; Fallon, Robert J; Hulbert, Monica L

    2016-08-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and moyamoya may benefit from indirect cerebral revascularization surgery in addition to chronic blood transfusion therapy for infarct prevention. We sought to compare overt and silent infarct recurrence rates in children with SCD undergoing revascularization. This was a retrospective cohort study of all children with SCD and moyamoya treated at two children's hospitals. Clinical events and imaging studies were reviewed. Twenty-seven children with SCD and confirmed moyamoya receiving chronic transfusion therapy were identified, of whom 12 underwent indirect cerebral revascularization. Two subjects had postoperative transient ischemic attacks and another had a subarachnoid blood collection, none of which caused permanent consequences. Two subjects had surgical wound infections. Among these 12 children, the rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence decreased from 13.4 infarcts/100 patient-years before revascularization to 0 infarcts/100 patient-years after revascularization (P = 0.0057); the postrevascularization infarct recurrence rate was also significantly lower than the overall infarct recurrence of 8.87 infarcts/100 patient-years in 15 children without cerebral revascularization (P = 0.025). The rate of overt and silent infarct recurrence was significantly lower following indirect cerebral revascularization. A prospective study of cerebral revascularization in children with SCD is needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The use of nasal endoscopy to control profuse epistaxis from a fracture of the basi-sphenoid in a seven-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Bateman, N; Jones, N S

    1999-06-01

    A seven-year-old child sustained a fracture of her basisphenoid resulting in profuse, life-threatening haemorrhage which could not be controlled with a post-nasal pack. The fracture site was identified using rigid endoscopy and packed with oxidized cellulose, resulting in immediate control of the haemorrhage. The use of the nasal endoscope in the management of posterior epistaxis is discussed.

  18. Relationship between visible branch arteries distal to the stenosis on magnetic resonance angiography and stroke recurrence in patients with severe middle cerebral artery trunk stenosis: a one-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbing; Li, Zhuhao; Hong, Hua; Xing, Shihui; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Aiwu; Tan, Shuangquan; Zhang, Jian; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2015-09-16

    To evaluate the relationship between the flow signal intensity of branch arteries distal to the stenosis on 3-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk stenosis. We prospectively recruited 153 patients (mean age 62.9 ± 13.0 years, 106 males) with a first ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack caused by a severe MCA trunk stenosis (70 % to 99 %) confirmed by 3D TOF MRA and followed them for one year to determine the stroke recurrence. The MCA branch signal intensity distal to the site of stenosis on 3D TOF MRA was classified as either good (grade A) or poor [mild reduction (grade B) or severe reduction (grade C)] according to the extent to which the MCA could be visualized. The patients were divided into groups A (35), B (58), or C (60) based on the MRA grading of the MCA branch signal intensity distal to the site of stenosis. Poor MCA branch signal intensity was associated with internal border-zone infarction (p < 0.05). The risk of stroke recurrence in the ipsilateral MCA in the first year was 18.3 %. The 1-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was higher in the patients in group C (30 %) than in groups B (12.1 %) or A (8.6 %) (Log rank, p = 0.007). Multivariate analyses via Cox proportional hazard regression demonstrated that only a grade C classification of the signal intensity of the MCA branches was an independent predictor of stroke recurrence in the ipsilateral MCA (hazard ratio = 3.0, 95 % confidence interval = 1.3-7.4, p = 0.014). This study demonstrated that MCA branch signal intensity as assessed via 3D TOF MRA may be a useful and simple tool to stratify the risk of stroke recurrence in patients with severe MCA trunk stenosis.

  19. Computed tomography findings of a patient with severe dysplasia of the inner ear and recurrent meningitis: a case report of gusher ear in a five-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Houman; Nasri, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Jamsa, Shahin

    2014-08-01

    Communication between subarachnoid and perlymphatic spaces can be due to a deficiency of lamina cribrosa (stapes gusher). Recognition of the condition may alter the course of treatment that can avoid perilymph gushing. A five-year-old boy presented with a history of congenital hearing loss and recurrent meningitis. The computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone showed severe bilateral dysplasia in the inner ears in favor of gusher disease.

  20. Computed Tomography Findings of a Patient With Severe Dysplasia of the Inner Ear and Recurrent Meningitis: A Case Report of Gusher Ear in a Five-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Houman; Nasri, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Jamsa, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Communication between subarachnoid and perlymphatic spaces can be due to a deficiency of lamina cribrosa (stapes gusher). Recognition of the condition may alter the course of treatment that can avoid perilymph gushing. A five-year-old boy presented with a history of congenital hearing loss and recurrent meningitis. The computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone showed severe bilateral dysplasia in the inner ears in favor of gusher disease. PMID:25763081

  1. Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Related to Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Keval; Griffing, George T; Hauptman, Paul J; Stolker, Joshua M

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction caused by transient wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricular apex and mid ventricle in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Recurrent episodes are rare but have been reported, and several cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have been described in the presence of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy, documented by repeat coronary angiography and evaluations of left ventricular function, in the presence of recurrent hyperthyroidism related to Graves disease. After both episodes, the patient's left ventricular function returned to normal when her thyroid function normalized. These findings suggest a possible role of thyroid-hormone excess in the pathophysiology of some patients who have takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  2. Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Related to Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Keval; Griffing, George T.; Hauptman, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction caused by transient wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricular apex and mid ventricle in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Recurrent episodes are rare but have been reported, and several cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have been described in the presence of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy, documented by repeat coronary angiography and evaluations of left ventricular function, in the presence of recurrent hyperthyroidism related to Graves disease. After both episodes, the patient's left ventricular function returned to normal when her thyroid function normalized. These findings suggest a possible role of thyroid-hormone excess in the pathophysiology of some patients who have takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27127432

  3. Bevacizumab (BVZ)-Associated Toxicities in Children with Recurrent Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumors treated with BVZ and Irinotecan (CPT-11): a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-022)

    PubMed Central

    Fangusaro, Jason; Gururangan, Sridharan; Young-Poussaint, Tina; McLendon, Roger E.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Warren, Katherine E.; Wu, Shengjie; Packer, Roger J.; Banerjee, Anu; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Jakacki, Regina; Gajjar, Amar; Goldman, Stewart; Pollack, Ian F.; Friedman, Henry S.; Boyett, James M.; Kun, Larry E.; Fouladi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence and spectrum of acute toxicities related to the use of bevacizumab (BVZ)-containing regimens in children are largely unknown. We report on the adverse events in a recently completed large phase II trial of BVZ plus irinotecan (CPT-11) in children with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) trial-022 evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of BVZ (10 mg/kg administered intravenously) as a single agent for 2 doses given two weeks apart and then combined with CPT-11 every 2 weeks (1 course = 4 weeks) in children with recurrent CNS tumors. Children were treated until they experienced progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity or completed up to a maximum of two years of therapy. Toxicities were graded according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0. Patients who received at least one dose of BVZ were included for toxicity assessment. Results Between October 2006 and June 2010, 92 patients evaluable for toxicity were enrolled and received 687 treatment courses. The most common toxicities attributable to BVZ included grade I–III hypertension (38% of patients), grade I–III fatigue (30%), grade I–II epistaxis (24%) and grade I–IV proteinuria (22%). Twenty-two patients (24%) stopped therapy due to toxicity. Conclusions The combination of BVZ and CPT-11 was fairly well-tolerated, and most severe BVZ-related toxicities were rare, self-limiting and manageable. PMID:24104527

  4. Predictors of Recurrent AKI

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Sharidan K.; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Eden, Svetlana K.; Peterson, Josh F.; Bansal, Nisha; Hung, Adriana M.; Fly, James; Speroff, Ted; Ikizler, T. Alp; Matheny, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent AKI is common among patients after hospitalized AKI and is associated with progressive CKD. In this study, we identified clinical risk factors for recurrent AKI present during index AKI hospitalizations that occurred between 2003 and 2010 using a regional Veterans Administration database in the United States. AKI was defined as a 0.3 mg/dl or 50% increase from a baseline creatinine measure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge from the index hospitalization. Time to recurrent AKI was examined using Cox regression analysis, and sensitivity analyses were performed using a competing risk approach. Among 11,683 qualifying AKI hospitalizations, 2954 patients (25%) were hospitalized with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge. Median time to recurrent AKI within 12 months was 64 (interquartile range 19–167) days. In addition to known demographic and comorbid risk factors for AKI, patients with longer AKI duration and those whose discharge diagnosis at index AKI hospitalization included congestive heart failure (primary diagnosis), decompensated advanced liver disease, cancer with or without chemotherapy, acute coronary syndrome, or volume depletion, were at highest risk for being hospitalized with recurrent AKI. Risk factors identified were similar when a competing risk model for death was applied. In conclusion, several inpatient conditions associated with AKI may increase the risk for recurrent AKI. These findings should facilitate risk stratification, guide appropriate patient referral after AKI, and help generate potential risk reduction strategies. Efforts to identify modifiable factors to prevent recurrent AKI in these patients are warranted. PMID:26264853

  5. Predictors of Recurrent AKI.

    PubMed

    Siew, Edward D; Parr, Sharidan K; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Eden, Svetlana K; Peterson, Josh F; Bansal, Nisha; Hung, Adriana M; Fly, James; Speroff, Ted; Ikizler, T Alp; Matheny, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent AKI is common among patients after hospitalized AKI and is associated with progressive CKD. In this study, we identified clinical risk factors for recurrent AKI present during index AKI hospitalizations that occurred between 2003 and 2010 using a regional Veterans Administration database in the United States. AKI was defined as a 0.3 mg/dl or 50% increase from a baseline creatinine measure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge from the index hospitalization. Time to recurrent AKI was examined using Cox regression analysis, and sensitivity analyses were performed using a competing risk approach. Among 11,683 qualifying AKI hospitalizations, 2954 patients (25%) were hospitalized with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge. Median time to recurrent AKI within 12 months was 64 (interquartile range 19-167) days. In addition to known demographic and comorbid risk factors for AKI, patients with longer AKI duration and those whose discharge diagnosis at index AKI hospitalization included congestive heart failure (primary diagnosis), decompensated advanced liver disease, cancer with or without chemotherapy, acute coronary syndrome, or volume depletion, were at highest risk for being hospitalized with recurrent AKI. Risk factors identified were similar when a competing risk model for death was applied. In conclusion, several inpatient conditions associated with AKI may increase the risk for recurrent AKI. These findings should facilitate risk stratification, guide appropriate patient referral after AKI, and help generate potential risk reduction strategies. Efforts to identify modifiable factors to prevent recurrent AKI in these patients are warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Recurrent vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anna M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginitis (VV) is one of the most commonly encountered problems by a gynecologist. Many women frequently self-treat with over-the-counter medications, and may present to their health-care provider after a treatment failure. Vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis may occur as discreet or recurrent episodes, and have been associated with significant treatment cost and morbidity. We present an update on diagnostic capabilities and treatment modalities that address recurrent and refractory episodes of VV.

  7. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Akintoye, Sunday O.; Greenberg, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease affecting the oral mucosa. It occurs mostly in healthy individuals and has atypical clinical presentation in immunocompromised individuals. The etiology of RAS is still unknown, but several local, systemic, immunologic, genetic, allergic, nutritional, and microbial factors, as well as immunosuppressive drugs, have been proposed as causative agents. Clinical management of RAS is based on severity of symptoms, frequency, size and number of lesions using topical and systemic therapies. The goals of therapy are to decrease pain and ulcer size, promote healing and decrease frequency of recurrence. PMID:24655523

  8. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, Sunday O; Greenberg, Martin S

    2014-04-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease affecting the oral mucosa. RAS occurs mostly in healthy individuals and has an atypical clinical presentation in immunocompromised individuals. The etiology of RAS is still unknown, but several local, systemic, immunologic, genetic, allergic, nutritional, and microbial factors, as well as immunosuppressive drugs, have been proposed as causative agents. Clinical management of RAS using topical and systemic therapies is based on severity of symptoms and the frequency, size, and number of lesions. The goals of therapy are to decrease pain and ulcer size, promote healing, and decrease the frequency of recurrence.

  9. Can trainees design and deliver a national audit of epistaxis management? A pilot of a secure web-based audit tool and research trainee collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Mehta, N; Williams, R J; Smith, M E; Hall, A; Hardman, J C; Cheung, L; Ellis, M P; Fussey, J M; Lakhani, R; McLaren, O; Nankivell, P C; Sharma, N; Yeung, W; Carrie, S; Hopkins, C

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a national audit of epistaxis management led and delivered by a multi-region trainee collaborative using a web-based interface to capture patient data. Six trainee collaboratives across England nominated one site each and worked together to carry out this pilot. An encrypted data capture tool was adapted and installed within the infrastructure of a university secure server. Site-lead feedback was assessed through questionnaires. Sixty-three patients with epistaxis were admitted over a two-week period. Site leads reported an average of 5 minutes to complete questionnaires and described the tool as easy to use. Data quality was high, with little missing data. Site-lead feedback showed high satisfaction ratings for the project (mean, 4.83 out of 5). This pilot showed that trainee collaboratives can work together to deliver an audit using an encrypted data capture tool cost-effectively, whilst maintaining the highest levels of data quality.

  10. Ventral incisional hernia recurrence.

    PubMed

    Clark, J L

    2001-07-01

    During the period October 1993 to December 1996, 31 patients were operated on by the author for primary or recurrent ventral incisional hernia (VIH). Three patients were excluded from analysis because their records were unavailable for review. The median age of the 28 remaining patients at their initial procedure was 57.5 years (range, 37-78 years). The repair was performed with interrupted O-Ethibond sutures in all but 3 cases where Prolene suture was used secondary to noniatrogenic contamination or recurrent hernia. There were no unplanned enterotomies in the entire series and prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were used in all cases. The only significant complications were skin hyperemia after five repairs in 3 patients who were treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics, and 1 patient who had an antibiotic-associated rash. There were no 30-day mortalities. Prolene mesh was used exclusively in all repairs performed with mesh. Seven of these repairs (25%) were for recurrent VIH. Three of these seven patients had previous mesh repairs. Six of these seven patients who presented with recurrent VIH had a mesh repair and four developed a recurrence. Five of seven were active smokers, with one having severe obstructive lung disease. Four of seven related significant occupational lifting. Of the 21 patients having initial repair of VIH, mesh was used in 8 (38%). After a median follow-up of 13 months, there were 2 recurrent hernias (25%). The remaining 13 patients had primary closure of their hernias. After median follow-up of 25 months, there were 5 recurrences (38%). A total of 34 VIH repairs were performed on these 28 patients, of which 13 were for recurrent hernias. Five of thirteen (38%) of the mesh repairs for recurrent VIH failed. The median body mass index (BMI) for the 13 patients having primary repair was 26.4, and that for all 21 cases having mesh repair was 28.8. Patients with recurrent VIH frequently recur despite use of mesh, avoidance of

  11. Comparison of outcomes between endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, You; Deng, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chang-Wu; Kong, Yong-Gang; Xu, Yu; Tao, Ze-Zhang; Chen, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus and compare the treatment outcomes of endoscopic surgery and conventional nasal packing for this intractable form of epistaxis. Methods: Between August 2011 and August 2014, the medical records of 53 adult patients with idiopathic epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus diagnosed by nasal endoscopy were obtained from our department. Of these, 38 patients underwent endoscopic surgery (surgery group) and 15 received a nasal pack (packing group). The patients’ background characteristics, incidence of re-bleeding, extent of discomfort after treatment as assessed using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in background characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of re-bleeding (0/38 vs. 4/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001), VAS score for discomfort (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, surgery vs. control, P = 0.001) and incidence of nasal cavity adhesion after treatment (2/38 vs. 7/15, surgery vs. control, P = 0.007) were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the packing group. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery is superior to conventional nasal packing for the management of epistaxis in the posterior fornix of the inferior nasal meatus. During surgery, it is crucial to expose the bleeding sites by shifting the inferior turbinate inward by fracture. PMID:26870097

  12. Recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, M; Battaglia, A; Gaido, L; Gaita, F

    2017-05-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is the most troublesome complication of pericarditis occurring in 15 to 30% of cases. The pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated although a specific rheumatologic diagnosis is commonly difficult to find. The clinical diagnosis is based on recurrent pericarditis chest pain and additional objective evidence of disease activity (e.g. pericardial rub, ECG changes, pericardial effusion, elevation of markers of inflammation, and/or imaging evidence of pericardial inflammation by CT or cardiac MR). The mainstay of medical therapy for recurrent pericarditis is aspirin or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) plus colchicine. Second-line therapy is considered after failure of such treatments and it is generally based on low to moderate doses of corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg/day or equivalent) plus colchicine. More difficult cases are treated with combination of aspirin or NSAID, colchicine and corticosteroids. Refractory cases are managed by alternative medical options, including azathioprine, or intravenous human immunoglobulins or biological agents (e.g. anakinra). When all medical therapies fail, the last option may be surgical by pericardiectomy to be recommended in well-experienced centres. Despite a significant impairment of the quality of life, the most common forms of recurrent pericarditis (usually named as "idiopathic recurrent pericarditis" since without a well-defined etiological diagnosis) have good long-term outcomes with a negligible risk of developing constriction and rarely cardiac tamponade during follow-up. The present article reviews current knowledge on the definition, diagnosis, aetiology, therapy and prognosis of recurrent pericarditis with a focus on the more recent available literature. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrent Pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gribaudo, Elena; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    Recurrent pericarditis is the most common and troublesome complication of pericarditis affecting 20% to 50% of patients. Its pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated, but additional investigations are needed to clarify the pathogenesis in order to develop etiology-oriented therapies. Imaging with computed tomography and especially cardiac magnetic resonance holds promise to help in the identification of more difficult cases and improve their management. Refractory recurrent pericarditis with corticosteroid dependence and colchicine resistance remain still an unsolved issue in search of new therapies, although old drugs such as azathioprine, intravenous immunoglobulins, and biological agents seem promising, but new randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm their role. Despite compromising the quality of life, idiopathic recurrent pericarditis has an overall good long-term outcome without mortality and significant risk of constrictive pericarditis evolution. The risk of constriction, the most feared complication, is related to the etiology and not the number of recurrences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamics of influenza A virus infections in permanently infected pig farms: evidence of recurrent infections, circulation of several swine influenza viruses and reassortment events.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicolas; Hervé, Séverine; Eveno, Eric; Barbier, Nicolas; Eono, Florent; Dorenlor, Virginie; Andraud, Mathieu; Camsusou, Claire; Madec, François; Simon, Gaëlle

    2013-09-04

    Concomitant infections by different influenza A virus subtypes within pig farms increase the risk of new reassortant virus emergence. The aims of this study were to characterize the epidemiology of recurrent swine influenza virus infections and identify their main determinants. A follow-up study was carried out in 3 selected farms known to be affected by repeated influenza infections. Three batches of pigs were followed within each farm from birth to slaughter through a representative sample of 40 piglets per batch. Piglets were monitored individually on a monthly basis for serology and clinical parameters. When a flu outbreak occurred, daily virological and clinical investigations were carried out for two weeks. Influenza outbreaks, confirmed by influenza A virus detection, were reported at least once in each batch. These outbreaks occurred at a constant age within farms and were correlated with an increased frequency of sneezing and coughing fits. H1N1 and H1N2 viruses from European enzootic subtypes and reassortants between viruses from these lineages were consecutively and sometimes simultaneously identified depending on the batch, suggesting virus co-circulations at the farm, batch and sometimes individual levels. The estimated reproduction ratio R of influenza outbreaks ranged between 2.5 [1.9-2.9] and 6.9 [4.1-10.5] according to the age at infection-time and serological status of infected piglets. Duration of shedding was influenced by the age at infection time, the serological status of the dam and mingling practices. An impaired humoral response was identified in piglets infected at a time when they still presented maternally-derived antibodies.

  15. Dynamics of influenza A virus infections in permanently infected pig farms: evidence of recurrent infections, circulation of several swine influenza viruses and reassortment events

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant infections by different influenza A virus subtypes within pig farms increase the risk of new reassortant virus emergence. The aims of this study were to characterize the epidemiology of recurrent swine influenza virus infections and identify their main determinants. A follow-up study was carried out in 3 selected farms known to be affected by repeated influenza infections. Three batches of pigs were followed within each farm from birth to slaughter through a representative sample of 40 piglets per batch. Piglets were monitored individually on a monthly basis for serology and clinical parameters. When a flu outbreak occurred, daily virological and clinical investigations were carried out for two weeks. Influenza outbreaks, confirmed by influenza A virus detection, were reported at least once in each batch. These outbreaks occurred at a constant age within farms and were correlated with an increased frequency of sneezing and coughing fits. H1N1 and H1N2 viruses from European enzootic subtypes and reassortants between viruses from these lineages were consecutively and sometimes simultaneously identified depending on the batch, suggesting virus co-circulations at the farm, batch and sometimes individual levels. The estimated reproduction ratio R of influenza outbreaks ranged between 2.5 [1.9-2.9] and 6.9 [4.1-10.5] according to the age at infection-time and serological status of infected piglets. Duration of shedding was influenced by the age at infection time, the serological status of the dam and mingling practices. An impaired humoral response was identified in piglets infected at a time when they still presented maternally-derived antibodies. PMID:24007505

  16. [Recurrent purulent bacterial meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Janeczko, J; Pogorzelska, E; Lipowski, D; Przyjałkowski, W; Rzadkiewicz, E

    2001-01-01

    During the period of 25 years there were 55 patients treated in our Institute because of recurrent purulent bacterial meningoencephalitis(rpbme). This group consisted of 42 males (76%) and 13 (24%) females, the prevalent number (53%) of patients being under 21 years of age. The diagnosis of rpbme was based on the commonly accepted criteria and confirmed by the laboratory results of CSF examination. The cause of the recurrences was established considering the skull X-ray examination, CT and MRI. The evaluation of the clinical status was based on the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). During the first hospitalisation, severe or critic clinical status was noted in 42 patients (76%) and moderate in 13 (24%). The subsequent recurrences were mostly moderate, rarely severe or mild. The number of recurrences varied from 1 to 9. During the first hospitalisation, the etiologic factor was detected in 39 patients (71%), i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae in 28 (51%), Neisseria meningitidis in 8 (14%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in 2 and 1 patients respectively. In 37 patients (67%) rpbme developed following cranial trauma, in 18 cases (33%) with single or comminuted fractures of the anterior cranial fossa (in 4 cases accompanied by CSF nasal exsudate). In 4 it followed neurosurgical intervention, in 3 it accompanied recurrent purulent highmorities, in 1 case--after removal of the nasal polyps and subsequent CSF nasal exsudate, and in 1 patient with recurrent mastoiditis. In 6 cases (11%) the cause of the recurrences remained unelucidated. The clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic difficulties and the causative treatment of rpbme are discussed. In the authors' opinion, surgical treatment of the communication between the CSF and the external environment prevents the recurrences and is the only successful way of treatment. Special attention is drawn to the great diagnostic value of CT and MRI. The use of other modern techniques, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET

  17. [Recurrent aphthous stomatitis in Rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Riera Matute, Gabriel; Riera Alonso, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis consists on recurring oral ulcers of unknown etiology. Oral ulcers may be different in number and size depending on the clinical presentation, which also determines the time needed for healing. Moreover, there are factors associated to outbreaks but not implicated in its etiopathogenesis. When oral aphthosis has a known etiology, it is not considered as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The severity and the clinical presentation helps in the differential diagnosis. Treatment is symptomatic in recurrent aphthous stomatitis while, if there is an underlying systemic disease, the treatment of such disease is need in addition to topical treatment.

  18. Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation for acute idiopathic epistaxis. Do anatomical variation and a limited evidence base raise questions regarding its place in management?

    PubMed

    Ellinas, A; Jervis, P; Kenyon, G; Flood, L M

    2017-04-01

    Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation is widely accepted as effective and safe for acute spontaneous epistaxis that is unresponsive to conservative management. As with many new procedures, it has been progressively adopted as common practice, despite a limited evidence base for its efficacy. Early reviews called for comparative trials to support its adoption, but subsequent literature largely consists of case series and narrative reviews. These have attempted to derive an algorithm to establish its place in management, but consensus is still lacking. Intuitively, although there are theoretical objections, an operation regarded as relatively simple, fast and safe hardly seems to demand high-level evidence of efficacy. Rhinologists may be influenced by years of personal experience and success with the technique. However, estimates of the effect size and the added contribution to traditional surgical management are lacking. If the procedure could be shown to dramatically influence outcome, it should be standard practice and indispensable for all patients requiring operative intervention. This paper systematically examined the literature, appraising the anatomical basis for such an approach and evidence for its efficacy. It questions whether any units unable to consistently offer endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation should be undertaking surgical management of acute epistaxis.

  19. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2004-09-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a clinical entity distinct from bacterial osteomyelitis. It occurs mainly in children and adolescents and is characterized by a prolonged, fluctuating course with recurrent episodes of pain occurring over several years. CRMO is often multifocal and most often seen in tubular bones, the clavicle, and less frequently the spine and pelvic bones; other locations are rare. The radiographic appearance suggests subacute or chronic osteomyelitis. Histopathological and laboratory findings are nonspecific and bacterial culture is usually negative. CRMO is often diagnosed by exclusion of the two main differential diagnoses--bacterial infections and tumor--by assessing for a characteristic course and the findings by conventional radiography, if necessary supplemented by scintigraphy and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI appearance of CRMO lesions in tubular bones and the spine is often rather characteristic and support the diagnosis. It is important to diagnose CRMO to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures and initiate an appropriate therapy.

  20. Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) reactivity to herpes simplex virus 2 and pDC number do not correlate with the clinical or virologic severity of recurrent genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Moss, Nicholas J; Magaret, Amalia; Laing, Kerry J; Kask, Angela Shaulov; Wang, Minna; Mark, Karen E; Schiffer, Joshua T; Wald, Anna; Koelle, David M

    2012-09-01

    Leukocytes participate in the immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Data from HIV coinfections, germ line mutations, and case reports suggest involvement of CD4 T cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). We investigated the relationships between these cells and recurrent genital herpes disease severity in the general population. Circulating CD4 T-cell responses to HSV-2 were measured in specimens from 67 immunocompetent individuals with measured genital lesion and HSV shedding rates. Similarly, pDC number and functional responses to HSV-2 were analyzed in 40 persons. CD4 responses and pDC concentrations and responses ranged as much as 100-fold between persons while displaying moderate within-person consistency over time. No correlations were observed between these immune response parameters and genital HSV-2 severity. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection was not correlated with differences in HSV-2-specific CD4 T-cell responses. The CD4 T-cell response to HSV-2 was much more polyfunctional than was the response to CMV. These data suggest that other immune cell subsets with alternate phenotypes or anatomical locations may be responsible for genital herpes control in chronically infected individuals.

  1. Recurrent central neurocytomas.

    PubMed

    Bertalanffy, Alexander; Roessler, Karl; Koperek, Oskar; Gelpi, Ellen; Prayer, Daniela; Knosp, Engelbert

    2005-07-01

    Since the first description of Central neurocytomas (CNs) as a benign tumor entity in 1982, there has been great enthusiasm regarding the benign course and the curative surgical approach to this disease. The current study was performed to investigate the frequency of disease recurrence during long-term follow-up. A retrospective analysis of the medical files with emphasis on clinicoradiologic findings and histologic and immunohistochemical features was performed. Between 1985-2003. surgical resection was performed in 14 patients with CNs ages 16-43 years (7 were female and 7 were male). Two patients (14%) died postoperatively and one patient had a malignant disease course (7%). In the remaining 11 patients, one patient with an incompletely resected CN had disease progression after 37 months but at the time of last follow-up had had stable disease for 10 years. In addition, the authors reported 5 patients with disease recurrence occurring at a median of 67 months after surgery (range, 51-79 months after surgery), all of which occurred after complete surgical resection was performed. The observation period for the remaining 5 patients was short (median of 34 months [range, 5-44 months]). Extensive histologic and immunohistochemical workup did not identify any significant prognostic parameters. The MIB-1 proliferation index ranged from 0.8-11% (median of 4.6%), but was reported to be 46.8% in the malignant transformed tumor. All patients with disease recurrence responded well to different forms of focal radiation therapy (gamma knife radiosurgery in three patients and interstitial irradiation in one patient) and for one patient with a recently detected recurrence, gamma knife radiosurgery was planned. CNs appear to have a higher tendency to recur during long-term follow-up than previously reported, even after complete resection. Therefore, periodic neuroradiologic follow-up examinations should be considered mandatory in all patients, even after several years.

  2. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations and Cerebral Abscess Recurrence in a Child With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Sangerardi, Maria; Suppressa, Patrizia; Lastella, Patrizia; Attolini, Ettore; Valente, Federica; Fiorella, Maria L; Lenato, Gennaro M; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    A 17-year-old boy was referred to our center with a history of brain abscess (BA) recurring after 9 years. The patient reported 2 previous treatments for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, sporadic nosebleeds, and familial history for epistaxis. Clinical investigations revealed arteriovenous malformations in lung, brain, and liver, as well as mucocutaneous telangiectases. A definite diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was made based on clinical criteria and confirmed by genetic analysis. This is the first report of BA recurrence at the end of pediatric age. The present case and the literature review of all cases of BA thus far reported highlight the need to raise the suspicion of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, both isolated and in the context of a possible hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, for any case of BA of unexplained etiology, in children as well as in adults.

  3. Recurrence of spinal schwannoma: Is it preventable?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Satya B.; Mishra, Sudhansu S.; Dhir, Manmath K.; Patnaik, Ashis; Panigrahi, Souvagya

    2016-01-01

    Spinal schwannomas account for about 25% of primary intradural spinal cord tumors in adult. The prognosis for spinal schwannomas is excellent in most cases. Complete resection is curative. However following subtotal removal, recurrence develops after several years. We describe a case of recurrent spinal schwannoma who had been operated twice before for same disease. The possible cause of recurrence and difficulties in reoperation are discussed. PMID:27695564

  4. Atorvastatin May Attenuate Recurrence of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Luo, Zhengxiang; Liu, Zhongkun; Yang, Jian; Kan, Shifeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a substantial recurrence rate. Atorvastatin may reduce CSDH via its anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenesis effects, but its effectiveness for preventing recurrent CSDH has never been explored. We hypothesized that atorvastatin is effective in reducing recurrence of CSDH after surgery and identified determining factors predictive of hematoma recurrence. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 168 surgical cases of CSDH.All patients were randomly assigned to the group treated with atorvastatin or control group. Clinically relevant data were compared between two groups, and subsequently between the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the relationship between atorvastatin treatment and the recurrence using brain atrophy, septated and bilateral hematoma was performed. Results: Atorvastatin group conferred an advantage by significantly decreasing the recurrence rate (P = 0.023), and patients managed with atorvastatin also had a longer time-to-recurrence (P = 0.038). Admission brain atrophy and bilateral hematoma differed significantly between the recurrence and non-recurrence patients (P = 0.047 and P = 0.045). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that atorvastatin significantly reduced the probability of recurrence; severe brain atrophy and bilateral hematoma were independent risk factors for recurrent CSDH. Conclusions: Atorvastatin administration may decrease the risks of recurrence.Patients with severe brain atrophy and bilateral CSDH are prone to the recurrence. PMID:27445673

  5. Recurrent groin hernia

    PubMed Central

    Cox, P. J.; Leach, R. D.; Ellis, Harold

    1981-01-01

    One hundred consecutive recurrences following repair of inguinal hernias have been studied; 62 were direct, 30 indirect, 7 pantaloon and one a femoral hernia. Half the indirect recurrences occurred within a year of repair and probably represented failure to detect a small indirect sac. Later indirect recurrences probably represented failure to repair the internal ring. Nine of the direct hernias were medial funicular recurrences and represented failure to anchor the darn medially. The rest of the direct recurrences were attributable to tissue insufficiency and could probably have been averted by larger tissue bites. Recurrences following inguinal herniorrhaphy remain an all too common problem but can be reduced by meticulous surgical technique. PMID:7339602

  6. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Marrero Calvo, M; Merino Arribas, J; Rodrigo Palacios, J; Bartolomé Albistegui, M; Camino Fernández, A; Grande Sáez, C

    2001-02-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by multiple bone lesions and a variable clinical course. We present a 10 year old boy with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis who improved after treatment with naproxen.

  7. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amit; Shetty, Kishore V

    2011-02-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common oral ulcerative disease, affecting 10% to 15% of the general US population. This article reviews the epidemiology and clinical presentations of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, including diagnosis and management.

  8. [Chronic recurrent parotitis].

    PubMed

    Zenk, J; Koch, M; Klintworth, N; Iro, H

    2010-03-01

    Chronic recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive disease with episodes of mostly painful swelling of the gland. It is categorized into a juvenile and an adult form, even without clear information on its actual origin. As to the etiology of the juvenile form, genetic factors and duct malformations as well as bacterial infections are discussed. Very rarely a complete lymphatic transformation of the gland might take place. Juvenile chronic recurrent parotitis is self-limiting in about 90% of all cases, as patients grow up. The diagnosis is based on patient history and clinical findings. Sonography is the imaging method of choice. Sialendoscopy shows a typical whitish pattern of the ducts in juvenile disease. Strictures or stenoses are typical for the adult form. The therapy of choice is gland massage and sialagogues, in addition to the administration of antibiotics. In more severe cases sialendoscopy together with rinsing of the ducts and instillation of cortisone are indicated. Total parotidectomy remains the last choice and is rarely necessary.

  9. Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magarey, Matthew J R; Freeman, Jeremy L

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.

  10. [Recurrent intestinal ischemia due to factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Castellanos Monedero, Jesús Javier; Legaz Huidobro, María Luisa; Galindo Andugar, María Angeles; Rodríguez Pérez, Alvaro; Mantrana del Valle, José María

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose and can be caused by several etiologic processes. We report the case of a female patient with recurrent bowel ischemia due to small vessel thrombosis, which is caused by factor VIII, a procoagulant factor.

  11. Rapid recurrent sialolithiasis: Altered stone composition and potential factors for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Oscar; Drusin, Madeleine A; Rahmati, Rahmatullah

    2016-10-18

    The objective of this report was to identify potential factors associated with recurrent sialolithiasis after surgical intervention. This is a report of a woman with recurrent submandibular sialolithiasis after surgical intervention. Several characteristics of this patient indicate that she may have been predisposed to recurrent stone formation. Patient and disease factors leading to recurrent salivary stone formation are not well known. Notwithstanding, there may be stone factors and intraoperative findings that aid in determining whether a patient is likely to be successfully treated with a gland-sparing approach. Laryngoscope, 2016.

  12. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  13. Recurrence of endometrial polyps.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Roberto; Rossi, Stefania; Scifo, Maria Cristina; Dall'O', Francesca; Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the recurrence rate of patients with endometrial polyps and to evaluate whether the recurrence can be correlated with the histopathologic features of the polyp. Two hundred and eighty-two women with endometrial polyps in both pre- or postmenopausal period and suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding or not were treated by resectoscopic surgery in a tertiary university hospital and were subsequently followed to check for polyp recurrence. Polyp recurrence rate after hysteroscopic surgery and correlation between recurrence and main demographic, hysteroscopic and histopathologic characteristics were analyzed. During mean ± SD follow-up period of 26.3 ± 19.7 months, the overall recurrence rate was high (13.3%) and did not vary (p = NS) with age, parity, weight or other demographic characteristics of the patients or with the hysteroscopic appearance. On the contrary, the histopathologic features showed significant differences between patients with and without polyp recurrence. Recurrence rate was higher (p < 0.001) in women with histopathologically hyperplastic polyps without atypia and lower (p < 0.001) in women with benign polyps. The study shows that after resectoscopic polypectomy, the recurrence rate of endometrial polyps is high (13.3%). Moreover, the hyperplastic polyps without atypia recur more frequently than benign ones. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Recurrence of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coelingh Bennink, H J

    1977-01-01

    The recurrence rate of gestational diabetes in 58 patients who had had the foregoing pregnancy complicated by diabetes was estimated to be 30% if our former criteria for abnormal glucose tolerance were strictly applied and 25% if our new, more stringent criteria were used. The recurrence rate is not influenced by prophylactic administration of pyridoxine. The perinatal morbidity complicating the 'second' pregnancy of former gestational diabetics was not increased in those patients who were not treated again, as compared with those who were. Recurrent gestational diabetes is associated with a degree of overdiagnosis in an attempt to detect all gestational diabetics. It is suggested that recurrent gestational diabetes occurs mainly in prediabetic patients.

  15. [VIRAL INFECTIONS: HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND GENITAL HERPES TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC RECURRENT CYSTITIS WITH SEVERE DYSURIA IN WOMEN WITH URETHRAL HYPERMOBILITY AND HYPOSPADIAS].

    PubMed

    Derevjanko, T I; Ryzhkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Female hypospadias presenting as a misplaced urethral opening is a common cause of chronic recurrent cystitis. Cystitis occurs when urogenital infection and anaerobic bacteria enter the urethra and bladder from the vagina. The authors argue that chronic infections of the lower urinary tract in women with hypospadias should be treated surgically by meatal transposition. They present a study confirming the role of the antiviral drug Panavir in prevention of inflammatory complications in the postoperative period in patients with a history of viral infection (human papillomavirus and herpes).

  16. Recurrent inguinal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Postlethwait, R W

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of 584 operations for recurrent inguinal hernia was made in an attempt to determine the cause of the recurrence based on the anatomic findings. The recurrence was indirect in 300, direct in 241, and various other in 43 operations. The causes of the indirect recurrences appeared to be an unrecognized hernia, incomplete dissection or improper ligation of the sac, failure to narrow the cord, or inadequate reconstruction of the internal ring. No cause for the diffuse direct recurrences was apparent. Of the 241 hernias in Hesselbach's triangle, 144 were small localized defects, usually (112) just lateral to the symphysis. These were considered to be caused by the cutting action of a suture placed under tension. On the basis of these findings, suggestions are made for primary inguinal hernia operations. PMID:4073990

  17. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO).

    PubMed

    Schuster, T; Bielek, J; Dietz, H G; Belohradsky, B H

    1996-02-01

    Pathogenesis of CRMO still remains unknown. Characteristic, but not pathognomonic for this syndrome are clinical course (age, sex, chronic recurrent, intermittent course), radiological findings (metaphyseal lesions), histology (chronic osteomyelitis without colliquation) and microbiological results (lack of pathogen, infectious agents). Favorable, self-limited long-term prognosis of CRMO has been assumed. Antibiotics provide no improvement. Course, severity and recurrency can be influenced positively by antiphlogistic substances, although this has not yet been proved. Whether surgical intervention beyond biopsies might cause improvement on the follow-up is unknown. Our experience (4 cases), and the literature demonstrate great clinical importance that unusual types of osteomyelitis (OM) can be within the differential diagnosis of multifocal osteolytic changes.

  18. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  19. Coping with Fear of Recurrence

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Fear of Recurrence Request Permissions Coping With Fear of Recurrence Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... affects your life. Tips for coping with the fear of recurrence Living with uncertainty is never easy. ...

  20. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  1. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  2. [Unexplained recurrent early miscarriages: Role of immunomodulation?

    PubMed

    Mekinian, A; Cohen, J; Kayem, G; Carbillon, L; Nicaise-Roland, P; Gaugler, B; Darai, E; Bornes, M; Fain, O

    2017-04-01

    About 1-3% of women experience early recurrent miscarriages, defined by ≥3 fetal loss before 14 weeks of gestation. About half of these recurrent early miscarriages could be related to a genetic cause. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is used in several European countries, but it is still prohibited in France except for couples at risk for transmission of severe genetic diseases. The immune dysregulation, and in particular allo-immune excessive response, could be responsible for fetal loss in remaining cases, although currently we lack biomarker to confirm the immune-mediated fetal loss. Several immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatments have been the subject of small studies in patients with early recurrent miscarriages. The available data do not allow to define the treatment recommendations in this topic, and further studies are necessary.

  3. [Suicidal risk in recurrent depression].

    PubMed

    Courtet, P

    2010-12-01

    Recurrent depression represents a major target of suicide prevention, due to its high prevalence and its strong association to Suicidal Behaviour (SB). In France, every year, nearly 11,000 persons dye from completed suicide and 200,000 attempt suicide. It has been recently shown that the adjusted population attributable fraction of the time spent depressed for suicide attempts was 78%. Thus, suicidal risk in recurrent depression being related to severity, partial response to treatment, chronicity and recurrences, the expectancies of treatment should be elevated. The assessment of the suicidal risk should involve psychiatric comorbidities that facilitate the act, particularly alcohol misuse, and also the lack of social support. The current conceptualisation of SB allows considering them as psychiatric entities per se. Consequently, the evaluation will be focused on the specific suicidal vulnerability: personal and family history of SB, hopelessness and impulsive aggression, and childhood maltreatment. The existence of this vulnerability would help to detect very high-risk patients, in order to deliver the necessary protections. Current advances provided by the use of neuroscientific tools open the way to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of SB. Based on this multifocal evaluation, the clinician would identify potential therapeutic targets. Indeed, the priority is first to treat adequately recurrent depression, as it is clear that too many patients do not receive such a treatment. Next steps would be related to the efforts allowing obtaining complete remission. Comorbid disorders would need specific care. This is the case for the suicidal comorbidity that may justify implementing specific treatments such as lithium or focused psychotherapies. Finally, innovative care management need to be developed, as they are likely to be helpful to provide continuously assistance to people who are suffering in order to avoid a suicidal act. Copyright © 2010 L

  4. Opioids and cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Rohit

    2014-06-01

    With the majority of deaths from cancer because of their metastases, strategies to reduce this from occurring are at the forefront of treatment. It has been hypothesized that morphine may result in an increase in cancer metastases, following many in-vitro and animal studies, but the evidence from human retrospective data is inconclusive. This article will explore the possible mechanisms by which opioids can impact on the natural history of the cancer cell and whether they are likely to be harmful in individuals with cancer. Although there have been trials demonstrating benefits with regional anaesthesia techniques (opioid sparing) in the surgical population, it is not clear whether the source of the benefit arises directly from the avoidance of opioids or an added benefit afforded by regional anaesthesia. Research has shown that in particular cancer cell types, morphine may actually be beneficial and that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) plays a role in cancer disease. With the crystal structure of the MOR having recently been elucidated, this may offer new opportunities for treatments aimed at reducing cancer metastasis. The role opioids play in the development of cancer metastasis and recurrence is far from clear and appears to differ depending on the cancer cell type in question. Prospective randomized controlled trials are currently underway in humans to help clarify the situation further and there results are awaited with anticipation. The negative impact of pain on the immune system is well documented and it appears that appropriate analgesia is paramount in minimizing this. Opioids still constitute a central role in the management of moderate-to-severe cancer pain.

  5. Recurrences of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, C M; Cirpaciu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell's palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell's palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients' age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which leads to the conclusion that we should have a follow up of patients

  6. Recurrences of Bell's palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, CM; Cirpaciu, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Bell’s palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell’s palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. Purpose. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. Methods & Materials. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. Results. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell’s palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients’ age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Conclusions. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which

  7. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  8. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  9. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  10. Recurrence of angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Ohman, S C; Jontell, M; Dahlen, G

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of recurrence of angular cheilitis following a successful antimicrobial treatment was studied in 48 patients. Clinical assessments including a microbial examination were carried out 8 months and 5 yr after termination of treatment. Eighty percent of the patients reported recurrence of their angular cheilitis on one or more occasions during the observation period. Patients with cutaneous disorders associated with dry skin or intraoral leukoplakia had an increased incidence of recrudescence. Neither the presence of denture stomatitis nor the type of microorganisms isolated from the original lesions of angular cheilitis, i.e. Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus, were associated with the number of recurrences. The present observations indicate that treatment of the majority of patients with angular cheilitis should be considered in a longer perspective than previously supposed, due to the short lasting therapeutic effects of the antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Serially recurrent osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2015-06-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a relatively common, benign, painful tumor of bone. It is widely believed to run a course culminating in spontaneous regression. The tumor can usually be eliminated by excision or ablation, although it may recur locally. Although management has classically been surgical, thermocoagulation via percutaneously delivered radiofrequency energy has demonstrated excellent results, typically resulting in durable response following a single treatment. Here, we present an unusual case of serially recurrent pathologically proven pediatric osteoid osteoma, treated by radiofrequency ablation five times over the course of 11 years. Limitations of RF ablation of osteoid osteoma and possible factors predisposing to incomplete treatment or recurrence are discussed.

  12. Tackling a recurrent pinealoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Palled, Siddanna; Kalavagunta, Sruthi; Beerappa Gowda, Jaipal; Umesh, Kavita; Aal, Mahalaxmi; Abdul Razack, Tanvir Pasha Chitraduraga; Gowda, Veerabhadre; Viswanath, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Pineoblastomas are rare, malignant, pineal region lesions that account for <0.1% of all intracranial tumors and can metastasize along the neuroaxis. Pineoblastomas are more common in children than in adults and adults account for <10% of patients. The management of pinealoblastoma is multimodality approach, surgery followed with radiation and chemotherapy. In view of aggressive nature few centres use high dose chemotherapy with autologus stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed cases but in recurrent setting the literature is very sparse. The present case represents the management of pinealoblastoma in the recurrent setting with reirradiation and adjuvant carmustine chemotherapy wherein the management guidelines are not definitive.

  13. Tackling a Recurrent Pinealoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Palled, Siddanna; Kalavagunta, Sruthi; Beerappa Gowda, Jaipal; Umesh, Kavita; Aal, Mahalaxmi; Abdul Razack, Tanvir pasha Chitraduraga; Gowda, Veerabhadre; Viswanath, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Pineoblastomas are rare, malignant, pineal region lesions that account for <0.1% of all intracranial tumors and can metastasize along the neuroaxis. Pineoblastomas are more common in children than in adults and adults account for <10% of patients. The management of pinealoblastoma is multimodality approach, surgery followed with radiation and chemotherapy. In view of aggressive nature few centres use high dose chemotherapy with autologus stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed cases but in recurrent setting the literature is very sparse. The present case represents the management of pinealoblastoma in the recurrent setting with reirradiation and adjuvant carmustine chemotherapy wherein the management guidelines are not definitive. PMID:25210636

  14. [Chronic recurrent appendicitis: a contradiction in terms?].

    PubMed

    Kager, Liesbeth M; Bemelman, Willem A; Bastiaansen, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    For two years, every 6 weeks a 23-year-old man presented with episodes of severe abdominal pain and fever. After an extensive diagnostic workup, showing only slightly increased infectious parameters during the pain attacks and infiltration around the terminal ileum, a diagnostic laparoscopy diagnosed 'chronic recurrent appendicitis'. A 40-year-old female had severe attacks of abdominal pain and fever every 4-6 weeks for 1.5 years. Some inflammation around the appendix was seen on colonoscopy, and a diagnostic laparoscopy finally confirmed the same diagnosis 'chronic recurrent appendicitis'. Patients with recurrent abdominal pain often are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. The appendix is rarely recognized as the causative factor and the diagnosis 'chronic recurrent appendicitis' is not widely accepted. This disease entity often has an atypical presentation and well-defined criteria are lacking. In this article we plea for a broader acceptance of this diagnosis, which, in our opinion, deserves to be included in the differential diagnosis of longstanding or recurrent abdominal pain attacks.

  15. A young man with recurrent paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Magdalena; Williams, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Hypokalemia can cause reactions from mild muscular cramping to life-threatening paralysis and cardiac dysrhythmias. This article describes a patient whose unusual, recurrent muscular symptoms and electrolyte abnormalities were eventually identified as Gitelman syndrome, a rare genetic disorder resulting in severe refractory hypokalemia.

  16. Recurrent pancreatitis in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prada, Carlos E; Kaul, Ajay; Hopkin, Robert J; Page, Kimberley I; Nathan, Jaimie D; Bartholomew, Dennis W; Cohen, Mitchell B; Heubi, James E; Leslie, Nancy D; Burrow, T Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is a urea cycle defect with varying frequency and severity of episodes of hyperammonemia. We report three patients with OTC deficiency with recurrent pancreatitis. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in this patient population requires further elucidation. Pancreatitis significantly affected dietary/metabolic management and increased frequency of hospitalizations.

  17. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  18. Recurrent gallstone ileus.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicolas; Saha, Sanjoy

    2012-11-01

    Mechanical small bowel obstructions caused by gallstones account for 1% to 3% of cases. In these patients, 80% to 90% of residual gallstones in these patients will pass through a remaining fistula without consequence. Recurrent gallstone ileus has been reported in 5% of patients. We report the case of a woman, aged 72 years, who presented with mechanical small bowel obstruction caused by gallstone ileus. After successful surgical therapy for gallstone ileus, the patient's symptoms recurred, and she was diagnosed with recurrent gallstone ileus requiring a repeat operation. While management of gallstone ileus can be achieved through a single-stage operation including enterolithotomy and cholecystectomy with repair of biliary-enteric fistula or by enterolithotomy alone, the literature supports enterolithotomy alone as the treatment of choice for gallstone ileus due to decreased mortality and morbidity. However, the latter approach does not obviate potential recurrence. We present this case of recurrent gallstone ileus to elucidate and review the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and consensus recommendations regarding management of this disorder.

  19. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  20. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  1. Recurrent psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed Central

    Voineskos, G.; Denault, S.

    1978-01-01

    Undue emphasis has been placed on rising rates of readmission to psychiatric facilities. After a decade of preoccupation with discharge rates, readmission statistics have been singled out in the last 15 years as the key factor for assessing hospital effectiveness. A study of a group of patients at high risk for recurrent hospitalization revealed that these patients were characterized more by features relating to environmental supports than by diagnosis. The operational definition for recurrent hospitalization (five or more admissions during the 2-year period preceding the latest admission) was effective in identifying this group; this is the first reported instance in which the definition has specified a certain number of admissions within a time-limited period. The findings of this study, as well as of an analysis of case histories and consumer opinion, led to the design of a pilot program for persons undergoing recurrent hospitalization. Readmission statistics are useless or misleading as measures of hospital effectiveness and efficiency; what matters is the way the former patients function in the community after discharge. Rather than simply trying to reduce the readmission rate psychiatric facilities should be examining the types of persons who are hospitalized recurrently to develop programs aimed at improving the functioning of these people in the community. PMID:630483

  2. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Zunt, Susan L

    2003-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis remains a commonly occurring cause of oral pain and ulceration. Although the ulcerations of RAS are multifactorial and of unknown cause, recognition of the role of patient and environmental factors may be helpful in developing recommendations for treatment and prevention of future ulcers.

  3. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: The importance of the intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Zanella Terrier, Marie Céline; Simonet, Martine Louis; Bichard, Philippe; Frossard, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial diarrhea. Despite effective antibiotic treatments, recurrent infections are common. With the recent emergence of hypervirulent isolates of C. difficile, CDI is a growing epidemic with higher rates of recurrence, increasing severity and mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternative treatment for recurrent CDI. A better understanding of intestinal microbiota and its role in CDI has opened the door to this promising therapeutic approach. FMT is thought to resolve dysbiosis by restoring gut microbiota diversity thereby breaking the cycle of recurrent CDI. Since the first reported use of FMT for recurrent CDI in 1958, systematic reviews of case series and case report have shown its effectiveness with high resolution rates compared to standard antibiotic treatment. This article focuses on current guidelines for CDI treatment, the role of intestinal microbiota in CDI recurrence and current evidence about FMT efficacy, adverse effects and acceptability. PMID:24966611

  4. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: the importance of the intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Zanella Terrier, Marie Céline; Simonet, Martine Louis; Bichard, Philippe; Frossard, Jean Louis

    2014-06-21

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of antibiotic-associated and nosocomial diarrhea. Despite effective antibiotic treatments, recurrent infections are common. With the recent emergence of hypervirulent isolates of C. difficile, CDI is a growing epidemic with higher rates of recurrence, increasing severity and mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternative treatment for recurrent CDI. A better understanding of intestinal microbiota and its role in CDI has opened the door to this promising therapeutic approach. FMT is thought to resolve dysbiosis by restoring gut microbiota diversity thereby breaking the cycle of recurrent CDI. Since the first reported use of FMT for recurrent CDI in 1958, systematic reviews of case series and case report have shown its effectiveness with high resolution rates compared to standard antibiotic treatment. This article focuses on current guidelines for CDI treatment, the role of intestinal microbiota in CDI recurrence and current evidence about FMT efficacy, adverse effects and acceptability.

  5. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-03

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques.

  6. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  7. Recurrence after surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, B J; Mudge, M; Hughes, L E

    1987-01-01

    From six to 89 months after surgery 82 patients who had been treated by radical surgery (118 excisions) for intractable hidradenitis suppurativa were reviewed. Local recurrence rates varied greatly with the disease site, being low after axillary (3%) and perianal surgery (0%) and high after inguinoperineal (37%) and submammary (50%) excision. Recurrence results from inadequate excision or an unusually wide distribution of apocrine glands, but physical factors such as obesity, local pressure, and skin maceration played a part in a few patients. Recurrence due to inadequate surgery tended to be the most troublesome. At follow up 75 (91%) of the patients were pleased with the results of their operation. A quarter of the patients developed disease at a new anatomical site after operation. Radical surgery gives good symptomatic control of severe hidradenitis suppurativa of the axilla, inguinoperineal, and perianal regions but is less satisfactory for submammary disease. PMID:3103741

  8. Management of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Cranny, Jodie A; Wallace, Ann; Rogers, Helen J; Hughes, Sophie C; Hegarty, Anne M; Zaitoun, Halla

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent oral ulceration is common and may present in childhood. Causes of recurrent oral ulceration are numerous and there may be an association with underlying systemic disease. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common underlying diagnosis in children. The discomfort of oral ulcers can impact negatively on quality of life of a child, interfering with eating, speaking and may result in missed school days. The role of the general dental practitioner is to identify patients who can be treated with simple measures in primary dental care and those who require assessment and treatment in secondary care. Management may include topical agents for symptomatic relief, topical corticosteroids and, in severe recalcitrant cases, systemic agents may be necessary.

  9. Recurrent Ataxia in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Klassen, Samantha F; Johnston, Janine L

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent ataxia is encountered infrequently in clinical pediatric neurology practise and presents with diagnostic challenges. It is caused by several disorders. Our aims were to describe the epidemiology and clinical features in children with recurrent ataxia. A retrospective review was undertaken in 185 children with chronic ataxia, who presented during 1991 to 2008. Several databases were searched to ensure optimum ascertainment. Patients with brain tumors or isolated disorders of the peripheral nerves or vestibular system were excluded. Recurrent ataxia was reported in 21 patients. Their age range was between 6 and 32.75 years (males=12). The crude period prevalence rate for the 18-year study period was 7.44/100,000. Eight patients had episodic ataxia and seven had inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In the rest the etiology was unknown. Many patients presented with ataxia, dizziness, and vertigo. The frequency and duration of the ataxic episodes varied from several per day to one every few months. Other clinical features included developmental delay and seizures. Neuroimaging in episodic ataxia was normal and abnormal in inflammatory or metabolic disorders. Acetazolamide provided symptomatic relief in patients with episodic ataxia, while steroids were beneficial in patients with an inflammatory etiology. One child with a metabolic disorder died. Recurrent ataxia is an uncommon presentation in children and mortality is rare. Genetic, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders should be considered in these patients. Neuroimaging is essential. Acetazolamide in selected patients provides good symptomatic relief.

  10. Recurrent Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Lewis, Ned; Bakshi, Nandini; Vellozzi, Claudia; Klein, Nicola P

    2012-03-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculopathy, thought to be autoimmune, which has been reported following vaccinations. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends not administering influenza vaccine to individuals who have had a history of GBS within 6 weeks of a prior influenza vaccination if they are not at high risk of severe complications from influenza illness. We identified GBS cases from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California databases from 1995 into 2006 using hospital discharge codes; each medical record was neurologist-reviewed and only GBS-confirmed cases were included for follow-up. We followed confirmed cases through 2008 for vaccinations and recurrent GBS. We identified 550 cases of GBS over 33 million person-years. Following their GBS diagnoses, 989 vaccines were given to 279 of these individuals, including 405 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) administered to 107 individuals with a prior diagnosis of GBS. Among the 550 total cases of GBS, 18 initially had onset within 6 weeks of TIV; of these, 2 were revaccinated with TIV without a recurrence of GBS. Only 6 individuals of 550 (1.1%) had a second (recurrent) diagnosis of GBS. Among these 6 individuals, none had any vaccine exposure at all in the 2 months prior to the second onset of GBS. In our population of over 3 million members, during an 11-year period, risk of GBS recurrence was low. There were no cases of recurrent GBS after influenza vaccination and none within 6 weeks after any vaccine.

  11. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Costa-Reis, Patrícia; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2013-08-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare auto-inflammatory condition that primarily affects children and adolescents. It presents with recurrent episodes of pain related to the presence of foci of sterile bone inflammation. The long bones of the lower extremities are more frequently affected and the spine can also be involved. Imaging studies, including whole-body magnetic resonance, are important for diagnosis and detection of asymptomatic lesions. Bone biopsies may be necessary to exclude other diseases, including malignancy and infections. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause relief of symptoms in the majority of cases. Bisphosphonates and TNF-α blockers are alternatives for patients who do not respond or who have spinal involvement.

  12. Paediatric recurrent herpetic whitlow.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik; Kumar, Hemant; More, Bharat; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-07-31

    We present a case of recurrent painful blisters of middle phalanx of the left ring finger of a 15-month-old previously healthy and immunocompetent female child. These lesions initially were confused with infective bacterial whitlow, treated with incision and drainage, and later with cigarette burns which led to referral to child protection team. Paediatric dermatologist finally diagnosed after scrapping and virology culture. The patient had recovery following full treatment with topical and systemic acyclovir. She presented again at the age of 4 with recurrence which required topical and systemic acyclovir therapy with good recovery. It is important to be aware of the danger of incorrect diagnosis, raising child protection concerns and management leading to danger of cross infection and serious illness especially in the immunocompromised patients.

  13. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  14. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Wedman, Jan; van Weissenbruch, Ranny

    2005-01-01

    We report what is, to our best knowledge, the first case of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) in which the frontal and sphenoid bones were involved. Characterized by a prolonged and fluctuating course of osteomyelitis at different sites, CRMO is self-limited, although sequelae can occur. The diagnosis is one of exclusion. It is important to publish cases like this, because the recognition of CRMO can prevent aggressive surgical and medical treatment.

  15. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Király, Balázs; Feith, Sándor; Barta, Miklós; Oroszlán, György

    2003-12-21

    The chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis has been reported very rarely in the literature. However, its significance must be emphasized, because it is a spontaneously healing, benign disease, as compared to the classical forms of osteomyelitis. It leaves behind almost no residual symptoms, and many operations, long antimicrobial therapy may be avoided by diagnosing it. In this case report the authors provide the review of the disease through the history of a 9-year-old boy.

  16. Treatment of recurrent concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Paul

    2002-02-01

    The management of an athlete with recurrent concussions, whether persistently symptomatic or not, remains anecdotal. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines upon which a team physician can advise the athlete. All doctors involved in athlete care need to be aware of the potential for medicolegal problems if athletes are inappropriately returned to sport prematurely or, in the case of professional athletes, held out of sport or retired on the basis of nonscientific recommendations. This paper discusses such issues.

  17. Multiplex Recurrence Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Marwan, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of a variety of phenomena in physical, biological, or earth sciences is driven by a large number of degrees of freedom which are strongly interconnected. Although the evolution of such systems is described by multivariate time series (MTS), so far research mostly focuses on analyzing these components one by one. Recurrence based analyses are powerful methods to understand the underlying dynamics of a dynamical system and have been used for many successful applications including examples from earth science, economics, or chemical reactions. The backbone of these techniques is creating the phase space of the system. However, increasing the dimension of a system requires increasing the length of the time series in order get significant and reliable results. This requirement is one of the challenges in many disciplines, in particular in palaeoclimate, thus, it is not easy to create a phase space from measured MTS due to the limited number of available obervations (samples). To overcome this problem, we suggest to create recurrence networks from each component of the system and combine them into a multiplex network structure, the multiplex recurrence network (MRN). We test the MRN by using prototypical mathematical models and demonstrate its use by studying high-dimensional palaeoclimate dynamics derived from pollen data from the Bear Lake (Utah, US). By using the MRN, we can distinguish typical climate transition events, e.g., such between Marine Isotope Stages.

  18. Clinical and immunologic features of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Miyagawa, Fumi; Okazaki, Aiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) is thought to be rare, but there have been few large-scale studies of recurrent HZ. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to characterize recurrent HZ. We examined 12,522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County and followed them up for 3 years. We compared the incidence of HZ and postherpetic neuralgia, severity of skin lesions and acute pain, cell-mediated immunity, and varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody titer between primary and recurrent HZ. A total of 401 participants developed HZ: 341 with primary HZ and 60 with recurrent HZ. Skin lesions and acute pain were significantly milder and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Varicella-zoster virus skin test induced a stronger reaction in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Information on previous HZ episodes was self-reported by participants, so it could not be confirmed that they actually had a history of HZ. Recurrent HZ was associated with milder clinical symptoms than primary HZ, probably because of stronger varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in the patients with recurrence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laparoscopic repair of recurrent hernias.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic approach to recurrent inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired all potential areas of recurrence without producing tension. Both a transabdominal preperitoneal and a totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic approach were utilized. Ninety recurrent hernias were repaired in 81 patients. The patients had 26 indirect, 36 direct, and 26 pantaloon recurrent hernias of which eight had a femoral component. In all but one patient the primary operations were open anterior repairs. The median follow-up was 14 months, ranging from 1 to 28 months. Patients returned to normal activities in an average of 1 week. The only recurrence observed was in the one patient whose primary repair was laparoscopic. When the entire inguinal floor of the recurrent hernia was redissected and buttressed with mesh, early recurrence was eliminated and recovery was shortened.

  20. Recurrent wheezing in infants: epidemiological changes.

    PubMed

    Chong Neto, Herberto José; Rosário, Nelson Augusto; Grasselli, Emanuel Antônio; Silva, Flávia Carnieli e; Bojarski, Lylia de Fátima Melniski; Rosário, Cristine Secco; Rosário, Bernardo Augusto; Chong, Fernando Henrique

    2011-01-01

    To determine epidemiological changes in recurrent wheezing among infants in Curitiba, Brazil. This cross-sectional study used the questionnaire Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL). Parents of infants aged 12 to 15 months completed the instrument from August 2005 to December 2006 (phase I) and from September 2009 to September 2010 (phase III). Parents of 3,003 infants participated in phase I, and 22.6% of the infants had recurrent wheezing (≥ 3 episodes). After 5 years, 1,003 parents completed the same questionnaire during phase III, and 19.8% of the infants had recurrent wheezing (p = 0.1). There was a reduction in symptom severity (p = 0.001) and number of emergency department visits (p < 0.001), but not in number of hospitalizations (p = 0.12). Physician-diagnosed asthma was more frequent in phase III (p = 0.03). There were no changes in the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants, but there was an increase in physician-diagnosed asthma and a reduction in severity, which, however, did not affect the rate of hospitalizations.

  1. [Radiotherapy in pelvic recurrences of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Morganti, A G; Santoni, R; Osti, M F

    2001-01-01

    Patients with locally recurrent rectal carcinoma have an unfavourable prognosis for the high incidence of distant metastases, the infrequent feasibility of radical surgical resection, and, in these last cases, the high incidence of re-recurrences. Based on the low resectability rate of pelvic recurrences, the clear impact of tumor diameter on resectability and outcome, and the documented possibility to achieve a significant tumor downstaging and downsizing with the use of concurrent chemoradiation, it is evident that the most promising treatment several authors have considered concurrent chemoradiation followed, if feasible, by radical resection. Furthermore, based on the high local and distant failure rate after surgery, the utilization of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and adjuvant chemotherapy seems justified. Some published comparisons between patients treated with and without IORT seems to suggest the possible improvement in both local control and survival in these patients. Particularly interesting issues in this field are: 1) the definition of the most effective treatment modality (both in terms of radiation dose, fractionation and techniques, and drugs to be used concurrently to radiotherapy); 2) the analysis of the prognostic impact of several factors, with the aim of designing and validating staging systems of local rectal recurrences; 3) the possibility to treat with relatively high doses also patients previously irradiated on the pelvis.

  2. Recurrent brachial plexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, W G; Madrid, R; Thrush, D C; Campbell, M J

    1975-09-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological and pathological changes in 3 patients with recurrent attacks of non-traumatic brachial plexus neuropathy have been described. Two had recurrent attacks and a dominant family history of similar attacks, together with evidence of lesser degrees of nerve involvement outside the brachial plexus. In one patient the attacks were moderately painful, while in the other there was little or no pain. Only one showed undue slowing of motor nerve conduction during ischaemia, but in both cases the sural nerves had the changes of tomaculous neuropathy, with many sausage-shaped swellings of the myelin sheaths, and extensive segmental demyelination and remyelination. The third patient had two attacks of acute brachial plexus neuropathy which were both extremely painful. The clinical features were compatible with a diagnosis of neuralgic amuotrophy. In the second attack, there was vagus nerve involvement and the sural nerve showed evidence of healed extensive segmental demyelination. The various syndromes presenting with acute non-traumatic brachial plexus neuropathy are reviewed, and a tentative nonsological classification advanced. Most patients fall into the category of acute, painful paralysis with amyotrophy, with no family history and no evidence of lesions outside the brachial plexus. It is suggested that the term "neuralgic amyotrophy" be restricted to this group. Patients with features outside this clinical picture probably suffer from other disease entities presenting with brachial plexus neuropathy. The familial cases constitute one or more aetioliogical subgroups, differing from neuralgic amyotrophy in the frequency of recurrences, the relative freedom from pain in the attacks, the frequency of nerve lesions outside the brachial plexus, and of hypotelorism. Individual attacks of acute brachial plexus neuropathy, however, may be identical in patients with the different diseases, and further pathological and biochemical studies are

  3. Multiscale recurrence quantification analysis of order recurrence plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of multiscale recurrence quantification analysis (MSRQA) to analyze the structure of order recurrence plots. The MSRQA is based on order patterns over a range of time scales. Compared with conventional recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), the MSRQA can show richer and more recognizable information on the local characteristics of diverse systems which successfully describes their recurrence properties. Both synthetic series and stock market indexes exhibit their properties of recurrence at large time scales that quite differ from those at a single time scale. Some systems present more accurate recurrence patterns under large time scales. It demonstrates that the new approach is effective for distinguishing three similar stock market systems and showing some inherent differences.

  4. The Importance of Systemic Therapy in Minimizing Local Recurrence after Breast-Conserving Surgery: The NSABP Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Tang, Gong; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy significantly reduces rates of distant recurrence and death. The effect of systemic therapy is not limited to reducing distant recurrences but also extends to reducing loco-regional recurrences, and rates of loco-regional recurrence have steadily declined over the past 25 years. This review focuses on the effect of adjuvant systemic therapy on rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence following lumpectomy plus breast irradiation in several pivotal NSABP trials in early-stage breast cancer. PMID:24729388

  5. Local recurrence after curative resection for rectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-A; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Hee Cheol; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Local recurrence of rectal cancer is difficult to treat, may cause severe and disabling symptoms, and usually has a fatal outcome. The aim of this study was to document the clinical nature of locally recurrent rectal cancer and to determine the effect of surgical resection on long-term survival. A retrospective review was conducted of the prospectively collected medical records of 2485 patients with primary rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent radical resection between September 1994 and December 2008. In total, 147 (5.9%) patients exhibited local recurrence. The most common type of local recurrence was lateral recurrence, whereas anastomotic recurrence was the most common type in patients without preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Tumor location with respect to the anal verge significantly affected the local recurrence rate (P < 0.001), whereas preoperative CCRT did not affect the local recurrence rate (P = 0.433). Predictive factors for surgical resection of recurrent rectal cancer included less advanced tumor stage (P = 0.017, RR = 3.840, 95% CI = 1.271–11.597), axial recurrence (P < 0.001, RR = 5.772, 95% CI = 2.281–14.609), and isolated local recurrence (P = 0.006, RR = 8.679, 95% CI = 1.846–40.815). Overall survival after diagnosis of local recurrence was negatively influenced by advanced pathologic tumor stage (P = 0.040, RR = 1.867, 95% CI = 1.028–3.389), positive CRM (P = 0.001, RR = 12.939, 95% CI = 2.906–57.604), combined distant metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 2.086, 95% CI = 1.352–3.218), and nonsurgical resection of recurrent tumor (P < 0.001, RR = 4.865, 95% CI = 2.586–9.153). In conclusion, the clinical outcomes of local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer are diverse. Surgical resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer should be considered as an initial treatment, especially in patients with less advanced tumors and axial recurrence. PMID:27399067

  6. Recurrent tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gould, John S

    2014-09-01

    Recurrence of tarsal tunnel syndrome after surgery may be due to inadequate release, lack of understanding or appreciation of the actual anatomy involved, variations in the anatomy of the nerve(s), failure to execute the release properly, bleeding with subsequent scarring, damage to the nerve and branches, persistent hypersensitivity of the nerves, and preexisting intrinsic damage to the nerve. Approaches include more thorough release, use of barrier materials to decrease adherence of the nerve to surrounding tissues to avoid traction neuritis, excisions of neuromas using conduits, and consideration of nerve stimulators and systemic medications to deal with persistent neural pain.

  7. Recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Vishal; Ganguly, Ishita

    2014-09-28

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is commonly encountered, but less commonly understood clinical entity, especially idiopathic RAP, with propensity to lead to repeated attacks and may be chronic pancreatitis if attacks continue to recur. A great number of studies have been published on acute pancreatitis, but few have focused on RAP. Analysing the results of clinical studies focusing specifically on RAP is problematic in view due to lack of standard definitions, randomised clinical trials, standard evaluation protocol used and less post intervention follow-up duration. With the availability of newer investigation modalities less number of etiologies will remains undiagnosed. This review particularly is focused on the present knowledge in understanding of RAP.

  8. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy.

  9. First cases of severe congenital factor XIII deficiency in Southwestern Afghanistan in the vicinity of southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Soudabeh; Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Bamedi, Taregh; Tavakol, Khanagha; Tabibian, Shadi; Naderi, Majid; Alizadeh, Shaban; Varmaghani, Bijan; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Rahimizadeh, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Sharif

    2015-12-01

    Factor XIII deficiency (FXIIID) is an extremely rare bleeding disorder with the highest global incidence in southeast of Iran. Southwestern Afghanistan (Nimruz Province) is located near the border with Iran in the vicinity of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeast Iran, and there seems to be a high prevalence of FXIIID in Nimruz. Thus, this cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of FXIIID, molecular basis as well as clinical manifestations of FXIIID in Southwestern Afghanistan. During the course of the study, all patients suspected of FXIIID were clinically examined and assessed by routine coagulation tests, including bleeding time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, as well as platelet count and clot solubility test. Patients with normal routine coagulation tests, but abnormal clot solubility test, underwent further investigations by FXIII activity, as well as molecular analysis for FXIII-A gene mutation (Trp187Arg) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism that confirmed by sequencing. Patients with confirmed FXIIID deficiency were registered to receive prophylaxis treatment. All data including demographic information, clinical manifestations, as well as therapeutic response and type and duration of treatment, were recorded, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software. In this cross-sectional study, we found five patients with abnormal clot solubility test, among whom two patients abandoned the study, whereas three patients remained for a more precise study. All the patients were residents of Zaranj city, the capital of Nimruz Province. All these patients had undetectable activity of FXIII, which indicates a severe deficiency. Molecular analysis of patients showed mutation of Trp187Arg in all of them. Hematoma was the most common clinical presentation leading to diagnosis of FXIIID in these patients (100%). Epistaxis (67%), gum bleeding (33%), and hematuria (33%) were other recurrent clinical presentations of

  10. Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a clinical dilemma and challenge

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Tang, J.; Gu, M.; Liu, L.; Wei, W.; Yang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which represents a small proportion of head-and-neck cancers, has a unique set of patho-clinical characteristics. The management of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains a challenging clinical problem. Traditional treatments offer limited local control and survival benefits; more seriously, they frequently induce severe late complications. Recently, novel treatment techniques and strategies—including precision radiotherapy, endoscopic surgery or transoral robotic resection, third-generation chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapies and immunotherapy—have provided new hope for patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Some of these patients can potentially be cured with modern treatments. However, a lack of adequate evidence makes it difficult for clinicians to apply these powerful techniques and strategies. Individualized management guidelines, full evaluation of quality of life in these patients, and a further understanding of the mechanisms underlying recurrence are future directions for research into recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:24155638

  11. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1–2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50–60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion’s pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  12. The increased cost of ventral hernia recurrence: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Davila, D G; Parikh, N; Frelich, M J; Goldblatt, M I

    2016-12-01

    Over 300,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) are performed each year in the US. We sought to assess the economic burden related to ventral hernia recurrences with a focused comparison of those with the initial open versus laparoscopic surgery. The Premier Alliance database from 2009 to 2014 was utilized to obtain patient demographics and comorbid indices, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Total hospital cost and resource expenses during index laparoscopic and open VHRs and subsequent recurrent repairs were also obtained. The sample was separated into laparoscopic and open repair groups from the initial operation. Adjusted and propensity score matched cost outcome data were then compared amongst groups. One thousand and seventy-seven patients were used for the analysis with a recurrence rate of 3.78 %. For the combined sample, costs were significantly higher during recurrent hernia repair hospitalization ($21,726 versus $19,484, p < 0.0001). However, for index laparoscopic repairs, both the adjusted total hospital cost and department level costs were similar during the index and the recurrent visit. The costs and resource utilization did not go up due to recurrence, even though these patients had greater severity during the recurrent visit (CCI score 0.92 versus 1.06; p = 0.0092). Using a matched sample, the total hospital recurrence cost was higher for the initial open group compared to laparoscopic group ($14,520 versus $12,649; p = 0.0454). Based on our analysis, need for recurrent VHR adds substantially to total hospital costs and resource utilization. Following initial laparoscopic repair, however, the total cost of recurrent repair is not significantly increased, as it is following initial open repair. When comparing the initial laparoscopic repair versus open, the cost of recurrence was higher for the prior open repair group.

  13. Recurrence theorems: A unified account

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, David

    2015-02-15

    I discuss classical and quantum recurrence theorems in a unified manner, treating both as generalisations of the fact that a system with a finite state space only has so many places to go. Along the way, I prove versions of the recurrence theorem applicable to dynamics on linear and metric spaces and make some comments about applications of the classical recurrence theorem in the foundations of statistical mechanics.

  14. Recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism due to parathyromatosis

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Giovanni; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Bossola, Maurizio; Lodoli, Claudio; Fadda, Guido; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro; Castagneto, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Parathyromatosis is the most severe type of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in haemodialysis patients. It is difficult to completely remove all foci of parathyroid tissue and neck re-explorations are often required. Here, we report for the first time a case of recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis treated by radio-guided PTX. A haemodialysed 48-year-old woman with recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis was treated by radio-guided PTX. Preoperatively Ultrasonography, 99Tc-SestaMIBI scintigraphy and magnetic resonances of the neck and thorax were performed. The preoperative imaging techniques detected four parathyroid nodules, while intraoperative gamma probe identified six nodules (three in atypical site). No frozen sections were performed during surgery. Post-operative intact parathyroid hormone levels were stabilized in the range 300–500 pg/mL during the 26 month follow-up by means of cinacalcet and paricalcitol therapy. In cases of parathyromatosis, the preoperative imaging techniques are inadequate, while intraoperative gamma probe is useful to detect the parathyroid tissue and allows a more extensive cytoreduction because it ensures the removal of undetectable and ectopic parathyroid foci. The operative time is reduced and frozen sections are unnecessary. However, the radio-guided PTX do not rule out parathyromatosis recurrence and complementary medical treatment is appropriate. PMID:25984178

  15. Recurrent malignant otitis externa: management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Omran, Ahmed Amin; El Garem, Hany Farouk; Al Alem, Reyad Khalil

    2012-03-01

    Necrotizing (malignant) external otitis (NEO) is an infection involving the temporal and the adjacent bones. It is a rare type of external otitis that occurs primarily in immunocompromised persons. The present study aimed to evaluate its management and outcome in recurrent cases. Ten patients attending the ENT Department, Alexandria University were included. They had recurrence of otitis externa over a period of 6 months after-cure, as well as severe night otalgia and high ESR level. Peri-auricular soft tissue swelling, cranial nerve paralysis and trismus were the main persistent or developing presentations in recurrent cases. Extensive surgical intervention was performed in four patients with unsatisfactory outcome. On the other hand, satisfactory results were obtained with those treated with specific medical therapy after culture and sensitivity test and those who underwent minimal surgical intervention. In conclusion, NEO is an aggressive disease that necessitates conservative management and local debridement of sequestrated tissues. The ESR is a good indicator of treatment response. It is recommended to be meticulous in treatment of cases with recurrent NEO and extensive surgical interventions are discouraged.

  16. The appendix may protect against Clostridium difficile recurrence.

    PubMed

    Im, Gene Y; Modayil, Rani J; Lin, Cheng T; Geier, Steven J; Katz, Douglas S; Feuerman, Martin; Grendell, James H

    2011-12-01

    Several risk factors have been identified for the development of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that alter host immunity and disrupt colonic flora. Although the function of the appendix has been debated, its active, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and biofilm production indicate potential roles in recovery from initial CDI and protection against recurrent CDI. We investigated whether the presence or absence of an appendix is associated with CDI recurrence. We reviewed the medical records of adult inpatients with CDI who were admitted to a tertiary-care teaching hospital from 2005 to 2007 to identify those with and without an appendix. The primary dependent variable for statistical analysis was CDI recurrence. In a multivariate analysis of 11 clinical variables, the presence of an appendix was associated inversely with CDI recurrence (P < .0001; adjusted relative risk, .398). Age older than 60 years also was associated with CDI recurrence (P = .0280; adjusted relative risk, 2.44). The presence of an appendix has a significant and independent, inverse association with CDI recurrence, but this finding requires validation in a prospective study. Assessing the presence or absence of an appendix might be useful in predicting CDI recurrence. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, D.D.; Lijfering, W.M.; Barreto, S.M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Rezende, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed. PMID:22183247

  18. Recurrent jaundice caused by recurrent hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed Central

    Larrey, D; Rueff, B; Feldmann, G; Degott, C; Danan, G; Benhamou, J P

    1984-01-01

    The existence of jaundice induced by hyperemesis gravidarum is controversial. We report the case of a woman who suffered from three episodes of jaundice during the first trimester of three consecutive pregnancies, a few days after the onset of hyperemesis gravidarum. Jaundice was caused by conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was increased and scarce necrotic hepatocytes were shown on light and electron microscopic examinations. Cessation of vomiting was rapidly followed by complete recovery. This observation supports the view that severe vomiting can cause jaundice in pregnant women. PMID:6510771

  19. Abemaciclib in Children With DIPG or Recurrent/Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-10

    Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Solid Tumor, Recurrent; Neuroblastoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Ewing Sarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Osteosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdoid Tumor, Recurrent, Refractory

  20. Recurrence plots revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casdagli, M. C.

    1997-09-01

    We show that recurrence plots (RPs) give detailed characterizations of time series generated by dynamical systems driven by slowly varying external forces. For deterministic systems we show that RPs of the time series can be used to reconstruct the RP of the driving force if it varies sufficiently slowly. If the driving force is one-dimensional, its functional form can then be inferred up to an invertible coordinate transformation. The same results hold for stochastic systems if the RP of the time series is suitably averaged and transformed. These results are used to investigate the nonlinear prediction of time series generated by dynamical systems driven by slowly varying external forces. We also consider the problem of detecting a small change in the driving force, and propose a surrogate data technique for assessing statistical significance. Numerically simulated time series and a time series of respiration rates recorded from a subject with sleep apnea are used as illustrative examples.

  1. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need.

  2. [Treatment of refractory or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2012-08-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased over the past decades. It is related to the emergence of hypervirulent strains and increased use of antibiotics. The incidence of refractory CDI to standard therapies and the risk for recurrent CDI are also increasing. Current guidelines recommend the first recurrence to be treated with the same agent used for the initial episode. However, data are lacking to support any particular treatment strategy for severe refractory CDI or cases with multiple recurrence. Treatments currently available for CDI are inadequate to prevent recurrence. Widely used method for managing a subsequent recurrence involves tapering followed by pulsed doses of vancomycin. Other potentially effective strategies for recurrent CDI are use of other antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, nitazoxanide, rifaximin, tigecycline, and teicoplanin. There are efforts to recover gut microflora and to optimize immune response to CDI. These include use of probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, intravenous immunoglobulin, monoclonal antibodies directed against C. difficile toxins, and active vaccination. However treatment of patients with refractory CDI and those with multiple CDI recurrences is based on limited clinical evidence, and there is an ongoing need for continued research to improve the outcomes these patients.

  3. Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for recurrent anterior shoulder instability: functional outcomes and identification of risk factors for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issaq; Ashton, Fiona; Robinson, Christopher Michael

    2012-07-18

    Arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift is a well-established technique for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift and to identify risk factors that are predictive of recurrence of glenohumeral instability. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database consisting of 302 patients who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift for the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. The prevalence of patient and injury-related risk factors for recurrence was assessed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the predicted probability of recurrence within two years. The chief outcome measures were the risk of recurrence and the two-year functional outcomes assessed with the Western Ontario shoulder instability index (WOSI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores. The rate of recurrent glenohumeral instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair and capsular shift was 13.2%. The median time to recurrence was twelve months, and this complication developed within one year in 55% of these patients. The risk of recurrence was independently predicted by the patient's age at surgery, the severity of glenoid bone loss, and the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion (all p < 0.001). These variables were incorporated into a model to provide an estimate of the risk of recurrence after surgery. Varying the cutoff level for the predicted probability of recurrence in the model from 50% to lower values increased the sensitivity of the model to detect recurrences but decreased the positive predictive value of the model to correctly predict failed repairs. There was a significant improvement in the mean WOSI and DASH scores at two years postoperatively (both p < 0.001), but the mean scores in the group with recurrence were significantly lower than those in the group

  4. Eye rubbing as an apparent cause of recurrent keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Yeniad, Baris; Alparslan, Nilufer; Akarcay, Koray

    2009-05-01

    To report a case of recurrent keratoconus after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) because of allergic conjunctivitis. Case report. A 23-year-old woman who had successful bilateral PKP presented with complaints of visual impairment 3 years after the last examination. She also complained of severe ocular itching and hyperemia, and she reported a history of vigorous eye rubbing. The diagnosis of recurrent keratoconus was confirmed based on clinical findings and topographic features. A recurrence of keratoconus can occur because of itch-provoked rubbing of the eyes. Patients who had PKP should be evaluated for a history of ocular allergies.

  5. Point: Hyperthermia with radiation for chest wall recurrences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ellen L; Marks, Lawrence B; Prosnitz, Leonard R

    2007-03-01

    Treatment of a locoregional recurrence of breast cancer after mastectomy remains a clinically challenging problem. Often these patients have undergone prior radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therapeutic options usually include resection or additional radiation; however, the long-term control rates are often suboptimal with these approaches. Data from several randomized trials suggest that the addition of hyperthermia to radiation can increase the response rate for such local recurrences. Therefore, in settings where the available therapies are unlikely to yield local control (e.g., local/ regional recurrence after prior radiation), a reasonable option to consider is radiation with hyperthermia as a radiation sensitizer. This article reviews the rationale and supporting literature for this recommendation.

  6. Recurrent stuck mitral valve: eosinophilia an unusual pathology.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Bhat, Yasser; Radhakrishnan, S; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Eosinophilia is a very unusual and rare cause of thrombosis of prosthetic mitral valve. We report a 10-year-old male child of recurrent stuck prosthetic mitral valve. The child underwent mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation secondary to Rheumatic heart disease. He had recurrent prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, despite desired INR levels. There was associated eosinophilia. The child was treated on the lines of tropical eosinophilia with oral prednisolone and diethylcarbamazine, the eosinophil count dropped significantly with no subsequent episode of stuck mitral valve. We discuss the management of recurrent stuck mitral valve and also eosinophilia as a causative factor for the same.

  7. Treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Philippe; Hartl, Dana M; Guerre, Agnès

    2009-12-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) can be a debilitating illness in children. Knowing how to recognize and diagnose it for early treatment avoids recurrences that could lead to significant destruction of the glandular parenchyma. This article discusses the various therapeutic modalities proposed in the literature (medical treatment or sialendoscopy) and describes the authors' treatment of choice of combining antibiotics and iodinated oil sialography.

  8. Recurrent Bell's palsy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A D

    1990-09-01

    A case of recurrent Bell's palsy occurring in two successive pregnancies in a 37-year-old woman is presented. The causes of facial nerve paralysis of the lower motor neurone type are discussed. The rate of recurrence of Bell's palsy during pregnancy is unknown. Treatment with corticosteroids of Bell's palsy during pregnancy poses the threat of possible side effects on the fetus.

  9. Nocturnal lagophthalmos and recurrent erosion.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, G. D.

    1976-01-01

    The symptoms and corneal changes caused by sleeping with one or both eyes open are described in 102 patients. The clinical picture is identical to that of the microform recurrent erosion. The close relationship between the micro- and macro-forms of recurrent corneal erosion suggests that the latter condition is also precipitated by nocturnal lagophthalmos. Images PMID:1268178

  10. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Natalie Rose; Saleh, Dahlia; Miller, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Aphthous stomatitis is a painful and often recurrent inflammatory process of the oral mucosa that can appear secondary to various well-defined disease processes. Idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is referred to as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent aphthous ulcerations is extensive and ranges from idiopathic benign causes to inherited fever syndromes, to connective tissue disease, or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A thorough history and review of systems can assist the clinician in determining whether it is related to a systemic inflammatory process or truly idiopathic. Management of aphthous stomatitis is challenging. For recurrent aphthous stomatitis or recalcitrant aphthous stomatitis from underlying disease, first-line treatment consists of topical medications with use of systemic medications as necessary. Herein, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment ladder of aphthous stomatitis as described in the literature.

  11. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Dahlia; Miller, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Aphthous stomatitis is a painful and often recurrent inflammatory process of the oral mucosa that can appear secondary to various well-defined disease processes. Idiopathic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is referred to as recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The differential diagnosis for recurrent aphthous ulcerations is extensive and ranges from idiopathic benign causes to inherited fever syndromes, to connective tissue disease, or even inflammatory bowel diseases. A thorough history and review of systems can assist the clinician in determining whether it is related to a systemic inflammatory process or truly idiopathic. Management of aphthous stomatitis is challenging. For recurrent aphthous stomatitis or recalcitrant aphthous stomatitis from underlying disease, first-line treatment consists of topical medications with use of systemic medications as necessary. Herein, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and treatment ladder of aphthous stomatitis as described in the literature. PMID:28360966

  12. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  13. [Recurrent inflammatory optic neuritis and neuromyelitis optica].

    PubMed

    de Sèze, J; Arndt, C

    2010-12-01

    Inflammatory optic neuritis (ON) represents a frequent clinical situation in neurology and ophthalmology. When MRI and CSF analysis are normal, ON is considered idiopathic with a suspected viral etiology. However, in several cases either a recurrence or a myelitis may occur. In the first case, it is relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis (RION) and in the second case it is neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Nevertheless, predictive criteria of a recurrence or an extension of the disease to spinal cord remains unknown, excepted for anti-NMO IgG antibodies which are probably highly specific for a future evolution to NMO. In the present paper, the authors successively present the two clinical situations (RION and NMO) and attempt to summarize diagnostic and prognostic criteria.

  14. [How to cope with recurrent aphthous stomatitis].

    PubMed

    Madrid, C; Jaques, B; Bouferrrache, K; Broome, M

    2010-10-06

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral mucosa ailment. This condition is frequently considered as idiopathic due to the doubts about its etiology, probably related to a minor immunological dysregulation in a context of genetic predisposition. However, ulcers that resemble recurrent aphthous stomatitis in some respects can be found in systemic disorders that must be ruled out for the differential diagnosis of SAR, particularly when they appear after adolescence and/or when associated lesions exist out of the oral cavity. SAR management lies on the elimination of predisposing factors (drugs, oral trauma, food allergies...) and if needed, topical corticosteroids are the first choice regimen. More severe cases may require systemic regimens.

  15. Recurrent Oligodendroglioma Treated with Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2015-06-01

    Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture have been shown to be effective in tumor treatment. However, their effectiveness for treating oligodendroglioma has not been reported yet. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial report on the effectiveness of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture for the treatment of an oligodendroglioma by presenting a case that was treated successfully. A 54-year-old man, who had experienced intracranial hemorrhage, was diagnosed with recurrent oligodendroglioma. His expected survival period was 3-6 months. The patient received daily acupuncture and weekly pharmacopuncture of mountain ginseng and bee venom. After treatment for 18 months, the tumor size was decreased markedly on brain magnetic resonance imaging, and severe seizures had disappeared. In this case, a combination of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture was shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent oligodendroglioma.

  16. Recurrence after percutaneous ethanol ablation of simple hepatic, renal, and splenic cysts: is it true recurrence requiring an additional treatment?

    PubMed

    Hahn, S T; Han, S Y; Yun, E H; Park, S H; Lee, S H; Lee, H J; Hahn, H J; Hahn, H M

    2008-11-01

    Recurrence after percutaneous ethanol ablation (PEA) of benign hepatic and renal cysts has been common, resulting in re-treatment or additional surgery. However, in recent years, a few cases of spontaneous regression of recurrent cysts following PEA have been experienced, which led to the design of this study to evaluate cyst recurrence after PEA and the necessity of additional treatment. To evaluate whether the initial recurrence after PEA of benign hepatic, renal, and splenic cysts is true recurrence, and to decide whether additional treatment is needed. Thirty-nine benign cysts (21 hepatic, 17 renal, and one splenic) were treated with PEA. PEA was performed with injection of 13-900 ml (40-50% of the volume of aspirated fluid) of absolute ethanol into the cysts. For cysts larger than 100 ml, two or more PEAs were given in one session. Ultrasonography was then performed during a period of 12 months with 1-2-month intervals. Two months after PEA, eight cysts (20.5%) regressed completely; another 31 cysts recurred with decreased size. After 6 months, 10 of the recurrent cysts had regressed spontaneously. Another four recurrent cysts regressed after 8 months, and three regressed after 12 months. Hence, 25 out of 39 (64.1%) cysts regressed within 12 months after PEA. The mean regression time of the 25 recurrent cysts was 6.3 months. All recurrent cysts, including the 14 that were lost to complete follow-up, showed gradual decrease overtime. There were no major complications associated with PEA. Initial relapse of a cyst following PEA does not signify true recurrence, but transient, reactive, or inflammatory fluid collections which eventually disappear within several months, and thus does not necessitate additional treatment.

  17. Postoperative oligo-recurrence of non-small-cell lung cancer: clinical features and survival†.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Junji; Aokage, Keiju; Nagai, Kanji; Tsuboi, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative recurrences of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are usually disseminated and systemic. Recently, the concept of oligo-recurrence, which is theoretically curable by definitive local therapy (DLT), has been proposed in several cancers. The aim of this study was to clarify clinical features and outcomes of patients with postoperative oligo-recurrence of NSCLC. From 3275 patients with resected pathological stage IA-IIIB NSCLC between 1993 and 2011, a total of 768 patients who developed recurrence were included in this study. Oligo-recurrence was defined as 1-3 loco-regional or distant recurrent lesions restricted to a single organ. Other recurrences were classified as poly-recurrence. Second primary lung cancers and suspected lesions were excluded. DLT included surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy and radiotherapy with a 45 Gy or higher dose, performed with curative intent. Oligo-recurrence was identified in 162 (21%) patients, mainly as a solitary recurrence (n = 129, 80%) in regional lymph nodes, brain, lung, bone and adrenal gland, and the proportion of patients with oligo-recurrence increased gradually year by year. The patients with oligo-recurrence had more early-staged disease at initial surgery and a longer time to recurrence than those with poly-recurrence. The entire population of oligo-recurrence patients had better post-recurrence survival (PRS) than those with poly-recurrence (5-year PRS: 32.9 vs 9.9%, P < 0.001). For oligo-recurrence, DLT was totally conducted in 105 (65%) patients as initial treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that the initial DLT was associated with improved PRS [odds ratio (OR) 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.68]. The recurrence location and initial pathological stage did not affect PRS. The 5-year PRS and postoperative progression-free survival rates after DLT were 38.6 and 22.3%, respectively. Of the 10 long-term (≥5-year) progression-free survivors, 9 were those with a solitary recurrence. Initial DLT

  18. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Seidl, T; Maier, M; Refior, H J; Veihelmann, A

    2003-06-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare, inflammatory, skeletal disease of unknown origin, which mainly affects children and adolescents in terms of cleido-spondylo-metaphysal skeletal inflammation. Only 10% of the patients are older than 20 years. To date, only about 200 cases have been reported in the literature. In the course of the disease, the initial radiological signs are osteolysis followed by sclerosis and hyperostosis in the end stage. The histological investigations reveal chronic inflammatory infiltrates with lymphocytes and hyperostosis. Although the prognosis of CRMO, to our current understanding, is self limiting, serious complications have been reported such as pathological fractures and compression fractures of the spine. A recently recommended therapy scheme is based on the administration of azithromycin combined with calcitonin. We present the case of a 25 year old female patient who has suffered from CRMO for 1.5 years with the cervical spine and the manubrium sterni being affected. The current state of diagnosis, therapy, and prognostic outlook of this rare disease are discussed.

  19. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Marion R; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an autoinflammatory bone disease occurring primarily in children and adolescents. Episodes of systemic inflammation occur due to immune dysregulation without autoantibodies, pathogens or antigen-specific T cells. CRMO is characterised by the insidious onset of pain with swelling and tenderness over the affected bones. Clavicular involvement was the classical description; however, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones are frequently affected. Lesions may occur in any bone, including vertebrae. Characteristic imaging includes bone oedema, lytic areas, periosteal reaction and soft tissue reaction. Biopsies from affected areas display polymorphonuclear leucocytes with osteoclasts and necrosis in the early stages. Subsequently, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominate followed by fibrosis and signs of reactive new bone forming around the inflammation. Diagnosis is facilitated by the use of STIR MRI scanning, potentially obviating the need for biopsy and unnecessary long-term antibiotics due to incorrect diagnosis. Treatment options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonates. Biologics have been tried in resistant cases with promising initial results. Gene identification has not proved easy although research in this area continues. Early descriptions of the disease suggested a benign course; however, longer-term follow up shows that it can cause significant morbidity and longer-term disability. Although it has always been thought of as very rare, the prevalence is likely to be vastly underestimated due to poor recognition of the disease.

  20. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Schilling, F; Eckardt, A; Kessler, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed description of the so-called "chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis" (CRMO). The clinical, radiological and histopathological results of an analysis of 29 cases (15 children/adolescents and 14 adults) are presented and correlated to current data from the literature. We could delinate the following points: 1. CRMO is a systemic aseptic inflammation of the bone marrow (Osteitis), it can occur polytopically and association with pustulous dermatologic symptoms is possible. 2. It is not a rare disease 3. Osteomyelitis is probably "reactive" and a plasma-cell sclerotic process with ist own characteristic histologic three-phase course. 4. We could observe 5 specific types of localization which can be documented by X-ray or bone scan. 5. Accompanying arthritis os often present, especially "sympathetic coxitis". 6. The use of drugs in treatment of CRMO (i.e. azithromycin, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates) is discussed. In conclusion we want to point out, that 1. 99mTC bone scan should always be performed when there is suspicion for CRMO to reveal the pattern of affection, 2. the rheumatologist and dermatologist should be contacted, 3. operation is normally not necessary for treatment of the mostly self-limitin disease, and 4. the term "SAPHO syndrome" should be avoided, further differentiation of the diagnosis is necessary.

  1. Recurrent uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Kamel, K S; Cheema-Dhadli, S; Shafiee, M A; Davids, M R; Halperin, M L

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old female had a history of recurrent uric acid stone formation, but the reason why uric acid precipitated in her urine was not obvious, because the rate of urate excretion was not high, urine volume was not low, and the pH in her 24-h urine was not low enough. In his discussion of the case, Professor McCance provided new insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stone formation. He illustrated that measuring the pH in a 24-h urine might obscure the fact that the urine pH was low enough to cause uric acid to precipitate during most of the day. Because he found a low rate of excretion of NH(4)(+) relative to that of sulphate anions, as well as a high rate of citrate excretion, he speculated that the low urine pH would be due to a more alkaline pH in proximal convoluted tubule cells. He went on to suspect that there was a problem in our understanding of the function of renal medullary NH(3) shunt pathway, and he suggested that its major function might be to ensure a urine pH close to 6.0 throughout the day, to minimize the likelihood of forming uric acid kidney stones.

  2. Increased expression of regulatory Tr1 cells in recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, A; Conti, F; Stenard, F; Aoudjehane, L; Miroux, C; Podevin, P; Morales, O; Chouzenoux, S; Scatton, O; Groux, H; Auriault, C; Calmus, Y; Pancre, V; Delhem, N

    2009-09-01

    Immune response failure during HCV infection has been associated with the activity of regulatory T cells. Hepatitis C-related cirrhosis is the main reason for liver transplantation. However, 80% of transplanted patients present an accelerated recurrence of the disease. This study assessed the involvement of regulatory T-cell subsets (CD4+CD25+ cells: 'Treg' and CD49b+CD18+ cells: 'T regulatory-1' cells), in the recurrence of HCV after liver transplantation, using transcriptomic analysis, ELISA assays on serum samples and immunohistochemistry on liver biopsies from liver recipients 1 and 5 years after transplantation. Three groups of patients were included: stable HCV-negative recipients and those with mild and severe hepatitis C recurrence. At 5 years, Treg markers were overexpressed in all HCV+ recipients. By contrast, Tr1 markers were only overexpressed in patients with severe recurrence. At 1 year, a trend toward the overexpression of Tr1 was noted in patients evolving toward severe recurrence. IL-10 production, a characteristic of the Tr1 subset, was enhanced in severe recurrence at both 1 and 5 years. These results suggest that Tr1 are enhanced during severe HCV recurrence after liver transplantation and could be predictive of HCV recurrence. High levels of IL-10 at 1 year could be predictive of severe recurrence, and high IL-10 producers might warrant more intensive management.

  3. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome: dermatological approach*

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Aline Blanco; Hans Filho, Günter; Vicari, Carolina Faria dos Santos; Medeiros, Marcelo Zanolli; Couto, Daíne Vargas; Takita, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome is a rare systemic fibrovascular dysplasia, recognized by mucocutaneous telangiectasias, arteriovenous malformations, epistaxis and family history. Recurrent bleeding, hypoxemia, congestive heart failure, portosystemic encephalopathy, and symptoms related to angiodysplasia of the central nervous system may occur. Since the treatment is based on supportive measures, early recognition is of utmost importance. This article reports the case of a 53-year-old male patient who presented telangiectasias on fingers, oral cavity and nasal mucosa for 10 years, with a history of recurrent epistaxis of varying severity since childhood. Mother, sister and daughter have similar lesions. PMID:26312724

  4. The Risk of Recurrent Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Andrew; Clarke, Ann; St Pierre, Yvan; Mill, Jennifer; Asai, Yuka; Eisman, Harley; La Vieille, Sebastien; Alizadehfar, Reza; Joseph, Lawrence; Morris, Judy; Gravel, Jocelyn; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    To determine the recurrence rate of anaphylaxis in children medically attended in an emergency department (ED), we performed a prospective cohort study to evaluate prehospital and ED management of children with recurrent anaphylaxis and to assess factors associated with recurrent anaphylaxis. As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry, parents of children with anaphylaxis identified prospectively in 3 EDs and through an emergency medical response service were contacted annually after presentation and queried on subsequent reactions. Cox regression analysis determined factors associated with recurrence. Among 292 children who were registered as having had medical attended anaphylaxis, 68.5% completed annual follow-up questionnaires. Forty-seven patients experienced 65 episodes of anaphylaxis during 369 patient-years of follow-up. Food was the trigger in 84.6% of cases, and epinephrine was used in 66.2%. In 50.8%, epinephrine was used outside the health care facility, and 81.7% were brought to a health care facility for treatment. Asthma, reaction triggered by food, and use of epinephrine during the index episode increased the odds of recurrent reaction. Patients whose initial reaction was triggered by peanut were less likely to have a recurrent reaction. We report a yearly anaphylaxis recurrence rate of 17.6% in children. There is substantial underuse of epinephrine in cases of anaphylaxis. Educational programs that promote effective avoidance strategies and prompt use of epinephrine are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vulvovaginitis candidiasis recurrence during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fardiazar, Z; Ronaci, F; Torab, R; Goldust, M

    2012-04-15

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic condition seen by practitioners rendering primary care to women. Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis (VVC) is the most common type of vaginitis and this study aimed at specifying VVC recurrence during pregnancy. In this prospective study, 150 pregnant women suffering from vaginal excretion, morsus and itching were studied. Initially, the patients were treated using clotrimazole local cream (5 g) for 7 successive days. After initial treatment, the patients were freely visited once a month until delivery considering vaginitis symptoms and VVC recurrence was examined during pregnancy. Mean age of the understudy mothers was 27.26 +/- 3.76. Mean of recurrence number was 0.17 +/- 0.48 during the first trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 0.92 +/- 0.76 during the second trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 2.16 +/- 0.63 during the third trimester. Statistically significant difference was between recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). There is statistically significant difference between mean number of recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy.

  6. Onychomycosis: Practical Approaches to Minimize Relapse and Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella; Elewski, Boni E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toenail onychomycosis is a common disease in which treatment options are limited and treatment failures and disease recurrence are frequently encountered. It usually requires many months of treatment, and recurrence may occur in more than half of the patients within 1 year or more after the infection has been eradicated. Data on long-term treatment, follow-up and recurrence are limited. Objective Our objective is to interpret these data and recommend practical approaches that should minimize recurrence based on our clinical experience. Results Several factors have been suggested to play a role in the high incidence of recurrence, but only the extent of nail involvement and co-existing diabetes mellitus have been shown to have a significant impact. Conclusion The use of topical antifungals to prevent recurrences after complete cure was achieved has been suggested by various workers and used successfully in our practice. However, it has never been validated through clinical studies. Topical prophylaxis once weekly or twice monthly would seem appropriate in those patients most at risk. Prompt treatment of tinea pedis is essential, as is ensuring family members are free from disease. Patient education and pharmacologic intervention are equally important, and there are a number of simple strategies patients can employ. Managing onychomycosis is a significant long-term commitment for any patient, and minimizing recurrence is critical to meet their expectations. PMID:27843933

  7. Recurrence of drug-induced reactions in DRESS patients.

    PubMed

    Picard, D; Vellar, M; Janela, B; Roussel, A; Joly, P; Musette, P

    2015-04-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) may relapse following introduction of drugs structurally unrelated to the initial culprit drug. To assess the frequency and characteristics of recurrent drug eruptions in patients with history of DRESS. Patients who had developed adverse cutaneous reaction after DRESS occurrence were recruited from the regional database of Upper Normandy in France. Rate of recurrences were compared with patients with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients during the same time frame. Of the 60 cases of DRESS collected, 15 (25%) with recurrences were retained for analysis. Seven patients had a single recurrence, whereas eight patients had several relapses. In the patients with pre-existing DRESS, recurrences were incomplete, corresponding to cutaneous rash in 13 cases and associated with eosinophilia in seven cases. Internal organ involvement was observed in two cases. In contrast, a single recurrence was found out of 61 patients with TEN/SJS. Incomplete recurrences with structurally unrelated culprit drugs are a frequent phenomenon in DRESS patients. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Man, Ya-Nan; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicated that the diagnosis season affects the prognosis of some cancers, such as examples in the prostate, colon and breast This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the diagnosis and recurrent season impacts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. From January 2005 to August 2010, 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were analyzed and followed up until August 2013. Kaplan- Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to make the survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent prognostic factors. The prognostic factors of overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients included age, clinical stage, pathological type, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Moreover, clinical stage, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles also impacted the progression-free survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The diagnosis season did not have a significantly relationship with the survival of operable epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Median overall survival of patients with recurrent month from April to November was 47 months, which was longer (P < 0.001) than that of patients with recurrence month from December to March (19 months). Median progression-free survival of patients with recurrence month from April to November and December to March was 20 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). The recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. However, the diagnosed season does not appear to exert a significant influence.

  9. Imaging for Prostate Cancer Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Tobias; Eiber, Matthias; Fanti, Stefano; Budäus, Lars; Panebianco, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Correct identification of metastatic sites in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) is of crucial importance because it leads to further treatment decisions. To provide an overview on current imaging procedures and their performance in recurrent PCa. Medline search via PubMed was performed with the keywords imaging, recurrent, and prostate cancer as well as more detailed searches including the keywords bone scan, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, PET, choline, FDG, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and PSMA, with emphasis on recent literature from 2010 to the present. Non-English published literature was excluded. Abstracts and full-text articles were reviewed and assessed for relevant content. In diagnostic imaging and particularly with newer technologies like positron emission tomography (PET), a profound lack of prospectively designed studies in recurrent PCa has to be noted. In most studies histologic validation has only been performed in a subset of patient cohorts. Heterogeneity of included patient cohorts, lack of standardized assessment, as well as diverging end points, hamper systematic comparison of different image modalities. Thus evidence for currently used imaging in recurrent PCa is only presented descriptively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as bone scintigraphy still represent the standard imaging for recurrent PCa; however, particularly for detection of local recurrence, multiparametric MRI is a valuable imaging modality. PET using choline and particularly tracers against prostate-specific membrane antigen might improve visualization of metastatic lesions. These findings need to be validated in prospective trials. Imaging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) is important to guide further treatment. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy represent the current standard. Positron emission tomography, especially with cancer

  10. STDP in Recurrent Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2010-01-01

    Recent results about spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in recurrently connected neurons are reviewed, with a focus on the relationship between the weight dynamics and the emergence of network structure. In particular, the evolution of synaptic weights in the two cases of incoming connections for a single neuron and recurrent connections are compared and contrasted. A theoretical framework is used that is based upon Poisson neurons with a temporally inhomogeneous firing rate and the asymptotic distribution of weights generated by the learning dynamics. Different network configurations examined in recent studies are discussed and an overview of the current understanding of STDP in recurrently connected neuronal networks is presented. PMID:20890448

  11. Contralateral recurrence of tumefactive demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Guranda, Mihail; Essig, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Tumefactive demyelination refers to large focal demyelinating lesions in the brain, which can be mistaken for malignancy. In some patients, these lesions are monophasic with a self-limited course; however, other patients demonstrate recurrent disease with new tumefactive or non-tumefactive lesions, and a subsequent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is not uncommon. Owing to the limited data available in the literature, many questions about the patterns and prognostic significance of recurrent tumefactive lesions remain unanswered. The current case report involves a patient who recovered from tumefactive demyelination and presented two years later with a new recurrent tumefactive lesion in the contralateral brain. PMID:26427896

  12. Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?

    PubMed

    Valli, K; Revonsuo, A

    2006-06-01

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation.

  13. Autosomal dominant juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, E; Douglas, F; Crow, Y; Hollman, A; Gibson, J

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis is a common cause of inflammatory salivary gland swelling in children. A variety of aetiological factors has been proposed for the condition. Here we present a family where four members had juvenile recurrent parotitis and where two other family members may have had an atypical form of the condition. The segregation pattern in the family is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and this suggests that, at least in some cases, genetic factors may be implicated in juvenile recurrent parotitis. PMID:9610807

  14. Cancer Metastases: Early Dissemination and Late Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metastatic cells from a primary tumor can occur before the primary cancer is detected. Metastatic cells can also remain in the patient for many years after removal of the primary tumor without proliferating. These dormant malignant cells can awaken and cause recurrent disease decades after the primary treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical evidence for early dissemination and late recurrences in human malignant tumors. We used the following definitions: dormancy of cells may be defined as a nonproliferating state or an arrest in the cell cycle that results in a prolonged G0 phase. If one accepts the term “late metastases” to indicate a period exceeding 10 years from the removal of the primary tumor, then the two malignancies in which this occurs most frequently are cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched with the keywords “metastases,” “early dissemination,” “late recurrences,” “inadvertently transmitted cancer,” “tumor growth rate,” “dormancy,” “circulating tumor cells,” and “transplantation of cancer.” RESULTS Several case reports of early dissemination and late recurrences of various types of malignancies were found. Analyses of the growth rates of several malignant tumors in the original host indicated that the majority of cancers had metastasized years before they were detected. CMM, RCC, and malignant glioblastoma were the three most common malignancies resulting from an organ transplantation. CMM and RCC were also the two most common malignancies that showed dormancy. In several cases of transplanted CMM and RCC, the donor did not have any known malignancy or had had the malignancy removed so long ago that the donor was regarded as cured. CONCLUSION (1) Metastases can frequently exist prior to the detection of the primary tumor. (2) Metastatic cells may reside in organs in the original host that are not

  15. Future directions for the early detection of colorectal cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Avery S; Johnson, Eric K; Maykel, Justin A; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence.

  16. Future Directions for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Avery S.; Johnson, Eric K.; Maykel, Justin A.; Stojadinovic, Alex; Nissan, Aviram; Brucher, Bjorn; Champagne, Bradley J.; Steele, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection remains a mainstay of treatment and is highly effective for localized colorectal cancer. However, ~30-40% of patients develop recurrence following surgery and 40-50% of recurrences are apparent within the first few years after initial surgical resection. Several variables factor into the ultimate outcome of these patients, including the extent of disease, tumor biology, and patient co-morbidities. Additionally, the time from initial treatment to the development of recurrence is strongly associated with overall survival, particularly in patients who recur within one year of their surgical resection. Current post-resection surveillance strategies involve physical examination, laboratory, endoscopic and imaging studies utilizing various high and low-intensity protocols. Ultimately, the goal is to detect recurrence as early as possible, and ideally in the asymptomatic localized phase, to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. While current strategies have been effective, several efforts are evolving to improve our ability to identify recurrent disease at its earliest phase. Our aim with this article is to briefly review the options available and, more importantly, examine emerging and future options to assist in the early detection of colon and rectal cancer recurrence. PMID:24790655

  17. Photodynamic therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Anja; Khan, Muhammad K; Lippert, Burkard M

    2014-06-05

    participants. This study was at high risk of bias. None of our primary outcomes and only one of our secondary outcomes (reduction in volume of disease, assessed endoscopically) was measured in the study. There was no significant difference between the groups (very low-quality evidence). Adverse effects reported included airway swelling requiring intubation in a child with severe RRP a few hours after photodynamic therapy. There is insufficient evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials to determine whether photodynamic therapy alters the course of disease or provides an added benefit to surgery in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Multicentre randomised controlled trials with appropriate sample sizes and long-term follow-up are required to evaluate whether photodynamic therapy is of benefit. Outcomes such as improvement in symptoms (respiratory function and voice quality) and quality of life should be measured in future trials.

  18. Recurrence Quantification of Fractal Structures

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    By definition, fractal structures possess recurrent patterns. At different levels repeating patterns can be visualized at higher magnifications. The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, general characteristics of dynamical systems are addressed from a theoretical mathematical perspective. Second, qualitative and quantitative recurrence analyses are reviewed in brief, but the reader is directed to other sources for explicit details. Third, example mathematical systems that generate strange attractors are explicitly defined, giving the reader the ability to reproduce the rich dynamics of continuous chaotic flows or discrete chaotic iterations. The challenge is then posited for the reader to study for themselves the recurrent structuring of these different dynamics. With a firm appreciation of the power of recurrence analysis, the reader will be prepared to turn their sights on real-world systems (physiological, psychological, mechanical, etc.). PMID:23060808

  19. Pathways to Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a deadly disease, even with all the recent technological advancements. Early intervention has made an impact, but an overwhelmingly large number of breast cancer patients still live under the fear of “recurrent” disease. Breast cancer recurrence is clinically a huge problem and one that is largely not well understood. Over the years, a number of factors have been studied with an overarching aim of being able to prognose recurrent disease. This paper attempts to provide an overview of our current knowledge of breast cancer recurrence and its associated challenges. Through a survey of the literature on cancer stem cells (CSCs), epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), various signaling pathways such as Notch/Wnt/hedgehog, and microRNAs (miRNAs), we also examine the hypotheses that are currently under investigation for the prevention of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23533807

  20. Recurrent ameloblastoma of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Joshi, C P; Vyas, K C; Deedwania, S; Jain, S; Mangal, M M

    1999-10-01

    Ameloblastoma is an agressive locally recurring neoplasm of odentogenic epithelium. Here we describe a case of mandibular ameloblastoma with 12 yrs. history of local recurrences followed with history of excision twice (10 yrs. and 7 years back).

  1. Recurrent shoulder dystocia: a review.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Jemel; Chauhan, Suneet P; Hayes, Edward; Gherman, Robert; Lewis, David

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this review were to determine the incidence of recurrent shoulder dystocia and the incidence of brachial plexus injury in such cases. A search of PubMed was conducted between 1980 and March 2009. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The search yielded 191 publications, of which 9 provided complete data; these were used to calculate the incidence of recurrent shoulder dystocia. The rate of shoulder dystocia in the prior pregnancies was 1.64% (31,311/1,911,014). Among 10,591 known subsequent vaginal births, the rate of recurrent shoulder dystocia was 12% (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 7.77, 8.76). Brachial plexus injury occurred significantly more often during recurrent shoulder dystocia than during the first shoulder dystocia (4% vs. 1%; OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.44, 5.29; or 45/1000 vs. 13/1000 births). About 12% of parturients with a history of shoulder dystocia have a recurrent dystocia in the subsequent pregnancy, a risk of about 1 in 8. Brachial plexus injury occurs in 19/1000 vaginal births during the first episode of shoulder dystocia, and in 45/1000 vaginal births after recurrent dystocia. Obstetricians & Gynecologist, Family Physicians. After completion of this educational activity, the reader will be able to compare the risk of primary versus recurrent shoulder dystocia. Formulate counseling and treatment strategies for pregnant women who have had a prior pregnancy complicated by shoulder dystocia. Assess the strength of the evidence suggesting the risk of recurrent shoulder dystocia.

  2. Electrochemotherapy of chest wall breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sersa, Gregor; Cufer, Tanja; Paulin, Snezna Marija; Cemazar, Maja; Snoj, Marko

    2012-08-01

    Chest wall breast cancer recurrence after mastectomy is a disease difficult to treat. Its incidence varies between 5% and 30% in different subset of patients. When possible, radical surgical therapy represents the main treatment approach, however when the disease progresses and/or treatments are not successful, ulceration, bleeding, lymphedema and psychological distress of progressive disease significantly decrease the quality of the remaining life of a patient. When surgical excision of chest wall recurrence is not possible, other local treatments such as radiotherapy, radiotherapy with hyperthermia, topical chemotherapy and electrochemotherapy might be taken into account. Electrochemotherapy provides safe, efficient and non-invasive locoregional treatment approach for chest wall breast cancer recurrence. Several clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy and a good safety profile of electrochemotherapy applied in single or multiple consecutive sessions, till clinical response was reached. Electrochemotherapy can be performed either with cisplatin injected intratumorally or with bleomycin given intratumorally or intravenously. Furthermore, it can be effectively used in heavily pre-treated areas, after surgery, radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. These are the advantages that might demand its use especially in patients with pre-treated extensive disease and in frail elderly patients. With development of the technology electrochemotherapy could even be suggested as a primary local therapy in patients not suitable for surgical removal of the primary tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiotherapy and brachytherapy for recurrent colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, S. )

    1991-05-01

    Radical surgical excision of locoregional recurrence of colorectal carcinoma usually produces the best survival and should be attempted whenever possible. However, recurrences are often unresectable; hence palliative local therapy may be indicated. There are several options for the radiation therapy of local, unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic colorectal cancer. Whole pelvis irradiation of 4,000-5,000 cGy followed by a coned-down boost of 1,000-1,500 cGy generally provides good symptomatic palliation in 80-90% of patients, but long-term control or cure is rarely achieved. External beam irradiation of 2,000-3,000 cGy to the whole liver with or without concurrent chemotherapy may be used for palliation of metastatic disease to the liver. A combination of intraoperative radiation therapy applied directly to the tumor bed and external beam irradiation may improve local control and survival rates. Multiple options are available for the intraoperative use of brachytherapy which can deliver high radiation doses to the residual tumor, or tumor bed, sparing normal tissue.

  4. Recurrent facial nerve palsy in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Eidlitz-Markus, T; Gilai, A; Mimouni, M; Shuper, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical presentation and prognosis of recurrent facial nerve palsy (RFNP) in children. The files of 182 patients referred to the Schneider Children's Medical Centre of Israel for neurological evaluation of isolated peripheral facial nerve palsy between October 1992 and December 1998 were reviewed. RFNP was found in 11 patients (9 females, 2 males), with an incidence of 6%. In two males, the aetiology was traced to Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and these patients were separated from the rest of the group. Three children had two episodes of facial nerve paresis which completely resolved clinically within several weeks. Six other children underwent electrophysiological studies. Two of the latter with residual neurological damage, and one child with abnormal blink reflex only, showed decreased facial nerve conduction velocity and abnormal blink reflex. Three children with complete recovery had disturbed blink reflex only with normal nerve conduction. Brain imaging studies as well as laboratory work-up were non-contributory in all cases. The frequency of recurrent facial nerve palsy in children was similar to that in adults. The most significant factors in the evaluation of recurrent facial nerve palsy are medical history and physical findings at diagnosis and after short follow-up. In our patients, electrophysiological studies did not have either clinical or prognostic significance. The rate of full clinical recovery is about 70%, lower than in Bell palsy.

  5. Effect of immunosuppression on recurrent herpes simplex in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W A; Harbour, D A; Hill, T J

    1980-01-01

    Mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus were treated with immunosuppressive drugs either alone or combined with stimuli to the skin. Treatment with cyclophosphamide reduced spleen weights and severely depressed lymphocyte levels, but had no effect on healing after cellophane tape stripping (CTS) and did not affect the cutaneous hypersensitivity response after injection of inactivated herpes simplex virus. The drug, either used alone or combined with CTS, failed to increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but increased the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Prednisolone and azathioprine used together also reduced spleen weights and circulating lymphocyte levels. They slightly delayed healing after CTS, but had no effect on cutaneous hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus. The treatment, either used alone or combined with CTS, slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease but did not increase the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Treatment with antithymocyte serum severely depressed the levels of circulating lymphocytes and delayed the regression of HeLa cell tumors in mice. Used alone, the treatment slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but it failed to increase the incidence of recurrences after CTS. It increased the duration of recurrent herpetic lesions, although in uninfected mice healing after CTS was not affected. Silica altered the clinical course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus and increased the incidence of latency in the ganglia. It also delayed healing after CTS in uninfected mice, so it was not tested when recurrent herpes after CTS was assessed clinically. Treatment with silica alone did not increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease or the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. The results demonstrate that potent immunosuppressive drugs are much less effective than simple cutaneous manipulation in inducing recurrent lesions, and thus argue strongly

  6. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma.

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, G.; Swinnen, L.; Bayer, R.; Rosenfeld, S.; Salzman, D.; Paleologos, N.; Kaminer, L.; Forsyth, P.; Stewart, D.; Peterson, K.; Hu, W.; Macdonald, D.; Ramsay, D.; Smith, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the duration of tumor control and the toxicities of dose-intense myeloablative chemotherapy for patients with recurrent oligodendrogliomas. Patients with previously irradiated oligodendrogliomas, either pure or mixed, that were contrast enhancing, measurable, and behaving aggressively at recurrence were eligible for this study. Only complete responders or major partial responders (75 % reduction in tumor size) to induction chemotherapy--either intensive-dose procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or cisplatin plus etoposide-could receive high-dose thiotepa (300 mg/m2/day for 3 days) followed by hematopoietic reconstitution using either bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Thirty-eight patients began induction chemotherapy and 20 (10 men, 10 women; median age 46 years; median Karnofsky score 80) received high-dose thiotepa. For the high-dose group, the median event-free, progression-free, and overall survival times from recurrence were 17, 20, and 49 months, respectively. Tumor control in excess of 2 years was observed in 6 patients (30%). Four patients (20%) are alive and tumor free 27 to 77 months (median, 42 months) from the start of induction therapy; however, fatal treatment-related toxicities also occurred in 4 patients (20%). Three patients died as a result of a progressive encephalopathy which, in 2 instances, was accompanied by a wasting syndrome; 1 patient died as a consequence of an intracerebral (intratumoral) hemorrhage. Fatal toxicities occurred in patients with pretreatment Karnofsky scores of 60 or 70. High-dose thiotepa to consolidate response was a disappointing treatment strategy for patients with recurrent aggressive oligodendroglial neoplasms, although several patients had durable responses. Moreover, as prescribed, high-dose thiotepa had significant toxic effects in previously irradiated patients, especially those with poorer performance status. PMID:11303620

  7. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  8. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  9. Management of maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severely intruded maxillary central incisor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hisanobu; Yanamoto, Souichi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Taku; Umeda, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    An 11-year-old male who injured his maxilla and right maxillary central incisor and lip during a fall was presented to our hospital. His lower lip and upper gingiva were lacerated with swelling and epistaxis, and he had a maxillary alveolar bone fracture and severe intrusion of the right maxillary central incisor, which had penetrated the floor of the nasal cavity with avulsion. Under local anesthesia, we repositioned the incisor and bone segment and fixed them with a titanium micromesh plate and self-tapping screws and splints. The incisor was also treated by root canal 3 days after the operation and was restored with a crown. We performed root canal filling 1 month later. Five months later, the plate and screws were removed. In prognosis of our case, no symptoms of inflammatory root resorption or ankylosis have observed for more than 1 year and 6 months of follow up based on both clinical and radiographic findings.

  10. Von Willebrand disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a first severe case reported in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tagny, Claude T; Balôgôg, Pauline N; Boehlen, Francoise; Mbanya, Dora

    2016-10-01

    In Cameroon, the Yaoundé Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) has so far recorded 121 cases of hemophilia and only 10 cases of von Willebrand disease (VWD). We report the case of a 16-year-old girl, living in the north of Cameroon. She presented with severe meno-metrorrhagia, which had increased drastically within the past 3 months, associated more recently by gum bleeding and epistaxis. The coagulation screen showed a prolonged bleeding time. The clinical profile of this young girl and the findings of less than 5% for von Willebrand factor (VWF):Ag and 10% for VWF Ristocetin cofactor suggests a type 3 VWD. Screening for VWF:Ag and other inherited bleeding disorders in Cameroon is still rudimentary, and although VWD is more common than hemophilia, we report this case to highlight some of the challenges faced in resource-limited contexts.

  11. Recurrent heartburn after laparoscopic fundoplication is not always recurrent reflux.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sarah K; Jamieson, Glyn G; Myers, Jennifer C; Chin, Kin-Fah; Watson, David I; Devitt, Peter G

    2007-05-01

    A small cohort of patients present after antireflux surgery complaining of recurrent heartburn. Many of these patients have been empirically recommenced on proton pump inhibitors. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with symptoms that suggest recurrent reflux had objective evidence of reflux, and to determine predictors of recurrent reflux. We identified all patients from an existing database who had undergone pH monitoring for "recurrent heartburn" after fundoplication. These patients were then cross-referenced to another database, which recorded the outcomes for patients who had undergone a laparoscopic fundoplication. Patients complaining of dysphagia or other problems without heartburn were excluded from analysis. Seventy-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria. Fifty-six (74%) of these had a normal 24-h pH study. Thirty-five patients (63%) with a normal pH study were on medication for heartburn at the time of referral. Three factors were found to be associated with an abnormal 24-h pH study: a partial fundoplication (P = 0.039), onset of symptoms 6 months or more after surgery (P < 0.001), and a good symptom response when antireflux medication was recommenced (P = 0.015). Not all patients complaining of recurrent heartburn after fundoplication have evidence of abnormal reflux. Objective evidence of abnormal esophageal acid exposure should be confirmed before recommencing antireflux medication.

  12. Unusual underlying cause of recurrent vulval abscess

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debarati; Agur, Wael; Macleod, Calum

    2010-01-01

    An ex-intravenous drug user was admitted four times during a 2 year period from December 2006, with the same complaint of vulval abscess which required repeat incision and drainage procedures. In January 2009, a pelvic x-ray showed widening of the symphysis pubis, marginal irregularities, and severe erosive changes which were consistent with pubic osteomyelitis. She was treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin and clindamycin for 2 weeks and was discharged on oral antibiotics for 6 weeks. She recovered well and her condition has significantly improved with no recurrent infection so far. She is now being followed up every 4–6 weeks at the orthopaedics outpatient clinic. PMID:22461858

  13. Efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas—a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Sridharan; Fangusaro, Jason; Poussaint, Tina Young; McLendon, Roger E.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Wu, Shengjie; Packer, Roger J.; Banerjee, Anu; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Fahey, Frederic; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Jakacki, Regina; Gajjar, Amar; Goldman, Stewart; Pollack, Ian F.; Friedman, Henry S.; Boyett, James M.; Fouladi, Maryam; Kun, Larry E.

    2014-01-01

    Background A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent low-grade glioma to measure sustained response and/or stable disease lasting ≥6 months and progression-free survival. Methods Thirty-five evaluable patients received 2 doses (10 mg/kg each) of single-agent BVZ intravenously 2 weeks apart and then BVZ + CPT-11 every 2 weeks until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or a maximum of 2 years of therapy. Correlative studies included neuroimaging and expression of tumor angiogenic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], VEGF receptor 2, hypoxia-inducible factor 2α, and carbonic anhydrase 9). Results Thirty-five evaluable patients (median age 8.4 y [range, 0.6–17.6]) received a median of 12 courses of BVZ + CPT-11 (range, 2–26). Twenty-nine of 35 patients (83%) received treatment for at least 6 months. Eight patients progressed on treatment at a median time of 5.4 months (range, 1–17.8). Six patients (17.7%) still in follow-up have had stable disease without receiving additional treatment for a median of 40.1 months (range, 30.6–49.3) from initiating therapy. The 6-month and 2-year progression-free survivals were 85.4% (SE ± 5.96%) and 47.8% (SE ± 9.27%), respectively. The commonest toxicities related to BVZ included grades 1–2 hypertension in 24, grades 1–2 fatigue in 23, grades 1–2 epistaxis in 18, and grades 1–4 proteinuria in 15. The median volume of enhancement decreased significantly between baseline and day 15 (P < .0001) and over the duration of treatment (P < .037). Conclusion The combination of BVZ + CPT-11 appears to produce sustained disease control in some children with recurrent low-grade gliomas. PMID:24311632

  14. Screening for psychiatric comorbidity in children with recurrent headache or recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Machnes-Maayan, Ditti; Elazar, Maya; Apter, Alan; Zeharia, Avraham; Krispin, Orit; Eidlitz-Markus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pain symptoms in children are associated with psychiatric comorbidities that could complicate treatment. We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in children with recurrent headache or recurrent abdominal pain and evaluated the screening potential of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire compared with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Eighty-three outpatients aged 5-17 years attending a tertiary medical center for a primary diagnosis of migraine (n = 32), tension-type headache (n = 32), or recurrent abdominal pain (n = 19), and 33 healthy matched controls completed the brief self-reporting Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire followed by the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Findings were compared among groups and between instruments. The pain groups were characterized by a significantly higher number of Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses (range 0-11) than controls and a significantly greater prevalence (by category) of Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses (P < 0.001 for both). Anxiety and depression were the most prevalent Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnoses. Comorbidities were more severe in the headache groups than the controls (P < 0.001). In general, any diagnosis by the Development and Well-Being Assessment was associated with a significantly higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire score (P < 0.001). Abnormal scores on the emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire scales were significantly predictive of a Development and Well-Being Assessment diagnosis (P < 0.003). Children referred to specialized outpatient pediatric units for evaluation of recurrent pain are at high risk of psychopathology. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire may serve as a rapid cost-effective tool for initial screening of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multivariate survival analysis of the patients with recurrent endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Tetsuji; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Mitamura, Takashi; Konno, Yousuke; Kato, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Noriko; Sudo, Satoko; Takeda, Mahito; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2011-01-01

    Objective Few studies on the prognosticators of the patients with recurrent endometrial cancer after relapse have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the prognosticators after relapse in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer who underwent primary complete cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Thirty-five patients with recurrent endometrial cancer were included in this retrospective analysis. The prognostic significance of several clinicopathological factors including histologic type, risk for recurrence, time to relapse after primary surgery, number of relapse sites, site of relapse, treatment modality, and complete resection of recurrent tumors were evaluated. Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. Independent prognostic factors were determined by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results Among the clinicopathological factors analyzed, histologic type (p=0.04), time to relapse after primary surgery (p=0.03), and the number of relapse sites (p=0.03) were significantly related to survival after relapse. Multivariate analysis revealed that time to relapse after primary surgery (hazard ratio, 6.8; p=0.004) and the number of relapse sites (hazard ratio, 11.1; p=0.002) were independent prognostic factors for survival after relapse. Survival after relapse could be stratified into three groups by the combination of two independent prognostic factors. Conclusion We conclude that time to relapse after primary surgery, and the number of relapse sites were independent prognostic factors for survival after relapse in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. PMID:21607089

  16. Recurrent Novae in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, A. W.; Henze, M.; Rector, T. A.; Schweizer, F.; Hornoch, K.; Orio, M.; Pietsch, W.; Darnley, M. J.; Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Bryan, J.

    2015-02-01

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova (RN) candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a RN candidate, two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.‧1, although this criterion was relaxed to 0.‧15 for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential RN systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent, the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as RNe, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be RNe, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) being possibly recurrent. It is estimated that ∼4% of the nova eruptions seen in M31 over the past century are associated with RNe. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the discovery efficiency for RNe may be as low as 10% that for novae in general, suggesting that as many as one in three nova eruptions observed in M31 arise from progenitor systems having recurrence times ≲ 100 yr. For plausible system parameters, it appears unlikely that RNe can provide a significant channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae.

  17. RECURRENT NOVAE IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Shafter, A. W.; Henze, M.; Rector, T. A.; Schweizer, F.; Hornoch, K.; Orio, M.; Pietsch, W.; Darnley, M. J.; Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Bryan, J.

    2015-02-01

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova (RN) candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a RN candidate, two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.′1, although this criterion was relaxed to 0.′15 for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential RN systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent, the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as RNe, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be RNe, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) being possibly recurrent. It is estimated that ∼4% of the nova eruptions seen in M31 over the past century are associated with RNe. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the discovery efficiency for RNe may be as low as 10% that for novae in general, suggesting that as many as one in three nova eruptions observed in M31 arise from progenitor systems having recurrence times ≲100 yr. For plausible system parameters, it appears unlikely that RNe can provide a significant channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae.

  18. Treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, E N

    2000-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is considered recurrent when at least four specific episodes occur in one year or at least three episodes unrelated to antibiotic therapy occur within one year. Although greater than 50 percent of women more than 25 years of age develop vulvovaginal candidiasis at some time, fewer than 5 percent of these women experience recurrences. Clinical evaluation of recurrent episodes is essential. Patients who self-diagnose may miss other causes or concurrent infections. Known etiologies of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis include treatment-resistant Candida species other than Candida albicans, frequent antibiotic therapy, contraceptive use, compromise of the immune system, sexual activity and hyperglycemia. If microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in a potassium hydroxide preparation is negative but clinical suspicion is high, fungal cultures should be obtained. After the acute episode has been treated, subsequent prophylaxis (maintenance therapy) is important. Because many patients experience recurrences once prophylaxis is discontinued, long-term therapy may be warranted. Patients are more likely to comply when antifungal therapy is administered orally, but oral treatment carries a greater potential for systemic toxicity and drug interactions.

  19. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  20. Modelling recurrent events: a tutorial for analysis in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Leila DAF; Cai, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    In many biomedical studies, the event of interest can occur more than once in a participant. These events are termed recurrent events. However, the majority of analyses focus only on time to the first event, ignoring the subsequent events. Several statistical models have been proposed for analysing multiple events. In this paper we explore and illustrate several modelling techniques for analysis of recurrent time-to-event data, including conditional models for multivariate survival data (AG, PWP-TT and PWP-GT), marginal means/rates models, frailty and multi-state models. We also provide a tutorial for analysing such type of data, with three widely used statistical software programmes. Different approaches and software are illustrated using data from a bladder cancer project and from a study on lower respiratory tract infection in children in Brazil. Finally, we make recommendations for modelling strategy selection for analysis of recurrent event data. PMID:25501468

  1. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  2. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  3. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  4. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  5. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  6. Recurrent violent injury: magnitude, risk factors, and opportunities for intervention from a statewide analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Elinore; Rising, Kristin; Wiebe, Douglas J; Ebler, David J; Crandall, Marie L; Delgado, M Kit

    2016-09-01

    Although preventing recurrent violent injury is an important component of a public health approach to interpersonal violence and a common focus of violence intervention programs, the true incidence of recurrent violent injury is unknown. Prior studies have reported recurrence rates from 0.8% to 44%, and risk factors for recurrence are not well established. We used a statewide, all-payer database to perform a retrospective cohort study of emergency department visits for injury due to interpersonal violence in Florida, following up patients injured in 2010 for recurrence through 2012. We assessed risk factors for recurrence with multivariable logistic regression and estimated time to recurrence with the Kaplan-Meier method. We tabulated hospital charges and costs for index and recurrent visits. Of 53 908 patients presenting for violent injury in 2010, 11.1% had a recurrent violent injury during the study period. Trauma centers treated 31.8%, including 55.9% of severe injuries. Among recurrers, 58.9% went to a different hospital for their second injury. Low income, homelessness, Medicaid or uninsurance, and black race were associated with increased odds of recurrence. Patients with visits for mental and behavioral health and unintentional injury also had increased odds of recurrence. Index injuries accounted for $105 million in costs, and recurrent injuries accounted for another $25.3 million. Recurrent violent injury is a common and costly phenomenon, and effective violence prevention programs are needed. Prevention must include the nontrauma centers where many patients seek care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent Violent Injury: Magnitude, Risk Factors, and Opportunities for Intervention from a Statewide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Elinore; Rising, Kristin; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Ebler, David J.; Crandall, Marie L.; Delgado, M. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Though preventing recurrent violent injury is an important component of a public health approach to interpersonal violence, and a common focus of violence intervention programs, the true incidence of recurrent violent injury is unknown. Prior studies have reported recurrence rates from 0.8% to 44%, and risk factors for recurrence are not well established. Methods We used a statewide, all-payer database to perform a retrospective cohort study of emergency department visits for injury due to interpersonal violence in Florida, following patients injured in 2010 for recurrence through 2012. We assessed risk factors for recurrence with multivariable logistic regression and estimated time to recurrence with the Kaplan-Meier method. We tabulated hospital charges and costs for index and recurrent visits. Results Of 53,908 patients presenting for violent injury in 2010, 11.1% had a recurrent violent injury during the study period. Trauma centers treated 31.8%, including 55.9% of severe injuries. Among recurrers, 58.9% went to a different hospital for their second injury. Low income, homelessness, Medicaid or uninsurance, and Black race were associated with increased odds of recurrence. Patients with visits for mental and behavioral health and unintentional injury also had increased odds of recurrence. Index injuries accounted for $105 million in costs, and recurrent injuries accounted for another $25.3 million. Conclusions Recurrent violent injury is a common and costly phenomenon, and effective violence prevention programs are needed. Prevention must include the non-trauma centers where many patients seek care. PMID:27460511

  8. Survival after recurrence of stage I-III breast, colorectal, or lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Michael J; Uno, Hajime; Cronin, Angel M; Carroll, Nikki M; Hornbrook, Mark C; Fishman, Paul; Ritzwoller, Debra P

    2017-08-01

    The experiences of patients with recurrent cancer are assumed to reflect those of patients with de novo stage IV disease; yet, little is truly known because most registries lack recurrence status. Using two databases with excellent recurrence and death information, we examined determinants of survival duration after recurrence of breast (BC), colorectal (CRC), and lung cancers (LC). Recurrence status was abstracted from the medical records of patients who participated in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study and who received care at two Cancer Research Network sites-the Colorado and Northwest regions of Kaiser Permanente. The analysis included 1653 patients who developed recurrence after completing definitive therapy for stages I-III cancer. Multivariable modeling identified independent determinants of survival duration after recurrence, controlling for other factors. Through 60 months' average follow-up, survival after recurrence for BC, CRC, and LC were 28.4, 23.1 and 16.1 months, respectively. Several factors were independently associated with shorter survival for all three cancers, including higher initial stage (III vs. I: BC -9.9 months; CRC -6.9 months; LC -7.4 months; P≤0.01). Factors associated with shorter survival for selected cancers included: distant/regional recurrence for BC and CRC; current/former smoker for LC; high grade for CRC; and <4-year time-to-recurrence for BC. Initial stage predicts survival duration after recurrence, whereas time-to-recurrence usually does not. The impact of biologic characteristics (e.g., grade, hormone-receptor status) on survival duration after recurrence needs further study. Predictors of survival duration after recurrence may help facilitate patient decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Juvenile respiratory papillomatosis: risk factors for severity.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Caroline; Lapointe, Annie; Coutlée, François; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Dal Soglio, Dorothée; Roger, Michel; Trottier, Helen

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused mainly by human papillomavirus genotypes 6 or 11, acquired at birth or during pregnancy from an infected mother. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is characterized by recurring warts growing most commonly in the larynx. Multiple surgical procedures and the risk of airway obstruction contribute to the devastating impact of this disease. Some children will go into remission after a few surgeries whereas others will require repeated interventions over several years. Further understanding of the risk factors associated with severity may contribute to tailored treatments. A retrospective study of cases diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2008 was conducted to study determinants of severe forms of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from children's medical charts and mothers' delivery charts. Viral factors (HPV genotyping and viral load) were studied from archived biopsies. Specific HLA class II alleles and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes were tested from saliva samples. Logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for severity. Overall, 31 pediatric cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis were identified. The only significant factor associated with severe forms of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis was the maternal history of condylomas during pregnancy (OR: 12.05 [P=0.05]). The analysis failed to identify risk factors that could be used clinically to identify recurrent respiratory papillomatosis cases likely to take a severe course. Although too early to determine, vaccination against the HPV types involved most commonly in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis may provide the best hope to prevent severe forms of this disease.

  10. [Therapy of recurrent cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Sekiba, K; Hayase, R

    1990-09-01

    1,122 uterine cancer patients above FIGO stage I a were treated at our hospital in the decade from 1980 to 1989. Total 69 patients diagnosed as recurrent cervical cancer had 82 lesions in 11 sites. The most frequent recurrent sites were uterus, vaginal stump and vaginal wall; the second sites were parametrium and pelvic wall. Radiotherapy and hyperthermia were done to patients with these lesions. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used to patients with distant metastatic lesions to left supraclavicular lymph nodes and lung. But there has been no good results.

  11. Galactosemia presenting as recurrent sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Narendra; Rathi, Akanksha

    2011-12-01

    Galactosemia is a treatable metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) and inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A case of neonate manifesting with recurrent Escherichia coli sepsis is presented here which turned out to be a classic galactosemia. No other common presenting features were observed in this infant except cataract on slit lamp examination. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of galactosemia reported in literature which presented with recurrent neonatal sepsis without hepatomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, bleeding disorder, vomiting, diarrhea, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia, coagulopathy, hemolysis or renal tubular acidosis.

  12. Endometrial transcriptome in recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Qin, Hao; Yang, Yihua; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiamiao; Laird, Susan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Chan, Ting Fung; Li, Tin Chiu

    2017-03-10

    The endometrium becomes receptive to the embryo only in the mid-luteal phase, but not other stages of the menstrual cycle. Endometrial factors play an important role in implantation. Women with recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure have both been reported to have altered expression of receptivity markers during the window of implantation. We aimed to compare the gene expression profiles of the endometrium in the window of implantation among women with unexplained recurrent implantation failures (RIF) and unexplained recurrent miscarriages (RM) by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total 20 patients (9 RIF and 11 RM) were recruited. In addition 4 fertile subjects were included as reference. Endometrium samples were precisely timed on the 7th day after luteal hormone surge (LH+7). All the 24 samples were extracted for total RNA. The transcriptome was determined by RNA-Seq in first 14 RNA samples (5 RIF, 6 RM, and 3 fertile). Differentially expressed genes between RM and RIF were validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) in all 24 RNA samples (9 RIF, 11 RM and 4 fertile). Complementary and coagulation cascades pathway was the significantly up-regulated in RIF while down-regulated in RM. Differentially expressed genes C3, C4, C4BP, DAF, DF and SERPING1 in complement and coagulation cascade pathway between RM and RIF were further validated by qPCR. This study identified differential molecular pathways in endometrium between RIF and RM, which potentially affect the implantation process.

  13. Nitrergic Mechanisms for Management of Recurrent Priapism

    PubMed Central

    Anele, Uzoma A.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Priapism is a condition involving prolonged penile erection unrelated to sexual interest or desire. The ischemic type, including its recurrent variant, is often associated with both physical and psychological complications. As such, management is of critical importance. Ideal therapies for recurrent priapism should address its underlying pathophysiology. Aim To review the available literature on priapism management approaches particularly related to nitrergic mechanisms. Methods A literature review of the pathophysiology and management of priapism was performed using PubMed. Main Outcome Measure Publications pertaining to mechanisms of the molecular pathophysiology of priapism. Results Nitrergic mechanisms are characterized as major players in the molecular pathophysiology of priapism. PDE5 inhibitors represent an available therapeutic option with demonstrated ability in attenuating these underlying nitrergic derangements. Several additional signaling pathways have been found to play a role in the molecular pathophysiology of priapism and have also been associated with these nitrergic mechanisms. Conclusion An increasing understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of priapism has led to the discovery of new potential targets. Several mechanism-based therapeutic approaches may become available in the future. PMID:26478814

  14. Oncolytic HSV-1716 in Treating Younger Patients With Refractory or Recurrent High Grade Glioma That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma

  15. Prophylactic liver transplantation for high-risk recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Chih; Ho, Cheng-Maw; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih; Wu, Yao-Ming; Lee, Po-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Radical treatment of HCC in early stages results in a long disease-free period and improved overall survival. The choice of optimal management strategy for HCC mainly depends on the severity of the underlying liver disease. For patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and HCC within Milan criteria (MC), liver transplant (LT) is the choice of treatment. However, for patients with good residual liver reserve and HCC within MC, selection of other curative treatments such as liver resection (LR) or radiofrequency ablation may be a reasonable alternative. For patients without cirrhosis, LR can result in an overall survival similar to that provided by LT. Therefore, it is an accepted alternative to LT especially in areas with organ shortage. However, the cumulative 5-year recurrence rate of HCC post LR might be as high as 70%. For initial transplant-eligible (within MC) patients with recurrent HCC post LR, salvage liver transplant (SLT) was first proposed in 2000. However, most patients with recurrent HCC considered for SLT are untransplantable cases due to HCC recurrence beyond MC or comorbidity. Thus, the strategy of opting for SLT results in the loss of the opportunity of LT for these patients. Some authors proposed the concept of “de principe liver transplant” (i.e., prophylactic LT before HCC recurrence) to prevent losing the chance of LT for these potential candidates. Factors associated with the failure of SLT will be dissected and discussed in three parts: Patient, tumor, and underlying liver disease. Regarding patient-related factors, the rate of transplantability depends on patient compliance. Patients without regular follow-up tend to develop HCC recurrence beyond MC at the time of tumor detection. Advancing age is another factor related to severe comorbidities when LT is considered for HCC recurrence, and these elderly candidates become ineligible as

  16. Lapatinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma

  17. The dynamic pattern of recurrence in curatively resected non-small cell lung cancer patients: Experiences at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yoshikane; Muley, Thomas; Safi, Seyer; Rieken, Stefan; Bischoff, Helge; Kappes, Jutta; Warth, Arne; Herth, Felix J F; Dienemann, Hendrik; Hoffmann, Hans

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the hazard function of tumor recurrence in patients with completely (R0) resected non-small cell lung cancer. A total of 1374 patients treated between 2003 and 2009 with complete resection and systematic lymph node dissection were studied. The risk of recurrence at a given time after operation was studied utilizing the cause-specific hazard function. Recurrence was categorized as local recurrence or distant recurrence. The risk distribution was assessed using clinical and pathological factors. The hazard function for recurrence presented an early peak at approximately 10 months after surgery and maintained a tapered plateau-like tail extending up to 8 years. A similar risk pattern was detected for both local recurrence and distant recurrence, while the risk of distant recurrence was higher than that of local recurrence. The double-peaked pattern of hazard rate was present in several subgroups, such as p-stage IA patients. A comparison of histology and status of nodal involvement showed that pN1-2 adenocarcinoma patients demonstrated a high hazard rate of distant recurrence and that pN0 adenocarcinoma patients exhibited a small recurrent risk for a longer time. Squamous cell carcinoma patients showed only little difference in risk. The data may be useful to select patients at high risk of recurrence and may provide information for each patient to decide how to manage the postoperative follow-up individually. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia to the pathogenesis of postthrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kreidy, Raghid

    2015-01-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep vein thrombosis. This study aims to assess the role of recurrent venous thrombosis and inherited thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of PTS. A series of 206 patients diagnosed with lower extremity venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed. The PTS was observed in 30.58% of the patients. Recurrent venous thrombosis was identified in 3.4% of the patients without PTS and in 33.3% of patients with PTS (P < .001). Inherited thrombophilia alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis was more commonly detected when PTS was moderate to severe (P = .04 and <.001) or severe (P < .001). Recurrent venous thrombosis increases the incidence of PTS significantly. The severity of PTS raises when an underlying thrombophilia is present either alone or in association with recurrent venous thrombosis.

  19. Recurrent peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Microbacterium resistens.

    PubMed

    Gallois, Emmanuelle; Lamy, Thomas; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Lobbedez, Thierry; Cattoir, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a recurrent peritonitis due to Microbacterium resistens in a 71-year-old male patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Importantly, this Gram-positive rod was intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and vancomycin, classically used in PD-related peritonitis treatment. His infection resolved after several weeks of appropriate therapy (amoxicillin plus gentamicin) and PD catheter removal.

  20. The child with spontaneous recurrent bleeding in the eye

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debanand

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a self-limiting dermatological condition characterised by spontaneous hyphaema due to uveal involvement causing neovascularisation. Recurrent hyphaema in a child should alert the clinician towards this rare diagnosis. Appropriate investigations and treatment should be directed towards treating this possible diagnosis associated with neovascular glaucoma where routine filtering surgeries may be associated with several complications. PMID:24928931

  1. Recurrent clubfoot--approach and treatment with external fixation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ricardo Cardenuto; Costa, Marco Túlio

    2009-09-01

    A simplified standard setting of the circular external fixator allows correction of all the complex deformities of recurrent clubfoot with minimal surgical intervention and no major complications. In those cases where additional corrective arthrodesis is necessary, it is performed with minimal bone resection because the severe deformities of the foot and ankle have already been corrected.

  2. Maternal Recurrent Mood Disorders and High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ira L.; Tsiouris, John A.

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative examination was made of the association of parental mood and anxiety disorders with severity of disability within a large sample of young children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Maternal recurrent mood disorders were associated with elevated cognitive and adaptive functioning in their affected children, parent reports…

  3. Cooperative recurrent modular neural networks for constrained optimization: a survey of models and applications

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Constrained optimization problems arise in a wide variety of scientific and engineering applications. Since several single recurrent neural networks when applied to solve constrained optimization problems for real-time engineering applications have shown some limitations, cooperative recurrent neural network approaches have been developed to overcome drawbacks of these single recurrent neural networks. This paper surveys in details work on cooperative recurrent neural networks for solving constrained optimization problems and their engineering applications, and points out their standing models from viewpoint of both convergence to the optimal solution and model complexity. We provide examples and comparisons to shown advantages of these models in the given applications. PMID:19003467

  4. The Cumulative Impact of Nonsevere Life Events Predicts Depression Recurrence during Maintenance Treatment with Interpersonal Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenze, Shannon N.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Anderson, Barbara; Frank, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the role of severe life events as risk factors for depression onset, less is known about the relationship between nonsevere life events and depression recurrence. The current study examined the cumulative effects of nonsevere and positive life events on depression recurrence in an outpatient sample of…

  5. Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Node-only Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-12-30

    Several studies show that salvage lymph-node dissection for node-only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical treatment might represent a viable treatment modality for node-only recurrent PCa. However, as long as high quality data is not available, this approach should still be considered experimental.

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  8. Recurrent parotitis as a first manifestation in a child with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, H; Orbak, Z; Erdogan, T; Karabag, K; Gursan, N

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is an acute, severe inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands in young children. We report the case of a seven-year old boy with Primary Sjogrens syndrome (PSS) who presented with 15 episodes of painful recurrent bilateral swellings of the parotid glands over a four-year period.

  9. Copy number analysis of ductal carcinoma in situ with and without recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Hunter, Sally M; Pang, Jia-Min; Opeskin, Ken; Hill, Prue; Rowley, Simone M; Choong, David Y H; Thompson, Ella R; Dobrovic, Alexander; Fox, Stephen B; Mann, G Bruce; Campbell, Ian G

    2015-09-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer and a frequent mammographic finding requiring treatment. Up to 25% of DCIS can recur and half of recurrences are invasive, but there are no reliable biomarkers for recurrence. We hypothesised that copy number aberrations could predict likelihood of recurrence. We analysed a cohort of pure DCIS cases treated only with wide local excision for genome-wide copy number and loss of heterozygosity using Affymetrix OncoScan MIP arrays. Cases included those without recurrence within 7 years (n = 25) and with recurrence between 1 and 5 years after diagnosis (n = 15). Pure DCIS were broadly similar in copy number changes compared with invasive breast cancer, with the consistent exception of a greater frequency of ERBB2 amplification in DCIS. There were no significant differences in age or ER status between the cases with a recurrence vs those without. Overall, the DCIS cases with recurrence had more copy number events than the DCIS without recurrence. The increased copy number appeared non-random with several genomic regions showing an increase in frequency in recurrent cases, including 20 q gain, ERBB2 amplification and 15q loss. Copy number changes may provide prognostic information for DCIS recurrence, but validation in additional cohorts is required.

  10. Managements of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de’Angelis, Nicola; Landi, Filippo; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Azoulay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy (survival) and safety of treatments for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver transplantation (LT) patients. METHODS: Literature search was performed on available online databases without a time limit until January 2015. Clinical studies describing survival after HCC recurrence in LT patients were retrieved for a full-text evaluation. A total of 61 studies were selected: 13 case reports, 41 retrospective case series, and 7 retrospective comparative studies. RESULTS: Based on all included studies, the mean HCC recurrence rate was 16% of all LTs for HCC. A total of 1021 LT patients experienced HCC recurrence. The median time from LT to HCC recurrence was 13 mo (range 2-132 mo). The majority of patients (67%) presented with HCC extra-hepatic recurrences, involving lung, bone, adrenal gland, peritoneal lymph nodes, and rarely the brain. Overall survival after HCC recurrence was 12.97 mo. Surgical resection of localized HCC recurrence and Sorafenib for controlling systemic spread of HCC recurrence were associated with the higher survival rates (42 and 18 mo, respectively). However, Sorafenib, especially when combined with mTOR, was frequently associated with severe side effects that required dose reduction or discontinuation CONCLUSION: Management of recurrent HCC in LT patients is challenging and associated with poor prognosis independently of the type of treatment. PMID:26494973

  11. Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junko; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Kawamoto, Michi; Yoshimura, Hajime; Kusunoki, Susumu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2016-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are usually monophasic, but some patients experience recurrences after long asymptomatic intervals. We aimed to investigate clinical features of recurrent GBS, MFS, and BBE at a single hospital. Records from 97 consecutive patients with GBS, MFS or BBE who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with recurrent GBS, MFS, or BBE were investigated. Patients included 55 (32 males) with GBS, 34 (22 males) with MFS, and 8 (6 males) with BBE. Recurrent cases occurred in 2 (4%) of the 55 patients with GBS, 4 (12%) of the 34 patients with MFS, and 2 (25%) of the 8 patients with BBE. Patients with recurrent MFS had a tendency to be younger at the first episode than patients with non-recurrent MFS (median, 22 versus 37years old). Symptoms and signs were less severe during relapses than during the initial episode in recurrent patients. Recurrences occurred more frequently in patients with MFS or BBE compared with those with GBS. Patients with recurrent MFS might be younger than those with non-recurrent MFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Managements of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Landi, Filippo; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Azoulay, Daniel

    2015-10-21

    To investigate the efficacy (survival) and safety of treatments for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver transplantation (LT) patients. Literature search was performed on available online databases without a time limit until January 2015. Clinical studies describing survival after HCC recurrence in LT patients were retrieved for a full-text evaluation. A total of 61 studies were selected: 13 case reports, 41 retrospective case series, and 7 retrospective comparative studies. Based on all included studies, the mean HCC recurrence rate was 16% of all LTs for HCC. A total of 1021 LT patients experienced HCC recurrence. The median time from LT to HCC recurrence was 13 mo (range 2-132 mo). The majority of patients (67%) presented with HCC extra-hepatic recurrences, involving lung, bone, adrenal gland, peritoneal lymph nodes, and rarely the brain. Overall survival after HCC recurrence was 12.97 mo. Surgical resection of localized HCC recurrence and Sorafenib for controlling systemic spread of HCC recurrence were associated with the higher survival rates (42 and 18 mo, respectively). However, Sorafenib, especially when combined with mTOR, was frequently associated with severe side effects that required dose reduction or discontinuation Management of recurrent HCC in LT patients is challenging and associated with poor prognosis independently of the type of treatment.

  13. Recurrent Education. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochte, Newton C.

    To assist both practitioner and reader to find answers to questions on the theory and practice of recurrent education, this resource guide compiles 715 abstracts of relevant articles, books, and monographs, from many countries. Descriptors and identifiers, used in computer searches to identify the materials, are arranged alphabetically in the…

  14. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  15. [Radiodiagnosis of recurrences of lymphogranulomatosis].

    PubMed

    Mendeleev, I M; Miasnikov, A A; Balashov, A T; Polezhaev, Iu N

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the role and place of chest x-ray tomography, scintigraphy with 67Ga-citrate, ultrasonic investigation, angiography, angioscintigraphy, computed tomography, scintigraphy of the liver and bones in the diagnosis of recurrences of Hodgkin's disease and in control of a progress of disease. Indications for a successive use of one or the other method have been defined.

  16. [Recurrent pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS)].

    PubMed

    Neuss, M; Hermanns, B; Wirtz, D C

    2001-01-01

    The pigmented vilionodular synovitis (PVNS) is a tumour like disease of unknown origin that often shows recurrence. The pathogenesis is still unknown and therefore the question of the right therapy is not resolved. With a case report of a patient with recurrence after two arthroscopic synovectomies, PVNS is discussed against the background of the clinical, histological, and radiological features. We performed an open synovectomy and cystic lesions in both condyles of the femur and proximal tibia were filled with homologous and autologous cancellous bone. Three months later the patient had no pain and the bone density in the former cystic lesions was appropriate. The pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis often is obtained much too late due to missing specific symptoms. PVNS occurs in local forms as well as in a diffuse growth pattern. Recurrence rates of up to 78% are very high. Besides arthroscopic and open synovectomy, the treatment with radiosynoviorthesis must be considered. Depending on the growth pattern, the tumour masses, and the affected joint, the therapy has to be chosen very carefully and sometimes different forms have to be combined if a recurrence--free result is to be achieved.

  17. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Mahesh; Jain, Hansa; Diwan, Nikhil; Khedkar, Shivaji; Shete, Anagha; Durkar, Sachin

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common clinical condition producing painful ulcerations in oral cavity. The diagnosis of RAS is based on well-defined clinical characteristics but the precise etiology and pathogenesis of RAS remain unclear. The present article provides a detailed review of the current concepts and knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of RAS.

  18. [Peristomal recurrence after total laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Lahoz Zamarro, M T; Faubel Serra, M; Campos Dana, J J

    1989-01-01

    The AA. evaluate the incidence of peristomal recurrences among 349 total laryngectomies operated between 1975 and 1985, at ENT Service, Hospital Dr. Peset, Valencia. As possible etiologies they emphasize: first of all the infraglottic spreading of the tumor, the emergency tracheostomy done prior to the surgery of the larynx, and the lacking of irradiation of the tracheostoma.

  19. [Local recurrence of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Fekak, H; Dassouli, B; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2002-10-01

    We report an uncommon case of scrotal recurrence of embryonal paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in 19 year old man after 3 years later. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and confirmed by histopathology study after resection of the scrotal tumor. About this case, the authors discuss the diagnosis and the management of this tumor.

  20. Onychomycosis: Strategies to Minimize Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Elewski, Boni E; Rosen, Ted; Caldwell, Bryan; Pariser, David M; Kircik, Leon H; Bhatia, Neal; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    Recurrence (relapse or re-infection) in onychomycosis is common, occurring in 10% to 53% of patients. However, data on prevalence is limited as few clinical studies follow patients beyond 12 months. It has been suggested that recurrence after continuous terbinafine treatment may be less common than with intermittent or continuous itraconazole therapy, probably due to the fungicidal activity of terbinafine, although these differences tended not to be significant. Relapse rates also increase with time, peaking at month 36. Although a number of factors have been suggested to play a role in recurrence, only the co-existence of diabetes has been shown to have a significant impact. Data with topical therapy is sparse; a small study showed amorolfine prophylaxis may delay recurrence. High concentrations of efinaconazole have been reported in the nail two weeks' post-treatment suggesting twice monthly prophylaxis with topical treatments may be a realistic option, and may be an important consideration in diabetic patients with onychomycosis. Data suggest that prophylaxis may need to be continued for up to three years for optimal effect. Treating tinea pedis and any immediate family members is also critical. Other preventative strategies include avoiding communal areas where infection can spread (such as swimming pools), and decontaminating footwear.

  1. Frequency and impact of recurrent traumatic brain injury in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Theadom, Alice; Parmar, Priya; Jones, Kelly; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Starkey, Nicola J; McPherson, Kathryn M; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Feigin, Valery L

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, mechanism(s), and impact of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) over a 1-year period. Population-based TBI incidence and 1-year outcomes study with embedded case-control analysis. All participants (adults and children) who experienced a recurrent TBI (more than one) in the 12 months after an index injury and matched controls who sustained one TBI within the same period were enrolled in a population-based TBI incidence and outcomes study. Details of all recurrent TBIs sustained within 12 months of the initial index injury were recorded. Each recurrent TBI case was matched to a case sustaining one TBI based on age (±2 years), gender, and index TBI severity. Cognitive ability, disability, and postconcussion symptoms (PCS) were assessed 1 year after the index injury. Overall, 9.9% (n=72) of TBI cases experienced at least one recurrent TBI within the year after initial index injury. Males, people <35 years of age, and those who had experienced a TBI before their index injury were at highest risk of recurrent TBI. Recurrent TBI cases reported significantly increased PCS at 1 year, compared to the matched controls (n=72) sustaining one TBI. There was no difference in overall cognitive ability and disability between the two groups. People experiencing recurrent TBIs are more likely to experience increased frequency and severity of PCS. Greater public awareness of the potential effects of recurrent brain injury is needed.

  2. [Thoracoscopic treatment of recurrent pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Suter, M; Berner, M; Vandoni, R; Cuttat, J F

    1994-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax (PNO) is usually due to rupture of a small subpleural bleb into the pleural cavity and affects mainly young men. After simple drainage, recurrence occurs in about 50% of cases. The risk of recurrence increases after each new PNO. Secondary PNO complicates an underlying pulmonary disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with emphysema. A new form of secondary PNO has emerged in the recent years in AIDS patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. We have shifted to a thoracoscopic therapy of PNO since May 1991. 25 PNO in 24 patients (1 bilateral) have been treated since that time up to April 1993. 19 PNO were primary, whereas 6 were secondary, included 3 iatrogenic PNO. Resection of the leaking parenchymal area was performed in 20 patients, and parietal partial pleurectomy was done in 20 cases. In the remaining cases, fibrin glue was applied on the lesion and in 3 cases, chemical pleurodesis was attempted using silver nitrate or talc. 1 AIDS patient died of ARDS. 3 patients had recurrent PNO and had thoracotomy without complication. 21 patients did well. Partial PNO recurred in one of them 4 months later, and was treated by simple needle aspiration. Thoracoscopy is a useful method to treat recurrent or persistent spontaneous PNO. After only 25 cases, our success rate in primary PNO is 90%. There should be a learning curve. On the basis of our experience, we believe that recognition of the lesion and its resection as well as apical parietal pleurectomy are necessary to obtain good results and a low recurrence rate.

  3. Recurrent periductal mastitis: Surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Taffurelli, Mario; Pellegrini, Alice; Santini, Donatella; Zanotti, Simone; Di Simone, Domenico; Serra, Margherita

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent periductal mastitis is a benign breast disorder that often features a mammary fistula that runs between periareolar skin and the ductal mammary system. Due to the high recurrence rate of this disease, its management is controversial. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of fistulectomy (Hadfield operation), particularly with regard to its long-term outcome. We reviewed all women with recurrent periductal mastitis who underwent the Hadfield operation in the Breast Center in S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital (Bologna University) from 2005 to 2015. All but one of the patients were heavy smokers and presented with a recurrent periareolar abscess and a periareolar mammary fistula. Eighteen women underwent the Hadfield surgical treatment. Mean age at the time of presentation was 42 years; 17 of 18 women smoked >10 cigarettes/d. All patients had a breast ultrasonography or mammography. Half of the patients had undergone antibiotic therapy with one or more prior abscess drainages or another form of operative treatment. All patients who underwent operative treatment had no postoperative events and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Squamous metaplasia was always present in the specimens. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 2 patients developed a recurrence after a few months; neither had stopped smoking. Based on our review of the literature and taking into account the results of this study, it seems clear that the best treatment involves a combined total excision of the affected duct and the fistulous tract. Due to the important role of smoking in this disease, it is important to encourage patients to stop smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatin changes predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, Tarjei S; Kleppe, Andreas; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Ersvær, Elin; Wæhre, Håkon; Nielsen, Birgitte; Kjær, Marte Avranden; Pradhan, Manohar; Syvertsen, Rolf Anders; Nesheim, John Arne; Liestøl, Knut; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological evaluations give the best prognostic markers for prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy, but the observer variance is substantial. These risk assessments should be supported and supplemented by objective methods for identifying patients at increased risk of recurrence. Markers of epigenetic aberrations have shown promising results in several cancer types and can be assessed by automatic analysis of chromatin organisation in tumour cell nuclei. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy at a national hospital between 1987 and 2005 were followed for a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7–14). On average three tumour block samples from each patient were included to account for tumour heterogeneity. We developed a novel marker, termed Nucleotyping, based on automatic assessment of disordered chromatin organisation, and validated its ability to predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Results: Nucleotyping predicted recurrence with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–5.1). With adjustment for clinical and pathological characteristics, the HR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5–4.1). An updated stratification into three risk groups significantly improved the concordance with patient outcome compared with a state-of-the-art risk-stratification tool (P<0.001). The prognostic impact was most evident for the patients who were high-risk by clinical and pathological characteristics and for patients with Gleason score 7. Conclusion: A novel assessment of epigenetic aberrations was capable of improving risk stratification after radical prostatectomy. PMID:27124335

  5. Recurrent cubital tunnel syndrome. Etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Filippi, R; Charalampaki, P; Reisch, R; Koch, D; Grunert, P

    2001-12-01

    Controversy surrounds the treatment of recurrent cubital tunnel syndrome after previous surgery. Irrespective of the surgical technique, namely pure decompression in the ulnar groove and the cubital tunnel distal of the medial epicondyle, and the different methods of volar transposition (subcutaneous, intramuscular, and submuscular), the results of surgical therapy of cubital tunnel syndrome are often not favorable, especially in cases of long-standing symptoms and severe deficits. Twenty-two patients who had previously undergone surgical treatment for ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow were evaluated because of persistent or recurrent pain, paresthesia, numbness, and motor weakness. Ten patients had undergone a nerve transposition, 5 patients underwent a simple decompression of the ulnar nerve, and 7 patients experienced two previous operations with different surgical techniques. Two patients underwent surgery at our hospital, whereas 20 patients underwent their primary surgery at other institutions. Various surgical techniques were used during the subsequent surgery, such as external neurolysis, subcutaneous anterior transposition, and subsequent transfer of the nerve back into the sulcus. The causes of continued or recurrent symptoms after initial surgery included dense perineural fibrosis of the nerve after subcutaneous transposition, adhesions of the nerve to the medial epicondyle and retention of the medial intermuscular septum. The average follow-up after the last procedure was 7 months (2 - 20 months). All 7 patients with subsequent transfer of the ulnar nerve back into the sulcus became pain-free, whereas only 11 of 15 patients who had external neurolysis or subcutaneous transposition became free of pain or experienced reduced pain. The recovery of motor function and return of sensibility were variable and unpredictable. In summary, reoperation after primary surgery of cubital tunnel syndrome gave satisfactory results in 18 of 22 cases. Subsequent

  6. Surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease: Are we getting better?

    PubMed

    Kristo, Ivan; Stift, Anton; Bergmann, Michael; Riss, Stefan

    2015-05-28

    Crohn's disease (CD) still remains a challenging chronic inflammatory disorder, both for colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists. The need for recurrent surgery following primary intestinal resection is still considerable, though recent evidence suggested a declining rate of recurrence. Several conflicting surgical parameters have been identified that might impact on the postoperative outcome positively, such as access to the abdomen, anastomotic configuration or type of disease. Additionally, promising results have been achieved with the increased use of immunosuppressive medications in CD. Consequently, the question arises if we are getting better as a result of novel medical and surgical strategies.

  7. Difference between memory and prediction in linear recurrent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent networks are trained to memorize their input better, often in the hopes that such training will increase the ability of the network to predict. We show that networks designed to memorize input can be arbitrarily bad at prediction. We also find, for several types of inputs, that one-node networks optimized for prediction are nearly at upper bounds on predictive capacity given by Wiener filters and are roughly equivalent in performance to randomly generated five-node networks. Our results suggest that maximizing memory capacity leads to very different networks than maximizing predictive capacity and that optimizing recurrent weights can decrease reservoir size by half an order of magnitude.

  8. Febrile seizure recurrence reduced by intermittent oral levetiracetam

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin-Yan; Zou, Li-Ping; Zhong, Jian-Min; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Meng; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Liu, Yu-Jie; Ju, Jun; Zhang, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Kwan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common form of childhood seizure disorders. FS is perhaps one of the most frequent causes of admittance to pediatric emergency wards worldwide. We aimed to identify a new, safe, and effective therapy for preventing FS recurrence. Methods A total of 115 children with a history of two or more episodes of FS were randomly assigned to levetiracetam (LEV) and control (LEV/control ratio = 2:1) groups. At the onset of fever, LEV group was orally administered with a dose of 15–30 mg/kg per day twice daily for 1 week. Thereafter, the dosage was gradually reduced until totally discontinued in the second week. The primary efficacy variable was seizure frequency associated with febrile events and FS recurrence rate (RR) during 48-week follow-up. The second outcome was the cost effectiveness of the two groups. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed that 78 children in LEV group experienced 148 febrile episodes. Among these 78 children, 11 experienced 15 FS recurrences. In control group, 37 children experienced 64 febrile episodes; among these 37 children, 19 experienced 32 FS recurrences. A significant difference was observed between two groups in FS RR and FS recurrence/fever episode. The cost of LEV group for the prevention of FS recurrence is lower than control group. During 48-week follow-up period, one patient in LEV group exhibited severe drowsiness. No other side effects were observed in the same patient and in other children. Interpretation Intermittent oral LEV can effectively prevent FS recurrence and reduce wastage of medical resources. PMID:25356397

  9. Biologic Prosthesis Reduces Recurrence After Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Brant K.; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Hunter, John; Soper, Nathaniel; Brunt, Michael; Sheppard, Brett; Jobe, Blair; Polissar, Nayak; Mitsumori, Lee; Nelson, James; Swanstrom, L

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPEHR) is associated with a high recurrence rate. Repair with synthetic mesh lowers recurrence but can cause dysphagia and visceral erosions. This trial was designed to study the value of a biologic prosthesis, small intestinal submucosa (SIS), in LPEHR. Methods: Patients undergoing LPEHR (n = 108) at 4 institutions were randomized to primary repair −1° (n = 57) or primary repair buttressed with SIS (n = 51) using a standardized technique. The primary outcome measure was evidence of recurrent hernia (≥2 cm) on UGI, read by a study radiologist blinded to the randomization status, 6 months after operation. Results: At 6 months, 99 (93%) patients completed clinical symptomatic follow-up and 95 (90%) patients had an UGI. The groups had similar clinical presentations (symptom profile, quality of life, type and size of hernia, esophageal length, and BMI). Operative times (SIS 202 minutes vs. 1° 183 minutes, P = 0.15) and perioperative complications did not differ. There were no operations for recurrent hernia nor mesh-related complications. At 6 months, 4 patients (9%) developed a recurrent hernia >2 cm in the SIS group and 12 patients (24%) in the 1° group (P = 0.04). Both groups experienced a significant reduction in all measured symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, chest pain, early satiety, and postprandial pain) and improved QOL (SF-36) after operation. There was no difference between groups in either pre or postoperative symptom severity. Patients with a recurrent hernia had more chest pain (2.7 vs. 1.0, P = 0.03) and early satiety (2.8 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02) and worse physical functioning (63 vs. 72, P = 0.03 per SF-36). Conclusions: Adding a biologic prosthesis during LPEHR reduces the likelihood of recurrence at 6 months, without mesh-related complications or side effects. PMID:16998356

  10. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran

    2012-03-01

    We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  11. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... good flexibility while your child is growing. The stretching exercises pictured in the treatment section can lower ... your child has already recovered from Sever's disease, stretching and putting ice on the heel after activity ...

  12. Recurrence quantity analysis based on singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Songhan; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-05-01

    Recurrence plot (RP) has turned into a powerful tool in many different sciences in the last three decades. To quantify the complexity and structure of RP, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) has been developed based on the measures of recurrence density, diagonal lines, vertical lines and horizontal lines. This paper will study the RP based on singular value decomposition which is a new perspective of RP study. Principal singular value proportion (PSVP) will be proposed as one new RQA measure and bigger PSVP means higher complexity for one system. In contrast, smaller PSVP reflects a regular and stable system. Considering the advantage of this method in detecting the complexity and periodicity of systems, several simulation and real data experiments are chosen to examine the performance of this new RQA.

  13. Mutations in LPIN1 cause recurrent acute myoglobinuria in childhood.

    PubMed

    Zeharia, Avraham; Shaag, Avraham; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Hindi, Tareq; de Lonlay, Pascale; Erez, Gilli; Hubert, Laurence; Saada, Ann; de Keyzer, Yves; Eshel, Gideon; Vaz, Frédéric M; Pines, Ophry; Elpeleg, Orly

    2008-10-01

    Recurrent episodes of life-threatening myoglobinuria in childhood are caused by inborn errors of glycogenolysis, mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Nonetheless, approximately half of the patients do not suffer from a defect in any of these pathways. Using homozygosity mapping, we identified six deleterious mutations in the LPIN1 gene in patients who presented at 2-7 years of age with recurrent, massive rhabdomyolysis. The LPIN1 gene encodes the muscle-specific phosphatidic acid phosphatase, a key enzyme in triglyceride and membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. Of six individuals who developed statin-induced myopathy, one was a carrier for Glu769Gly, a pathogenic mutation in the LPIN1 gene. Analysis of phospholipid content disclosed accumulation of phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids in muscle tissue of the more severe genotype. Mutations in the LPIN1 gene cause recurrent rhabdomyolysis in childhood, and a carrier state may predispose for statin-induced myopathy.

  14. Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Nandini; Yeaney, Gabrielle; Chung, Mina; Hindman, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient. Results A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests. Conclusion Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish

  15. Coronary Stent Infection Presented as Recurrent Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lee, Wen-Lieng

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with metal stent placement has become a well-developed treatment modality for coronary stenotic lesions. Although infection involving implanted stents is rare, it can, however, occur with high morbidity and mortality. We describe herein a case of an inserted coronary stent that was infected and complicated with recurrent stent thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm formation and severe sepsis. Despite repeated intervention and bypass surgery, the patient died from severe sepsis. PMID:28120580

  16. Evolution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Recurrent Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Hillary S.; Lim, Regina; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Sims, Elizabeth H.; Ramage, Elizabeth R.; Fong, Christine; Wu, Zaining; Crist, Eva; Chang, Jean; Zhou, Yang; Radey, Matthew; Rohmer, Laurence; Haugen, Eric; Gillett, Will; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J.; Kaul, Rajinder; Miller, Samuel I.; Manoil, Colin; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of human melioidosis, is capable of causing severe acute infection with overwhelming septicemia leading to death. A high rate of recurrent disease occurs in adult patients, most often due to recrudescence of the initial infecting strain. Pathogen persistence and evolution during such relapsing infections are not well understood. Bacterial cells present in the primary inoculum and in late infections may differ greatly, as has been observed in chronic disease, or they may be genetically similar. To test these alternative models, we conducted whole-genome comparisons of clonal primary and relapse B. pseudomallei isolates recovered six months to six years apart from four adult Thai patients. We found differences within each of the four pairs, and some, including a 330 Kb deletion, affected substantial portions of the genome. Many of the changes were associated with increased antibiotic resistance. We also found evidence of positive selection for deleterious mutations in a TetR family transcriptional regulator from a set of 107 additional B. pseudomallei strains. As part of the study, we sequenced to base-pair accuracy the genome of B. pseudomallei strain 1026b, the model used for genetic studies of B. pseudomallei pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. Our findings provide new insights into pathogen evolution during long-term infections and have important implications for the development of intervention strategies to combat recurrent melioidosis. PMID:22615773

  17. Hereditary Amyloidosis with Recurrent Lung Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Revelo, Alberto E.; Magaspi, Crischelle; Maguire, George; Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 51 Final Diagnosis: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with lung involvement Symptoms: Cough • dyspnea • lethargy Medication: Diflunisal Clinical Procedure: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsy Specialty: Pulmonary Medicine Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or patholog Background: Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in extracellular tissue. Lung involvement is most commonly caused by secondary AL amyloidosis. The familial autosomal-dominant senile transthyretin (ATTR) disease manifests mainly as polyneuropathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy denoting the name familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Rarely, this form manifests with clinical and radiologically relevant respiratory tract symptoms and lung involvement. Case Report: A 51-year-old male former smoker presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness of several months’ duration. He was ultimately diagnosed with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Subsequently, he was admitted with heart failure symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates and his echocardiogram showed a ‘myocardial speckled pattern’, prompting an endomyocardial biopsy, which showed transthyretin amyloid deposition. He was started on diflunisal. Additionally, serial radiographic imaging of his chest over 3 different admissions for cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and lethargy demonstrated recurrent pulmonary infiltrates. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lung tissue. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms and fleeting infiltrates on imaging in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is not common; when present, it should raise the suspicion of respiratory tract involvement. PMID:27872470

  18. [Survival and recurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sinistrero, G; Sismondi, P; Zola, P; Gribaudo, S; Danese, S; Bellora, M G

    1994-05-01

    444 endometrial carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed. Disease-free survival (DFS) was 83.6% at five years and 80.5% at ten years. 349 T1 cancers were treated by TAH-BSO and post-operative irradiation; 22.6% of them were over-staged. DFS ranged from 100% to 91% in 270 low-risk T1 patients, dropping to 84% in intermediate risk patients and to 44% in high-risk patients. DFS was 93% and 66% in the patients overstaged as pT2 and pT3, respectively; it was 82% for ovarian spread and 45% for pelvic peritoneum/parametrium invasion. T2-T3 patients were treated with preoperative irradiation and bilateral hysterectomy. DFS was 90.5% vs. 72.2% and 2/2 vs. 3/7 when the lesion was understaged. The results of irradiation were similar to literature data, but 53% of patients (all in poor general conditions and/or very old) died from associated diseases. Relapses were observed in 13.6% of cases (62/444 patients); 29 (6%) were local recurrences and 33 (7.6%) were distant metastases, which correlated well with recurrences and 33 (7.6%) were distant metastases, which correlated well with risk factors. Severe complication (G3) were observed in 6.3% of cases.

  19. Recurrent giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ser Yee; Chan, Weng Hoong; Sivanandan, Ranjiv; Lim, Dennis Teck Hock; Wong, Wai Keong

    2009-01-01

    Giant fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus and hypopharynx are rare benign esophageal tumors. They arise most commonly in the upper esophagus and may, rarely, originate in the hypopharynx. They can vary significantly in size. Even though they are benign, they may be lethal due to either bleeding or, rarely, asphyxiation if a large polyp is regurgitated. Patients commonly present with dysphagia or hematemesis. The polyps may not be well visualized on endoscopy and imaging plays a vital role in aiding diagnosis as well as providing important information for pre-operative planning, such as the location of the pedicle, the vascularity of the polyp and the tissue elements of the mass. They can also be recurrent in rare cases, especially if the resection margins of the base are involved. We review the recent literature and report a case of a 61-year-old man with a recurrent giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp with illustrative contrast barium swallow, CT and intra-operative images, who required several surgeries via a combination of endoscopic, trans-oral, trans-cervical, trans-thoracic and trans-abdominal approaches. PMID:19653354

  20. Timing and recurrence interval of Himalayan landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    Himalayan landsldies have been occurring since the 55 million years ever since the Hinmlayan mountains came into being. The fact is that Himalayas are rising even today at the rate of a few cm per year as supported by the Indian Plate mtion measured by GPS. The recurrence of landsldies has not beeen documented even for well known landsldies and therefore the Border Road Organisation and Public Works departments of India are unable to realise the value of the data as the records are scanty and not formalised. There is a need to establish a data bank for landslides and debris flows as well as landslide related disasters in himalayas so that moelling for recurrence can be done. Some intersting examples of the landslides after the Chamoli earthquake are good examples of landsldies that occurred after several weeks of the earthquake at Chamoli as studied by the author. The present paper proposes the need for the analyses and a program that can be chalked out to prognasticate landslide occurrence.

  1. Genetics of Recurrent Vertigo and Vestibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gazquez, Irene; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    We present recent advances in the genetics of recurrent vertigo, including familial episodic ataxias, migraneous vertigo, bilateral vestibular hypofunction and Meniere’s disease. Although several vestibular disorders are more common within families, the genetics of vestibulopathies is largely not known. Genetic loci and clinical features of familial episodic ataxias have been defined in linkage disequilibrium studies with mutations in neuronal genes KCNA1 and CACNA1A. Migrainous vertigo is a clinical disorder with a high comorbidity within families much more common in females with overlapping features with episodic ataxia and migraine. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction is a heterogeneous clinical group defined by episodes of vertigo leading to progressive loss of vestibular function which also can include migraine. Meniere’s disease is a clinical syndrome characterized by spontaneous episodes of recurrent vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness and familial Meniere’s disease in around 10-20% of cases. An international collaborative effort to define the clinical phenotype and recruiting patients with migrainous vertigo and Meniere’s disease is ongoing for genome-wide association studies. PMID:22379397

  2. Concept of healing of recurrent shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main surgical techniques applied in the treatment of anterior recurrent shoulder dislocation, aiming the achievement of the normality of articulate movements. This was obtained by combining distinct surgical procedures, which allowed the recovery of a complete functional capacity of the shoulder, without jeopardizing the normality of movement, something that has not been recorded in the case of the tense sutures of the surgical procedures of Putti-Platt, Bankart, Latarjet, Dickson-O'Dell and others. The careful review of the methods applied supports the conclusion that recurrent shoulder dislocation can be cured, since cure has been obtained in 97% of the treated cases. However, some degree of limitation in the shoulder movement has been observed in most of the treated cases. Our main goal was to achieve a complete shoulder functional recovery, by treating simultaneously all of the anatomical-pathological lesions, without considering the so-called essential lesions. The period of post-operatory immobilization only last for the healing of soft parts; this takes place in a position of neutral shoulder rotation, since the use of vascular bone graft eliminates the need for long time immobilization, due to the shoulder stabilization provided by rigid fixation of the coracoid at the glenoid edge, as in the Latarjet's technique. Our procedure, used since 1959, comprises the association of several techniques, which has permitted shoulder healing without movement limitation. That was because of the tension reduction in the sutures of the subescapularis, capsule, and coracobraquialis muscles.

  3. Recurrent MRSA skin infections in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent cause of recurrent skin and soft tissue infections. For patients with atopic dermatitis, recurrent skin infections with MRSA often lead to eczema exacerbation. There currently is no standard practice in the prevention of recurrent MRSA soft tissue infections in the general and the atopic dermatitis populations. The current article reviews recent data on S aureus decolonization treatments for the prevention of recurrent MRSA soft tissue infections in the community setting.

  4. Microwave ablation as palliative treatment of locally recurrent colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Ye, X; Yang, X; Li, Y; Huang, G; Wang, J; Han, X; Ni, X; Wei, Z; Zheng, A; Meng, M

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering local recurrence of colorectal cancer which cannot be surgically removed are troubled with severe pain and poor quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation (MWA) as palliative treatment for recurrent unresectable colorectal cancer. Thirty-one patients were suffering locally recurrent colorectal cancer underwent MWA with CT guidance. The MWA power was set at 60-80 W, 6-8 min. Effectiveness was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) with a follow-up of 6-month. Complications were also recorded. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Mean VAS preprocedure was 7.10. Mean VAS postprocedure were as follows: 1 week, 2.65 (P < 0.001); 1 month, 0.81 (P < 0.001); 3 months 0.45 (P < 0.001); and 6 months 0.19 (P < 0.001). No serious complications were observed including intestinal fistulas, bladder fistulas, or peripheral vascular or nerve injury. CT-guided MWA as treatment of recurrent colorectal cancer can quickly and effectively relieve pain. It is a minimally invasive, safe, and efficient palliative treatment of recurrent colorectal cancer.

  5. Current Treatment of Isolated Locoregional Breast Cancer Recurrences.

    PubMed

    Harms, Wolfgang; Geretschläger, Andreas; Cescato, Corinne; Buess, Martin; Köberle, Dieter; Asadpour, Branca

    2015-08-01

    Patients with isolated locoregional breast cancer recurrences should be treated with curative intent. Mastectomy is regarded as the standard of care for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. In a selected group of patients, partial breast irradiation after second breast-conserving surgery is a viable alternative to mastectomy. If a second breast conservation is performed, additional irradiation should be mandatory, especially in patients who had not been irradiated previously. In case of re-irradiation, the largest experience exists for multi-catheter brachytherapy. Prospective clinical trials are needed to clearly define selection criteria, long-term local control, and toxicity. In patients with resectable locoregional breast cancer recurrences after mastectomy, multi-modal therapy comprising complete resection, radiation therapy in previously unirradiated patients, and systemic therapy results in 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of 69% and 88%, respectively. In radiation-naive patients with unresectable, isolated locoregional recurrences, radiation therapy is mandatory. In selected patients with previous irradiations and unresectable locoregional recurrences, a second irradiation as part of an individual treatment concept can be applied. The increased risk of severe toxicity should always be weighed up against the potential clinical benefit. A combination therapy with hyperthermia can further improve the treatment results.

  6. Current Treatment of Isolated Locoregional Breast Cancer Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Wolfgang; Geretschläger, Andreas; Cescato, Corinne; Buess, Martin; Köberle, Dieter; Asadpour, Branca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients with isolated locoregional breast cancer recurrences should be treated with curative intent. Mastectomy is regarded as the standard of care for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. In a selected group of patients, partial breast irradiation after second breast-conserving surgery is a viable alternative to mastectomy. If a second breast conservation is performed, additional irradiation should be mandatory, especially in patients who had not been irradiated previously. In case of re-irradiation, the largest experience exists for multi-catheter brachytherapy. Prospective clinical trials are needed to clearly define selection criteria, long-term local control, and toxicity. In patients with resectable locoregional breast cancer recurrences after mastectomy, multi-modal therapy comprising complete resection, radiation therapy in previously unirradiated patients, and systemic therapy results in 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of 69% and 88%, respectively. In radiation-naive patients with unresectable, isolated locoregional recurrences, radiation therapy is mandatory. In selected patients with previous irradiations and unresectable locoregional recurrences, a second irradiation as part of an individual treatment concept can be applied. The increased risk of severe toxicity should always be weighed up against the potential clinical benefit. A combination therapy with hyperthermia can further improve the treatment results. PMID:26600763

  7. 14 CFR 91.1107 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recurrent training. 91.1107 Section 91.1107... Management § 91.1107 Recurrent training. (a) Each program manager must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent training and is adequately trained and currently proficient for the type aircraft and crewmember...

  8. 14 CFR 91.1107 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recurrent training. 91.1107 Section 91.1107... Management § 91.1107 Recurrent training. (a) Each program manager must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent training and is adequately trained and currently proficient for the type aircraft and crewmember...

  9. 14 CFR 91.1107 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recurrent training. 91.1107 Section 91.1107... Management § 91.1107 Recurrent training. (a) Each program manager must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent training and is adequately trained and currently proficient for the type aircraft and crewmember...

  10. Recurrent anterior uveitis in Henoch Schonlein's vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Erer, Burak; Kamali, Sevil; Cingu, Kursat; Kilicaslan, Isin; Gul, Ahmet; Inanc, Murat; Aral, Orhan; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2010-08-01

    Uveitis is an important component of many rheumatic diseases. The main causes of recurrent uveitis are seronegative spondylarthropathies and Behçet's disease. We describe a rare case of Henoch Schönlein vasculitis (HSV) along with multiple recurrences of acute anterior uveitis. In cases of skin rash and recurrent anterior uveitis, HSV should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  11. 14 CFR 121.427 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurrent training. 121.427 Section 121.427..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.427 Recurrent training. (a) Recurrent training must ensure that each crew member or dispatcher is adequately trained and currently proficient...

  12. 14 CFR 135.351 - Recurrent training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurrent training. 135.351 Section 135.351... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.351 Recurrent training. (a) Each certificate holder must ensure that each crewmember receives recurrent...

  13. Geological and historical evidence of irregular recurrent earthquakes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satake, Kenji

    2015-10-28

    Great (M∼8) earthquakes repeatedly occur along the subduction zones around Japan and cause fault slip of a few to several metres releasing strains accumulated from decades to centuries of plate motions. Assuming a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model that similar earthquakes repeat at regular intervals, probabilities of future earthquake occurrence have been calculated by a government committee. However, recent studies on past earthquakes including geological traces from giant (M∼9) earthquakes indicate a variety of size and recurrence interval of interplate earthquakes. Along the Kuril Trench off Hokkaido, limited historical records indicate that average recurrence interval of great earthquakes is approximately 100 years, but the tsunami deposits show that giant earthquakes occurred at a much longer interval of approximately 400 years. Along the Japan Trench off northern Honshu, recurrence of giant earthquakes similar to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake with an interval of approximately 600 years is inferred from historical records and tsunami deposits. Along the Sagami Trough near Tokyo, two types of Kanto earthquakes with recurrence interval of a few hundred years and a few thousand years had been recognized, but studies show that the recent three Kanto earthquakes had different source extents. Along the Nankai Trough off western Japan, recurrence of great earthquakes with an interval of approximately 100 years has been identified from historical literature, but tsunami deposits indicate that the sizes of the recurrent earthquakes are variable. Such variability makes it difficult to apply a simple 'characteristic earthquake' model for the long-term forecast, and several attempts such as use of geological data for the evaluation of future earthquake probabilities or the estimation of maximum earthquake size in each subduction zone are being conducted by government committees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Strategies to reduce hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ciria, Ruben; Pleguezuelo, María; Khorsandi, Shirin Elizabeth; Davila, Diego; Suddle, Abid; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Rufian, Sebastian; de la Mata, Manuel; Briceño, Javier; Cillero, Pedro López; Heaton, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem that leads to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, being the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in several countries. Unfortunately, HCV re-infects the liver graft almost invariably following reperfusion, with an accelerated history of recurrence, leading to 10%-30% of patients progressing to cirrhosis within 5 years of transplantation. In this sense, some groups have even advocated for not re-transplanting this patients, as lower patient and graft outcomes have been reported. However, the management of HCV recurrence is being optimized and several strategies to reduce post-transplant recurrence could improve outcomes, decrease the rate of re-transplantation and optimize the use of available grafts. Three moments may be the focus of potential actions in order to decrease the impact of viral recurrence: the pre-transplant moment, the transplant environment and the post-transplant management. In the pre-transplant setting, it is not well established if reducing the pre transplant viral load affects the risk for HCV progression after transplant. Obviously, antiviral treatment can render the patient HCV RNA negative post transplant but the long-term benefit has not yet been fully established to justify the cost and clinical risk. In the transplant moment, factors as donor age, cold ischemia time, graft steatosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury may lead to a higher and more aggressive viral recurrence. After the transplant, discussion about immunosuppression and the moment to start the treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive or once-confirmed) together with new antiviral drugs are of interest. This review aims to help clinicians have a global overview of post-transplant HCV recurrence and strategies to reduce its impact on our patients. PMID:23717735

  15. Recurrent airway obstruction: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S

    2014-05-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction is a widely recognised airway disorder, characterised by hypersensitivity-mediated neutrophilic airway inflammation and lower airway obstruction in a subpopulation of horses when exposed to suboptimal environments high in airborne organic dust. Over the past decade, numerous studies have further advanced our understanding of different aspects of the disease. These include clarification of the important inhaled airborne agents responsible for disease induction, improving our understanding of the underlying genetic basis of disease susceptibility and unveiling the fundamental immunological mechanisms leading to establishment of the classic disease phenotype. This review, as well as giving a clinical overview of recurrent airway obstruction, summarises much of the work in these areas that have culminated in a more thorough understanding of this debilitating disease.

  16. A perspective on recurrent vertigo.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Richard R

    2013-01-01

    The recurrent nature of the 3 most common vestibulopathies suggests a recurrent cause. Histopathology in temporal bones from patients with these syndromes - vestibular neuronitis (VN, n = 7), Ménière's disease (MD, n = 8) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 5) - shows focal degeneration of vestibular nerve axons and degenerated nearby facial nerve meatal ganglion cells. Transmission electron microscopic confirmation of intracytoplasmic viral particles in surgically excised vestibular nerves from patients with VN and MD support a viral etiology in these vestibulopathies. Antiviral treatment of these syndromes in a series of 211 patients with a 3- to 8-year follow-up resulted in complete control of vertigo in VN (88%), MD (90%) and BPPV (60%).

  17. Histological and ultrastructural evidence that recurrent laryngeal neuropathy is a bilateral mononeuropathy limited to recurrent laryngeal nerves.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C N; Matiasek, K; Dixon, P M; Molony, V; Rodenacker, K; Mayhew, I G

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a common and debilitating peripheral nerve disease of horses, but it remains unclear if this disease is a mono- or polyneuropathy. An understanding of the distribution of the neuropathological lesions in RLN affected horses is fundamental to studying the aetiology of this very significant disease of tall horses. To determine whether RLN should be classified as a mono- or polyneuropathy. Multiple long peripheral nerves and their innervated muscles were examined systematically in 3 clinically affected RLN horses Severe lesions were evident in the left as well as right recurrent laryngeal nerves in all horses, both distally and, in one case, also proximally. No primary axonal lesions were evident in other nerves nor were changes found in their innervated muscles. RLN is not a polyneuropathy but should be classified as a bilateral mononeuropathy. Genetic and local factors specifically affecting the recurrent laryngeal nerves in RLN-affected horses should now be investigated further.

  18. The recurrent primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Bober, J; Zavacky, P; Brandebur, O; Svajdler, M

    2013-01-01

    Describe a patient with multiple recurrences of the primary recurrent liposarcoma. A 60-years-old man complained of weight loss (BMI 18.4) with a palpable huge retroperitoneal tumour, which displaced left kidney, and was confirmed on USG and CT. Laboratory examination showed anaemia and pathological blood tests. Chest X-ray initially showed a negative finding. A complete transperitonealy surgical extirpation of the tumour with left side nephrectomy was performed on June 28, 2007. The tumour mass weight was 1900 g. It was lying on the posterior face of the kidney in diameters 170x120x120 mm, completely capsulated by thin grey-pink capsula with peripheral fat tissue on the section grey-pink, lobulary shaped, in ¾ parts with central necrotic changes. Histopathologically was confirmed the primary dedifferentiated (non-lipogenous) liposarcoma low grade of malignancy. Nephrectomy specimen was confirmed as age related finding. There was no evidence of positives surgical margins. Despite oncological and surgical treatment, followed repeated recurrence with eight transperitoneal surgeries in the retroperitoneum and abdomen with extirpation of the metastases, left side hemicolectomy, splenectomy and repeated extirpation tumour metastases from abdomen and radix mesenterii. Last tumour weighed 2900 grams. Patient died on January 9, 2011, after the eight surgeries on multiorgans failure due to hemorrhagic shock and persistent atrial fibrilaton by cardiopulmonary insufficiency. As a speciality, he was treated without transfusion because as Jehovah´s witness he refused blood derivates. Despite complex surgical and oncological treatment, the prognosis in patient with recurrent liposarcoma was fatal (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 50).

  19. Spatiotemporal recurrences of sandpile avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarun, Anjali B.; Paguirigan, Antonino A.; Batac, Rene C.

    2015-10-01

    We study the space and time properties of avalanches in a continuous sandpile model by constructing a temporally directed network linking together the recurrent avalanche events based on their spatial separation. We use two different criteria for network construction: a later event is connected to a previous one if it is either nearest or farthest from it among all the later events. With this, we observe scale-free regimes emerge as characterized by the following power-law exponents: (a) α = 1.7 for the avalanche size distributions; (b) βF = 2.1 in the in-degree distribution of farthest recurrences; (c) δ = 1 for the separation distances; and (d) γ = 1 for the temporal separations of recurrences. Our results agree with earlier observations that describe the sandpile avalanches as repulsive events, i.e. the next avalanche is more likely to be physically separated from an earlier one. These observations, which are not captured by usual interoccurrence statistics and by random connection mechanisms, suggest an underlying spatiotemporal organization in the sandpile that makes it useful for modeling real-world systems.

  20. From fuzzy recurrence plots to scalable recurrence networks of time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan D.

    2017-04-01

    Recurrence networks, which are derived from recurrence plots of nonlinear time series, enable the extraction of hidden features of complex dynamical systems. Because fuzzy recurrence plots are represented as grayscale images, this paper presents a variety of texture features that can be extracted from fuzzy recurrence plots. Based on the notion of fuzzy recurrence plots, defuzzified, undirected, and unweighted recurrence networks are introduced. Network measures can be computed for defuzzified recurrence networks that are scalable to meet the demand for the network-based analysis of big data.

  1. Left atrial enlargement and stroke recurrence: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study.

    PubMed

    Yaghi, Shadi; Moon, Yeseon P; Mora-McLaughlin, Consuelo; Willey, Joshua Z; Cheung, Ken; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi; Kamel, Hooman; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-06-01

    Although left atrial enlargement (LAE) increases incident stroke risk, the association with recurrent stroke is less clear. Our aim was to determine the association of LAE with recurrent stroke most likely related to embolism (cryptogenic and cardioembolic) and all ischemic stroke recurrences. We followed 655 first ischemic stroke patients in the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study for ≤5 years. LA size from 2D echocardiography was categorized as normal LAE (52.7%), mild LAE (31.6%), and moderate-severe LAE (15.7%). We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of LA size and LAE with recurrent cryptogenic/cardioembolic and total recurrent ischemic stroke. LA size was available in 529 (81%) patients. Mean age at enrollment was 69±13 years; 45.8% were male, 54.0% Hispanic, and 18.5% had atrial fibrillation. Over a median of 4 years, there were 65 recurrent ischemic strokes (29 were cardioembolic or cryptogenic). In multivariable models adjusted for confounders, including atrial fibrillation and heart failure, moderate-severe LAE compared with normal LA size was associated with greater risk of recurrent cardioembolic/cryptogenic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.03-7.81), but not total ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval, 0.48-2.30). Mild LAE was not associated with recurrent stroke. Moderate to severe LAE was an independent marker of recurrent cardioembolic or cryptogenic stroke in a multiethnic cohort of ischemic stroke patients. Further research is needed to determine whether anticoagulant use may reduce risk of recurrence in ischemic stroke patients with moderate to severe LAE. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saidi; Chavda, S K; Magoha, G A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, several reports have underlined the possible existence of chronic appendicitis. Up to 38% of spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis may recur. We studied 41 patients operated on between July 2000 and June 2001 for chronic and recurrent appendicitis at a teaching hospital in the city of Nairobi. The patients comprised 17.8% of all patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis during the study period. The majority (65.9%) were females. The faecolith rate was 51.2%. About half of appendices removed for these symptoms were normal at histology. Nearly 70% of the normal appendices contained faecoliths. Symptoms resolved in 90% of faecolith-containing appendices and 87.5% of non-faecolith-containing appendices that were normal on histology.

  3. Ocular immunology in equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A

    2008-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a disease with high prevalence and relevance for the equine population, since it results in blindness. Over the last decade, important advancements have been made in our understanding of the underlying immune responses in this disease. ERU is mediated by an autoaggressive Th1 response directed against several retinal proteins. Interphotoreceptor-retinoid binding protein (IRBP) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) are capable to induce ERU-like disease in experimental horses, with the unique possibility to activate relapses in a well-defined manner. Further, proteomic evidence now suggests that retinal Mueller glial cells (RMG) may play a fatal role in uveitic disease progression by directly triggering inflammation processes through the expression and secretion of interferon-gamma. Ongoing relapses in blind eyes can be associated with stable expression of the major autoantigens in ERU retinas. This review briefly summarizes the most significant developments in uveitis immune response research.

  4. Aetiology of, and risk factors for, recurrent community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vidal, C; Carratalà, J; Fernández-Sabé, N; Dorca, J; Verdaguer, R; Manresa, F; Gudiol, F

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization is a matter of particular concern. However, current information on its prevalence, aetiology and risk factors is lacking. To address these issues, we performed an observational analysis of a prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with CAP. Recurrence was defined as two or more episodes of CAP 1 month apart within 3 years. Patients with severe immunosuppression or local predisposing factors were excluded. Of the 1556 patients, 146 (9.4%) had recurrent CAP. The most frequent causative organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae, both in patients with recurrent CAP and in those without recurrence. Haemophilus influenzae, other Gram-negative bacilli and aspiration pneumonia were more frequent among patients with recurrent CAP, whereas Legionella pneumophila was rarely identified in this group. Independent factors associated with recurrent CAP were greater age, lack of pneumococcal vaccination, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and corticosteroid therapy. In a sub-analysis of 389 episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia, the only independent risk factor for recurrence was lack of pneumococcal vaccination. Recurrence of CAP is not a rare clinical problem and it occurs mainly in the elderly, patients with COPD, and those receiving corticosteroids. Our study provides support for recommending pneumococcal vaccination for adults at risk of pneumonia, including those with a first episode of CAP.

  5. Early onset recurrent subtype of adolescent depression: clinical and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed. Eight-hundred sixteen youth were studied at age 15, and 699 were included at age 20, with diagnostic evaluations and assessments of functioning in major roles. Youth with early onset and recurrent MDE differed from both those with early onset but nonrecurrent MDE and those with later onset-no recurrence in terms of clinical features, adolescent social functioning, and later psychosocial adjustment. The early onset recurrent depressed youth had more severe, chronic, suicidal depressions, greater anxiety comorbidity, worse social functioning at 15, and poorer psychosocial, especially social, outcomes at 20. Youth with depression by 15 with recurrence by age 20 may represent a high-risk group, with likely life-course-persistent depression and maladjustment. Community youth whose early depression does not recur by age 20, or who have onset with no recurrence after age 15, may have more benign and possibly limited depressions. Later onset with recurrence is also a group at risk for dysfunctional outcomes, requiring further follow-up.

  6. Severe congenital neutropenias.

    PubMed

    Skokowa, Julia; Dale, David C; Touw, Ivo P; Zeidler, Cornelia; Welte, Karl

    2017-06-08

    Severe congenital neutropenias are a heterogeneous group of rare haematological diseases characterized by impaired maturation of neutrophil granulocytes. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia are prone to recurrent, often life-threatening infections beginning in their first months of life. The most frequent pathogenic defects are autosomal dominant mutations in ELANE, which encodes neutrophil elastase, and autosomal recessive mutations in HAX1, whose product contributes to the activation of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signalling pathway. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions are the object of extensive research and are not fully understood. Furthermore, severe congenital neutropenias may predispose to myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia. Molecular events in the malignant progression include acquired mutations in CSF3R (encoding G-CSF receptor) and subsequently in other leukaemia-associated genes (such as RUNX1) in a majority of patients. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, blood neutrophil count, bone marrow examination and genetic and immunological analyses. Daily subcutaneous G-CSF administration is the treatment of choice and leads to a substantial increase in blood neutrophil count, reduction of infections and drastic improvement of quality of life. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the alternative treatment. Regular clinical assessments (including yearly bone marrow examinations) to monitor treatment course and detect chromosomal abnormalities (for example, monosomy 7 and trisomy 21) as well as somatic pre-leukaemic mutations are recommended.

  7. [Depression in the course of bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder in the elderly: diagnostic difficulties].

    PubMed

    Sobów, Tomasz; Kisiela, Elzbieta; Luczak, Olga; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in depressive patients is a common clinical problem estimated to be evident in up to 40% of patients. Elderly patients might be especially vulnerable to that sort of diagnostic error. To estimate the rate of misdiagnosis in the elderly (60yrs+) hospitalized due to depression and to establish clinical correlates that might improve diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of medical records of all the patients hospitalized in the University based Psychogeriatric Ward and suffering from a depressive episode due to bipolar disorder or recurrent depressive disorder. The rate of misdiagnosis was 54% in bipolar and 9% in recurrent depressive disorder. Bipolar patients were mainly misdiagnosed as having recurrent depression. A severe episode was more common in bipolar subjects (particularly in women) while recurrent depressive subjects tend to suffer from less severe but more protracted episodes. Somatic symptoms of depression were more prevalent among recurrent depressive subjects while psychotic features, particularly delusions, and, to the lesser extent, hallucinations, were more common in patients suffering from bipolar depression. Bipolar depression is very often misdiagnosed in the hospitalized elderly. There are several features that might help the clinician to distinguish it from recurrent depression. Long history of illness, high number of previous episodes, severe episodes and the presence of psychotic symptoms are typical for bipolar elderly while a protracted current episode and the presence of somatic symptoms of depression might indicate the diagnosis of recurrent depression.

  8. Stress Reduction in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Recurrent Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-08

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Fatigue; Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pain; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

  9. Erlotinib and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma

  10. Global exponential periodicity and stability of recurrent neural networks with multi-proportional delays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liqun; Zhang, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a class of recurrent neural networks with multi-proportional delays is studied. The nonlinear transformation transforms a class of recurrent neural networks with multi-proportional delays into a class of recurrent neural networks with constant delays and time-varying coefficients. By constructing Lyapunov functional and establishing the delay differential inequality, several delay-dependent and delay-independent sufficient conditions are derived to ensure global exponential periodicity and stability of the system. And several examples and their simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of obtained results.

  11. [Morphometry of the recurrent laryngeal nerves of the rat].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Font, A; Merchán, A; Maranillo, E; Brillas, A; Sañudo, J R; Valderrama-Canales, F J

    2006-12-01

    In mammals the recurrent laryngeal nerves are dissimilar in length between both sides. This asymmetry involves different time of arrival of the stimulus to the laryngeal musculature controlled by each nerve. Thus, several explanations have been addressed to elucidate the closest of the glottis at the same time despite the unlike length of the nerves. However, previous works on the topic lack of several important data. The present study compares, in two groups of 10 and 6 rats, the length and the composition of myelinated fibers in the recurrent laryngeal nerves of both sides, by means of light microscopy and a computerized morphometric analysis. The results show a mean difference of 0,84 cm longer the left than the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. No statistical differences were observed in the number of myelinated fibers between both sides. However, the myelinated fibers of the right side were statistically bigger in diameter than the fibers of the left side. The data are discussed in the context of the mechanisms for the compensation of the dissimilar length of both recurrent laryngeal nerves.

  12. Topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for recurrent anterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Shreya S; Shtein, Roni M; Michelotti, Monica M; Cooney, Theresa M

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with cyclosporine A 0.05% eye drops in reducing frequency and severity of recurrences in patients with recurrent anterior uveitis. A retrospective case-crossover study was conducted by reviewing medical charts of patients treated for recurrent anterior uveitis between 2002 and 2011 at the Kellogg Eye Center by one cornea specialist. We identified patients who had been treated with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% and recorded data regarding demographics, episodes of anterior uveitis, severity of episodes and treatment modalities before and after initiation of cyclosporine A 0.05%. Eight patients were identified as having been treated with topical cyclosporine 0.05% in addition to standard treatment with an average follow-up of 54.9±33.9 months (range: 28-143 months). The patients had statistically significant fewer episodes of anterior uveitis, shorter duration of episodes and fewer total days of inflammation per year while on topical cyclosporine 0.05%. This study showed improvement of recurrent anterior uveitis in patients while on conventional treatment with cyclosporine A 0.05% compared with conventional treatment alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Recurrence Pattern Analysis of Primary Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Marion; Baernreuther, Jessica; Turowski, Bernd; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Sabel, Michael; Kamp, Marcel A

    2017-07-01

    Typical recurrence of glioblastoma occurs locally, usually within 2 cm from the original lesion. With improvement of surgical techniques, more aggressive surgical strategies have become feasible, resulting in a significantly increased rate of complete resection. We investigated whether these improvements are also reflected by tumor recurrence pattern. Inclusion criteria were first diagnosis of glioblastoma with standard adjuvant radiochemotherapy and histologically proven tumor recurrence. Patients were divided according to recurrence pattern: local recurrence, distant recurrence, or both recurrence patterns. Data were correlated with extent of resection, molecular tumor configuration, clinical status, and survival data. This single-center retrospective study included 97 patients with glioblastoma treated between 2007 and 2014. Local, distant, and combined tumor recurrence patterns were observed in 77 (79.3%), 10 (10.3%), and 10 patients (10.3%). Median progression-free survival of all patients was 8 months; median overall survival was 20 months. Median progression-free survival was 7 months for patients with local recurrence, 13 months for patients with distant recurrence, and 9 months for patients with both recurrence patterns (P = 0.646). Median overall survival in the 3 groups was 21 months, 20 months, and 14 months (P = 0.098). No correlation between methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation status and recurrence pattern was observed. Despite complete resection of contrast-enhancing tumor, most recurrences occurred locally. Patients with distant tumor recurrence demonstrated increased progression-free survival. Therefore, to gain local control, we may need to shift toward a more aggressive supramarginal resection, using extensive intraoperative monitoring to avoid permanent deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemotherapy and molecular targeting therapy for recurrent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Naotake; Watari, Hidemichi; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    For patients with primary stage ⅣB, persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer, chemotherapy remains the standard treatment, although it is neither curative nor associated with long-term disease control. In this review, we summarized the history of treatment of recurrent cervical cancer, and the current recommendation for chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Eligible articles were identified by a search of the MEDLINE bibliographical database for the period up to November 30, 2014. The search strategy included the following any or all of the keywords: “uterine cervical cancer”, “chemotherapy”, and “targeted therapies”. Since cisplatin every 21 days was considered as the historical standard treatment for recurrent cervical cancer, subsequent trials have evaluated and demonstrated activity for other agents including paclitaxel, gemcitabine, topotecan and vinorelbine among others. Accordingly, promising agents were incorporated into phase Ⅲ trials. To examine the best agent to combine with cisplatin, several landmark phase Ⅲ clinical trials were conducted by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) and Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG). Through, GOG204 and JCOG0505, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) and paclitaxel/carboplatin (TC) are now considered to be the recommended therapies for recurrent cervical cancer patients. However, the prognosis of patients who are already resistant to chemotherapy, are very poor. Therefore new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Molecular targeted therapy will be the most hopeful candidate of these strategies. From the results of GOG240, bevacizumab combined with TP reached its primary endpoint of improving overall survival (OS). Although, the prognosis for recurrent cervical cancer patients is still poor, the results of GOG240 shed light on the usefulness of molecular target agents to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Recurrent cervical cancer is generally considered incurable and current chemotherapy regiments

  15. Chemotherapy and molecular targeting therapy for recurrent cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Naotake; Watari, Hidemichi; Ushijima, Kimio

    2016-04-01

    For patients with primary stage ⅣB, persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer, chemotherapy remains the standard treatment, although it is neither curative nor associated with long-term disease control. In this review, we summarized the history of treatment of recurrent cervical cancer, and the current recommendation for chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Eligible articles were identified by a search of the MEDLINE bibliographical database for the period up to November 30, 2014. The search strategy included the following any or all of the keywords: "uterine cervical cancer", "chemotherapy", and "targeted therapies". Since cisplatin every 21 days was considered as the historical standard treatment for recurrent cervical cancer, subsequent trials have evaluated and demonstrated activity for other agents including paclitaxel, gemcitabine, topotecan and vinorelbine among others. Accordingly, promising agents were incorporated into phase Ⅲ trials. To examine the best agent to combine with cisplatin, several landmark phase Ⅲ clinical trials were conducted by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) and Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG). Through, GOG204 and JCOG0505, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) and paclitaxel/carboplatin (TC) are now considered to be the recommended therapies for recurrent cervical cancer patients. However, the prognosis of patients who are already resistant to chemotherapy, are very poor. Therefore new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Molecular targeted therapy will be the most hopeful candidate of these strategies. From the results of GOG240, bevacizumab combined with TP reached its primary endpoint of improving overall survival (OS). Although, the prognosis for recurrent cervical cancer patients is still poor, the results of GOG240 shed light on the usefulness of molecular target agents to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Recurrent cervical cancer is generally considered incurable and current chemotherapy regiments offer only

  16. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Carol; Clarke, Helen; Cutting, Rachel; Saxton, Jane; Waite, Sarah; Ledger, William; Li, Tinchiu; Pacey, Allan A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM). To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control) were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  17. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Carol; Clarke, Helen; Cutting, Rachel; Saxton, Jane; Waite, Sarah; Ledger, William; Li, Tinchiu; Pacey, Allan A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM). To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control) were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests. PMID:25814156

  18. [Severe asthma].

    PubMed

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  19. Severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J

    1982-03-01

    The successful management of severe pneumonia involves a logical approach to antibiotic therapy, based on selecting drugs active against the most likely pathogen in each individual case while awaiting possible identification of an organism. In patients who deteriorate, more invasive diagnostic procedures should be considered in combination with broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Controlled oxygen therapy monitored by arterial blood-gas tension measurements is essential and mechanical ventilation may be indicated in some cases. Other measures including physiotherapy, fluid replacement, and the relief of pleuritic pain should not be forgotten.

  20. Recurrent ovarian dysgerminoma after laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Prado, S; Yazigi, R; Garrido, J; Gonzalez, M; Torres, R; Oddo, D

    2006-01-01

    To our knowledge, recurrent dysgerminoma at the site of tumor removal by laparoscopy in a patient with stage IA disease has not been previously reported. A woman with ovarian dysgerminoma treated by laparoscopy and tumor removed through the cul-de-sac recurred the 17 months later at the site of tumor removal. She was successfully treated with etoposide, bleomycin, and cisplatin chemotherapy with complete response. This case illustrates the potential for surgical site implant of an ovarian dysgerminoma; surgeons should follow strict guidelines when performing laparoscopic procedures for ovarian malignancies in order to prevent this type of incident.

  1. Detection of Recurrent Fluorescence Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebara, Yuta; Furukawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Jun; Tanuma, Hajime; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Shiromaru, Haruo; Hansen, Klavs

    2016-09-01

    We have detected visible photons emitted from the thermally populated electronic excited state, namely recurrent fluorescence (RF), of C6- stored in an electrostatic ion storage ring. Clear evidence is provided to distinguish RF from normal fluorescence, based on the temporal profile of detected photons synchronized with the revolution of C6- in the ring, for which the time scale is far longer than the lifetime of the intact photoexcited state. The relaxation (cooling) process via RF is likely to be commonplace for isolated molecular systems and crucial to the stabilization of molecules in interstellar environments.

  2. Recurrent hypoglycemia in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marissa; Zwiebel, Sean; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in toddlers. This diagnosis should be considered in any hypoglycemic toddler with no prior history of abnormal growth who is developmentally normal when toxic ingestions and sepsis are inconsistent with the clinical picture. Diagnosis is important in preventing serious long-term sequelae and is made in the setting of hypoglycemia, ketonuria, and ketonemia. Therefore, checking urine and blood ketones is an essential part of the evaluation in any hypoglycemic toddler. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with recurrent hypoglycemia secondary to idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia.

  3. Recurrent intussusception in children and infants.

    PubMed

    Ksia, Amine; Mosbahi, Sana; Brahim, Mohamed Ben; Sahnoun, Lassaad; Haggui, Besma; Youssef, Sabrine Ben; Maazoun, Kais; Krichene, Imed; Mekki, Mongi; Belghith, Mohsen; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent intussusceptions in child and infants are problematic and there are controversies about its management. The aim of this study is to determine the details of the clinical diagnosis of recurrent intussusception and to determine the aetiology of recurrent intussusceptions. It's a retrospective study of 28 cases of recurrent intussusception treated in the paediatric surgery department of Monastir (Tunisia) between January 1998 and December 2011. During the study period, 505 patients were treated for 544 episodes of intussusception; there were 39 episodes of recurrent intussusceptions in 28 patients; the rate of patients with recurrence was 5.5%. With comparison to the initial episode, clinical features were similar to the recurrent episode, except bloody stool that was absent in the recurrent group (P = 0,016). Only one patient had a pathologic local point. In recurrent intussusception, patients are less symptomatic and consult quickly. Systematic surgical exploration is not needed as recurrent intussusceptions are easily reduced by air or hydrostatic enema and are not associated with a high rate of pathologic leading points.

  4. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  5. Detecting event-related recurrences by symbolic analysis: applications to human language processing

    PubMed Central

    beim Graben, Peter; Hutt, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-stationarity is ubiquitous in complex dynamical systems. In brain dynamics, there is ample evidence that event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect such quasi-stationary states. In order to detect them from time series, several segmentation techniques have been proposed. In this study, we elaborate a recent approach for detecting quasi-stationary states as recurrence domains by means of recurrence analysis and subsequent symbolization methods. We address two pertinent problems of contemporary recurrence analysis: optimizing the size of recurrence neighbourhoods and identifying symbols from different realizations for sequence alignment. As possible solutions for these problems, we suggest a maximum entropy criterion and a Hausdorff clustering algorithm. The resulting recurrence domains for single-subject ERPs are obtained as partition cells reflecting quasi-stationary brain states. PMID:25548270

  6. [Clinical features, risk factors and progresses on treatment of recurrent Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease].

    PubMed

    Jia, S S; Zhao, C; Liu, X S; Zhang, M F

    2017-04-11

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease(VKH) is a bilateral, granulomatous panuveitis associated with central nervous system, auditory, and integumentary manifestations. Clinically, VKH usually responds well to early aggressive glucocorticosteroid treatment and may be cured without any clinically significant sequelae. Some patients, however, may enter the chronic recurrent phase, which may result in marked loss of vision due to complications such as complicated cataract, secondary glaucoma and maculopathy. Recurrent VKH is mainly characterized by anterior uveitis associated with thickening of the choroid. Initial poor visual acuity, severe anterior chamber reaction, choroidal folds,rapid tapering of systemic corticosteroids or inadequate duration of treatment, and development of extraocular manifestations may be risk factors of disease recurrence. Prolonged glucocorticosteroid treatment has been suggested as effective strategy for recurrence of VKH. The positive effects of other immunosuppressive agents and biologic agents on treatment of chronic recurrent and refractory VKH have been gradually recognized by the uveitis community. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 317-320).

  7. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks

    PubMed Central

    van Dyk, Ewald; Hoogstraat, Marlous; ten Hoeve, Jelle; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects recurrent copy number breaks, rather than recurrently amplified or deleted regions. This change of perspective allows for a simplified approach as recursive peak splitting procedures and repeated re-estimation of the background model are avoided. Furthermore, we control the false discovery rate on the level of called regions, rather than at the probe level, as in competing algorithms. We benchmark RUBIC against GISTIC2 (a state-of-the-art approach) and RAIG (a recently proposed approach) on simulated copy number data and on three SNP6 and NGS copy number data sets from TCGA. We show that RUBIC calls more focal recurrent regions and identifies a much larger fraction of known cancer genes. PMID:27396759

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: usefulness in the assessment of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José María; Ripollés, Tomás; Cortés, Xavier; Moreno, Nadia; Martínez, María Jesús; Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Delgado, Fructuoso; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can increase the value of the ultrasonography in the study of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD). 60 patients with CD who had previously undergone ileocolic resection underwent prospectively both CEUS and colonoscopy within a 3-day period. The sonographic examination included evaluation of bowel wall thickness, transmural complications, colour Doppler grade and contrast-enhanced US. In addition a sonographic score was established. The capacity of CEUS to diagnose endoscopic recurrence, as well as its severity, was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and odds ratio, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also calculated. 49 out of 60 patients showed endoscopic postoperative recurrence. Severe endoscopic recurrence was present in 34 patients (57%). Classic ultrasound parameters (wall thickness >3mm and colour Doppler flow) revealed an accuracy of 88.3% for the diagnosis of recurrence. Sonographic score 2, including thickness >5mm or contrast enhancement >46%, improved the results with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98%, 100% and 98.3%, respectively, in the diagnosis of endoscopic recurrence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.99, in remarkable agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.946). Sonographic score 3, including thickness >5mm, contrast enhancement >70% or fistula identified 32 out of 34 (94.1%) severe endoscopic recurrences. The area under the ROC curve was 0.836, in good agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.688). CEUS shows excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of postoperative recurrence in CD and can also detect severe recurrences. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain hemorrhage recurrence, small vessel disease type, and cerebral microbleeds

    PubMed Central

    Charidimou, Andreas; Imaizumi, Toshio; Moulin, Solene; Biffi, Alexandro; Samarasekera, Neshika; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Peeters, Andre; Vandermeeren, Yves; Laloux, Patrice; Baron, Jean-Claude; Hernandez-Guillamon, Mar; Montaner, Joan; Casolla, Barbara; Gregoire, Simone M.; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S.; Naka, H.; Smith, Eric E.; Viswanathan, Anand; Jäger, Hans R.; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Greenberg, Steven M.; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ICH survivors, stratified by the presence, distribution, and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI (i.e., the presumed causal underlying small vessel disease and its severity). Methods: This was a meta-analysis of prospective cohorts following ICH, with blood-sensitive brain MRI soon after ICH. We estimated annualized recurrent symptomatic ICH rates for each study and compared pooled odds ratios (ORs) of recurrent ICH by CMB presence/absence and presumed etiology based on CMB distribution (strictly lobar CMBs related to probable or possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy [CAA] vs non-CAA) and burden (1, 2–4, 5–10, and >10 CMBs), using random effects models. Results: We pooled data from 10 studies including 1,306 patients: 325 with CAA-related and 981 CAA-unrelated ICH. The annual recurrent ICH risk was higher in CAA-related ICH vs CAA-unrelated ICH (7.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–12.6 vs 1.1%, 95% CI 0.5–1.7 per year, respectively; p = 0.01). In CAA-related ICH, multiple baseline CMBs (versus none) were associated with ICH recurrence during follow-up (range 1–3 years): OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.4–6.8; p = 0.006), 4.3 (95% CI 1.8–10.3; p = 0.001), and 3.4 (95% CI 1.4–8.3; p = 0.007) for 2–4, 5–10, and >10 CMBs, respectively. In CAA-unrelated ICH, only >10 CMBs (versus none) were associated with recurrent ICH (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.1–15; p = 0.001). The presence of 1 CMB (versus none) was not associated with recurrent ICH in CAA-related or CAA-unrelated cohorts. Conclusions: CMB burden and distribution on MRI identify subgroups of ICH survivors with higher ICH recurrence risk, which may help to predict ICH prognosis with relevance for clinical practice and treatment trials. PMID:28747441

  10. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Terry P; Kerry, James T; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Anderson, Kristen D; Baird, Andrew H; Babcock, Russell C; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C; Butler, Ian R; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R; Cumming, Graeme S; Dalton, Steven J; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C Mark; Figueira, Will F; Gilmour, James P; Harrison, Hugo B; Heron, Scott F; Hoey, Andrew S; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Kennedy, Emma V; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lowe, Ryan J; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Malcolm, Hamish A; McWilliam, Michael J; Pandolfi, John M; Pears, Rachel J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R; Willis, Bette L; Wilson, Shaun K

    2017-03-15

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  11. Recurrent aortic aneurysms in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, Corey; Zhen-Yu Tong, Michael; Lawlor, D Kirk; DeRose, Guy; Forbes, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    The following is a case of a 22-year-old male with recurrent thoracic aneurysms with several constitutional symptoms, including gastrointestinal discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and a 2-week history of severe lower back pain. The patient underwent an initial thoracoabdominal repair of a visceral aneurysm followed by endovascular repair of a recurrent thoracic pseudoaneurysm. The etiology of the visceral aneurysm was initially hypothesized to be mycotic; however, further information revealed signs and symptoms consistent with the diagnostic criteria for Behçet disease (BD). We suggest that BD be considered in younger patients who present with an aortic aneurysm. Although open repair is the traditional approach for arterial lesions in BD, the role for endovascular intervention should be considered as it represents a surgical repair with a significant reduction in morbidity.

  12. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Terry P.; Kerry, James T.; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Baird, Andrew H.; Babcock, Russell C.; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R.; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C.; Butler, Ian R.; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E.; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Dalton, Steven J.; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C. Mark; Figueira, Will F.; Gilmour, James P.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Heron, Scott F.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Kennedy, Emma V.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; McWilliam, Michael J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Pears, Rachel J.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J.; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R.; Willis, Bette L.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-03-01

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  13. Risk factors for early recurrence after ischemic stroke: the role of stroke syndrome and subtype.

    PubMed

    Moroney, J T; Bagiella, E; Paik, M C; Sacco, R L; Desmond, D W

    1998-10-01

    Information regarding risk factors for early recurrence is limited. Our aim was to identify the clinical predictors of early recurrence after ischemic stroke. We prospectively examined 297 patients (mean age, 72.0+/-8.4 years) hospitalized with ischemic stroke to identify recurrent strokes occurring within 90 days of the index stroke. Survival free of recurrence was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratified by demographic variables; vascular risk factors; stroke syndrome, subtype, vascular territory, and severity; scores on the Barthel Index and Mini-Mental State Examination during hospitalization; blood pressure on admission; and selected laboratory data. We estimated the relative risk (RR) of early recurrence associated with those variables using proportional hazards analysis. We identified 22 recurrent events in the first 90 days after the index stroke, resulting in an early stroke recurrence rate of 7.4%, and death occurred immediately after recurrence in 6 of the 22 patients. A major hemispheric stroke syndrome (RR=2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2 to 7.1), atherothrombotic stroke mechanism (RR=3.3; CI=1.3 to 8.3), and atrial fibrillation (RR=2.2; CI=0.8 to 6.1) were independent predictors of early recurrence, after adjustment for demographic variables. Conclusions-Early recurrence was frequent and resulted in increased mortality. Attention to the clinical features of the index stroke, including the presenting syndrome and the ischemic mechanism, and the recognition of atrial fibrillation may help in the selection of patients for the initiation of targeted interventions to prevent early recurrence and subsequent mortality.

  14. Patterns of recurrence after liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagness, Morten; Foss, Aksel; Egge, Tor Skatvedt; Dueland, Svein

    2014-04-01

    Surgical resection is the only curative modality for colorectal liver metastases (CLM), and the pattern of recurrences after resection affects survival. In a prospective study of liver transplantation (Lt) for nonresectable CLM we have shown a 5-year overall survival rate of 60 %, but 19 of 21 experienced recurrence. This study reports the pattern of recurrences after Lt for CLM and the effect on survival. Characterization of metastatic lesions in a prospective study for Lt for nonresectable CLM was performed (n = 21). The study included reexamination of chest computed tomographic scans taken before Lt. At the time of first recurrence, 16 were a single site, and three were multiple sites. Thirteen of the single sites were pulmonary recurrences. The pulmonary recurrences appeared early and were slow growing, and several were accessible to surgical treatment. When chest computed tomographic scans were reexamined, seven patients had pulmonary nodules at the time of Lt without an effect on survival. There was no first single-site hepatic recurrence. Six of the seven patients who developed metastases to the transplanted liver died from metastatic disease. The pulmonary recurrences after Lt for CLM were of an indolent character, even those that were present at the time of Lt. This contrasts with the finding of metastases to the transplanted liver, which was prognostically adverse. The lack of single hepatic first-site recurrences and hepatic metastases only as part of disseminated disease is different from the pattern of recurrence after liver resection. This suggests two distinct mechanisms for hepatic recurrences after resection for CLM.

  15. Widespread Recurrent Evolution of Genomic Features

    PubMed Central

    Maeso, Ignacio; Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The recent explosion of genome sequences from all major phylogenetic groups has unveiled an unexpected wealth of cases of recurrent evolution of strikingly similar genomic features in different lineages. Here, we review the diverse known types of recurrent evolution in eukaryotic genomes, with a special focus on metazoans, ranging from reductive genome evolution to origins of splice-leader trans-splicing, from tandem exon duplications to gene family expansions. We first propose a general classification scheme for evolutionary recurrence at the genomic level, based on the type of driving force—mutation or selection—and the environmental and genomic circumstances underlying these forces. We then discuss various cases of recurrent genomic evolution under this scheme. Finally, we provide a broader context for repeated genomic evolution, including the unique relationship of genomic recurrence with the genotype–phenotype map, and the ways in which the study of recurrent genomic evolution can be used to understand fundamental evolutionary processes. PMID:22417916

  16. [Recurrent urological cancer--diagnose and treatment].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, H; Akaza, H

    1998-02-01

    Clinical efforts to spare bladder function even in the case of muscle invasive recurrent bladder cancer is taking. Early detection of recurrence is essential for bladder sparing, and both urinary NMP22 and BTA are thought to have potency to detect recurrence of bladder cancer earlier than urinary cytology. Intravesical administration of BCG for superficial bladder cancer and intraarterial injection of chemoagents (Methotrexate and Cisplatin) with radiation for muscle invasive bladder cancer are thought to play important roles in sparing the bladder. Early detection of recurrent prostate cancer is becoming easier by ultrasensitive PSA assay. Though the value of early detection of recurrence is not proven since the benefits of early hormonal treatment have not yet been established, that should be a good indicator to evaluate new and coming treatments and play a important role to develop an effective treatment for recurrent prostate cancer.

  17. Recurrence quantification analysis of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M. S.; Szezech, J. D.; Batista, A. M.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    Chimera states, characterised by coexistence of coherence and incoherence in coupled dynamical systems, have been found in various physical systems, such as mechanical oscillator networks and Josephson-junction arrays. We used recurrence plots to provide graphical representations of recurrent patterns and identify chimera states. Moreover, we show that recurrence plots can be used as a diagnostic of chimera states and also to identify the chimera collapse.

  18. [Traumatic recurrence of idiopathic spinal cord herniation].

    PubMed

    Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence.

  19. Factors that influence recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M E; Kazancı, A; Yaman, N D; Baş, F; Ayberk, G

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of poor outcome following lumbar disc surgery is recurrent herniation. Recurrence has been noted in 5% to 15% of patients with surgically treated primary lumbar disc herniation. There have been many studies designed to determine the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the influence of disc degeneration, endplate changes, surgical technique, and patient's clinical characteristics on recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients who underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and who were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. All these operations were performed between August 2004 and September 2009 at the Neurosurgery Department of Ataturk Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. During the study period, 126 patients were reviewed, with 101 patients underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and 25 patients were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation. Preoperative higher intervertebral disc height (P<0.001) and higher body mass index (P=0.042) might be risk factors for recurrence. Modic endplate changes were statistically significantly greater in the recurrent group than in the non-recurrent group (P=0.032). Our study suggests that patients who had recurrent lumbar disc herniation had preoperative higher disc height and higher body mass index. Modic endplate changes had a higher tendency for recurrence of lumbar disc herniation. Well-planned and well-conducted large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this and enable convenient treatment modalities to prevent recurrent disc pathology.

  20. Spontaneous regression and recurrence of stage III Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Sandra Catharina Petronella; Groeneveld-Haenen, Christine P M; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine carcinoma originating in the skin. It is typically aggressive with a tendency to recur locally and metastasise. There have been several case reports about spontaneous regression of MCC over the past years, but to the best of our knowledge this is the first case of a regional lymph node metastasised MCC with complete spontaneous regression and recurrence. In addition, the primary tumour has an unusual localisation on the foot. PMID:25716042

  1. Practical management measures for patients with recurrent herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, S A; Bartlett, B L; Schlosser, B J

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) is a common condition associated with the formation of vesicles around the mouth, often preceded by prodromal symptoms including tingling and burning. Treatment is targeted toward individual episodes, but in severe cases, suppressive therapy may be indicated. At present, no cure exists for this troublesome condition. The purpose of this article is to serve as a practical guide in the management of RHL by summarizing current treatments and discussing potential new therapies.

  2. Postictal spectroscopy and imaging findings mimicking brain tumor recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Franz, Kea; Pilatus, Ulrich; Weidauer, Stefan; Lanfermann, Heiner

    2006-07-01

    (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was performed on a patient with an admission diagnosis of recurrent astrocytoma. The patient had undergone surgical resection and radiation therapy for a left occipital astrocytoma WHO grade III 12 years previously, and presented with aphasia, right-sided hemiparesis, and severe headache. Postcontrast T1-weighted images showed cortical enhancement of the left parietotemporal lobe near the post-resection cavity. MRSI revealed a marked increase of trimethylamines (TMA), elevated creatine/creatinephosphate (tCr), and reduced N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA) in the same brain region. The spectroscopic data were consistent with tumor recurrence. However, the pattern of contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evidence of an epileptic focus on electroencephalography (EEG), and spontaneous regression of the symptoms argued against tumor recurrence. In a 4-week follow-up, the contrast enhancement disappeared on MRI and the EEG abnormalities and neurological symptoms resolved. Follow-up spectroscopic data showed a decrease in TMA compared to normal values. The tCr signal remained elevated but returned to normal values after 5 months. In conclusion, postictal neurological deficits with a temporary increase in TMA and tCr were diagnosed. This is the first report of seizure-induced MRS abnormalities mimicking tumor recurrence. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Analysis of recurrent event data with incomplete observation gaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Jin; Jhun, Myoungshic

    2008-03-30

    In analysis of recurrent event data, recurrent events are not completely experienced when the terminating event occurs before the end of a study. To make valid inference of recurrent events, several methods have been suggested for accommodating the terminating event (Statist. Med. 1997; 16:911-924; Biometrics 2000; 56:554-562). In this paper, our interest is to consider a particular situation, where intermittent dropouts result in observation gaps during which no recurrent events are observed. In this situation, risk status varies over time and the usual definition of risk variable is not applicable. In particular, we consider the case when information on the observation gap is incomplete, that is, the starting time of intermittent dropout is known but the terminating time is not available. This incomplete information is modeled in terms of an interval-censored mechanism. Our proposed method is applied to the study of the Young Traffic Offenders Program on conviction rates, wherein a certain proportion of subjects experienced suspensions with intermittent dropouts during the study.

  4. Recurrent genital herpes treatments and their impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.

  5. Treatment of a recurrent ameloblastic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Steven; Philbert, Rawle F; Bush, Benjamin F; Zola, Malcolm B; Solomon, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF), a slow-growing, benign tumor of odontogenic origin, represents 2% of all odontogenic tumors. Jaw expansion is among the most common symptoms, with diagnosis often made through routine radiographs. AFs have a recurrence rate of 18% to 43.5% after conservative enucleation. Long-term follow-up by both the surgeon and referring dentist is recommended, since recurrence may be due to regrowth of residual tumor undergoing malignant transformation. Aggressive management is recommended for local tumor recurrence. En bloc excision with bone grafting, followed by implant reconstruction, can be curative and preservative of function. Treatment of a recurrent AF is described.

  6. Operative indications in recurrent ileocolic intussusception.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Sparks, Eric A; Turner, Christopher G B; Klein, Justin D; Pennington, Elliot; Khan, Faraz A; Zurakowski, David; Durkin, Emily T; Fauza, Dario O; Modi, Biren P

    2015-01-01

    Air-contrast enema (ACE) is standard treatment for primary ileocolic intussusception. Management of recurrences is less clear. This study aimed to delineate appropriate therapy by quantifying the relationship between recurrence and need for bowel resection, pathologic lead points (PLP), and complication rates. After IRB approval, a single institution review of patients with ileocolic intussusception from 1997 to 2013 was performed, noting recurrences, outcomes, and complications. Fisher's exact and t-tests were used. Of 716 intussusceptions, 666 were ileocecal. Forty-four underwent bowel resection, with 29 PLPs and 9 ischemia/perforation. Recurrence after ACE occurred in 96 (14%). Recurrence did not predict PLP (P=0.25). Recurrence (≥3) was associated with higher resection rate (P=0.03), but not ischemia/perforation (P=0.75). ACE-related complications occurred in 4 (0.5%) patients. Successful initial ACE had 98% negative predictive value for resection and PLP (e.g., after successful ACE, 2% had resections, 2% PLP). After failed initial ACE, 36% received resection, and 23% had PLP (P<0.001). Recurrence is associated with a greater risk of resection but not PLP or ACE-complication. Failed ACE is associated with increased risk for harboring PLP and receiving resection. ACE should be the standard treatment in recurrent intussusception, regardless of number of recurrences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosing Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis. Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Brittany; Mandel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of juvenile recurrent parotitis is based upon clinical symptomatology, because no positive serologic signs have been identified. Objective confirmation is best obtained from sialographic or ultrasound studies.

  8. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  9. Abnormal movements associated with severe hyponatraemia.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaratnam, N.; Icao, E.; Peric, H.

    1997-01-01

    An elderly woman with severe hyponatraemia manifested transient choreoathetoid movements of the upper extremities and dyskinetic movements of the face and mouth. She showed more than one type of hyponatraemia and a precise diagnosis was not possible. The movements were abolished with treatment of the hyponatraemia with no recurrence or sequelae. PMID:9307743

  10. Abnormal movements associated with severe hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, N; Icao, E; Peric, H

    1997-08-01

    An elderly woman with severe hyponatraemia manifested transient choreoathetoid movements of the upper extremities and dyskinetic movements of the face and mouth. She showed more than one type of hyponatraemia and a precise diagnosis was not possible. The movements were abolished with treatment of the hyponatraemia with no recurrence or sequelae.

  11. Addison's disease in type 1 diabetes presenting with recurrent hypoglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    McAulay, V.; Frier, B.

    2000-01-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) often develops insidiously. Although a rare disorder, it is more common in type 1 diabetes mellitus. A 19 year old male with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune hypothyroidism experienced recurrent severe hypoglycaemia over several months, despite a reduction in insulin dose, culminating in an adrenal crisis. Recurrent severe hypoglycaemia resolved after identification and treatment of the adrenocortical insufficiency. In type 1 diabetes, undiagnosed Addison's disease can influence glycaemic control and induce severe hypoglycaemia.


Keywords: type 1 diabetes; Addison's disease; hypoglycaemia; cortisol PMID:10727569

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound findings predict the recurrence of esophageal varices after endoscopic band ligation: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masalaite, Laura; Valantinas, Jonas; Stanaitis, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Variceal recurrence following endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is common. Esophageal collateral veins (ECV) are observed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with portal hypertension. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of EUS in predicting the recurrence of esophageal varices following EBL. Forty patients who had undergone EBL for eradication of varices were examined over a 12-month period to detect variceal recurrence. EUS was performed before ligation to detect and describe the type, grade, and the number of ECV. EUS findings obtained prior to EBL were compared in the variceal recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Of the 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) had variceal recurrence within 12 months of EBL. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that severe peri-ECV (p < 0.001), multiple peri-ECV (p < 0.001), and the presence of perforating veins (p < 0.014) were statistically significantly related to the variceal recurrence after EBL. Multivariate logistic regression model found that only severe peri-ECV (odds ratio [OR] = 24.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.34-253.78) and multiple peri-ECV (OR = 24.39; 95% CI: 2.34-253.78) remained as independent prognostic factors for variceal recurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of multivariate logistic regression model in predicting variceal recurrence was 89.2% and 90.5%, respectively (prognostic value (AUC) = 0.946). Recurrence rate of esophageal varices after EBL is high (47.5%). EUS can clearly depict ECV and has a value in predicting variceal recurrence after EBL; severe peri-ECV and multiple peri-ECV were significant and independent prognostic factors associated with variceal recurrence risk.

  13. Recurrent Excitation in Neocortical Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Rodney J.; Koch, Christof; Mahowald, Misha; Martin, Kevan A. C.; Suarez, Humbert H.

    1995-08-01

    The majority of synapses in the mammalian cortex originate from cortical neurons. Indeed, the largest input to cortical cells comes from neighboring excitatory cells. However, most models of cortical development and processing do not reflect the anatomy and physiology of feedback excitation and are restricted to serial feedforward excitation. This report describes how populations of neurons in cat visual cortex can use excitatory feedback, characterized as an effective "network conductance," to amplify their feedforward input signals and demonstrates how neuronal discharge can be kept proportional to stimulus strength despite strong, recurrent connections that threaten to cause runaway excitation. These principles are incorporated into models of cortical direction and orientation selectivity that emphasize the basic design principles of cortical architectures.

  14. Recurrent pregnancy loss and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL.

  15. Placental apoptosis in recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Atia, Tarek A

    2017-09-01

    Apoptosis is an interactive and dynamic biological process involved in all phases of embryogenesis. We aimed to study the effect of placental apoptosis on recurrent miscarriage (RM). Placental tissue samples were collected from 40 women with RM (study group) and 30 women with sporadic spontaneous abortion (control group). Samples were prepared and stained immunohistochemically with markers for both the apoptotic protein (p53) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 antibodies. Our results showed that expression of the apoptotic (p53) protein was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the RM group (p = 0.003). By contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) antibodies was significantly increased in the placental tissues of the control group (p = 0.025). We concluded that placental apoptosis plays a crucial role in pregnancy continuation. However, increased p53 expression in placental tissue in early pregnancy could negatively affect pregnancy continuation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  16. Nonsurgical treatment of recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, O.

    2015-01-01

    Standard treatment for glioblastoma multiforme is surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, generally with temozolomide. However, disease recurs in almost all patients. Diagnosis of progression is complex given the possibility of pseudoprogression. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria increase the sensitivity for detecting progression. Most patients will not be candidates for new surgery or re-irradiation, and anticancer drugs are the most common approach for second-line treatment, if the patient’s condition allows. Antiangiogenics, inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor, nitrosoureas, and re-treatment with temozolomide have been studied in the second line, but a standard therapy has not yet been established. This review considers currently available medical treatment options for patients with glioblastoma recurrence. PMID:26300678

  17. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of severe malaria in children from Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gomber, Sunil; Dewan, Pooja

    2012-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax is traditionally known to cause benign tertian malaria, although recent reports suggest that P. vivax can also cause severe life-threatening disease analogous to severe infection due to P. falciparum. There are limited published data on the clinical and epidemiological profiles of children suffering from 'severe malaria' in an urban setting of India. To assess the clinical and epidemiological profiles of children with severe malaria, a prospective study was carried out during June 2008-December 2008 in the Department of Pediatrics, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, a tertiary hospital located in East Delhi, India. Data on children aged < or = 12 years, diagnosed with severe malaria, were analyzed for their demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters. All patients were categorized and treated as per the guidelines of the World Health Organization. In total, 1,680 children were screened for malaria at the paediatric outpatient and casualty facilities of the hospital. Thirty-eight children tested positive for malaria on peripheral smear examination (2.26% slide positivity rate). Of these, 27 (71%) were admitted and categorized as severe malaria as per the definition of the WHO while another 11 (29%) received treatment on outpatient basis. Most (24/27; 88.8%) cases of severe malaria (n=27) were infected with P. vivax. Among the cases of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (n=24), 12 (50%) presented with altered sensorium (cerebral malaria), seven (29.1%) had severe anaemia (haemoglobin <5 g/dL), and 17 (70.8%) had thrombocytopaenia, of which two had spontaneous bleeding (epistaxis). Cases of severe vivax malaria are clinically indistinguishable from severe falciparum malaria. Our study demonstrated that majority (88.8%) of severe malaria cases in children from Delhi and adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh were due to P. vivax-associated infection. P. vivax should, thus, be regarded as an important causative agent for severe malaria in children.

  18. Recurrence after operative management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Omar; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Paul, Andreas; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Marques, Hugo; Pulitano, Carlo; Barroso, Eduardo; Clary, Bryan M; Aldrighetti, Luca; Ferrone, Cristina R; Zhu, Andrew X; Bauer, Todd W; Walters, Dustin M; Groeschl, Ryan; Gamblin, T Clark; Marsh, J Wallis; Nguyen, Kevin T; Turley, Ryan; Popescu, Irinel; Hubert, Catherine; Meyer, Stephanie; Choti, Michael A; Gigot, Jean-Francois; Mentha, Gilles; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Data on recurrence after operation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are limited. We sought to investigate rates and patterns of recurrence in patients after operative intervention for ICC. We identified 301 patients who underwent operation for ICC between 1990 and 2011 from an international, multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic data, recurrence patterns, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed. During the median follow up duration of 31 months (range 1-208), 53.5% developed a recurrence. Median RFS was 20.2 months and 5-year actuarial disease-free survival, 32.1%. The most common site for initial recurrence after operation of ICC was intrahepatic (n = 98; 60.9%), followed by simultaneous intra- and extrahepatic disease (n = 30; 18.6%); 33 (21.0%) patients developed extrahepatic recurrence only as the first site of recurrence. Macrovascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.21; P < .001), nodal metastasis (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.45; P = .04), unknown nodal status (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10-2.25; P = .04), and tumor size ≥ 5 cm (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.65; P < .001) were independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. Patients were assigned a clinical score from 0 to 3 according to the presence of these risk factors. The 5-year RFS for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 61.8%, 36.2%, 19.5%, and 9.6%, respectively. Recurrence after operative intervention for ICC was common. Disease recurred both at intra- and extrahepatic sites with roughly the same frequency. Factors such as lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and vascular invasion predict highest risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recurrence after operative management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Omar; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C.; Paul, Andreas; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Marques, Hugo; Pulitano, Carlo; Barroso, Eduardo; Clary, Bryan M.; Aldrighetti, Luca; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Zhu, Andrew X.; Bauer, Todd W.; Walters, Dustin M.; Groeschl, Ryan; Gamblin, T. Clark; Marsh, J. Wallis; Nguyen, Kevin T.; Turley, Ryan; Popescu, Irinel; Hubert, Catherine; Meyer, Stephanie; Choti, Michael A.; Gigot, Jean-Francois; Mentha, Gilles; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Data on recurrence after operation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are limited. We sought to investigate rates and patterns of recurrence in patients after operative intervention for ICC. Methods We identified 301 patients who underwent operation for ICC between 1990 and 2011 from an international, multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic data, recurrence patterns, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed. Results During the median follow up duration of 31 months (range 1–208), 53.5% developed a recurrence. Median RFS was 20.2 months and 5-year actuarial disease-free survival, 32.1%. The most common site for initial recurrence after operation of ICC was intrahepatic (n = 98; 60.9%), followed by simultaneous intra- and extrahepatic disease (n = 30; 18.6%); 33 (21.0%) patients developed extra-hepatic recurrence only as the first site of recurrence. Macrovascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–3.21; P <.001), nodal metastasis (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01–2.45; P = .04), unknown nodal status (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10–2.25; P = .04), and tumor size ≥5 cm (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28–2.65; P <.001) were independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. Patients were assigned a clinical score from 0 to 3 according to the presence of these risk factors. The 5-year RFS for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 61.8%, 36.2%, 19.5%, and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion Recurrence after operative intervention for ICC was common. Disease recurred both at intra-and extrahepatic sites with roughly the same frequency. Factors such as lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and vascular invasion predict highest risk of recurrence. PMID:23499016

  20. Preventing Relapse/Recurrence in Recurrent Depression With Cognitive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Schene, Aart H.; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Wouters, Luuk F.; Huyser, Jochanan; Kamphuis, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the outcome of a randomized controlled trial of cognitive group therapy (CT) to prevent relapse/recurrence in a group of high-risk patients diagnosed with recurrent depression. Recurrently depressed patients (N = 187) currently in remission following various types of treatment were randomized to treatment as usual,…

  1. Do Nomograms Predict Aggressive Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy More Accurately than Biochemical Recurrence Alone?

    PubMed Central

    Schroeck, Florian R.; Aronson, William J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Terris, Martha K.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the predictive accuracy of existing models in estimating risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) vs. aggressive recurrence (BCR with a PSADT <9 months). Methods We included 1550 men treated with RP between 1988 and 2007 within the SEARCH database. The predictive accuracy of 9 different risk stratification models for estimating risk of BCR and risk of aggressive recurrence after RP was assessed using the concordance index c. Results The 10-year risks for BCR and aggressive recurrence were 47% and 9%, respectively. Across all 9 models tested, the predictive accuracy was on average 0.054 higher (range 0.024 to 0.074) for predicting aggressive recurrence than for predicting BCR alone (concordance index c=0.756 vs. 0.702). Similar results were obtained in four sensitivity analyses, (1) defining patients with BCR but unavailable PSADT (n=220) as having aggressive recurrence, (2) defining these patients as not having aggressive recurrence, (3) defining aggressive recurrence as PSADT <6 months or (4) defining aggressive recurrence as PSADT <12 months. Improvement of predictive accuracy was greater for preoperative models than for postoperative models (0.053 vs. 0.036, p=0.03). Conclusion Across 9 different models, prediction of aggressive recurrence after RP was more accurate than prediction of BCR alone. This is likely due to the fact current models mainly assess cancer-biology, which correlates better with aggressive recurrence than with BCR alone. Overall, all models had relatively similar accuracy for predicting aggressive recurrence. PMID:19021608

  2. Current tools for the optimization of embryo transfer technique for recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Frederic; Nayot, Dan; Casper, Robert F; Bentov, Yaakov

    2016-08-01

    Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is the name of a clinical condition coined following the widespread use of in-vitro fertilization (IVF), which has allowed compartmentalization of several different fertility treatments. Its definition is dynamic and depends on the population of patients studied, as well as the type and quality of clinical practice. In this review we survey the tools which are currently used in order to improve treatment outcome in patients with recurrent implantation failure. Some of these practices are more commonly or firmly established than others, however the beneficial contribution of most of these tools to improve reproductive outcomes among patients with recurrent implantation failure still lacks proper scientific validation.

  3. Oxaliplatin in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent Solid Tumors That Have Not Responded to Previous Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer

  4. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis caused by food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Datau, E A

    2010-10-01

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral lesions which occur either in single or multiple forms in oral mucosa. The mouth is subjected to a wide spectrum of antigenic agents, including foodstuff, and allergic reactions to such antigens may manifest in a number of diverse ways. Food allergy, however, has not been widely investigated as the cause of RAS. The main complaint of RAS typically is pain, and the main therapy is still corticosteroids, besides avoiding allergenic foodstuff. In RAS, there is often a genetic basis. More than 42 percent of patients with RAS have first-degree relatives with RAS. The likelihood of RAS is 90 percent when both parents are affected, but only 20 percent when neither parent has RAS, and it is also likely to be more severe and to start at an earlier age in patients with a positive family history. The primary goals of therapy of RAS are relief of pain, reduction of ulcer duration, and restoration of normal oral function. The secondary goals include reduction in frequency and severity of recurrences and maintenance of remission. Diagnostic elimination diets are frequently utilized both in diagnosis and management of RAS caused by food allergy. Patients with RAS may have increased levels of CD8+ T-lymphocytes and/or decreased CD4+ T-lymphocytes. There may be a reduced percentage of "virgin" T-cells and an increased of "memory" T-lymphocytes. Patients with active RAS have an increased proportion of gd T-cells compared with healthy control subjects and RAS patients with inactive disease. The gd T-cells may play a role in ADCC and it is believed that gd T-cells play a role in immunological damages. Preventive treatment is a consideration for patients with RAS caused by food allergy who report regular exacerbations of their condition. It focuses on dietary modifications, the earliest stage, the prodromal stage, and attempts to intercept ulcer development again by the use of topical immunosuppressant and particularly

  5. Recurrence Effects in the Parametric Spring Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Lars

    1978-01-01

    Gives a perturbation analysis to recurrence effects of the spring pendulum. The recurrence depends on two conservation laws which determine the motion in an intermediate region; oscillations outside this region are unstable and must return. Gives the relation to Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem together with the explicit solution. (Author/GA)

  6. Vaginal parturition decreases recurrence of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bulletti, Carlo; Montini, Anna; Setti, Paolo Levi; Palagiano, Antonio; Ubaldi, Filippo; Borini, Andrea

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the role of parturition in the recurrence of endometriosis. Retrospectively analyzed, prospectively obtained data. Unit of Physiopathology of Reproduction, Health Care Unit of Rimini, and University of Bologna Cervesi General Hospital, Cattolica, Italy. Three hundred forty-five patients with stage II-IV endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility were treated for endometriosis and divided into four groups according to parity and mode of parturition. The patients were laparoscopically treated for endometriosis upon the occurrence and recurrence of the disease. Ultrasound measurements of the uterine internal ostium (IOS) were performed at each study interval. Degree of dysmenorrhea, occurrence and recurrence of endometriosis, and uterine IOS measurements were established and related to parity and mode of parturition. After parturition, dysmenorrhea recurrence was significantly higher in nulliparous women than in women with vaginal parturition. The endometriosis recurrence rate was higher in women who did not have vaginal parturition. The IOS significantly enlarged after vaginal delivery but not after cesarean delivery. There were significant negative correlations between IOS and the recurrence of endometriosis and dysmenorrhea. Odds ratios indicated that as the IOS enlarged, the risk of recurrence decreased. Vaginal parturition plays a protective role in the recurrence of endometriosis. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nayan T; Parent, John J; Hurwitz, Roger A

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient apical ballooning syndrome very rarely presents in children. In all patients with takotsubo, it is estimated that only 3.5% will have recurrence. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child, likely triggered by status epilepticus.

  8. 28 CFR 51.14 - Recurrent practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recurrent practices. 51.14 Section 51.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.14 Recurrent practices. Where...

  9. Trials show delayed recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bender, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Phase I trials of 2 treatments for recurrent ovarian cancer-a 2-step immunotherapy treatment and an antibody-drug conjugate-demonstrated promising early results in delaying recurrence, in work presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2013.

  10. The genetic contribution to recurrent autoimmune nephritis.

    PubMed

    Brenchley, Paul E; Poulton, Kay; Morton, Muir; Picton, Michael L

    2014-07-01

    Glomerulonephritis is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. For patients receiving a transplant, it is known that specific primary pathologies such as membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy and FSGS have a high risk of recurrence in the transplant but the reasons for this are unknown and the ability to predict recurrence is poor. The recent discovery that primary MN is an autoimmune disease characterised by an autoantibody to phospholipase A2 receptor 1 and the identification of two genes, PLA2R1 and DQA1 which account for the genetic susceptibility to the disease, open up the potential to understand the mechanism of recurrent MN and therefore to design and manage therapy to prevent recurrence. Transplantation offers a unique ethical experimental context in which to explore the genetic contribution to recurrent autoimmune membranous nephropathy. By analysing the genetic changes in the kidney transplant in the context of anti-PLA2R status post transplant, it may be possible to link genetic markers, anti-PLAR regulation with recurrence and non-recurrence of disease. If successful, similar strategies may help unravel mechanisms of recurrent IgA nephropathy and FSGS. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Ectopic recurrent craniopharyngioma of the frontal bone.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Martin; Orakcioglu, Berk

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon after transcranial resection of the primary tumor. The authors present a case of ectopic recurrent adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma of the frontal bone resected 16 years after initial transcranial resection of the primary tumor. The lesion was first radiographically described 12 years after surgery and was adjacent to the osteosynthesis plate that had been implanted at the craniotomy site. The recurrent craniopharyngioma was totally resected via a lateral eyebrow approach. No infiltration of the meninges or the brain was detected. Only 50 cases of ectopic recurrent craniopharyngioma have been described to date, with the present case being the first one with recurrence located at the skull bone. So far 2 mechanisms have been described: contamination with tumor cells alongside the surgical tract and spreading via CSF and the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed the literature, provided the largest collection of cases so far, and performed basic statistical analysis regarding ectopic recurrence. Pediatric and adult patients as well as male and female ones are affected equally by this phenomenon. The mean time of ectopic recurrence after initial surgery was 7.1 years. Ectopic recurrence, although rare, should always be considered in a patient with a newly diagnosed intracranial lesion who has undergone transcranial craniopharyngioma resection before.

  12. Herpes Zoster and Recurrent Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Nozomu; Daikoku, Tohru; Yajima, Misako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The incidence of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) and the relationship between initial and recurrent HZ are not clear. Methods. The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has surveyed ~5000 patients with HZ annually since 1997. A questionnaire regarding HZ and its recurrence was completed by the dermatologists. Results. A total of 34 877 patients with HZ were registered at 43 clinics between June 2009 and November 2015. Among 16 784 patients seen at 10 of the 43 clinics, 1076 patients (6.41%) experienced recurrence. Herpes zoster was more frequent in female than in male patients (5.27 vs 4.25 in 1000 person-years, P < .001), as was HZ recurrence (7.63% vs 4.73%, P < .001). Two and three recurrences were observed in 49 and 3 patients, respectively. Recurrence in the same dermatome was observed in 16.3% of patients, and more frequently this occurred in the left side (P = .027). The number of HZ-experienced persons increased with age, and one third of the population had experienced HZ by the age of 80. Conclusions. Recurrent HZ was observed in 6.41% of patients, with a higher incidence in women. Moreover, HZ experience reduced the HZ incidence to 31.7% of the incidence in the HZ-naive population. PMID:28480280

  13. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  14. Local Recurrence After Uveal Melanoma Proton Beam Therapy: Recurrence Types and Prognostic Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Caujolle, Jean-Pierre; Paoli, Vincent; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Maschi, Celia; Baillif, Stéphanie; Herault, Joël; Gastaud, Pierre; Hannoun-Levi, Jean Michel

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To study the prognosis of the different types of uveal melanoma recurrences treated by proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 61 cases of uveal melanoma local recurrences on a total of 1102 patients treated by PBT between June 1991 and December 2010. Survival rates have been determined by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Prognostic factors have been evaluated by using log-rank test or Cox model. Results: Our local recurrence rate was 6.1% at 5 years. These recurrences were divided into 25 patients with marginal recurrences, 18 global recurrences, 12 distant recurrences, and 6 extrascleral extensions. Five factors have been identified as statistically significant risk factors of local recurrence in the univariate analysis: large tumoral diameter, small tumoral volume, low ratio of tumoral volume over eyeball volume, iris root involvement, and safety margin inferior to 1 mm. In the local recurrence-free population, the overall survival rate was 68.7% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 83.6% at 10 years. In the local recurrence population, the overall survival rate was 43.1% at 10 years and the specific survival rate was 55% at 10 years. The multivariate analysis of death risk factors has shown a better prognosis for marginal recurrences. Conclusion: Survival rate of marginal recurrences is superior to that of the other recurrences. The type of recurrence is a clinical prognostic value to take into account. The influence of local recurrence retreatment by proton beam therapy should be evaluated by novel studies.

  15. Evidence-based management of recurrent miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava B.; Davies, William

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriages are postimplantation failures in natural conception; they are also termed as habitual abortions or recurrent pregnancy losses. Recurrent pregnancy loss is disheartening to the couple and to the treating clinician. There has been a wide range of research from aetiology to management of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is one of the most debated topic among clinicians and academics. The ideal management is unanswered. This review is aimed to produce an evidence-based guidance on clinical management of recurrent miscarriage. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have searched electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) using different key words. We have combined the searches and arranged them with the hierarchy of evidences. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice. We have graded the evidence from level I to V on which these recommendations are based. PMID:25395740

  16. Modern management of juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, P; Sigismund, P E; Luca, N; Marchisio, P; Pignataro, L

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate modern diagnostic and therapeutic management of juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to show the benefits of operative sialoendoscopy on the basis of our experience in 14 patients and the results of others. Ultrasonography is sensitive in detecting the pathological features of juvenile recurrent parotitis. Interventional sialoendoscopy is a safe and effective method of treating the disease. In our case series, after a mean follow-up time of 30 months only 5 patients experienced recurrence of symptoms, with a mean symptom-free period of 20 months. The use of modern, minimally invasive diagnostic tools such as colour Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy represents a new frontier in the management of juvenile recurrent parotitis. Operative sialoendoscopy also has the important therapeutic benefit of reducing the number of recurrences of acute episodes of parotitis, thus giving patients a better quality of life until puberty.

  17. Analysis of Recurrence Management in Patients Who Underwent Nonsurgical Treatment for Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu

    2016-03-01

    The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively.We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis.Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach.In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity.

  18. Analysis of Recurrence Management in Patients Who Underwent Nonsurgical Treatment for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively. We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis. Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach. In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity. PMID:27015200

  19. Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-11

    Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  20. [Severe laryngitis associated to gastroesophageal reflux].

    PubMed

    Botto, Hugo; Antonioli, Cintia; Nieto, Mary; Cocciaglia, Alejandro; Cuestas, Giselle; Roques Revol, Magdalena; López Marti, Jessica; Rodríguez, Hugo

    2014-02-01

    There is a strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngolaryngeal reflux as factors leading to respiratory disease, manifested as dysphonia, wheezing, coughing, recurrent laryngitis, bronchial obstruction, laryngospasm and apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs). These manifestations can be mild or severe and may sometimes put the patient's life at risk. We present two cases of patients with severe laryngitis who required endotracheal intubation, one of which underwent tracheostomy. The diagnostic methods and their limitations and the patients outcomes are described.