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Sample records for recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage

  1. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... can result from the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm — a weakened, dilated area of a blood vessel ... blood vessels in the brain even after the aneurysm that caused the hemorrhage is treated. Most of ...

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Update.

    PubMed

    Dority, Jeremy S; Oldham, Jeffrey S

    2016-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a debilitating, although uncommon, type of stroke with high morbidity, mortality, and economic impact. Modern 30-day mortality is as high as 40%, and about 50% of survivors have permanent disability. Care at high-volume centers with dedicated neurointensive care units is recommended. Euvolemia, not hypervolemia, should be targeted, and the aneurysm should be secured early. Neither statin therapy nor magnesium infusions should be initiated for delayed cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm is just one component of delayed cerebral edema. Hyponatremia is common in subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with longer length of stay, but not increased mortality. PMID:27521199

  3. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  4. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stanlies

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome.

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  6. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and glucose management.

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Erich; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2011-09-01

    Although metabolic abnormalities have been linked with poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage, there are limited data addressing the impact of glycemic control or benefits of glucose management after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A systematic literature search was conducted of English-language articles describing original research on glycemic control in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case reports and case series were excluded. A total of 22 publications were selected for this review. Among the 17 studies investigating glucose as an outcome predictor, glucose levels during hospitalization were more likely to predict outcome than admission glucose. In general, hyperglycemia was linked to worse outcome. While insulin therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients was shown to effectively control plasma glucose levels, plasma glucose control was not necessarily reflective of cerebral glucose such that very tight glucose control may lead to neuroglycopenia. Furthermore, tight glycemic control was associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia which was linked to worse outcome. PMID:21850563

  7. Rebleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Starke, R M; Connolly, E S

    2011-09-01

    Rebleeding after initial aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can have substantial impact on overall patient outcome. While older studies have suggested rebleeding occurs in about 4% of patients during the first day after initial aneurysmal bleed, these studies may have failed to capture very early rebleeds and, consequently, underestimated the impact of rebleeding. An electronic literature search was performed to identify English-language articles published or available for review from February 1975 through October 2010. A total of 43 articles (40 original research and 3 review articles) focused on rebleeding after initial aneurysmal SAH in humans were selected for review. Although most studies supported an incidence of rebleeding ≤4%, studies investigating ultra-early rebleeding reported bleeding within the first 24 h following aneurysmal SAH in as many as 9-17% of patients, with most cases occurring within 6 h of initial hemorrhage. Overall, studies investigating antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce rebleeding have failed to clearly demonstrate overall therapeutic benefit. Short-course antifibrinolytic therapy may have a role prior to initial aneurysm repair, although insufficient data are currently available. PMID:21761274

  8. Hemodynamic management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Treggiari, Miriam M

    2011-09-01

    Hemodynamic augmentation therapy is considered standard treatment to help prevent and treat vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. Standard triple-H therapy combines volume expansion (hypervolemia), blood pressure augmentation (hypertension), and hemodilution. An electronic literature search was conducted of English-language papers published between 2000 and October 2010 that focused on hemodynamic augmentation therapies in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among the eligible reports identified, 11 addressed volume expansion, 10 blood pressure management, 4 inotropic therapy, and 12 hemodynamic augmentation in patients with unsecured aneurysms. While hypovolemia should be avoided, hypervolemia did not appear to confer additional benefits over normovolemic therapy, with an excess of side effects occurring in patients treated with hypervolemic targets. Overall, hypertension was associated with higher cerebral blood flow, regardless of volume status (normo- or hypervolemia), with neurological symptom reversal seen in two-thirds of treated patients. Limited data were available for evaluating inotropic agents or hemodynamic augmentation in patients with additional unsecured aneurysms. In the context of sparse data, no incremental risk of aneurysmal rupture has been reported with the induction of hemodynamic augmentation. PMID:21786046

  9. Spinal angiolipoma with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, S; Krishnamoorthy, T; Ashalatha, R; Kesavadas, C

    2007-10-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare tumor of the spine commonly presenting with compressive myelopathy. We report a spinal angiolipoma in a 14-year-old patient with acute spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a spinal angiolipoma presenting with SAH, associated with post-subclavian coarctation with diffuse hypoplasia of the descending aorta. This association of coarctation of aorta, aortic hypoplasia and spinal angiolipoma has also not been reported previously.

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  11. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  12. Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Jose I

    2011-09-01

    Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study quality was low for most of the included studies, with the phase III trial considered to be of moderate quality. Due to inconsistently reported benefits and the occurrence of side effects, phase II data suggested that intravenous magnesium for SAH provided either no overall net benefit or uncertain trade-offs. Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial. PMID:21748496

  13. Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: perimesencephalic versus non-perimesencephalic

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luís Guilherme Bastos Silva Aguiar; Costa, José Manuel Dias; Silva, Elsa Irene Peixoto Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical evolution of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods The study was conducted retrospectively in a tertiary hospital center in the north region of Portugal. Included patients had no identifiable cause for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Several epidemiologic, clinical and imaging aspects were statistically analyzed, taking into account the differences in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria (46.8% - perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage; 53.2% - non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Demographic and clinical background characteristics were similar in both groups. Complications were more frequent in patients with non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage - 84.8% of the patients had at least one complication versus 48.3% in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm, infection and hydrocephaly were the most common complications (each was detected more frequently in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group than in perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group). Two patients died, both had a non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. The median inpatient time was longer in the non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage group (21 versus 14 days). No incidents of rebleeding were reported during the follow-up period (mean time of 15 ± 10.3 months). Conclusion Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage are two different entities that have different clinical outcomes, namely in terms of complication rate and median inpatient time. The management of these patients should respect this difference to improve treatment and optimize health care resources. PMID:27410409

  14. Cardiovascular and pulmonary complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Nicolas; Rabinstein, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage negatively affect overall morbidity and mortality. An electronic literature search was performed for English-language articles focused on cardiopulmonary complications with subarachnoid hemorrhage published through October 2010. A total of 278 citations were identified, including 72 clinical studies. In most cases, study quality was low or very low. Cardiac injury, evidenced by an elevation in troponin levels, is reported in about one-third of patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arrhythmias also occur in about one-third of patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The incidence of pulmonary complications, especially neurogenic pulmonary edema, is more difficult to establish from available literature. Cardiopulmonary complications have been linked to worsened clinical outcome, suggesting a role for cardiac monitoring and interventions. PMID:21761273

  15. Anemia and transfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Peter D

    2011-09-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be affected by a number of factors, including cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia affects about half of patients with SAH and is associated with worse outcome. Anemia also may contribute to the development of or exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia. This review was designed to examine the prevalence and impact of anemia in patients with SAH and to evaluate the effects of transfusion. A literature search was made to identify original research on anemia and transfusion in SAH patients. A total of 27 articles were identified that addressed the effects of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) on brain physiology, anemia in SAH, and clinical management with RBCT or erythropoietin. Most studies provided retrospectively analyzed data of very low-quality according to the GRADE criteria. While RBCT can have beneficial effects on brain physiology, RBCT may be associated with medical complications, infection, vasospasm, and poor outcome after SAH. The effects may vary with disease severity or the presence of vasospasm, but it remains unclear whether RBCTs are a marker of disease severity or a cause of worse outcome. Erythropoietin data are limited. The literature review further suggests that the results of the Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Trial and subsequent observational studies on RBCT in general critical care do not apply to SAH patients and that randomized trials to address the role of RBCT in SAH are required. PMID:21769459

  16. Multimodal MRI characterization of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Shen, Q; Watts, L T; Muir, E R; Huang, S; Yang, G-Y; Suarez, J I; Duong, T Q

    2016-03-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We implemented an in-scanner rat model of mild SAH in which blood or vehicle was injected into the cistern magna, and applied multimodal MRI to study the brain prior to, immediately after (5min to 4h), and upto 7days after SAH. Vehicle injection did not change arterial lumen diameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2, venous signal, vascular reactivity to hypercapnia, or foot-fault scores, but mildly reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF) up to 4h, and open-field activity up to 7days post injection. By contrast, blood injection caused: (i) vasospasm 30min after SAH but not thereafter, (ii) venous abnormalities at 3h and 2days, delayed relative to vasospasm, (iii) reduced basal CBF and to hypercapnia 1-4h but not thereafter, (iv) reduced ADC immediately after SAH but no ADC and T2 changes on days 2 and 7, and (v) reduced open-field activities in both SAH and vehicle animals, but no significant differences in open-field activities and foot-fault tests between groups. Mild SAH exhibited transient and mild hemodynamic disturbances and diffusion changes, but did not show apparent ischemic brain injury nor functional deficits. PMID:26708744

  17. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C.; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Simard, J. Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383

  18. Recovery from a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Days 1 through 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Brice, Roanne G.; Wallace, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) are a serious medical emergency, as 30% to 50% of all SAHs can result in death. Personal accounts and case studies are an important aspect of evidence-based practice. This first article of two presents a review of AB's (patient) condition immediately following an SAH in the intensive care and immediately post…

  19. [The clinical grading of subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ducati, A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical grading scales for subarachnoid haemorrhages are exposed and discussed. These have been introduced by Botterell, in the middle fifties, to allow a better clinical evaluation, a more correct prognosis and, as a consequence, a more effective therapy. The most popular grading scale is, up to now, the one proposed by Hunt and Hess in 1968. The H-H scale divides patients in 5 groups or levels, whose severity is progressively increasing. A clinical study based on the H-H scale demonstrated that low grade patients (I-II) take advantage from early surgery; at the opposite, high grade patients (III-IV-V) achieve better results when treated with late surgery. To leave behind several difficulties in interpreting the clinical signs and therefore in using the H-H scale, in 1988 Drake, on behalf of the World Federation of Neuro-logical Surgeons, published an "universal" grading scale for subarachnoid haemorrhage, based upon the well known Glasgow Come Scale score and on the finding of a motor focal deficit. The WFNS Scale is nowadays recommended for universal use, being easy and compatible with formerly employed scales.

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior spinal artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Karakama, Jun; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maehara, Taketoshi; Ohno, Kikuo

    2010-01-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with an extremely rare case of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm manifesting as disturbance of consciousness following sudden onset of neck pain and numbness of the extremities. Cranial computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, mainly in the posterior fossa. Cerebral angiography studies on admission and on the 4th day demonstrated no definite abnormality as a bleeding source. A ventricular catheter was inserted to treat the acute hydrocephalus, and conservative management was continued during the acute period. Third angiography on the 18th day demonstrated an anterior spinal artery aneurysm at the C1 level which was considered to be the bleeding site. After conservative treatment, the patient was discharged without neurological deficits. Fourth angiography on the 108 th day disclosed spontaneous disappearance of the aneurysm, which was confirmed by the fifth angiography on the 269 th day. If subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered, spinal artery aneurysm should be considered as the bleeding source. Despite the controversy concerning the treatment strategy, ruptured spinal artery aneurysms can be treated conservatively because of the possibility of spontaneous regression. Follow-up angiography is required to evaluate the natural course of the lesion.

  1. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948

  2. Propofol Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-sheng; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Chun-hua; Yang, Wei-zhong; Liang, Ri-sheng; Chen, Ye; Tu, Xian-kun

    2015-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that propofol protects rat brain against focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether propofol attenuates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats remains unknown until now. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats and further explore the potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by endovascular perforation then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured 24 h after SAH. Expression of nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rat brain were detected by Western blot. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by ELISA. Neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and MDA content were significantly reduced by propofol. Furthermore, expression of Nrf2 in rat brain was upregulated by propofol, and expression of NF-κB p65, AQP4, COX-2, MMP-9, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat brain were attenuated by propofol. Our results demonstrated that propofol improves neurological scores, reduces brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inflammatory reaction, and lipid peroxidation in rats of SAH. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against SAH-induced early brain injury, which might be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:26342279

  3. Propofol Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Song-sheng; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Chun-hua; Yang, Wei-zhong; Liang, Ri-sheng; Chen, Ye; Tu, Xian-kun

    2015-12-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that propofol protects rat brain against focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether propofol attenuates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats remains unknown until now. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats and further explore the potential mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by endovascular perforation then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured 24 h after SAH. Expression of nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in rat brain were detected by Western blot. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by ELISA. Neurological scores, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, the myeloperoxidase activity, and MDA content were significantly reduced by propofol. Furthermore, expression of Nrf2 in rat brain was upregulated by propofol, and expression of NF-κB p65, AQP4, COX-2, MMP-9, TNF-α, and IL-1β in rat brain were attenuated by propofol. Our results demonstrated that propofol improves neurological scores, reduces brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, inflammatory reaction, and lipid peroxidation in rats of SAH. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against SAH-induced early brain injury, which might be associated with the inhibition of inflammation and lipid peroxidation.

  4. Current strategies for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R A; Fink, M E

    1987-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm represents a major health issue. Although most people who experience an aneurysmal SAH survive to be admitted to a hospital, less than one third of these patients ever return to their premorbid status. Clearly, morbidity of this magnitude demands reevaluation of the clinical approach to this problem. This article reviews the natural history of aneurysmal SAH, and examines the current therapeutic strategies that have been suggested to improve the outcome. Careful evaluation of the existing data suggests that early aneurysm surgery and aggressive postoperative volume expansion therapy constitute the best presently available approach to patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. PMID:3297009

  5. Delayed Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Behcet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Hak; Lee, Si-Un; Huh, Choonwoong; Oh, Chang Wan; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    A man visited the emergency room with a headache. Brain computed tomography showed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and multiple aneurysms. After aneurysm clipping surgery, the patient was discharged. After 5 days, he was admitted to the hospital with skin ulceration and was diagnosed with Behcet syndrome. An angiogram taken 7 weeks after aneurysmal SAH showed intracranial vasospasm. Because inflammation in Behcet syndrome may aggravate intracranial vasospasm, intracranial vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH in Behcet syndrome should be monitored for longer compared to general aneurysmal SAH. PMID:27114963

  6. Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage with a positive angiographic finding: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Ahmad; Numminen, Jussi; Rahul, Raj; Järveläinen, Juha; Niemelä, Mika

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage cases are reported as negative-finding etiologies. Recently, high-resolution images allowed us to overcome the previous difficulty of finding the source of bleeding, which underlies the concept of a "negative finding". We discovered a venous etiology, hidden behind the tip of the basilar artery; namely, the lateral pontine vein. Here, we review the literature on perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage and on venous aneurysm. We highlight this type of aneurysm as a candidate source of perimesencephalic hemorrhage. This case may change our way of dealing with what we have termed a negative finding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27106848

  7. [Apixaban-Related Convexal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kiyoharu; Yuki, Kiyoshi; Sadatomo, Takashi; Hara, Takeshi; Ohba, Hideo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    The risk of anticoagulant-associated intracranial hemorrhage(ICH)is relatively low in patients treated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants(NOAC). The anticoagulant-associated ICH comprises mainly intraparenchimal hemorrhage. Subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)are rare complications after treatment with NOAC, trauma being the most common cause for these two types of ICH. We report a case of non-traumatic convexal SAH(cSAH)associated with Apixavan. A 68-year-old man with repeated history of cerebral embolism with cardiogenic cause presented with weakness of the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarctions, and treatment with apixaban(5 mg twice per day)was administered. Three days later, SAH in the right superior frontal sulcus was discovered incidentally on computed tomography(CT). NOAC-associated SAH is a rare manifestation. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy(CAA)is the most common cause of cSAH in the elderly, and cSAH is supposed to be a warning sign of cerebral hemorrhage in CAA. Patients with CAA started on NOAC require careful monitoring.

  8. The neuro-behavioral profile in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Matthew; Azab, Abed N; Kuts, Ruslan; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Melamed, Israel; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2013-01-23

    Despite significant advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), little is known about the emotional consequences. The primary goal of this study was to describe the locomotor and behavioral patterns in rats following both a single-injection and double-injection model of SAH. In 48 rats, SAH was induced by injecting 0.3 ml of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magnum (single-hemorrhagic model). In 24 of these rats, post-SAH vasospasm was induced by a repeated injection of blood into the cisterna magnum 24h later (double-hemorrhagic model). In 24 additional rats, 0.3 ml of saline was injected into the cisterna magnum (sham group). Neurological performance was assessed at 24, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks after SAH. Four behavioral tests were performed for 3 weeks after SAH for the duration of 6 consequent days, in the following order: open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test. Following both, a single and double-hemorrhagic models of SAH, rats were found to have significant behavioral abnormalities on the open field test, sucrose preference test, elevated plus maze test, and forced swimming test. A more prominent disability was found in rats that underwent the double-hemorrhagic model of SAH than rats that underwent the single-hemorrhagic model. Both a single and double injection model of rats SAH are associated with significant behavioral disturbances including locomotor abnormalities, depressive behavior and increased anxiety, even as early as 3 weeks after SAH. PMID:23123210

  9. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700

  10. Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Hyponatremia in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Marupudi, Neena I.; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common, clinically-significant electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Controversy continues to exist regarding both the cause and treatment of hyponatremia in this patient population. Lack of timely diagnosis and/or providing inadequate or inappropriate treatment can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. We review recent literature on hyponatremia in subarachnoid hemorrhage and present currently recommended protocols for diagnosis and management. PMID:25937938

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy and the puerperium.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroharu; Miyoshi, Takekazu; Neki, Reiko; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Iihara, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy and is responsible for important morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. This study reviewed reports of ruptured IA during pregnancy and the puerperium, and our own cases of ruptured IA in pregnant women. Hemorrhage occurred predominantly during the third trimester of pregnancy, when maternal cardiac output and blood volume increase and reach maximum. Physiological and hormonal changes in pregnancy are likely to affect the risk of IA rupture. Ruptured IAs during pregnancy should be managed based on neurosurgical considerations, and the obstetrical management of women with ruptured IAs should be decided according to the severity of SAH and the gestational age. Emergent cesarean section followed by clipping or coiling of aneurysms is indicated if the maternal condition and the gestational age allow such interventions. Although SAH during pregnancy can result in disastrous outcomes, the necessity of intracranial screening for high-risk pregnant women is still controversial. PMID:23979051

  13. Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis combined with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Choo, Juk-Dong; Suh, Bumn-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Jong-Soo; Song, Chang-June; Shin, Dae-Whan; Lee, Young-Ha

    2003-11-01

    A 67-year-old Korean woman attended our hospital complaining of a severe headache. A brain computed tomography scan showed conglomerated, high-density, calcified nodules in the left temporo-occipito-parietal area and high-density subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain shows multiple conglomerated iso- or low-signal intensity round nodules with peripheral rim enhancement. She underwent craniotomies to clip the aneurysm and remove the calcified masses. Paragonimus westermani eggs were identified in the calcified necrotic lesions. Results of parasitic examinations on the sputum and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for P. westermani were all negative. The patient presented with headache and dizziness that had occurred for more than 30 years. She had not eaten freshwater crayfish or crabs. However, she had sometimes prepared raw crabs for several decades. Overall, this case was diagnosed as chronic cerebral paragonimiasis, in which she may have been infected through the contamination of utensils during the preparation of the second intermediate hosts, combined with a cerebral hemorrhage.

  14. Clinical Neurochemistry of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Toward Predicting Individual Outcomes via Biomarkers of Brain Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tholance, Yannick; Barcelos, Gleicy; Dailler, Frederic; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Renaud, Bernard

    2015-12-16

    The functional outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is difficult to predict at the individual level. The monitoring of brain energy metabolism has proven to be useful in improving the pathophysiological understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nonetheless, brain energy monitoring has not yet clearly been included in official guidelines for the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, likely because previous studies compared only biological data between two groups of patients (unfavorable vs favorable outcomes) and did not determine decision thresholds that could be useful in clinical practice. Therefore, this Viewpoint discusses recent findings suggesting that monitoring biomarkers of brain energy metabolism at the level of individuals can be used to predict the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Indeed, by taking into account specific neurochemical patterns obtained by local or global monitoring of brain energy metabolism, it may become possible to predict routinely, and with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, the individual outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Moreover, combining both local and global monitoring improves the overall performance of individual outcome prediction. Such a combined neurochemical monitoring approach may become, after prospective clinical validation, an important component in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to adapt individualized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26595414

  15. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage: epidemiology, social impact and a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Fàbregas Julià, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Hernández-Palazón, J; Rubio Romero, R; Carmona Aurioles, J

    2010-12-01

    Cerebrovascular disease, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is a worldwide problem, representing personal tragedy, great social and economic consequences, and a heavy burden on the health care system. Estimated to be responsible for up to 10% of mortality in industrialized countries, cerebrovascular disease also affects individuals who are still in the workforce, with consequent loss of productive years. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of cerebrovascular accident that leads to around 5% of all strokes. SAH is most often due to trauma but may also be spontaneous, in which case the cause may be a ruptured intracranial aneurysm (80%) or arteriovenous malformation or any other abnormality of the blood or vessels (20%). Although both the diagnosis and treatment of aneurysmal SAH has improved in recent years, related morbidity and mortality remains high: 50% of patients die from the initial hemorrhage or later complications. If patients whose brain function is permanently damaged are added to the count, the percentage of cases leading to severe consequences rises to 70%. The burden of care of patients who are left incapacitated by SAH falls to the family or to private and public institutions. The economic cost is considerable and the loss of quality of life for both the patient and the family is great. Given the magnitude of this problem, the provision of adequate prophylaxis is essential; also needed are organizational models that aim to reduce mortality as well as related complications. Aneurysmal SAH is a condition which must be approached in a coordinated, multidisciplinary way both during the acute phase and throughout rehabilitation in order to lower the risk of unwanted outcomes.

  16. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nanba, Takamasa; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Saura, Hiroaki; Takeda, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blood pressure may trigger atypical PRES, and failure to lower blood pressure may lead to a concomitant aneurysm rupture. In the future treatment of hypertensive urgency with a recurrence of symptoms and mean arterial blood pressure >150 mmHg, it is advisable to immediately hospitalize the patient for aggressive blood pressure management, especially if PRES is suspected based on clinical and radiological features. PMID:27365964

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; AfzalWani, Mohammed; Kirmani, Altaf R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher–i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like “salt-tea twice a day”, group-smoking of wet tobacco like “Jejeer”, winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of “Kangri” smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage admissions retrospectively identified using a prediction model

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lauralyn; Fergusson, Dean; Turgeon, Alexis; dos Santos, Marlise P.; Lum, Cheemun; Chassé, Michaël; Sinclair, John; Forster, Alan; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To create an accurate prediction model using variables collected in widely available health administrative data records to identify hospitalizations for primary subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: A previously established complete cohort of consecutive primary SAH patients was combined with a random sample of control hospitalizations. Chi-square recursive partitioning was used to derive and internally validate a model to predict the probability that a patient had primary SAH (due to aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation) using health administrative data. Results: A total of 10,322 hospitalizations with 631 having primary SAH (6.1%) were included in the study (5,122 derivation, 5,200 validation). In the validation patients, our recursive partitioning algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.9–98.0), a specificity of 99.8% (95% CI 99.6–99.9), and a positive likelihood ratio of 483 (95% CI 254–879). In this population, patients meeting criteria for the algorithm had a probability of 45% of truly having primary SAH. Conclusions: Routinely collected health administrative data can be used to accurately identify hospitalized patients with a high probability of having a primary SAH. This algorithm may allow, upon validation, an easy and accurate method to create validated cohorts of primary SAH from either ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation. PMID:27629096

  19. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  20. Pituitary hormone level changes and hypxonatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    MAIMAITILI, AISHA; MAIMAITILI, MIJITI; REXIDAN, AIKEREMU; LU, JUNYI; AJIMU, KUERBAN; CHENG, XIAOJIANG; LUO, KUN; SAILIKE, DUISHANBAI; LIU, YUAN; KAHEERMAN, KADEER; TANG, CHANGJIU; ZHANG, TINGRONG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum pituitary hormone levels and the mechanism of hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Nuclear medical tests and serum electrolyte monitoring were performed in 49 aneurysmal SAH cases and 10 healthy volunteers. The levels of serum pituitary hormones were significantly higher in the SAH patients compared with the control group on days 1–3 and 7–9 after SAH onset (P<0.05). The peak value occurred on days 7–9. The rate of hyponatremia was 49.0% in the 49 SAH patients. The incidence of severe hyponatremia was significantly higher in Fisher grades III–IV and Hunt-Hess grades III–IV compared with Fisher grades I–II and Hunt-Hess grades I–II, respectively (P<0.05). There was no correlation between the site of aneurysm and the rate of hyponatremia. The incidence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was significantly higher in the hyponatremia group and Fisher grades III–IV compared with the normal serum sodium group and Fisher grades I–II, respectively. Serum pituitary hormone levels were positively correlated with blood loss and disease severity in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Hyponatremia may be considered an important indicator of SAH. SAH patients are likely to benefit from intense monitoring and regulation of serum sodium. PMID:23837049

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

  2. Free recall memory performance after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Signy; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A

    2012-03-01

    Memory deficits for survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common, however, the nature of these deficits is not well understood. In this study, 24 patients with SAH and matched control participants were asked to study six lists containing words from four different categories. For half the lists, the categories were presented together (organized lists). For the remaining lists, the related words were presented randomly to maximize the use of executive processes such as strategy and organization (unorganized lists). Across adjoining lists, there was overlap in the types of categories given, done to promote intrusions. Compared to control participants, SAH patients recalled a similar number of words for the organized lists, but significantly fewer words for the unorganized lists. SAH patients also reported more intrusions than their matched counterparts. Separating patients into anterior communicating artery ruptures (ACoA) and ruptures in other regions, there was a recall deficit only for the unorganized list for those with ACoA ruptures and deficits across both list types for other rupture locations. These results suggest that memory impairment following SAH is likely driven by impairment in the executive components of memory, particularly for those with ACoA ruptures. Such findings may help direct future cognitive-therapeutic programs.

  3. Prediction of outcomes in young adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Ahn, Sung-Yong; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Heung-Seob; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare in young adults and little is known about aneurysms in this subgroup. The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of the clinical parameters, including age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, location of the cerebral aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, multiplicity, perioperative complication such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and hematoma, and Hunt and Hess and Fisher grading on presentation, was conducted in 108 young adults (mean age 34.8 years) managed at our institute. The outcome was classified based on GOS grading into unfavorable (GOS scores 1-3) or favorable (GOS scores 4 or 5). The overall mortality rate was 3.7% (4/108 patients). Univariate regression analysis for the outcomes at discharge found that age at the time of presentation, male sex, size of aneurysm, multiple aneurysms, hyperlipidemia, and poor Hunt and Hess and Fischer grades were associated with unfavorable outcome. Multivariate regression analysis found independent effects of sex, multiple aneurysms, size of aneurysm, and Hunt and Hess grade on the outcome at discharge. Size of aneurysm, presence of multiple aneurysms, Hunt and Hess grade, and hypertension were the predictors of outcome at mean 2-year follow up based on multivariate exact regression analysis. The multimodal approach with aggressive medical management, early intervention, and surgical treatment might contribute to favorable long-term outcomes in patients with poor expected outcomes.

  4. Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Focusing on Subcellular Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy–lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

  5. Acute management of poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    PubMed Central

    Eleftherios, Archavlis; Carvi y Nievas, Mario Nazareno

    2007-01-01

    Poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients present a high mortality and morbidity. In this study, we reviewed the acute interventional (surgical and endovascular) management of 109 SAH-poor condition patients, who were treated as early as logistically possible after confirming stable circulation parameters. Patients over the age of 70 years, without clinical response to painful stimulation were excluded. We recognized at least 3 different postinterventional therapeutic approaches: (1) Norm- or hypovolemic, normotensive hemodilution in 30 patients with space-occupying intracranial hematomas as well as in 31 cases with acute cerebro-spinal-fluid obstruction. (2) Normovolemic, hypertensive hemodilution after unilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 surgical- and 2 endovascular-treated patients with focalized space occupying lesions and reduced cerebral perfusion. (3) Hypovolemic, normo-, or hypertensive hemodilution after bilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 cases with massive brain-swelling. We observed a reduced mortality (21%). The overall late outcome was favorable in 56% and unfavorable in 23%. Selective aggressive treatment adapted to increase the cerebral perfusion, seems to be an effective therapy to improve the survival and outcome of several poor condition SAH-patients. PMID:18200827

  6. Effects of lumbar drainage on CSF dynamics in subarachnoid hemorrhage condition: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Abolfazli, Ehsan; Fatouraee, Nasser; Seddighi, Amir Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Lumbar drainage is considered a therapeutic measure in treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the evidence on the effectiveness of this method is still inconclusive. In this study, a subject-specific three dimensional model of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways and compartments was developed. The ventricular and the cranial and spinal subarachnoid spaces were reconstructed using magnetic resonance images. Occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage was modeled. Since the presence of blood in the CSF spaces is known to be the cause of complications such as cerebral vasospasm, concentration of blood in these spaces was investigated. Two cases of lumbar drains that were different in the drainage rate were studied. Temporal variations of concentration of blood in CSF spaces were calculated. It was observed that lumbar drainage accelerates the clearance of blood and, thereby, the spasmogens present in the cranial and spinal subarachnoid space. Higher clearance rates were observed at higher drainage rates. PMID:27518326

  7. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  8. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  9. Fluctuating Electrocardiographic Changes Predict Poor Outcomes After Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; El-Hadi, Sherif; Provencio, Javier; Tetzlaff, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been well documented. Evidence suggests that ECG changes and cardiac dysfunction worsen outcome. Determining which patients are at most risk is unclear but important to ascertain. Methods: We prospectively studied clinical markers, cardiac abnormalities, and clinical outcomes in 20 patients admitted within 48 hours of aneurysmal SAH. All patients had ECGs prior to surgical clipping, during the clipping surgery, and during the postoperative period. Results: The aneurysm was located in the anterior circulation in 17 patients (85%) and in the posterior circulation in 3 patients (15%). Abnormal ECG changes in patients with acute SAH were observed, with a total incidence rate of 65%. The incidence of T wave abnormalities was 53.8% among the patients with ECG changes, 46.2% had ST segment change, and 30.8% had QT interval prolongation. Of the 13 patients with ECG changes, 4 (30.8%) had fluctuating ECG abnormalities (an abnormality that presented and disappeared during the study period or changed in character). All 4 patients with fluctuating ECG changes had a poor outcome (100%) compared to 3 of the 9 patients (33.3%) patients with fixed abnormalities (P<0.05). Conclusion: The unique finding in this study that has not been reported previously in the literature is the contribution of dynamic ECG changes to the prognosis for good recovery from aneurysmal SAH. In our group, all the patients who had ECG changes that fluctuated from one abnormal change to another had a poor outcome. The etiology of this finding is not clear but may open the door to further study into the pathogenesis of cardiac changes in aneurysmal SAH. The clinical utility of the variability of ECG abnormalities needs to be validated in a larger cohort of patients with longer follow-up than was possible in this study. PMID:27660569

  10. Life satisfaction and return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Passier, Patricia E C A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) living at home 2-4 years after the SAH responded to a mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were life satisfaction, as measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9 (LiSat-9), and employment status. Determinants in multiple regression analysis were demographic and SAH characteristics, subjective complaints (eg, mood disorder, fatigue, cognitive complaints), and personality characteristics (eg, neuroticism, passive coping style). Of the 141 subjects, 64 (46.7%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of V (good outcome) at discharge. Mean subject age was 51.4 ± 12.3 years, and mean time after SAH was 36.1 ± 7.9 months. Of the 88 subjects who were working at the time of the SAH, 54 (61.4%) returned to work, but only 31 (35.2%) resumed their work completely. The subjects were least satisfied with their vocational situation (51.9% satisfied) and sexual life (51.7%) and were most satisfied with their relationships (75.2%-88.7%) and self-care ability (88.6%). Age (β value = 0.17), return to work after SAH (0.19), disability at hospital discharge (0.25), worsened mood (-0.37), and passive coping (-0.25) together accounted for 47.2% of the life satisfaction scores. Our data indicate that return to work is a major issue for individuals who survive an SAH. Not returning to work, disability, depression, and passive coping are associated with reduced life satisfaction. Thus, vocational reintegration after SAH merits more attention during rehabilitation. PMID:20656515

  11. Fluctuating Electrocardiographic Changes Predict Poor Outcomes After Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Elsharkawy, Hesham; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; El-Hadi, Sherif; Provencio, Javier; Tetzlaff, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been well documented. Evidence suggests that ECG changes and cardiac dysfunction worsen outcome. Determining which patients are at most risk is unclear but important to ascertain. Methods: We prospectively studied clinical markers, cardiac abnormalities, and clinical outcomes in 20 patients admitted within 48 hours of aneurysmal SAH. All patients had ECGs prior to surgical clipping, during the clipping surgery, and during the postoperative period. Results: The aneurysm was located in the anterior circulation in 17 patients (85%) and in the posterior circulation in 3 patients (15%). Abnormal ECG changes in patients with acute SAH were observed, with a total incidence rate of 65%. The incidence of T wave abnormalities was 53.8% among the patients with ECG changes, 46.2% had ST segment change, and 30.8% had QT interval prolongation. Of the 13 patients with ECG changes, 4 (30.8%) had fluctuating ECG abnormalities (an abnormality that presented and disappeared during the study period or changed in character). All 4 patients with fluctuating ECG changes had a poor outcome (100%) compared to 3 of the 9 patients (33.3%) patients with fixed abnormalities (P<0.05). Conclusion: The unique finding in this study that has not been reported previously in the literature is the contribution of dynamic ECG changes to the prognosis for good recovery from aneurysmal SAH. In our group, all the patients who had ECG changes that fluctuated from one abnormal change to another had a poor outcome. The etiology of this finding is not clear but may open the door to further study into the pathogenesis of cardiac changes in aneurysmal SAH. The clinical utility of the variability of ECG abnormalities needs to be validated in a larger cohort of patients with longer follow-up than was possible in this study.

  12. The Role of Matricellular Proteins in Brain Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Fujimoto, Masashi; Shiba, Masato; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Liu, Lei; Ichikawa, Naoki; Kanamaru, Kenji; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that blood-brain barrier disruption or brain edema is an important pathologic manifestation for poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Many molecules may be involved, acting simultaneously or at different stages during blood-brain barrier disruption via multiple independent or interconnected signaling pathways. Matricellular protein is a class of nonstructural, secreted, and multifunctional extracellular matrix proteins, which potentially mediates brain edema formation. This study reviews the role of osteopontin and tenascin-C, representatives of matricellular proteins, in the context of brain edema formation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in both clinical and experimental settings.

  13. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Joydip; Chatterjee, Apratim; Sarkar, Anup; Roy, Koushik; Agarwal, Rakhesh; Lahiri, Durjoy; Biswas, Amrito; Mondal, Anupam; Maity, Pranab; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS) along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review. PMID:26425018

  14. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manoj Kumar; Dutta, Joydip; Chatterjee, Apratim; Sarkar, Anup; Roy, Koushik; Agarwal, Rakhesh; Lahiri, Durjoy; Biswas, Amrito; Mondal, Anupam; Maity, Pranab; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2015-01-01

    Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS) along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review. PMID:26425018

  15. [Pathology of the cerebrospinal fluid tract after subarachnoid hemorrhages (the x-ray and radiological aspect)].

    PubMed

    Filatov, Iu M; Torbotrias, N L; Shcherbakova, E Ia; Snigirev, V S; Kulakova, S V

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined the semiotics of hydrocephalus occurring after subarachnoidal hemorrhages (SAH) from arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations to provide pathogenetic evidence for surgical or conservative hydrocephalus. The spinal fluid tract was examined in 44 patients after SAH by computed tomography and radionuclide cysternomyelography using 99mTc. Variability was found in the radiological semiotics of open internal hydrocephalus. Radiological studies revealed frequently open internal hydrocephalus in patients with arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations without subarachnoidal hemorrhages. The radiological semiotics of open hydrocephalus after SAH determines both morphological changes of the spinal fluid tract and liquorodynamic disturbances.

  16. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  17. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT. In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824–0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt–Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were

  18. Changes in the Metabolism of Sphingolipids after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Dawson

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously described that ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigated the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Methods Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Results Compared to controls (n=8), SAH patients (n=26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0±3.5 IF/µl.min vs. 15.0±4.6 IF/µl.min; p=0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4±8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3±48.3 pmol/ml; p=0.001) and DHC (1.3±1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8±3.4 pmol/ml; p=0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7±1.2 IF/µg.min; SAH: 16.8±1.6 IF/µg.min; p<0.05) and Cer levels (control: 3422±26 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; SAH: 7073±2467 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; p<0.05) compared to controls. In addition, SAH was associated with a reduction of 60% in S1P levels, a 40% increase in S1P-lyase activity, and a 2-fold increase in the activity of GCS but similar NSMase and SMS activities than controls. Conclusions Our results show an activation of ASMase, S1P-lyase, and GCS resulting in a shift in the production of protective (S1P) in favor of deleterious (Cer) sphingolipids after SAH. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of modulators of the pathways here described in the outcome of SAH. PMID:25597763

  19. Multimodal endovascular treatment of a vertebrovertebral fistula presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Chandra, Ronil V; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Yoo, Albert J

    2013-09-01

    Vertebrovertebral fistulae are rare vascular malformations that uncommonly can rupture to present clinically as intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a 69-year-old man presenting following spontaneous apoplectic collapse. Initial workup revealed diffuse, intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. However, the etiology was not apparent on CT angiography of the head. Catheter-based angiography was performed, demonstrating a single-hole, high-flow vertebrovertebral fistula, arising from the V2 segment and decompressing into both cervical and skull base venous structures. Definitive treatment consisted of endovascular fistula obliteration with a combination of coil and liquid embolic material. The patient made a full neurological recovery. High cervical and skull base fistulae are rare causes of intracranial hemorrhage; endovascular treatment is effective at disconnection of the arteriovenous shunt.

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the African-American population: a cooperative study.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, G. C.; Welch, B.; Cole, A. N.; Mendoza, R.; Morgan, J.; Epps, J.; Bernard, E.; St Louis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical outcome of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage is complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia and contributing factors such as hypertension. To observe the impact of hypertension and delayed cerebral ischemia on the outcome of a predominantly African-American cohort following subarachnoid hemorrhage, both retrospective (n = 42) and prospective (n = 21) studies were conducted. In the total pool (n = 63), the mean age was 49.7 years (range: 17 to 80) with a preponderance of female patients (70%). Aneurysm formation was significant in the region of the posterior communicating artery. Of the patients reviewed, 73.8% had preexisting hypertension and 45.9% developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Approximately 89% of the patients who suffered from delayed cerebral ischemia had hypertension. Results failed to display any significant beneficial association between the use of the calcium channel blocker nimodipine and delayed cerebral ischemia. Use of the antifibrinolytic drug aminocaproic acid demonstrated a worse patient outcome. It is not recommended that aminocaproic acid be used in this population. Subsequently, due to the proportional occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is suggested that prophylactic surgical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms be considered in hypertensive patients. Further study is needed to discern the association between hypertension, delayed cerebral ischemia, and stroke in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9046763

  1. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an ARIA before the tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lizana, Eva; Carmona-Iragui, María; Alcolea, Daniel; Gómez-Choco, Manuel; Vilaplana, Eduard; Sánchez-Saudinós, María B; Clarimón, Jordi; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Munuera, Josep; Gelpi, Ellen; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; de Juan-Delago, Manel; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Montaner, Joan; Ois, Angel; Amaro, Sergi; Blesa, Rafael; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) in elderly patients is a rare entity that has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH). To characterize this entity and to study these associations, 22 patients over 60 with cSAH were included in a multicenter ambispective cohort study. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, APOE genotyping, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated. Results were compared with data from healthy controls (HC), non-cSAH CAA patients (CAAo), and Alzheimer disease patients. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient sensory or motor symptoms. At follow-up (median 30.7 months), 5 patients had died, 6 survivors showed functional disability (modified Rankins Scale (mRS)>2), and 12 cognitive impairment. Four patients had prior ICH and six had an ICH during follow-up. CSF-Aß40 and Aß42 levels were lower in cSAH and CAAo compared with HC. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented an APOE-ɛ2 overrepresentation and CAAo had an APOE-ɛ4 overrepresentation. On MRI, all patients fulfilled CAA-modified Boston criteria and 9 showed cortical ischemia in the surrounding cortex or the vicinity of superficial siderosis. The neuropathologic study, available in one patient, showed severe CAA and advanced Alzheimer-type pathology. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment and lobar ICH occurrence. Our findings support the existence of an underlying CAA pathology. PMID:25735919

  2. [A case of subacute subarachnoid hemorrhage without xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid--usefulness of emergent MRI].

    PubMed

    Ogami, Ryo; Ikawa, Fusao; Ohbayashi, Naohiko; Imada, Yasutaka; Hidaka, Toshikazu; Inagawa, Tetsuji

    2003-06-01

    We reported a case of subacute subarachnoid hemorrhage with watery clear cerebrospinal fluid. Emergent magnetic resonance image was useful not only for diagnosis by fluid attenuated inversion recovery image but also for evaluation of cerebral ischemia and vasospasm by magnetic resonance angiography, diffusion weighted image and perfusion weighted image. A 50-year-old man presented disturbance of consciousness and dysarthria. Neither computed tomographic scan nor cerebrospinal fluid study could diagnose subarachnoid hemorrhage clearly. However, emergent fluid attenuated inversion recovery image showed the show subarachnoid hemorrhage as high signal intensity. Diffusion weighted image showed multiple, round hypersignals both in the white and gray matter. In the area with diffusion hypersignal, the apparent diffusion coefficient value was 0.57 x 10(3) mm2/sec. Perfusion weighted image showed normal cerebral blood volume but prolonged mean transit time in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed an aneurysm at the anterior communicating artery and severe vasospasm on the bilateral anterior cerebral artery, the right middle cerebral artery. Thus we are able to diagnose subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The hyperintensity of the diffusion weighted image and the fluid attenuated inversion recovery image was caused by cerebral ischemia from vasospasm. After conservative therapy during the period of vasospasm, successful surgical clipping was performed with full clinical recovery. PMID:12833876

  3. Elevated Baseline C-Reactive Protein as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There remains a proportion of patients with unfavorable outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, of particular relevance in those who present with a good clinical grade. A forewarning of those at risk provides an opportunity towards more intensive monitoring, investigation, and prophylactic treatment prior to the clinical manifestation of advancing cerebral injury. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether biochemical markers sampled in the first days after the initial hemorrhage can predict poor outcome. METHODS: All patients recruited to the multicenter Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Hemorrhage Trial (STASH) were included. Baseline biochemical profiles were taken between time of ictus and day 4 post ictus. The t-test compared outcomes, and a backwards stepwise binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors providing independent prediction of an unfavorable outcome. RESULTS: Baseline biochemical data were obtained in approximately 91% of cases from 803 patients. On admission, 73% of patients were good grade (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grades 1 or 2); however, 84% had a Fisher grade 3 or 4 on computed tomographic scan. For patients presenting with good grade on admission, higher levels of C-reactive protein, glucose, and white blood cells and lower levels of hematocrit, albumin, and hemoglobin were associated with poor outcome at discharge. C-reactive protein was found to be an independent predictor of outcome for patients presenting in good grade. CONCLUSION: Early recording of C-reactive protein may prove useful in detecting those good grade patients who are at greater risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome. ABBREVIATIONS: ALP, alkaline phosphatase ALT, alanine aminotransferase CK, creatine kinase CRP, C-reactive protein EVD, external ventricular drainage ICH GCP, International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for good clinical practice mRS, modified Rankin Scale SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage STASH, Simvastatin in

  4. The Effects of Vasospasm and Re-Bleeding on the Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27442399

  5. Possible overlap between reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Forget, Patrice; Goffette, Pierre; van de Wyngaert, Françoise; Raftopoulos, Christian; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman with a previous history of severe headache ("thunderclap") was admitted with a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient developed symptomatic vasospasm on day 5 that resolved rapidly after having increased arterial blood pressure. She experienced also short-lasting excruciating headache. On day 12, while velocities had normalised, as revealed by transcranial Doppler (TCD), for more than 48 h, she developed aphasia and right hemiplegia associated with diffuse segmental vasospasm on the left middle cerebral artery. Intra-arterial infusion of vasodilatory agents was required. Recurrence of symptomatic vasospasm was noted on day 25, with a great number of territories involved as shown in the cerebral angiogram. A second intra-arterial treatment was needed. The patient complained of multiple episodes of extremely severe headache ("thunderclap"), with also transient dysarthria and hemiparesia on day 30. She was discharged on day 38 after full recovery. The clinical and TCD/radiological findings were consistent with a reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome overlapping SAH related symptomatic vasospasm. PMID:19381433

  6. Innovative approach for prevention and treatment of post subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Venkataramana, Neelam K; Rao, Shailesh A V; Naik, Arun L; Shetty, Kishore; Murthy, Paparaja; Bansal, Abhilash; Panotopoulos, Christos

    2012-04-01

    More than one third of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) develop clinically significant vasospasm, as a leading morbidity and mortality factor for these patients. It is widely accepted that a) Degradation products of blood are the causative factors of vasospasm b) The amount of subarachnoid blood seen on admission CT is correlated to the risk of vasospasm c) Reducing the subarachnoid clot burden at the time of surgery reduces the risk of vasospasm. But there is no existing method to clear the blood from subarachnoid spaces satisfactorily. We have evaluated safety and feasibility of fluid exchange catheter system in SAH, to achieve this goal. We were successful in clearing cisternal blood in three patients with aneurysmal rupture with fluid exchange catheter system. Baseline CT scan of brain was performed immediately after the surgery and then at the end of irrigation. The amount of subarachnoid blood was evaluated. This innovative, fluid exchange catheter system infuses and aspirates micro volumes of drug solution in a cyclic mode, ensuring isobaric exchange of fluids. The result is good clearance of blood in subarachnoid spaces were seen in all the patients. Also, significant improvement in neurological deficits secondary to vasospasm was seen. We conclude that the fluid exchange catheter system is safe and adoptable in neurosurgical practice. PMID:22870156

  7. Dynamic expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-ning; Liu, Zun-wei; Sui, Long; Zhang, Bin-fei; Zhao, Yong-lin; Ma, Xu-dong; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ischemic neurologic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage results from loss of neural cells. Nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA may promote regeneration of neural cells, but their expression after subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear. In the present study, a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage was established using two injections of autologous blood into the cistern magna. Immunohisto-chemical staining suggested that the expression of nerve growth factor and TrkA in the cerebral cortex and brainstem increased at 6 hours, peaked at 12 hours and decreased 1 day after induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas the expression in the hippocampus increased at 6 hours, peaked on day 1, and decreased 3 days later. Compared with those for the rats in the sham and saline groups, neurobehavioral scores decreased significantly 12 hours and 3 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA is dynamically changed in the rat brain and may thus participate in neuronal survival and nerve regeneration after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27651776

  8. Dynamic expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Ning; Liu, Zun-Wei; Sui, Long; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Zhao, Yong-Lin; Ma, Xu-Dong; Gu, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Delayed ischemic neurologic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage results from loss of neural cells. Nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA may promote regeneration of neural cells, but their expression after subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear. In the present study, a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage was established using two injections of autologous blood into the cistern magna. Immunohisto-chemical staining suggested that the expression of nerve growth factor and TrkA in the cerebral cortex and brainstem increased at 6 hours, peaked at 12 hours and decreased 1 day after induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas the expression in the hippocampus increased at 6 hours, peaked on day 1, and decreased 3 days later. Compared with those for the rats in the sham and saline groups, neurobehavioral scores decreased significantly 12 hours and 3 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA is dynamically changed in the rat brain and may thus participate in neuronal survival and nerve regeneration after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27651776

  9. Dynamic expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin-ning; Liu, Zun-wei; Sui, Long; Zhang, Bin-fei; Zhao, Yong-lin; Ma, Xu-dong; Gu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ischemic neurologic deficit after subarachnoid hemorrhage results from loss of neural cells. Nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA may promote regeneration of neural cells, but their expression after subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear. In the present study, a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage was established using two injections of autologous blood into the cistern magna. Immunohisto-chemical staining suggested that the expression of nerve growth factor and TrkA in the cerebral cortex and brainstem increased at 6 hours, peaked at 12 hours and decreased 1 day after induction of subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas the expression in the hippocampus increased at 6 hours, peaked on day 1, and decreased 3 days later. Compared with those for the rats in the sham and saline groups, neurobehavioral scores decreased significantly 12 hours and 3 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA is dynamically changed in the rat brain and may thus participate in neuronal survival and nerve regeneration after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  10. Summary of evidence on immediate statins therapy following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tseng, M Y

    2011-09-01

    Statins were shown to have neuroprotective effects, with reduced vasospasm and delayed ischemic deficits in statin-treated patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in two small, randomized, controlled clinical trials published in 2005. This review consolidated data from available published studies evaluating statin treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage. A literature search was conducted to identify original research studies published through October 2010 testing immediate treatment with a statin in statin-naïve patients following aneurysmal SAH. Six randomized controlled clinical trials and four observational studies were identified. Despite inconsistent results among studies, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled data showed a significant reduction in delayed ischemic deficits with statins. Effect on vasospasm was more difficult to determine, due to differences in definitions used among studies. Interpretations from observational studies were limited by the use of relatively small sample sizes, historical controls, and treatment variability. PMID:21826581

  11. [Spontaneous dissection of the anterior cerebral artery presenting subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction: a case report].

    PubMed

    Miyahara, K; Sakata, K; Gondo, G; Kanno, H; Yamamoto, I

    2001-04-01

    A case is reported of anterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. A 50-year-old man presented with sudden onset of weakness of the left lower limb was admitted to our hospital. CT scan on admission showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure and CT on the 6th day demonstrated a cerebral infarction on the right medial frontal lobe. A carotid angiogram 12 hours after the onset showed no aneurysmal lesion, but, the angiogram repeated 11 days after the onset revealed an aneurysmal dilatation with distal narrowing at the right A2-A3 segment. To prevent rebleeding, we performed a wrapping procedure through the interhemispheric route on the 18th day after onset. The postoperative course was uneventful. We reviewed 27 previously reported cases with symptomatic dissecting aneurysm confined to the anterior cerebral artery.

  12. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to autonomic dysreflexia: rare consequence of sexual stimulation in a paraplegic].

    PubMed

    Galiart, E; Baumberger, M; Pannek, J

    2013-11-01

    Nearly all men with spinal cord injury suffer from neurogenic sexual dysfunction which is often treated with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. We describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to autonomic dysreflexia (AD) caused by sexual stimulation. Nitrates are frequently used for acute treatment of AD; however, the use of these drugs in combination with PDE5 inhibitors is contraindicated. Therefore, meticulous information from patients and relatives on the risk of AD and possible drug interactions is of vital importance. PMID:23784679

  13. Magnesium sulfate reverses experimental delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ram, Z; Sadeh, M; Shacked, I; Sahar, A; Hadani, M

    1991-07-01

    We induced experimental delayed cerebral vasospasm by the intracisternal injection of greater than 0.5 ml blood in 30 rats. Seventy-two hours later the basilar artery was exposed via the transclival approach and photographed at high-power magnification through an operating microscope. We then evaluated the effect of topical (n = 30) and intravenous (n = 20) magnesium sulfate on the spastic artery by computerized image analysis. A greater than 50% reduction in baseline diameter of the basilar artery was observed in the rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage compared with the 10 controls (p less than 0.0001). Intravenous magnesium sulfate dilated the spastic artery to approximately 75% of the baseline diameter in control rats (p less than 0.0001). Topical magnesium sulfate caused dramatic dilation of the basilar artery in both the control and the subarachnoid hemorrhage groups to near 150% of the baseline diameter in the controls (p less than 0.001). All rats receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate reached therapeutic plasma levels of the ion. Hemodynamic effects were mild and immediately reversible upon cessation of magnesium sulfate administration. We suggest that magnesium has a role in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm in humans.

  14. A Case of Cerebral Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Fabry's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Youn Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrage (SAH) with Fabry's disease. A 42-year-old woman presented with aneurysmal SAH originated from a saccular aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. The patient was treated by an endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm. Postoperatively the patient recovered favorably without any neurological deficit. During her admission, the patient had a sign of proteinuria in urine analysis. The pathologic findings of kidney needle biopsy implied nephrosialidosis (mucolipidosis of lysosomal stroage disease), which is consistent with a Fabry's disease. It is uncommon that Fabry's disease is presented with aneurysmal SAH, especially in middle-aged patients, but could be a clinical concern. Further investigations are needed to reveal risk factors, vascular anatomy, and causative mechanisms of Fabry's disease with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23634271

  15. In Vitro Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in a Shaken Basal Cistern after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kertzscher, Ulrich; Schneider, Torsten; Goubergrits, Leonid; Affeld, Klaus; Hänggi, Daniel; Spuler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies) on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force. Conclusions/Significance From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. PMID:22870243

  16. Assessment of Basilar Artery Reactivity in Stroke and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Wire Myograph.

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Crystal M; Azrak, Zeina; Rahman, Farah Abdel; Itani, Hana A; Zeidan, Asad

    2016-01-01

    Blood flow regulation of normal cerebral arteries is a critical and important factor to supply the brain tissue with nutrients and oxygen. Stroke insult results in a disruption or reduction in cerebral arteries' blood flow with subsequent brain tissue damage. Hemorrhagic stroke is one type of stroke and accounts for about 13 % of all of stroke insults. In this type of stroke, the cerebral artery breaks open and causes bleeding in or surrounding the brain. Subsequently, this bleeding causes blood vessels to constrict in a process called vasospasm, in which the vessels narrow and impede the blood flow to brain tissue. Hemorrhagic stroke is the major cause of prolonged constriction of cerebral arteries. This leads to partial brain damage and sometimes death in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among the key delicate techniques to assess small blood vessel functionality is the wire myograph, which can be utilized in several cerebral injury models including stroke. The wire myograph is a device that provides information about the reactivity, stiffness, and elasticity of small blood vessels under isometric conditions. In this book chapter, we describe the techniques involved in wire myography assessment and the different measures and parameters recorded; we describe the utility of this technique in evaluating the effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage on basilar artery sensitivity to different agonists. PMID:27604742

  17. Spreading Depolarizations: A Therapeutic Target Against Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chung, David Y; Oka, Fumiaki; Ayata, Cenk

    2016-06-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia is the most feared cause of secondary injury progression after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Initially thought to be a direct consequence of large artery spasm and territorial ischemia, recent data suggests that delayed cerebral ischemia represents multiple concurrent and synergistic mechanisms, including microcirculatory dysfunction, inflammation, and microthrombosis. Among these mechanisms, spreading depolarizations (SDs) are arguably the most elusive and underappreciated in the clinical setting. Although SDs have been experimentally detected and examined since the late 1970s, their widespread occurrence in human brain was not unequivocally demonstrated until relatively recently. We now know that SDs occur with very high incidence in human brain after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and trauma, and worsen outcomes by increasing metabolic demand, decreasing blood supply, predisposing to seizure activity, and possibly worsening brain edema. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of SDs in injured brain. Although much of our mechanistic knowledge comes from experimental models of focal cerebral ischemia, clinical data suggest that the same principles apply regardless of the mode of injury (i.e., ischemia, hemorrhage, or trauma). The hope is that a better fundamental understanding of SDs will lead to novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SD occurrence and its adverse consequences contributing to injury progression in subarachnoid hemorrhage and other forms of acute brain injury. PMID:27258442

  18. Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage*

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao-liang; Wu, Xiao-kang; Xu, Jian-rong; Li, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess if arachnoid cells have the capability to present antigen and activate T-lymphocytes after stimulation by bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and to illuminate the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: Arachnoid cells were cultured, characterized, and examined by immunofluorescence for the basal expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR). Expression of HLA-DR, after co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, was investigated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). The variation of arachnoid cells’ ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Arachnoid cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The content of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r) in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: (1) Arachnoid cells were successfully cultured for many passages. The immunofluorescent staining was positive for HLA-DR in over 95% of the human arachnoid cells. The punctate HLA-DR was distributed in cytoplasm and not in the karyon. (2) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, numerous particles with strong fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm on Day 6. On Day 8, the quantity of particles and fluorescent intensity were maximal. FCM showed that the percentage of HLA-DR expressing cells was (2.5±0.4)% at the first 5 d, increasing to (60.8±3.6)% on Day 7. (3) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, many lysosome and secondary lysosome particles were present in the cytoplasm. Hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and enlarged cysts were observed, with numerous phagocytizing vesicles also observed at the edge of the arachnoid cells. (4) Arachnoid cells stimulated by bloody CSF were co-cultured in vitro with PBMCs. The content of sIL-2r in the culture medium, having been maintained at around 1.30 ng/ml during

  19. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by an undifferentiated sarcoma of the sellar region

    PubMed Central

    Ganaha, Tsukasa; Inamasu, Joji; Oheda, Motoki; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yuichi; Abe, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is rare for patients with pituitary apoplexy to exhibit concomitant subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Only a handful of patients with pituitary apoplexy have developed such hemorrhagic complications, and histopathological examination revealed pituitary adenoma as the cause of SAH. Case Report: A previously healthy 35-year-old woman was brought to our institution after complaining of severe headache and left monocular blindness. Brain computed tomography showed a diffuse SAH with a central low density. Subsequently, the brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intrasellar mass with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. The patient was presumptively diagnosed with SAH secondary to hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma and underwent transcranial surgery to remove both the tumor and subarachnoid clot. A histological evaluation of the surgical specimen revealed malignant cells with strong predilection for vascular invasion. Following immunohistochemical evaluation, the tumor was negative for the majority of tumor markers and was positive only for vimentin and p53; thus, a diagnosis of undifferentiated sarcoma was established. Conclusions: This case was informative in the respect that tumors other than pituitary adenoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with pituitary apoplexy. PMID:27500006

  20. Electroencephalographic Response to Sodium Nitrite May Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Severe Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Matthew J.; Ezra, Martyn; Herigstad, Mari; Hayen, Anja; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Westbrook, Jon; Warnaby, Catherine E.; Pattinson, Kyle T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage often leads to death and poor clinical outcome. Injury occurring during the first 72 hours is termed “early brain injury,” with disruption of the nitric oxide pathway playing an important pathophysiologic role in its development. Quantitative electroencephalographic variables, such as α/δ frequency ratio, are surrogate markers of cerebral ischemia. This study assessed the quantitative electroencephalographic response to a cerebral nitric oxide donor (intravenous sodium nitrite) to explore whether this correlates with the eventual development of delayed cerebral ischemia. Design: Unblinded pilot study testing response to drug intervention. Setting: Neuroscience ICU, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Patients: Fourteen World Federation of Neurosurgeons grades 3, 4, and 5 patients (mean age, 52.8 yr [range, 41–69 yr]; 11 women). Interventions: IV sodium nitrite (10 μg/kg/min) for 1 hour. Measurements and Main Results: Continuous electroencephalographic recording for 2 hours. The alpha/delta frequency ratio was measured before and during IV sodium nitrite infusion. Seven of 14 patients developed delayed cerebral ischemia. There was a +30% to +118% (range) increase in the alpha/delta frequency ratio in patients who did not develop delayed cerebral ischemia (p < 0.0001) but an overall decrease in the alpha/delta frequency ratio in those patients who did develop delayed cerebral ischemia (range, +11% to –31%) (p = 0.006, multivariate analysis accounting for major confounds). Conclusions: Administration of sodium nitrite after severe subarachnoid hemorrhage differentially influences quantitative electroencephalographic variables depending on the patient’s susceptibility to development of delayed cerebral ischemia. With further validation in a larger sample size, this response may be developed as a tool for risk stratification after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:27441898

  1. Postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm after craniotomy for astrocytoma--case report.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Taomoto, K

    1989-09-01

    The authors present the first reported case of a glioma associated with a right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. A 37-year-old male underwent craniotomy and total removal of the glioma, which appeared, according to encephalographic findings, to be responsible for the initial symptom of loss of consciousness. The risk of craniotomy-induced bleeding from the aneurysm was thought to be low, since it was unruptured and was packed with coagulum. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of the PCA aneurysm occurred just after craniotomy, and clipping was performed 15 days after the first operation. PMID:2480546

  2. Impact of Comorbidity on Early Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Caused by Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Avdagic, Selma Sijercic; Brkic, Harun; Avdagic, Harun; Smajic, Jasmina; Hodzic, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the complications aneurysms subarachnoid hemorrhage is the development of vasospasm, which is the leading cause of disability and death from ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Aim: To evaluate the significance of previous comorbidities on early outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm in the prevention of vasospasm. Patients and methods: The study had prospective character in which included 50 patients, whose diagnosed with SAH caused by the rupture of a brain aneurysm in the period from 2011to 2013. Two groups of patients were formed. Group I: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered nimodipine at a dose of 15-30 mg / kg bw / h (3-10 ml) for the duration of the initial treatment. Group II: patients in addition to the standard initial treatment and “3H therapy” administered with MgSO4 at a dose of 12 grams in 500 ml of 0.9% NaCl / 24 h during the initial treatment. Results: Two-thirds of the patients (68%) from both groups had a good outcome measured with values according to GOS scales, GOS IV and V. The poorer outcome, GOS III had 20% patients, the GOS II was at 2% and GOS I within 10% of patients. If we analyze the impact of comorbidity on the outcome, it shows that there is a significant relationship between the presence of comorbidity and outcomes. The patients without comorbidity (83.30%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), the same outcome was observed (59.4%) with comorbidities, which has a statistically significant difference (p = 0.04). Patients without diabetes (32%) had a good outcome (GOS IV and V), while the percentage of patients with diabetes less frequent (2%) with a good outcome, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.009). Conclusion: The outcome of treatment 30 days after the subarachnoid hemorrhage analyzed values WFNS and GOS, is not dependent on the method of prevention and treatment of vasospasm. Most concomitant diseases in

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after return of spontaneous circulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Injune; Kim, Youn Jung; Ahn, Shin; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Kim, Won Young

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been described as ST-T changes that mimic acute coronary syndrome and even acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Elevation of cardiac enzymes and abnormality of regional myocardial wall motion have been reported frequently for SAH. We report a case of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivor with high suspicion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction based on the electrocardiogram and bedside echocardiography, who had normal coronary arteries on emergent coronary angiography. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with SAH as a cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. PMID:27752607

  4. [Systemic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of a cerebral aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    Systemic complications secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage from an aneurysm are common (40%) and the mortality attributable to them (23%) is comparable to mortality from the primary lesion, rebleeding, or vasospasm. Although nonneurologic medical complications are avoidable, they worsen the prognosis, lengthen the hospital stay, and generate additional costs. The prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment of systemic complications will be essential for managing the individual patient's case. Treatment should cover major symptoms (headache, nausea, and dizziness) and ambient noise should be reduced, all with the aim of achieving excellence and improving the patient's perception of quality of care.

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysm caused by polyarteritis nodosa. Case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun C; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Iihara, Koji; Sakai, Hideki; Higashi, Toshio; Kogure, Shuji; Taniguchi, Ayumi; Ueda, Hatsue I; Nagata, Izumi

    2002-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotizing arteritis that involves small- and medium-sized arteries in various organs. Although aneurysm formation in visceral arteries is a typical finding in PAN, intracranial aneurysms are much less common, and only a few cases of aneurysm rupture associated with this disease have been documented. In this paper, the authors report on a ruptured PAN aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery; the lesion was trapped and resected. On histological examination, extensive fibrinoid necrosis and an inflammatory infiltration of leukocytes were seen in the aneurysm wall. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a histologically confirmed PAN aneurysm.

  6. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH.

  7. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH. PMID:27698755

  8. Cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and delayed ischemic deficits in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, K. Y.; Jeon, B. C.

    2001-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces an inflammatory reaction and may lead to ischemic brain damage. The pathogenesis of brain dysfunction and delayed ischemic symptoms remain difficult to understand despite extensive surveys of such reactions. Cytokine production in the central nervous system following SAH and its relation with clinical outcome have hardly been studied. This study was aimed to determine whether the levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the initial cerebrospinal fluid would increase following aneurysmal SAH, and be related with development of delayed ischemic deficit and clinical outcome. Nineteen patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH and 12 control volunteers were the subjects in this study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained on admission and the levels of each cytokine were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage showed elevated levels of IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha on admission. The patients with poor neurological status showed high levels of IL-1 beta, and IL-6. The patients who developed delayed ischemic deficit had high level of IL-6. We suggest that elevated level of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal SAH on admission can predict the high risk of delayed ischemic deficit. PMID:11748361

  9. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Study for Medical Decision-Making Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Dredla, Brynn; Freeman, William D

    2016-04-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient's medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  10. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following hemodynamic treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Awori, Jonathan; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Gemmete, Joseph J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-04-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an uncommon but significant complication of hemodynamic therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced vasospasm. We performed a PubMed literature search for the period January 1999 to January 2015 using the search terms "posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "vasospasm", and "hypertensive encephalopathy", and identified nine cases of PRES after aSAH-induced vasospasm in the literature. We also present a 63-year-old man with aSAH complicated by vasospasm treated with hemodynamic augmentation who subsequently developed PRES. Imaging following development of PRES symptoms shows vasogenic edema in the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes. Age, sex, history of hypertension, and baseline blood pressure were variable among patients in the literature review. In all cases, patients improved both from a radiological and clinical perspective following blood pressure reduction. To summarize, PRES is a rare complication of hemodynamic therapy for vasospasm following aSAH. The literature at the time of writing demonstrates no common pattern with regard to patient demographics, medical history, or mode of treatment for symptomatic vasospasm. Given its sporadic and unpredictable nature, considering PRES in the differential diagnosis is important when addressing neurological decline following hemodynamic treatment of vasospasm related to aSAH. PMID:26755456

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thoracic radicular artery pseudoaneurysm after methamphetamine and synthetic cannabinoid abuse: case report.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wilson Z; Krisht, Khaled M; Schabel, Alex; Schmidt, Richard H

    2013-06-01

    Background Context Isolated spinal artery aneurysms not associated with vascular malformations are exceedingly rare. Purpose To present a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after thoracic radiculomedullary artery pseudoaneurysm rupture in a patient who abused synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamines. Study Design Case report. Methods A 41-year-old man with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with acute-onset headache, back pain, and transient bilateral lower-extremity numbness. He reported daily use of the synthetic cannabinoid "Spice." He denied use of other illegal drugs, but laboratory testing was positive for methamphetamines. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal hematoma at T2-3, and spinal angiography was negative for vascular abnormalities; however, a follow-up angiogram 6 days later revealed interval development of an irregular dilation of the left T3 radiculomedullary artery originating from the left supreme intercostal artery. Results Surgical trapping and resection of the lesion yielded a good clinical outcome. Conclusions Although two previous case reports have described patients with thoracic radiculomedullary pseudoaneurysm causing spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), this is the first reported case associated with synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamine abuse. Although this diagnosis is exceptionally rare, clinical presentation of SAH with associated back pain and lower-extremity symptoms warrants an aggressive imaging workup. Even in the setting of negative angiography, repeat cerebral and spinal angiograms may be necessary to identify a potentially treatable cause of spinal SAH.

  12. [HYPOTHERMIA INFLUENCES ON OXYGEN TENSION IN THE BRAIN PARENCHYMA IN PATIENTS WITH ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE].

    PubMed

    Abudeev, S A; Popugaev, K A; Kruglyakov, N M; Belousova, K A; Terekhov, D A; Leushin, K Yu; Aronov, M S; Karpova, O V; Zelenkov, A V; Kiselev, K V; Fedin, A B; Zabelin, M V; Samoylov, A S

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious medical and social problem. The main physiological mechanisms that determine secondary brain damage in this patients are intracranial hypertension, cerebral vasospasm, dysfunction of autoregulation mechanisms, violation of liquorodynamics and delayed cerebral ischemia. The multimodal neuromonitoring for prevention and timely correction ofsecondary brain injury factors has become routine practice in neuroICU. Measurement of oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma is one of neuromonitoring options. During the years of intensive use of this method in clinical practice the reasons for reducing the oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma were revealed, as well as developed and clinically validated algorithms for correction of such conditions. However, there are clinical situations that are difficult to interpret and even more difficult to make the right tactical and therapeutic solutions. We present the clinical observation of the patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, who had dramatically reduced brain intraparenchymal oxygen pressure although prolonged hypothermia were used. Despite this, the outcome was favorable. The analysis allowed to assume that the reason for this decrease in oxygen tension in the brain parenchyma could be hypothermia itself PMID:27468510

  13. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552–632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500–2,500 m (5,000–8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient’s acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel. PMID:27147875

  14. [Anterior Communicating Artery Dissection Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takahiro; Sato, Yuiko; Fujiwara, Shunrou; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2016-03-01

    We describe the case of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction that developed simultaneously and was caused by suspected dissection of the anterior communicating artery. A 65-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache and nausea. Head computed tomography(CT)and magnetic resonance imaging revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure and a spotty ischemic lesion in the right frontal cortex. Both, CT angiography and angiography with arterial catheterization showed an aneurysmal dilatation of the anterior communicating artery. A repeated CT angiography nine days later demonstrated enlargement of the aneurysmal dilatation. The patient underwent craniotomy under general anesthesia. Under the microscope, a thick hematoma was seen infero-dorsally from the anterior communicating artery. Two fenestrations of the anterior communicating artery were identified. After removal of the hematoma, a fusiform dilatation of the anterior communicating artery with a firm and reddish wall was confirmed. The lesion was coated with a teflon sponge and fibrin glue. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. A follow-up CT angiography two months after surgery revealed shrinkage of the lesion, when compared with preoperative images.

  15. A case of cerebral aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with air travel.

    PubMed

    Cui, Victoria; Kouliev, Timur; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    During air travel, passengers are exposed to unique conditions such as rapid ascent and descent that can trigger significant physiological changes. In addition, the cabins of commercial aircraft are only partially pressured to 552-632 mmHg or the equivalent terrestrial altitudes of 1,500-2,500 m (5,000-8,000 feet) above sea level. While studies in high-altitude medicine have shown that all individuals experience some degree of hypoxia, cerebral edema, and increased cerebral blood flow, the neurological effects that accompany these changes are otherwise poorly understood. In this study, we report a case of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with travel on commercial aircraft. We then review relevant cases of neurological incidents with possible air travel-related etiology and discuss the physiological factors that may have contributed to the patient's acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the future, this report may serve as reference for more detailed and conservative medical guidelines and recommendations regarding air travel. PMID:27147875

  16. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from a Thoracic Radicular Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Methamphetamine and Synthetic Cannabinoid Abuse: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Krisht, Khaled M.; Schabel, Alex; Schmidt, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Context Isolated spinal artery aneurysms not associated with vascular malformations are exceedingly rare. Purpose To present a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after thoracic radiculomedullary artery pseudoaneurysm rupture in a patient who abused synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamines. Study Design Case report. Methods A 41-year-old man with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with acute-onset headache, back pain, and transient bilateral lower-extremity numbness. He reported daily use of the synthetic cannabinoid “Spice.” He denied use of other illegal drugs, but laboratory testing was positive for methamphetamines. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a focal hematoma at T2–3, and spinal angiography was negative for vascular abnormalities; however, a follow-up angiogram 6 days later revealed interval development of an irregular dilation of the left T3 radiculomedullary artery originating from the left supreme intercostal artery. Results Surgical trapping and resection of the lesion yielded a good clinical outcome. Conclusions Although two previous case reports have described patients with thoracic radiculomedullary pseudoaneurysm causing spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), this is the first reported case associated with synthetic cannabinoids and methamphetamine abuse. Although this diagnosis is exceptionally rare, clinical presentation of SAH with associated back pain and lower-extremity symptoms warrants an aggressive imaging workup. Even in the setting of negative angiography, repeat cerebral and spinal angiograms may be necessary to identify a potentially treatable cause of spinal SAH. PMID:24436861

  17. Erythropoietin for the Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Feasible Ingredient for a Successful Medical Recipe

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Giovanni; Tomasello, Giovanni; Noto, Marcello; Alafaci, Concetta; Cappello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following aneurysm bleeding accounts for 6% to 8% of all cerebrovascular accidents. Although an aneurysm can be effectively managed by surgery or endovascular therapy, delayed cerebral ischemia is diagnosed in a high percentage of patients resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Cerebral vasospasm occurs in more than half of all patients after aneurysm rupture and is recognized as the leading cause of delayed cerebral ischemia after SAH. Hemodynamic strategies and endovascular procedures may be considered for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. In recent years, the mechanisms contributing to the development of vasospasm, abnormal reactivity of cerebral arteries and cerebral ischemia following SAH, have been investigated intensively. A number of pathological processes have been identified in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, including endothelial injury, smooth muscle cell contraction from spasmogenic substances produced by the subarachnoid blood clots, changes in vascular responsiveness and inflammatory response of the vascular endothelium. To date, the current therapeutic interventions remain ineffective as they are limited to the manipulation of systemic blood pressure, variation of blood volume and viscosity and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension. In this scenario, the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been found to exert neuroprotective action during experimental SAH when its recombinant form (rHuEPO) is administered systemically. However, recent translation of experimental data into clinical trials has suggested an unclear role of recombinant human EPO in the setting of SAH. In this context, the aim of the current review is to present current evidence on the potential role of EPO in cerebrovascular dysfunction following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26581085

  18. Luminal platelet aggregates in functional deficits in parenchymal vessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Victor; Flores, Rowena; Muller, Artur; Sehba, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of early ischemic injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not understood. This study examined the acute effect of endovascular puncture-induced SAH on parenchymal vessel function in rat, using intravascular fluorescent tracers to assess flow and vascular permeability and immunostaining to assess structural integrity and to visualize platelet aggregates. In sham-operated animals, vessels were well filled with tracer administered 10 seconds before sacrifice, and parenchymal escape of tracer was rare. At ten minutes and 3 hours after hemorrhage, patches of poor vascular filling were distributed throughout the forebrain. Close examination of these regions revealed short segments of narrowed diameter along many profiles. Most vascular profiles with reduced perfusion contained platelet aggregates and in addition showed focal loss of collagen IV, a principal component of basal lamina. In contrast, vessels were well filled at 24 hours post-hemorrhage, indicating that vascular perfusion had recovered. Parenchymal escape of intravascular tracer was detected at 10 minutes post-hemorrhage and later as plumes of fluorescence emanating into parenchyma from restricted microvascular foci. These data demonstrate that parenchymal microvessels are compromised in function by 10 minutes after SAH and identify focal microvascular constriction and local accumulation of luminal platelet aggregates as potential initiators of that compromise. PMID:20654597

  19. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ... The Christopher C. Getch, MD Chair of Research Carol W. Harvey Memorial Chair of Research The Karen ...

  20. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2016 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  1. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by injury is often seen in the elderly who have fallen and hit their head. Among ... to control blood pressure Nimodipine to prevent artery spasms Painkillers and anti-anxiety medicines to relieve headache ...

  2. Current concepts of pathophysiology and management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Findlay, J M; Macdonald, R L; Weir, B K

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 10 in 100,000 persons suffer rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm annually, and roughly 60% of these will survive the initial catastrophe in reasonable neurological condition. Of the many ensuing complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most frustrating continues to be a form of delayed-onset cerebral arterial narrowing known as vasospasm. Because it is caused by thick subarachnoid blood clots coating the adventitial surface of cerebral arteries, the distribution and severity of vasospasm correlates closely with location and volume of subarachnoid hematoma as visualized on computed tomography (CT). Critical vasospasm causes cerebral ischemia and infarction: the "second stroke." It is now know that vasospasm represents sustained arterial contraction rather than structural thickening of the vessel wall with lumen encroachment. A large body of evidence points to oxyhemoglobin, released from lysing erythrocytes, as the principal component of blood clot responsible for this contraction. The precise mechanism by which oxyhemoglobin causes prolonged vascular smooth muscle cell constriction has not yet been established, but possibilities include secondary generation of vasoactive free radicals, lipid peroxides, eicosanoids, bilirubin, and endothelin. Vasospasm treatments are directed at preventing or reversing arterial narrowing, or at preventing or reversing cerebral ischemia. Several treatments from the latter category, namely, hypertensive, hypervolemic hemodilutional therapy and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine, have proven moderately effective and are in widespread clinical use. It has also been possible to mechanically dilate vasospastic vessels with transluminal angioplasty improving cerebral blood flow to ischemic brain. However we are still in need of an effective agent to prevent arterial narrowing, and several hopeful candidates in this category of treatment are clot lytic agent tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and

  3. Successfully Treated Isolated Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Causing Intracranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HORIO, Yoshinobu; KATSUTA, Toshiro; SAMURA, Kazuhiro; WAKUTA, Naoki; FUKUDA, Kenji; HIGASHI, Toshio; INOUE, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    There are very few published reports of rupture of an isolated posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysm, and consequently the optimal therapeutic strategy is debatable. An 84-year-old man presented with sudden onset of restlessness and disorientation. Neuroradiological imaging showed an intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with no visible intracranial vascular lesion. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a localized subarachnoid hematoma at Th10–11. Both contrast-enhanced spinal computed tomography and enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an area of enhancement within the hematoma. Superselective angiography of the left Th12 intercostal artery demonstrated a faintly enhanced spot in the venous phase. Thirteen days after the onset of symptoms, a small fusiform aneurysm situated on the radiculopial artery was resected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was eventually discharged in an ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this 84-year-old man is the oldest reported case of surgical management of a ruptured isolated PSA aneurysm. This case illustrates both the validity and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. PMID:26522607

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured inflammatory aneurysm: a possible manifestation of neurocysticercosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Soto-Hernandez, J L; Gomez-Llata Andrade, S; Rojas-Echeverri, L A; Texeira, F; Romero, V

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. As revealed by lumbar puncture, the cerebrospinal fluid had low glucose, high protein levels, and pleocytosis with 5% of eosinophils. Cultures were negative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and complement fixation reactions for cysticercosis in cerebrospinal fluid were positive. An angiogram revealed an aneurysm of the right anteroinferior cerebellar artery. At surgery, the aneurysm was found to be surrounded by thickened leptomeninges, which histologically presented dense inflammation and remains of Cysticercus. The aneurysm could not be clipped, and it was wrapped. Postoperatively, the patient had dizziness and right ear tinnitus. He received prednisone therapy on alternate days and subsequently received albendazole for subarachnoid cysticerci. At the 4-year follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Although we cannot rule out a congenital aneurysm, its location inside an area of severe arachnoiditis around a cysticercus suggests an inflammatory origin. This type of vascular lesion not reported before should be suspected in patients with chronic cysticercotic meningitis.

  5. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management

    PubMed Central

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:24990846

  6. Causal Structure of Brain Physiology after Brain Injury from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Rahman, Shah Atiqur; Huang, Yuxiao; Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, J. Michael; Albers, David; Falo, Cristina Maria; Park, Soojin; Agarwal, Sachin; Connolly, E. Sander; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High frequency physiologic data are routinely generated for intensive care patients. While massive amounts of data make it difficult for clinicians to extract meaningful signals, these data could provide insight into the state of critically ill patients and guide interventions. We develop uniquely customized computational methods to uncover the causal structure within systemic and brain physiologic measures recorded in a neurological intensive care unit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the data have many missing values, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and are composed from a heterogeneous patient population, our advanced imputation and causal inference techniques enable physiologic models to be learned for individuals. Our analyses confirm that complex physiologic relationships including demand and supply of oxygen underlie brain oxygen measurements and that mechanisms for brain swelling early after injury may differ from those that develop in a delayed fashion. These inference methods will enable wider use of ICU data to understand patient physiology. PMID:27123582

  7. Continuous Monitoring of Spreading Depolarization and Cerebrovascular Autoregulation after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Shirao, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Takao; Oka, Fumiaki; Maruta, Yuichi; Suehiro, Eiichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Oku, Takayuki; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-10-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a prominent complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although vasospasm of proximal cerebral arteries has been regarded as the main cause of DCI, vasospasm of distal arteries, microthrombosis, impaired autoregulation, cortical spreading depolarization (CSD), and spreading ischemia are thought to be involved in DCI after aSAH. Here, we describe a patient with aSAH in whom CSD and cerebrovascular autoregulation were evaluated using simultaneous electrocorticography and monitoring of the pressure reactivity index (PRx) after surgical clipping of a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm. In this patient, a prolonged duration of CSD and elevation of PRx preceded delayed neurological deficit. Based on this observation, we propose a relationship between these factors and DCI. Assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation may permit detection of the inverse hemodynamic response to cortical depolarization. Detection of DCI may be achieved through simultaneous monitoring of CSD and PRx in patients with aSAH. PMID:27492947

  8. Early Embolization for Ruptured Aneurysm in Acute Stage of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, T.; Rada, K. TE; Hirotsune, N.; Nishino, S.; Asano, T.; Manabe, T.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Four cases of ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presented with severe neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE). On admission, two patients were grade IV and two were grade V according to Hunt and Hess grading. All patients needed respiratory management with the assistance of a ventilator. Three of them underwent endovascular treatment for the ruptured aneurysms within three days from onset after ensuring hemodynamic stability. Immediately after the endovascular treatment, lumbar spinal drainage was inserted in all the patients. The pulmonary edema findings disappeared rapidly after the respiratory management. The results were good recovery in two, and moderate disability in two. We concluded that early embolization of ruptured aneurysm and placement of spinal drainage is a satisfactory option for severe SAH with NPE. PMID:20566097

  9. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage from the anterior communication artery in a sex offender. Considerations regarding liability].

    PubMed

    Mielke, U; Donauer, E; Luthe, R

    1996-09-01

    A 32-year-old man was accused of attempted rape. While urinating at the side of the road he felt an erection. He approached a 9-year-old girl who happened to be coming along and pressed his penis between her legs until ejaculation. Shortly afterwards he was arrested. He confessed, but claimed partial amnesia and had no explanation for the offence, which he normally would never have thought of. Shortly before the event a witness had seen him nearby in a poor state of orientation. Three months later in prison he suffered massive subarachnoidal hemorrhage from an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The evaluation of his legal responsibility must take account of a putative psychomotor seizure at the time of the offence. With regard to the aneurysm diagnosed later, a pathogenetic connection, in terms of a preceding warning leak, might be assumed.

  10. [Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2015: overview of the chapter on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-04-01

    After an interval of 6 years, the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke were revised in 2015 in accordance with recent advances in clinical knowledge. The chapter on subarachnoid hemorrhage includes new and revised recommendations for diagnosis, treatment selection, and management of vasospasm. The chapter on diagnosis recommends re-examination of vascular images at regular intervals in cases in which cerebral aneurysm was not detected on the first examination. The section dealing with treatment selection for cerebral aneurysmal emphasizes that the method for aneurysm obliteration should be selected based on consultation with both surgical and endovascular specialists. The role of triple-H therapy(i.e., induced hypertension, hypervolemia, and hemodilution) has changed from a preventive measure to a treatment option for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm.

  11. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage from the anterior communication artery in a sex offender. Considerations regarding liability].

    PubMed

    Mielke, U; Donauer, E; Luthe, R

    1996-09-01

    A 32-year-old man was accused of attempted rape. While urinating at the side of the road he felt an erection. He approached a 9-year-old girl who happened to be coming along and pressed his penis between her legs until ejaculation. Shortly afterwards he was arrested. He confessed, but claimed partial amnesia and had no explanation for the offence, which he normally would never have thought of. Shortly before the event a witness had seen him nearby in a poor state of orientation. Three months later in prison he suffered massive subarachnoidal hemorrhage from an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The evaluation of his legal responsibility must take account of a putative psychomotor seizure at the time of the offence. With regard to the aneurysm diagnosed later, a pathogenetic connection, in terms of a preceding warning leak, might be assumed. PMID:8992376

  12. Paravascular pathways contribute to vasculitis and neuroinflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage independently of glymphatic control

    PubMed Central

    Luo, C; Yao, X; Li, J; He, B; Liu, Q; Ren, H; Liang, F; Li, M; Lin, H; Peng, J; Yuan, T F; Pei, Z; Su, H

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with high mortality. The mechanisms underlying its pathological complications have not been fully identified. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of the glymphatic system in the neuropathology of SAH. We demonstrate that blood components rapidly enter the paravascular space following SAH and penetrate into the perivascular parenchyma throughout the brain, causing disastrous events such as cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, microcirculation dysfunction and widespread perivascular neuroinflammation. Clearance of the paravascular pathway with tissue-type plasminogen activator ameliorates the behavioral deficits and alleviates histological injury of SAH. Interestingly, AQP4−/− mice showed no improvements in neurological deficits and neuroinflammation at day 7 after SAH compared with WT control mice. In conclusion, our study proves that the paravascular pathway dynamically mediates the pathological complications following acute SAH independently of glymphatic control. PMID:27031957

  13. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-06-23

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future.

  14. Transpulmonary Thermodilution-Based Management of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Tatsushi; Kazumata, Ken; Ueyama-Mutoh, Tomoko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a potentially catastrophic but treatable systemic event after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The development of NPE most frequently occurs immediately after SAH, and the severity is usually self-limiting. Despite extensive research efforts and a breadth of collective clinical experience, accurate diagnosis of NPE can be difficult, and effective hemodynamic treatment options are limited. Recently, a bedside transpulmonary thermodilution device has been introduced that traces physiological patterns consistent with current theories regarding the mechanism (hydrostatic or permeability PE) of NPE. This article provides an overview of the clinical usefulness of the advanced technique for use in the neurointensive care unit for the diagnosis and management of post-SAH NPE.

  15. Continuous Monitoring of Spreading Depolarization and Cerebrovascular Autoregulation after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Shirao, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Takao; Oka, Fumiaki; Maruta, Yuichi; Suehiro, Eiichi; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Oku, Takayuki; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-10-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a prominent complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although vasospasm of proximal cerebral arteries has been regarded as the main cause of DCI, vasospasm of distal arteries, microthrombosis, impaired autoregulation, cortical spreading depolarization (CSD), and spreading ischemia are thought to be involved in DCI after aSAH. Here, we describe a patient with aSAH in whom CSD and cerebrovascular autoregulation were evaluated using simultaneous electrocorticography and monitoring of the pressure reactivity index (PRx) after surgical clipping of a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm. In this patient, a prolonged duration of CSD and elevation of PRx preceded delayed neurological deficit. Based on this observation, we propose a relationship between these factors and DCI. Assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation may permit detection of the inverse hemodynamic response to cortical depolarization. Detection of DCI may be achieved through simultaneous monitoring of CSD and PRx in patients with aSAH.

  16. A Hypothesis: Hydrogen Sulfide Might Be Neuroprotective against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Peng; Chi, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects neurons against oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced neuroinflammation in microglia, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. The gas H2S is emerging as a novel regulator of important physiologic functions such as arterial diameter, blood flow, and leukocyte adhesion. It has been known that multiple factors, including oxidative stress, free radicals, and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis as well as abnormal inflammatory responses, are involved in the mechanism underlying the brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the multiple physiologic functions of H2S, we speculate that it might be a promising, effective, and specific therapy for brain injury after SAH. PMID:24707204

  17. [Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke 2015: overview of the chapter on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2016-04-01

    After an interval of 6 years, the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke were revised in 2015 in accordance with recent advances in clinical knowledge. The chapter on subarachnoid hemorrhage includes new and revised recommendations for diagnosis, treatment selection, and management of vasospasm. The chapter on diagnosis recommends re-examination of vascular images at regular intervals in cases in which cerebral aneurysm was not detected on the first examination. The section dealing with treatment selection for cerebral aneurysmal emphasizes that the method for aneurysm obliteration should be selected based on consultation with both surgical and endovascular specialists. The role of triple-H therapy(i.e., induced hypertension, hypervolemia, and hemodilution) has changed from a preventive measure to a treatment option for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. PMID:27333759

  18. Causal Structure of Brain Physiology after Brain Injury from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Jan; Rahman, Shah Atiqur; Huang, Yuxiao; Frey, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, J Michael; Albers, David; Falo, Cristina Maria; Park, Soojin; Agarwal, Sachin; Connolly, E Sander; Kleinberg, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    High frequency physiologic data are routinely generated for intensive care patients. While massive amounts of data make it difficult for clinicians to extract meaningful signals, these data could provide insight into the state of critically ill patients and guide interventions. We develop uniquely customized computational methods to uncover the causal structure within systemic and brain physiologic measures recorded in a neurological intensive care unit after subarachnoid hemorrhage. While the data have many missing values, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and are composed from a heterogeneous patient population, our advanced imputation and causal inference techniques enable physiologic models to be learned for individuals. Our analyses confirm that complex physiologic relationships including demand and supply of oxygen underlie brain oxygen measurements and that mechanisms for brain swelling early after injury may differ from those that develop in a delayed fashion. These inference methods will enable wider use of ICU data to understand patient physiology. PMID:27123582

  19. Sensitivity of a Clinical Decision Rule and Early Computed Tomography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Dustin G.; Kene, Mamata V.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Vinson, David R.; Ballard, Dustin W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of a clinical decision rule for subarachnoid hemorrhage, in combination with cranial computed tomography (CT) performed within six hours of ictus (early cranial CT), may be able to reasonably exclude a diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This study’s objective was to examine the sensitivity of both early cranial CT and a previously validated clinical decision rule among emergency department (ED) patients with aSAH and a normal mental status. Methods Patients were evaluated in the 21 EDs of an integrated health delivery system between January 2007 and June 2013. We identified by chart review a retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with aSAH in the setting of a normal mental status and performance of early cranial CT. Variables comprising the SAH clinical decision rule (age ≥40, presence of neck pain or stiffness, headache onset with exertion, loss of consciousness at headache onset) were abstracted from the chart and assessed for inter-rater reliability. Results One hundred fifty-five patients with aSAH met study inclusion criteria. The sensitivity of early cranial CT was 95.5% (95% CI [90.9–98.2]). The sensitivity of the SAH clinical decision rule was also 95.5% (95% CI [90.9–98.2]). Since all false negative cases for each diagnostic modality were mutually independent, the combined use of both early cranial CT and the clinical decision rule improved sensitivity to 100% (95% CI [97.6–100.0]). Conclusion Neither early cranial CT nor the SAH clinical decision rule demonstrated ideal sensitivity for aSAH in this retrospective cohort. However, the combination of both strategies might optimize sensitivity for this life-threatening disease. PMID:26587089

  20. Astrocyte Ca2+ Signaling Drives Inversion of Neurovascular Coupling after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Anthony C; Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2015-09-30

    Physiologically, neurovascular coupling (NVC) matches focal increases in neuronal activity with local arteriolar dilation. Astrocytes participate in NVC by sensing increased neurotransmission and releasing vasoactive agents (e.g., K(+)) from perivascular endfeet surrounding parenchymal arterioles. Previously, we demonstrated an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous Ca(2+) events in astrocyte endfeet and inversion of NVC from vasodilation to vasoconstriction in brain slices obtained from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model rats. However, the role of spontaneous astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling in determining the polarity of the NVC response remains unclear. Here, we used two-photon imaging of Fluo-4-loaded rat brain slices to determine whether altered endfoot Ca(2+) signaling underlies SAH-induced inversion of NVC. We report a time-dependent emergence of endfoot high-amplitude Ca(2+) signals (eHACSs) after SAH that were not observed in endfeet from unoperated animals. Furthermore, the percentage of endfeet with eHACSs varied with time and paralleled the development of inversion of NVC. Endfeet with eHACSs were present only around arterioles exhibiting inversion of NVC. Importantly, depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores using cyclopiazonic acid abolished SAH-induced eHACSs and restored arteriolar dilation in SAH brain slices to two mediators of NVC (a rise in endfoot Ca(2+) and elevation of extracellular K(+)). These data indicate a causal link between SAH-induced eHACSs and inversion of NVC. Ultrastructural examination using transmission electron microscopy indicated that a similar proportion of endfeet exhibiting eHACSs also exhibited asymmetrical enlargement. Our results demonstrate that subarachnoid blood causes a delayed increase in the amplitude of spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) release events leading to inversion of NVC. Significance statement: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)--strokes involving cerebral aneurysm rupture and release of blood onto the

  1. Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  2. Impact of electrolyte imbalances on the outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Alimohamadi, Maysam; Saghafinia, Masoud; Alikhani, Fariba; Danial, Zohreh; Shirani, Mohamad; Amirjamshidi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte disturbances are frequently observed during the acute and subacute period after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may potentially worsen therapeutic outcome. This study was conducted to determine the pattern of electrolyte disturbance in the acute and subacute phase after SAH and their effect on the long-term outcome of the patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three patients were prospectively enrolled. The standards of care for all patients were uniformly performed. The serum levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium and magnesium) were determined with measurements obtained on admission, 3–5 and 7–10 days after SAH. Radiographic intensity of hemorrhage (Fisher's scale), and the clinical grading (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade) were documented in the first visit. The outcomes were evaluated using Glasgow outcome scale at 3 months after discharge. Results: Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte imbalance among the patients but did not worsen the outcome. Although less common, hypernatremia in the subacute phase was significantly associated with poor outcome. Both hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia were predictive of poor outcomes. Conclusions: Because electrolyte abnormalities can adversely affect the outcome, the serum levels of electrolytes should be closely monitored with serial measurements and treated properly in patients with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:26889275

  3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and negative angiography: clinical course and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, Marco; Rainero, Innocenzo; Panciani, Pier Paolo; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Benevello, Chiara; Garbossa, Diego; Carlino, Christian; Valfrè, Walter; Griva, Federico; Bradac, Gianni Boris; Ducati, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term natural history of nontraumatic angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage with typical pretruncal (P-SAH) and diffuse (D-SAH) pattern of hemorrhage. A retrospective review of 102 patients who experienced angiographically negative SAH at our institution was undertaken (11.6% of 882 spontaneous SAH). Follow-ups were obtained at 7.9 to 16 years. In the D-SAH group, 11 patients (13.9%) out of 79 had an aneurysm, and four (5.1%) had rebleeding episodes. In the P-SAH group, the second angiography was negative in all of the 23 cases, and no rebleeding episodes were recorded. The long-term follow-up confirms that P-SAH is a benign disease. A second angiography could not be necessary. D-SAH is probably due to an aneurysm that thrombose early after the bleeding. At short-term follow-up, the sack could frequently recanalize and rebleed, whereas a late follow-up shows that rebleeding is very rare.

  4. Detection of CT occult aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a novel spectrophotometric analysis of cerebral spinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Bhadri, Prashant R.; Huang, Jian; Kumar, Alla S.; Pyne, Gail J.; Caffery, James, Jr.; Clark, Joseph F.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    In North America, approximately 30,000 people annually suffer an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using computerized tomography (CT), the blood is generally not visible after 12 hours. Currently lumbar puncture (LP) results are equivocal for diagnosing SAH largely because of technical limitations in performing a quick and objective evaluation. Having ruptured once, an aneurysm is statistically more likely to rupture again. Therefore, for those individuals with a sentinel (or warning) hemorrhage, detection within the first 12 hours is paramount. We present a diagnostic technology based on visible spectroscopy to quickly and objectively assess low-blood volume SAH from a diagnostic spinal tap. This technology provides clinicians, with the resources necessary for assessing patients with suspected aneurismal SAH beyond the current 12-hour limitation imposed by CT scans. This aids in the improvement of patient care and results in rapid and appropriate treatment of the patient. To perform this diagnosis, we quantify bilirubin and hemoglobin in human CSF over a range of concentrations. Because the bilirubin and hemoglobin spectra overlap quantification is problematic. To solve this problem, two algorithmic approaches are presented: a statistical or a random stochastic component known as Partial Least Square (PLS) and a control theory based mathematical model. These algorithms account for the noise and distortion from blood in CSF leading to the quantification of bilirubin and methemoglobin spectroscopically. The configurations for a hardware platform is introduced, that is portable and user-friendly composed of specific components designed to have the sensitivity and specificity required. This aids in measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. The prototype uses purpose built algorithms contained within the platform, such that physicians can use it in the hospital and lab as a point of care diagnostic test.

  5. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with internal carotid artery dissection resulting from whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Freeman, Michael D; Webb, Alexandra L; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2015-12-01

    Spinal injury following inertial loading of the head and neck (whiplash) is a common sequel of low speed traffic crashes. A variety of non-musculoskeletal injuries have been described in association with injury to the spine following whiplash trauma, including traumatic brain injury, vestibular derangement, and cranial nerve injury, among others. Vascular injuries in the head and neck have, however, only rarely been described. We present the case of a middle-aged male who sustained an ultimately fatal injury that resulted from injury to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intracerebral vascular structures following a hard braking maneuver, with no direct head- or neck contact with the vehicular interior. Based on this unusual mechanism of injury we reviewed hospital data from the United States nationwide inpatient database (NIS) to assess the frequency of similar injuries reportedly resulting from traffic crashes. The post-mortem examination revealed a left internal carotid artery dissection associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the close temporal association, the absent prior history, and the plausibility of the injury mechanism, the injury was attributed to the braking maneuver. An analysis of NIS data demonstrated that the prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is significantly higher when there is a traumatic etiology, and higher yet when the trauma is a traffic crash (odds ratio 3.3 and 4.3, respectively). The presented case, together with the hospital inpatient data analysis, indicate that although SAH in combination with ICA dissection is relatively rare, it is substantially more probable following a traffic crash. In a clinical or forensic setting the inference that magnitude of a trauma was low should not serve as a basis for either excluding a cervical artery dissection from a differential diagnosis, or for excluding the trauma as a cause of a diagnosed dissection. This case report illustrates a rare fatal outcome of inertial load to

  6. Immune and inflammatory gene signature in rat cerebrum in subarachnoid hemorrhage with microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chu-I; Chou, An-Kuo; Lin, Ching-Chih; Chou, Chia-Hua; Loh, Joon-Khim; Lieu, Ann-Shung; Wang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Howng, Shen-Long; Hong, Yi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been studied in terms of a contraction of the major cerebral arteries, but the effect of cerebrum tissue in SAH is not yet well understood. To gain insight into the biology of SAH-expressing cerebrum, we employed oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize the gene expression profiles of cerebrum tissue at the early stage of SAH. Functional gene expression in the cerebrum was analyzed 2 h following stage 1-hemorrhage in Sprague-Dawley rats. mRNA was investigated by performing microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses, and protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. In this study, 18 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes displayed at least a 1.5-fold change. Five genes were verified by real-time PCR, including three upregulated genes [prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), CD14 antigen, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)] as well as two downregulated genes [KRAB-zinc finger protein-2 (KZF-2) and γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 (GABA B receptor)]. Notably, there were functional implications for the three upregulated genes involved in the inflammatory SAH process. However, the mechanisms leading to decreased KZF-2 and GABA B receptor expression in SAH have never been characterized. We conclude that oligonucleotide microarrays have the potential for use as a method to identify candidate genes associated with SAH and to provide novel investigational targets, including genes involved in the immune and inflammatory response. Furthermore, understanding the regulation of MMP9/TIMP1 during the early stages of SAH may elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms in SAH rats.

  7. Effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    LIN, CHENG; ZHAO, YUANLI; WAN, GANG; ZHU, ANLIN; WANG, HAO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of simvastatin and taurine on delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. A total of 48 New Zealand white rabbits were allocated at random into four groups (control, SAH, SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups; n=12 each). The rabbit model of DCVS was established using a double hemorrhage method, which involved injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna in the SAH groups. The SAH + simvastatin group was administered oral simvastatin (5 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. The SAH + taurine group was administered oral taurine (50 mg/kg) daily between days 0–6. Starch (50 mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals in the other two groups (control and SAH groups). The control group were not subjected to any other injections or treatment. The internal diameter and internal diameter/wall thickness of the basilar artery (BA) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined using immunohistochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods following the sacrifice of all animals on day 7. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the BA was also measured using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The BA walls in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups exhibited reduced narrowing and corrugation of the tunica elastica interna compared with the SAH group. At the protein and cDNA levels, it was found that cerebral vasospasm of the BA in the SAH + simvastatin and SAH + taurine groups was alleviated, as indicated by the reduced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB compared with the SAH group (P<0.05). In conclusion, simvastatin and taurine reduced DCVS following SAH in rabbits, which suggests that these compounds may exert anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27073449

  8. Altered Resting-State Connectivity within Executive Networks after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Monica; Churchill, Nathan W.; de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Graham, Simon J.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with significant mortality rates, and most survivors experience significant cognitive deficits across multiple domains, including executive function. It is critical to determine the neural basis for executive deficits in aSAH, in order to better understand and improve patient outcomes. This study is the first examination of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a group of aSAH patients, used to characterize changes in functional connectivity of the frontoparietal network. We scanned 14 aSAH patients and 14 healthy controls, and divided patients into “impaired” and “unimpaired” groups based on a composite executive function score. Impaired patients exhibited significantly lower quality of life and neuropsychological impairment relative to controls, across multiple domains. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that unimpaired patients were not significantly different from controls, but impaired patients had increased frontoparietal connectivity. Patients evidenced increased frontoparietal connectivity as a function of decreased executive function and decreased mood (i.e. quality of life). In addition, T1 morphometric analysis demonstrated that these changes are not attributable to local cortical atrophy among aSAH patients. These results establish significant, reliable changes in the endogenous brain dynamics of aSAH patients, that are related to cognitive and mood outcomes. PMID:26172281

  9. Microglia regulate blood clearance in subarachnoid hemorrhage by heme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Schallner, Nils; Pandit, Rambhau; LeBlanc, Robert; Thomas, Ajith J.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Gallo, David; Otterbein, Leo E.; Hanafy, Khalid A.

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) carries a 50% mortality rate. The extravasated erythrocytes that surround the brain contain heme, which, when released from damaged red blood cells, functions as a potent danger molecule that induces sterile tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Free heme is metabolized by heme oxygenase (HO), resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), a bioactive gas with potent immunomodulatory capabilities. Here, using a murine model of SAH, we demonstrated that expression of the inducible HO isoform (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) in microglia is necessary to attenuate neuronal cell death, vasospasm, impaired cognitive function, and clearance of cerebral blood burden. Initiation of CO inhalation after SAH rescued the absence of microglial HO-1 and reduced injury by enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Evaluation of correlative human data revealed that patients with SAH have markedly higher HO-1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with that in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Furthermore, cisternal hematoma volume correlated with HO-1 activity and cytokine expression in the CSF of these patients. Collectively, we found that microglial HO-1 and the generation of CO are essential for effective elimination of blood and heme after SAH that otherwise leads to neuronal injury and cognitive dysfunction. Administration of CO may have potential as a therapeutic modality in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms. PMID:26011640

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-2) in subarachnoid hemorrhage: Regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Sana; Hayman, Erik G; Hong, Caron; Stokum, Jesse A; Kurland, David B; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically carries a poor prognosis. Growing evidence indicates that overabundant production of nitric oxide (NO) may be responsible for a large part of the secondary injury that follows SAH. Although SAH modulates the activity of all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the inducible isoform, NOS-2, accounts for a majority of NO-mediated secondary injuries after SAH. Here, we review the indispensable physiological roles of NO that must be preserved, even while attempting to downmodulate the pathophysiologic effects of NO that are induced by SAH. We examine the effects of SAH on the function of the various NOS isoforms, with a particular focus on the pathological effects of NOS-2 and on the mechanisms responsible for its transcriptional upregulation. Finally, we review interventions to block NOS-2 upregulation or to counteract its effects, with an emphasis on the potential therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in patients afflicted with SAH. There is still much to be learned regarding the apparently maladaptive response of NOS-2 and its harmful product NO in SAH. However, the available evidence points to crucial effects that, on balance, are adverse, making the NOS-2/NO/peroxynitrite axis an attractive therapeutic target in SAH. PMID:27774520

  11. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another. PMID:27695237

  12. Protective effect 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol in subarachnoid hemorrhage provoked oxidative neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu-Wen; Wu, Juan; Hu, Hua-Long; Li, Wei-Xin; Zhong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have indicated that early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with fatal outcomes. Oxidative stress and brain edema are the characteristic pathological events in occurrence EBI following SAH. The present study aimed to examine the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) against SAH-induced EBI, and to demonstrate whether the effect is associated with its potent free radical scavenging property. SAH was induced in rats using an endovascular perforation technique, and 24 h later the rats displayed diminished neurological scores and brain edema. Furthermore, elevated malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) and depleted levels of antioxidants were observed in the rat cerebral cortex tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the upregulated mRNA expression of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and −9 in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly upregulated in SAH-induced rats. By constrast, treatment with DOPET significantly attenuated EBI by reducing brain edema, elevation of antioxidant status, inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation. In this context, DOPET may be a potent agent in the treatment of EBI following SAH, as a result of its free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:27588109

  13. Remote Ischemic Conditioning Alters Methylation and Expression of Cell Cycle Genes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nikkola, Elina; Laiwalla, Azim; Ko, Arthur; Alvarez, Marcus; Connolly, Mark; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Hsu, William; Bui, Alex; Pajukanta, Päivi; Gonzalez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a phenomenon in which short periods of non-fatal ischemia in one tissue confers protection to distant tissues. Here we performed a longitudinal human pilot study in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) undergoing RIC by limb ischemia to compare changes in DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles before and after RIC. Methods Thirteen patients underwent 4 RIC sessions over 2–12 days after rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. We analyzed whole blood transcriptomes using RNA sequencing and genome-wide DNA methylomes using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, both before and after RIC. We tested differential expression (DE) and differential methylation (DM) using an intra-individual paired study design, and then overlapped the DE and DM results for analyses of functional categories and protein-protein interactions. Results We observed 164 DE genes and 3,493 DM CpG sites after RIC, of which 204 CpG sites overlapped with 103 genes, enriched for pathways of cell cycle (P<3.8×10−4) and inflammatory responses (P<1.4×10−4). The cell cycle pathway genes form a significant protein-protein interaction network of tightly co-expressed genes (P<0.00001). Conclusions Gene expression and DNA methylation changes in aSAH patients undergoing RIC are involved in coordinated cell cycle and inflammatory responses. PMID:26251247

  14. Roller coaster-associated subarachnoid hemorrhage--report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Rutsch, Sebastian; Niesen, Wolf-Dirk; Meckel, Stephan; Reinhard, Matthias

    2012-04-15

    The most common neurological injuries associated with roller coaster rides are subdural hematoma and cervical artery dissection. We report two cases of roller-coaster associated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 40-year-old healthy man developed a strong, holocephalic headache during a roller coaster ride. SAH Hunt & Hess grade II and Fisher grade 3 was diagnosed. An underlying aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 41-year-old female (smoker, otherwise healthy) experienced a sudden, strong headache and diplopia during a roller coaster ride. A perimesencephalic SAH (Hunt & Hess grade II, Fisher grade 3) was disclosed by a CT scan. No aneurysm was detected on angiography. Both patients were discharged without neurological disability. In conclusion, SAH is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis in cases of acute headache during roller coaster rides. Both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH can occur. A combination of mechanical factors and excessive blood pressure rises in vulnerable persons is discussed. PMID:22177088

  15. Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced without reduction in delayed ischemic injury or improvement in the long-term outcome. This fact has shifted research interest to the early brain injury (first 72 h) evoked by SAH. In recent years, several pathological mechanisms that activate within minutes after the initial bleed and lead to early brain injury are identified. In addition, it is found that many of these mechanisms evolve with time and participate in the pathogenesis of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Therefore, a therapy or therapies focused on these early mechanisms may not only prevent the early brain injury but may also help reduce the intensity of later developing neurological complications. This manuscript reviews the pathological mechanisms of early brain injury after SAH and summarizes the status of current therapies. PMID:21161614

  16. Methazolamide improves neurological behavior by inhibition of neuron apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingchang; Wang, Wei; Mai, Haojian; Zhang, Xinmu; Wang, Jian; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Yuefei; Deng, Gang; Gao, Ling; Zhou, Shuanhu; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant nerve dysfunction, such as hemiplegia, mood disorders, cognitive and memory impairment. Currently, no clear measures can reduce brain nerve damage. The study of brain nerve protection after SAH is of great significance. We aim to evaluate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of methazolamide in C57BL/6J SAH animal model in vivo and in blood-induced primary cortical neuron (PCNs) cellular model of SAH in vitro. We demonstrate that methazolamide accelerates the recovery of neurological damage, effectively relieves cerebral edema, and improves cognitive function in SAH mice as well as offers neuroprotection in blood- or hemoglobin-treated PCNs and partially restores normal neuronal morphology. In addition, western blot analyses show obviously decreased expression of active caspase-3 in methazolamide-treated SAH mice comparing with vehicle-treated SAH animals. Furthermore, methazolamide effectively inhibits ROS production in PCNs induced by blood exposure or hemoglobin insult. However, methazolamide has no protective effects in morality, fluctuation of cerebral blood flow, SAH grade, and cerebral vasospasm of SAH mice. Given methazolamide, a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, can penetrate the blood–brain barrier and has been used in clinic in the treatment of ocular conditions, it provides potential as a novel therapy for SAH. PMID:27731352

  17. A 54-year-old man with 12 intracranial aneurysms and familial subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report.

    PubMed

    Hosainey, Sayied Abdol Mohieb; Meling, Torstein R

    2016-10-01

    Unruptured intracranial aneurysms occur in 1-3 % of the general population, and the risk of rupture is generally considered to be low. However, patients with multiple aneurysms and familial predisposition carry a particular risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 54-year-old hypertensive man underwent screening with a head CT angiography (CTA) because of his comorbidities. CTA revealed multiple bilateral aneurysms around the circle of Willis. At first surgery, seven aneurysms were clipped (BA, ACOM, ICA ×2, and MCA ×3), two of which were detected intraoperatively only. During the second surgery, another three aneurysms were surgically clipped (PCOM and MCA ×2), one of which was detected intraoperatively. Follow-up angiography revealed another two aneurysms. A PCOM aneurysm was treated by coil embolization and a VA aneurysm clipped surgically during a third admission. The patient made an uneventful recovery. However, 4 months after his second surgery, his daughter underwent surgical clipping of a right-sided ICA aneurysm. This case report highlights both the importance of screening of high risk patients with family history of SAH, as well as its limitations, as our patient developed two de novo aneurysms during 6-month follow-up and CTA preoperatively missed three small aneurysms. PMID:27452953

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, T.; Tanabe, T.; Muraoka, K.; Terada, K.; Hirotsune, N.; Nishino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cases of aneurysm associated with the occlusion of both common carotid arteries are very rare. We present a case of ruptured aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation and posterior cerebral artery coexisting with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization with a double-balloon remodeling technique. Finally, we review the literature. A 62-year-old woman presented with severe headache; a computed tomography scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed that the bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded. The muscle branches of the vertebral arteries had anastomosed to the bilateral external carotid arteries. Bilateral posterior communicating arteries had developed and supplied the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Two aneurysms (a saccular aneurysm of the P1 portion of the left posterior cerebral artery and a wide-necked aneurysm of the basilar bifurcation) were also observed. Endovascular embolization of the aneurysms was successfully performed using a double-balloon remodeling technique. The patient made a full recovery after treatment, and the aneurysms remained obliterated 12 months after embolization. We believe that this is the first report of ruptured aneurysms associated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion successfully treated by endovascular coiling. The double-balloon remodeling technique was useful for treatment of wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm. PMID:20557745

  19. Differential effects of activity and climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Nonaka, K; Suzuki, H; Kirino, T; Tamura, A

    2001-05-01

    Conflicting findings of the effect of climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may result from the influence of strenuous activities which can trigger aneurysmal rupture independent of climatological factors. The effect of climate and patient activities on onset of SAH were analyzed. The clinical records of 786 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to our hospital for 10 years were reviewed. Activities at onset were categorized according to the intensity of strain at onset. Seasonal variation, circannual cyclic trend, and association with 90 meteorological factors were examined in each category and the results were compared between categories. Bimonthly occurrence in the light strain group showed a significant seasonal variation and cyclic trend with two peaks in early spring and fall, whereas no significant trend was detected in the overall patients and in the heavy strain group. The significant meteorological factors were global solar radiation, sunshine hours, changes in mean and minimum temperature and mean vapor pressure from the previous day, and minimum pressure in the previous 7 days. Lower global solar radiation in the light strain group was associated with onset with the lowest p value (p = 0.0046). No factors were significant in the heavy strain group. There is some evidence of the possible influence of climatological factors on onset of SAH without strenuous activity. Strenuous activity seems to affect onset more strongly, which masks any effect of climate. PMID:11396302

  20. Determining rural risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: A structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Linda Jayne; Gall, Seana; Stirling, Christine

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) carries a high disability burden. The true impact of rurality as a predictor of outcome severity is unknown. Our aim is to clarify the relationship between the proposed explanations of regional and rural health disparities linked to severity of outcome following an aSAH. An initial literature search identified limited data directly linking geographical location, rurality, rural vulnerability, and aSAH. A further search noting parallels with ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarct literature presented a number of diverse and interrelated predictors. This a priori knowledge informed the development of a conceptual framework that proposes the relationship between rurality and severity of outcome following an aSAH utilizing structural equation modeling. The presented conceptual framework explores a number of system, environmental, and modifiable risk factors. Socioeconomic characteristics, modifiable risk factors, and timely treatment that were identified as predictors of severity of outcome following an aSAH and within each of these defined predictors a number of contributing specific individual predictors are proposed. There are considerable gaps in the current knowledge pertaining to the impact of rurality on the severity of outcome following an aSAH. Absent from the literature is any investigation of the cumulative impact and multiplicity of risk factors associated with rurality. The proposed conceptual framework hypothesizes a number of relationships between both individual level and system level predictors, acknowledging that intervening predictors may mediate the effect of one variable on another.

  1. Memantine alleviates brain injury and neurobehavioral deficits after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Shan, Yan-Shen; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes brain injury via glutamate excitotoxicity, which leads to an excessive Ca(2+) influx and this starts an apoptotic cascade. Memantine has been proven to reduce brain injury in several types of brain insults. This study investigated the neuro-protective potential of memantine after SAH and explored the underlying mechanisms. An endovascular perforation rat model of SAH was used and Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the neuro-behavioral functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neuronal cell preservation. The mechanisms of action of memantine, with its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonistic characteristics on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and peroxynitrite formation, were also investigated. The apoptotic cascade after SAH was suppressed by memantine. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression, peroxynitrite formation, and subsequent oxidative/nitrosative stress were also reduced. Memantine effectively preserved BBB integrity, rescued neuronal injury, and improved neurological outcome in experimental SAH. Memantine has neuro-protective potential in experimental SAH and may help combat SAH-induced brain damage in the future.

  2. Lipocalin 2 and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in White Matter after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Yusuke; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Iwama, Toru; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    We reported previously that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes acute white matter injury in mice. In this study, we investigated lipocalin 2 (LCN2) mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in white matter, which may lead to subsequent injury. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in wild-type (WT) and LCN2-knockout (LCN2(-/-)) mice. Sham mice underwent the same procedure without perforation. Mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 24 h after SAH to confirm the development of T2-hyperintensity in white matter. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of LCN2-mediated white matter injury and BBB disruption. It was confirmed that LCN2 expression was significantly increased in white matter of WT mice after SAH by Western blotting (versus sham; p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that LCN2 receptor 24p3R was expressed in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and pericytes in the white matter. In WT mice with SAH, albumin leakage along the white matter was prominently observed and was consistent with T2-hyperintensity on MRI. As with our previous report, LCN2(-/-) mice scarcely developed T2-hyperintensity on MRI or albumin leakage in white matter. Our results suggest that BBB leakage occurs in white matter after SAH and that LCN2 contributes to SAH-induced BBB disruption.

  3. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  4. Role of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Dingding; Hao, Shuangying; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial Ca(2+) is undertaken by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and its accumulation is associated with the development of many diseases. However, little was known about the role of MCU in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MCU can be opened by spermine under a physiological condition and inhibited by ruthenium red (RR). Herein, we investigated the effects of RR and spermine to reveal the role of MCU in SAH animal model. The data obtained with biochemical and histological assays showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration was significantly increased in the temporal cortex of rats 1, 2, and 3 days after SAH, consistent with constant high levels of cellular Ca(2+) concentration. In agreement with the observation in the acute phase, SAH rats showed an obvious increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decrease of ATP production. Blockage of MCU prevented Ca(2+) accumulation, abated the level of oxidative stress, and improved the energy supply. Translocation of cytochrome c, increased cleaved caspase-3, and a large amount of apoptotic cells after SAH were reversed by RR administration. Surprisingly, exogenous spermine did not increase cellular Ca(2+) concentration, but lessened the Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH to benefit the rats. Taken together, our results demonstrated that blockage of MCU or prevention of Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH is essential in EBI after SAH. These findings suggest that MCU is considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  5. Massive Cerebrospinal Fluid Replacement Reduces Delayed Cerebral Vasospasm After Embolization of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Liming; Ma, Fei; Liu, Yun; Mu, Yanchun; Zou, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Background Delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) following aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a leading cause of poor prognosis and death in SAH patients. Effective management to reduce DCVS is needed. A prospective controlled trial was conducted to determine if massive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) replacement (CR) could reduce DCVS occurrence and improve the clinical outcome after aneurysmal SAH treated with endovascular coiling. Material/Methods Patients treated with endovascular coiling after aneurysmal SAH were randomly divided into a control group receiving regular therapy alone (C group, n=42) and a CSF replacement group receiving an additional massive CSF replacement with saline (CR group, n=45). CSF examination, head CT, DCVS occurrence, cerebral infarction incidence, Glasgow Outcome Scale prognostic score, and 1-month mortality were recorded. Results The occurrence of DCVS was 30.9% in the C group and 4.4% in the CR group (P<0.005). The cerebral infarction incidences in the C and CR groups were 19.0% and 2.2% (P<0.05), respectively, 1 month after the treatments. Mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Conclusions Massive CR after embolization surgery for aneurysmal SAH can significantly reduce DCVS occurrence and effectively improve the outcomes. PMID:27394187

  6. Microglia regulate blood clearance in subarachnoid hemorrhage by heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Schallner, Nils; Pandit, Rambhau; LeBlanc, Robert; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Gallo, David; Otterbein, Leo E; Hanafy, Khalid A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) carries a 50% mortality rate. The extravasated erythrocytes that surround the brain contain heme, which, when released from damaged red blood cells, functions as a potent danger molecule that induces sterile tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Free heme is metabolized by heme oxygenase (HO), resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), a bioactive gas with potent immunomodulatory capabilities. Here, using a murine model of SAH, we demonstrated that expression of the inducible HO isoform (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) in microglia is necessary to attenuate neuronal cell death, vasospasm, impaired cognitive function, and clearance of cerebral blood burden. Initiation of CO inhalation after SAH rescued the absence of microglial HO-1 and reduced injury by enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Evaluation of correlative human data revealed that patients with SAH have markedly higher HO-1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with that in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Furthermore, cisternal hematoma volume correlated with HO-1 activity and cytokine expression in the CSF of these patients. Collectively, we found that microglial HO-1 and the generation of CO are essential for effective elimination of blood and heme after SAH that otherwise leads to neuronal injury and cognitive dysfunction. Administration of CO may have potential as a therapeutic modality in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

  7. A 54-year-old man with 12 intracranial aneurysms and familial subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report.

    PubMed

    Hosainey, Sayied Abdol Mohieb; Meling, Torstein R

    2016-10-01

    Unruptured intracranial aneurysms occur in 1-3 % of the general population, and the risk of rupture is generally considered to be low. However, patients with multiple aneurysms and familial predisposition carry a particular risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 54-year-old hypertensive man underwent screening with a head CT angiography (CTA) because of his comorbidities. CTA revealed multiple bilateral aneurysms around the circle of Willis. At first surgery, seven aneurysms were clipped (BA, ACOM, ICA ×2, and MCA ×3), two of which were detected intraoperatively only. During the second surgery, another three aneurysms were surgically clipped (PCOM and MCA ×2), one of which was detected intraoperatively. Follow-up angiography revealed another two aneurysms. A PCOM aneurysm was treated by coil embolization and a VA aneurysm clipped surgically during a third admission. The patient made an uneventful recovery. However, 4 months after his second surgery, his daughter underwent surgical clipping of a right-sided ICA aneurysm. This case report highlights both the importance of screening of high risk patients with family history of SAH, as well as its limitations, as our patient developed two de novo aneurysms during 6-month follow-up and CTA preoperatively missed three small aneurysms.

  8. Tenascin-C causes neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Masato; Fujimoto, Masashi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Taki, Waro; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2014-04-01

    The role of tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, in brain injury is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine if TNC causes neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a deadly cerebrovascular disorder, using imatinib mesylate (a selective inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR] that is reported to suppress TNC induction) and recombinant TNC. SAH by endovascular perforation caused caspase-dependent neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex irrespective of cerebral vasospasm development at 24 and 72 h post-SAH, associated with PDGFR activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and TNC induction in rats. PDGFR inactivation by an intraperitoneal injection of imatinib mesylate prevented neuronal apoptosis, as well as MAPKs activation and TNC induction in the cerebral cortex at 24 h. A cisternal injection of recombinant TNC reactivated MAPKs and abolished anti-apoptotic effects of imatinib mesylate. The TNC injection also induced TNC itself in SAH brain, which may internally augment neuronal apoptosis after SAH. These findings suggest that TNC upregulation by PDGFR activation causes neuronal apoptosis via MAPK activation, and that the positive feedback mechanisms may exist to augment neuronal apoptosis after SAH. TNC-induced neuronal apoptosis would be a new target to improve outcome after SAH.

  9. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT) and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7%) was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population. PMID:22035203

  10. SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those

  11. Decorin alleviated chronic hydrocephalus via inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Chen, Yujie; Li, Lingyong; Jiang, Jiaode; Wu, Guangyong; Zuo, Yuchun; Zhang, John H; Feng, Hua; Yan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hydrocephalus is one of the severe complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, there is no efficient treatment for the prevention of chronic hydrocephalus, partially due to poor understanding of underlying pathogenesis, subarachnoid fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) is a potent fibrogenic factor implicated in wide range of fibrotic diseases. To investigate whether decorin, a natural antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and chronic hydrocephalus after SAH, two-hemorrhage-injection SAH model was conducted in 6-week-old rats. Recombinant human decorin(rhDecorin) (30ug/2ul) was administered before blood injection and on the 10th day after SAH. TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide were assessed via western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. And neurobehavioral tests and Morris water maze were employed to evaluate long-term neurological functions after SAH. We found that SAH induced heightened activation of TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF axis, presenting as a two peak response of TGF-β1 in cerebrospinal fluid, elevation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I in brain parenchyma and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide in cerebrospinal fluid, and increased lateral ventricle index. rhDecorin treatment effectively inhibited up-regulation of TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, CTGF, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide after SAH. Moreover, rhDecorin treatment significantly reduced lateral ventricular index and incidence of chronic hydrocephalus after SAH. Importantly, rhDecorin improved neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, rhDecorin suppresses extracellular matrix accumulation and following subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad/CTGF pathway, preventing development of hydrocephalus and attenuating long-term neurocognitive defects after SAH.

  12. Post-operative monitoring of cortical taurine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    De Micheli, E; Pinna, G; Alfieri, A; Caramia, G; Bianchi, L; Colivicchi, M A; Della Corte, L; Bricolo, A

    2000-01-01

    Intracerebral MD enables the retrieval of endogenous substances from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for early detection of subtle vasospasm-induced neurometabolic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to monitor cortical extracellular concentrations of energy metabolism markers, such as glucose and lactate, neurotransmitter amino acids, such as glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine to identify any neurochemical patterns of cerebral ischemia. A prospective clinical study was conducted on a group of 16 patients with non-severe SAH operated on within 72 hours after initial bleeding. Following aneurysm clipping, an MD catheter was inserted in the cortical region where vasospasm could be expected to develop, and perfused with artificial CSF at 0.3 microl/min flow rate. Dialysate was collected every 6 hours and then analyzed on High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine. Mean ECF taurine concentrations ranged from 1.4 + 0.7 to 12.3 + 7.8 micromol/l in single patients: global mean value was 5.8 + 3.8 micromol/l. In this series, the highest absolute taurine value was 25.7 micromol/l, observed in a patient who developed clinical and radiological signs of cerebral ischemia. Nine patients presented clinical disturbances related to cerebral vasospasm. In this setting, representing a mild-to-moderate hypoxic condition, MD data demonstrated that lactate is the most sensitive marker of cellular energy imbalance. Increased lactate levels positively correlated with glutamate (P<0.0001), aspartate (P<0.0001), GABA (P<0.0001) and taurine (P<0.0001) concentrations. These results suggest that also in humans increased taurine levels reflect a condition of cellular stress. This study confirms that MD is a sensitive technique to reveal subtle metabolic abnormalities possibly resulting in cell damage.

  13. HIF-1α Mediates Isoflurane-Induced Vascular Protection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Eric; Johnson, Andrew W; Nelson, James W; Harries, Michael D; Gidday, Jeffrey M; Han, Byung Hee; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) depends critically on delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) – a process driven primarily by vascular events including cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, and microvascular dysfunction. This study sought to determine the impact of postconditioning – the phenomenon whereby endogenous protection against severe injury is enhanced by subsequent exposure to a mild stressor – on SAH-induced DCI. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham, SAH, or SAH plus isoflurane postconditioning. Neurological outcome was assessed daily via sensorimotor scoring. Contributors to DCI including cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, and microvascular dysfunction were measured 3 days later. Isoflurane-induced changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent genes were assessed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HIF-1α was inhibited pharmacologically via 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or genetically via endothelial cell HIF-1α-null mice (EC-HIF-1α-null). All experiments were performed in a randomized and blinded fashion. Results Isoflurane postconditioning initiated at clinically relevant time points after SAH significantly reduced cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, microvascular dysfunction, and neurological deficits in wild-type (WT) mice. Isoflurane modulated HIF-1α-dependent genes – changes that were abolished in 2ME2-treated WT mice and EC-HIF-1α-null mice. Isoflurane-induced DCI protection was attenuated in 2ME2-treated WT mice and EC-HIF-1α-null mice. Interpretation Isoflurane postconditioning provides strong HIF-1α-mediated macro- and microvascular protection in SAH, leading to improved neurological outcome. These results implicate cerebral vessels as a key target for the brain protection afforded by isoflurane postconditioning, and HIF-1α as a critical mediator of this vascular protection. They also identify isoflurane postconditioning as a promising novel

  14. Cholesterol as a Risk Factor for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lindbohm, Joni Valdemar; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka

    2016-01-01

    Background The role played by total cholesterol (TC) in risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear because studies report both high and low TC each as a risk factor. We performed a systematic review to clarify associations between lipid profile and SAH. Methods Our literature search comprised Pubmed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases with no language, publication year, or study type limitations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist guided our reporting. Data forms adapted from the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP), and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines provided a platform for risk-of-bias evaluation. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled estimates and assessed heterogeneity with I2-statistics. Results Of the final 21 studies reviewed, 12 were prospective and 9 retrospective. All studies assessed TC, four assessed HDL, and none LDL in risk for SAH. Heterogeneity among all, retrospective, and Asian studies was high (I2 = 79.5%, I2 = 89.0%, and I2 = 84.3%) and considerable in prospective (I2 = 46.0%). We therefore focused on qualitative analysis and found that only two studies had a low risk of bias. According to these studies high TC increases risk for SAH in men, whereas the role of HDL remained unclear. Conclusion The low-risk-of-bias studies suggest that elevated TC levels elevate risk for SAH in men. Due to the high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, population attributable risk (PAR) of hypercholesterolemia may exceed the PARs of smoking and hypertension in men. Apart from diabetes and obesity, the risk-factor profile of SAH seems to resemble that of other cerebrovascular diseases, at least in men. PMID:27077917

  15. Urea for treatment of acute SIADH in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia occurring as a result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a common complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The efficacy and safety of urea as treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia has not been reported in this population. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our department for nontraumatic SAH between January 2003 and December 2008 (n = 368). All patients with SIADH-induced hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 135 mEq/L, urine sodium > 20 mEq/L, and osmolality > 200 mOsm/kg; absence of overt dehydration or hypovolemia; no peripheral edema or renal failure; no history of adrenal or thyroid disease) routinely received urea per os when hyponatremia was associated with clinical deterioration or remained less than 130 mEq/L despite saline solution administration. Results Forty-two patients developed SIADH and were treated with urea. Urea was started after a median of 7 (IQR, 5–10) days and given orally at doses of 15–30 g tid or qid for a median of 5 (IQR, 3–7) days. The median plasma sodium increase over the first day of treatment was 3 (IQR, 1–6) mEq/L. Hyponatremia was corrected in all patients, with median times to Na+ >130 and >135 mEq/L of 1 (IQR, 1–2) and 3 (IQR, 2–4) days, respectively. Urea was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Oral urea is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for SIADH-induced hyponatremia in SAH patients. PMID:22647340

  16. Impact of Admission Month on Outcomes in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Evidence Against the March Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Su; Yoo, Chan Jong; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Bo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective We attempted to identify the presence of a so called 'March effect (or phenomenon)' (which had long been known as a 'July effect' in western countries), a transient increase in adverse outcomes during an unskilled period for new interns and residents in a teaching hospital, among a cohort of patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). Methods A total of 455 consecutive patients with sSAH from our department database from 2008 to 2010 were enrolled retrospectively and the admission month, patient demographics and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and discharge outcomes were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine whether unfavorable discharge and in-hospital mortality showed a significant increase during the unskilled months for new interns and residents (from March to May) in a pattern suggestive of a "March effect". Results Among 455 patients with sSAH, 113 patients were treated during the unskilled period (from March to May) and the remaining 342 patients were treated during the skilled period (from June until February of the next year). No statistically significant difference in demographics and clinical characteristics was observed between patients treated during these periods. In addition, the mortality and unfavorable discharge rates of the un-skilled period were 16.8% and 29.7% and those of the skilled period were 15.5% and 27.2%, respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between them. Conclusions Findings of our study suggest that there was no 'March effect' on the mortality rate and unfavorable discharge rate among patients with sSAH in our hospital during the study period. PMID:23844350

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH. PMID:27699009

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yonghua; Duan, Xiaochun; Li, Haiying; Dang, Baoqi; Yin, Jia; Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Increasing studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, the potential application value of H2S in the therapy of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not well known. This study was to investigate the potential effect of H2S on early brain injury (EBI) induced by SAH and explore the underlying mechanisms. The role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, in SAH-induced EBI, was investigated in both in vivo and in vitro. A prechiasmatic cistern single injection model was used to produce experimental SAH in vivo. In vitro, cultured primary rat cortical neurons and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to OxyHb at concentration of 10 μM to mimic SAH. Endogenous production of H2S in the brain was significantly inhibited by SAH. The protein levels of the predominant H2S-generating enzymes in the brain, including cystathionineb-synthase (CBS) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST), were also correspondingly reduced by SAH, while treatment with NaHS restored H2S production and the expressions of CBS and 3MST. More importantly, NaHS treatment could significantly attenuate EBI (including brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, brain cell apoptosis, inflammatory response, and cerebral vasospasm) after SAH. In vitro, H2S protects neurons and endothelial function by functioning as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic mediator. Our results suggest that NaSH as an exogenous H2S donor could significantly reduce EBI induced by SAH.

  19. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH.

  20. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (<3 days from ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  1. Effects of Topical Administration of Nimodipine on Cerebral Blood Flow following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yin, Yu-hua; Jia, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04 g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60 min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5 mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (p<0.05). Abnormal cerebral perfusion status, however, was not significantly improved in the nimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation. PMID:19558207

  2. Association of early post-procedure hemodynamic management with the outcomes of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Matsuda, Shinya; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimori, Kenji

    2013-03-01

    Post-procedure hemodynamic management for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is controversial because of the paucity of studied patients. Using a Japanese administrative database, we tested whether increased albumin, catecholamine, and volumes of fluid administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day would be associated with outcomes of mortality, consciousness deterioration at discharge and re-intubation between the 5th and 14th post-procedure days. Across 550 hospitals, 5,400 patients were identified who received clipping, wrapping and endovascular coiling within 48 h after admission in 2010. Patient characteristics and the administration of albumin, catecholamine, and volume of fluid normalized by body weight were analyzed among the groups and categorized according to the presence of albumin and catecholamine administered between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day. The association of early hemodynamic management with outcomes was measured using logistic regression models, through controlling for the preference of early administration of albumin and catecholamine. For the patients, 9.3 % received albumin only, 14.4 % catecholamine only, and 4.9 % both between the procedure and the 4th post-procedure day, while 16.5 % received albumin or catecholamine on other days. Variation in albumin and catecholamine administration was observed. Higher normalized fluid volume, commenced before the 4th post-procedure day, was associated with increased mortality and re-intubation (although with decreased complications), and vice versa between the 4th and 14th post-procedure days. Catecholamine administration was associated with worsened outcomes. Hypervolemic and hypertensive therapies commenced before the 4th post-procedure day require further research to determine whether their associations with outcomes in this administrative data base are causal or not.

  3. Effects of topical administration of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow following subarachnoid hemorrhage in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yin, Yu-hua; Jia, Feng; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2013-04-01

    We sought to explore whether topical administration of nimodipine improves the abnormal cerebral perfusion following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups: sham (n=4), SAH (n=5), or SAH + nimodipine (n=5). The SAH model was established by injecting fresh autologous nonheparinized arterial blood into the suprasellae cistern. Nimodipine or saline placebo (0.04 g/mL) were administered to the operative area on the fourth day after the SAH model was established. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured 60 min after topical administration of nimodipine by cranial SPECT/CT scans with 5 mCi 99mTc-ECD injected intravenously. The CCR (corticocebellar ratio) was calculated by dividing the counts/voxel of the whole cerebral hemisphere by the average count/voxel in the cerebellar region of reference and RD (relative dispersion). A predictor for impaired autoregulation of CBF was calculated by dividing standard deviation (SD) of regional perfusion by mean perfusion (RD=SD/Mean). CCR and RD were applied to describe hemisphere CBF and perfusion heterogeneity. Cerebral perfusion significantly decreased in the SAH group (CCR: 1.382±0.192, RD: 0.417±0.015) compared to sham (CCR: 1.988±0.346, RD 0.389±0.015) (p<0.05). Abnormal cerebral perfusion status, however, was not significantly improved in the nimodipine + SAH group (CCR: 1.503±0.107, RD: 0.425±0.018) compared to the SAH group (p>0.05). Topical administration of nimodipine did not significantly improve CBF following SAH. These findings were not consistent with our previous data demonstrating that the topical administration of nimodipine significantly alleviates cerebral vasospasm following SAH detected by TCD. Potential mechanisms governing these disparate outcomes require further investigation.

  4. Retinal Vessel Analysis (RVA) in the Context of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Miriam; Clusmann, Hans; Fuest, Matthias; Mueller, Marguerite; Brockmann, Marc Alexander; Vilser, Walthard; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Hoellig, Anke; Seiz, Marcel; Thomé, Claudius; Kotliar, Konstantin; Schubert, Gerrit Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely detection of impending delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is essential to improve outcome, but poses a diagnostic challenge. Retinal vessels as an embryological part of the intracranial vasculature are easily accessible for analysis and may hold the key to a new and non-invasive monitoring technique. This investigation aims to determine the feasibility of standardized retinal vessel analysis (RVA) in the context of SAH. Methods In a prospective pilot study, we performed RVA in six patients awake and cooperative with SAH in the acute phase (day 2–14) and eight patients at the time of follow-up (mean 4.6±1.7months after SAH), and included 33 age-matched healthy controls. Data was acquired using a manoeuvrable Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (Imedos Systems UG, Jena) for examination of retinal vessel dimension and neurovascular coupling. Results Image quality was satisfactory in the majority of cases (93.3%). In the acute phase after SAH, retinal arteries were significantly dilated when compared to the control group (124.2±4.3MU vs 110.9±11.4MU, p<0.01), a difference that persisted to a lesser extent in the later stage of the disease (122.7±17.2MU, p<0.05). Testing for neurovascular coupling showed a trend towards impaired primary vasodilation and secondary vasoconstriction (p = 0.08, p = 0.09 resp.) initially and partial recovery at the time of follow-up, indicating a relative improvement in a time-dependent fashion. Conclusion RVA is technically feasible in patients with SAH and can detect fluctuations in vessel diameter and autoregulation even in less severely affected patients. Preliminary data suggests potential for RVA as a new and non-invasive tool for advanced SAH monitoring, but clinical relevance and prognostic value will have to be determined in a larger cohort. PMID:27388619

  5. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  6. Kallikrein 6 as a Serum Prognostic Marker in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Anastasia; Romaschin, Alexander D.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating condition that frequently causes death or significant disabilities. Blood tests to predict possible early complications could be very useful aids for therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze serum levels of kallikrein 6 (KLK6) in individuals with aSAH to determine the relevance of this protease with the outcome of these patients. Methodology/Principal Findings A reference interval for KLK6 was established by using serum samples (n = 136) from an adult population. Additionally, serum samples (n = 326) from patients with aSAH (n = 13) were collected for 5 to 14 days, to study the concentration of KLK6 in this disease. The correlation between KLK6 and S100B, an existing brain damage biomarker, was analyzed in 8 of 13 patients. The reference interval for KLK6 was established to be 1.04 to 3.93 ng/mL. The mean levels in patients with aSAH within the first 56 hours ranged from 0.27 to 1.44 ng/mL, with lowest levels found in patients with worse outcome. There were significant differences between patients with good recovery or moderate disability (n = 8) and patients with severe disability or death (n = 5) (mean values of 1.03 ng/mL versus 0.47 ng/mL, respectively) (p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between KLK6 and S100B. Conclusions/Significance Decreased serum concentrations of KLK6 are found in patients with aSAH, with the lowest levels in patients who died. PMID:23049835

  7. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Treatment Suppresses Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Fujimoto, Masashi; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Nakano, Fumi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2016-09-01

    The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of anti-VEGF therapy on EBI after SAH. C57BL/6 male mice underwent sham or filament perforation SAH modeling, and vehicle or two dosages (0.2 and 1 μg) of anti-VEGF antibody were randomly administrated by an intracerebroventricular injection. Neuroscore, brain water content, immunoglobulin G staining, and Western blotting were performed to evaluate EBI at 24-48 h. To confirm the role of VEGF, anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 (a major receptor of VEGF) antibody was intracerebroventricularly administered and the effects on EBI were evaluated at 24 h. A higher dose, but not a lower dose, of anti-VEGF antibody significantly ameliorated post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema at 24-48 h post-SAH. Post-SAH blood-brain barrier disruption was also inhibited by anti-VEGF antibody. The protective effects of anti-VEGF antibody were associated with the inhibition of post-SAH induction of VEGF, VEGFR-2, phosphorylated VEGFR-2, interleukin-1β and a matricellular protein tenascin-C (TNC). Anti-VEGFR-2 antibody also suppressed post-SAH neurological impairments and brain edema associated with VEGFR-2 inactivation and TNC downregulation. These findings demonstrated that VEGF causes post-SAH EBI via VEGFR-2 and TNC and that anti-VEGF therapy is effective for post-SAH EBI.

  8. A novel technique for morphometric quantification of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced microglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Moll, Katherine M.; Kang, Hongyi; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Vates, G. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic catastrophe and poor outcome is typically attributed to vasospasm; however, there is also evidence that SAH causes a pro-inflammatory state and these two phenomena may be interrelated. SAH causes activation of microglia, but the time course and degree of microglial activation after SAH and its link to poor patient outcome and vasospasm remains unknown. New Method Transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the control of the CX3CR1 locus, in which microglia are endogenously fluorescent, were randomly assigned to control or SAH groups. Immunohistochemistry for CD-68 and CD-31 was performed at different time points after SAH. Using confocal microscopy and MatLab software, we have developed a novel technique to detect and quantify the stages of microglial activation and return to quiescence using an automated computerized morphometric analysis. Results We detected a statistically significant decrease in microglial process complexity 2 and 7 days following SAH. In addition, we detected a statistically significant increase in microglial domain volume 1 day following SAH; however, microglial domain volume returned to baseline by 2 days. Comparison with Existing Method Most techniques for microglia assessment are qualitative, not quantitative, and are therefore inadequate to address the effects of anti-inflammatory drug treatment or other therapies after SAH. Conclusions Using novel image analysis techniques we were able to reproducibly quantify activation of microglia following SAH, which will improve our ability to study the biology of microglial activation, and may ultimately improve management of disease progression and response to therapies directed at microglial activation. PMID:24735531

  9. Antihypertensives are administered selectively in emergency department patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Culyer, Virginia; McDonough, Erin; Lindsell, Christopher J; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Khatri, Pooja; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Broderick, Joseph P; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Adeoye, Opeolu

    2013-11-01

    Elevated blood pressure is common in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). American Heart Association guidelines do not specify a blood pressure target, but limited data suggest that systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥160 mmHg is associated with increased risk of rebleeding and neurologic decline. In a population-based study, we determined the frequency of antihypertensive therapy in emergency department (ED) patients with SAH and the proportion of those patients with SBP≥160 mmHg who received this therapy. In 2005, nontraumatic SAH cases were retrospectively ascertained at 16 hospitals in our region by screening for International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision diagnostic codes 430-436. Blood pressure was recorded at ED presentation and also before and after any treatment with antihypertensives. Hypotension was defined as SBP<100 mmHg. The Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test were used for comparisons. Our cohort comprised 82 patients with SAH presenting to an ED; 4 patients were excluded. The median age of the included patients was 54 years, 74.4% were female, 29.5% were black, and 31 (39.7%) had SBP≥160 mmHg. Antihypertensive therapy was given to 22 of 31 patients (70.9%) with SBP≥160 mmHg and to 4 of 47 patients (8.5%) with SBP<160 mmHg. No patients became hypotensive after receiving treatment. Age, sex, Glascow Coma Scale score, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were similar between treated and untreated patients. In the absence of definitive evidence, current blood pressure management in local EDs appears reasonable. Further studies of blood pressure management in acute SAH are warranted.

  10. Personalized Medicine in Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery: Precision Neurosurgical Management of Cerebral Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Achrol, Achal Singh; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are common vascular lesions. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these lesions and the process by which they destabilize and progress to rupture. Treatment decisions are motivated by a desire to prevent rupture and the devastating morbidity and mortality associated with resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For patients presenting with SAH, urgent intervention is required to stabilize the lesion and prevent re-rupture. Those patients fortunate enough to survive a presenting SAH and subsequent securing of their aneurysm must still face a spectrum of secondary sequelae, which can include cerebral vasospasm, delayed ischemia, seizures, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and endocrinologic and catecholamine-induced systemic dysfunction in cardiac, pulmonary, and renal systems. Increased focus on understanding the pathophysiology and molecular characteristics of these secondary processes will enable the development of targeted therapeutics and novel diagnostics for improved patient selection in personalized medicine trials for SAH. In unruptured cerebral aneurysms, treatment decisions are less clear and currently based solely on treating larger lesions, using rigid aneurysm size cutoffs generalized from recent studies that are the subject of ongoing controversy. Further compounding this controversy is the fact that the vast majority of aneurysms that come to clinical attention at the time of a hemorrhagic presentation are of smaller size, suggesting that small aneurysms are indeed not benign lesions. As such, patient-specific biomarkers that better predict which aneurysms represent high-risk lesions that warrant clinical intervention are of vital importance. Recent advancements in genomic and proteomic technologies have enabled the identification of molecular characteristics that may prove useful in tracking aneurysm growth and progression and identifying targets for prophylactic therapeutic interventions. Novel quantitative neuroimaging

  11. The burden of the systemic inflammatory response predicts vasospasm and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can trigger immune activation sufficient to induce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may promote both extra-cerebral organ dysfunction and delayed cerebral ischemia, contributing to worse outcome. We ascertained the frequency and predictors of SIRS after spontaneous SAH, and determined whether degree of early systemic inflammation predicted the occurrence of vasospasm and clinical outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 276 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosciences intensive care unit with acute, non-traumatic SAH between 2002 and 2005. A daily SIRS score was derived by summing the number of variables meeting standard criteria (HR >90, RR >20, Temperature >38°C or <36°C, WBC count <4,000 or >12,000). SIRS was considered present if two or more criteria were met, while SIRS burden over the first four days was calculated by averaging daily scores. Regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between SIRS burden (after controlling for confounders including infection, surgery, and corticosteroid use), symptomatic vasospasm, and outcome, determined by hospital disposition. Results: SIRS was present in over half the patients on admission and developed in 85% within the first four days. Factors associated with SIRS included poor clinical grade, thick cisternal blood, larger aneurysm size, higher admission blood pressure, and surgery for aneurysm clipping. Higher SIRS burden was independently associated with death or discharge to nursing home (OR 2.20/point, 95% CI 1.27-3.81). All of those developing clinical vasospasm had evidence of SIRS, with greater SIRS burden predicting increased risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (OR 1.77/point, 95% CI 1.12-2.80). Conclusions: Systemic inflammatory activation is common after SAH even in the absence of infection; it is more frequent in those with more severe hemorrhage and in those who undergo

  12. [Unilateral Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt for Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Takayuki; Sato, Daisuke; Endo, Shin; Kato, Syunichi

    2016-06-01

    The patient, a 79-year-old man, experienced a Hunt & Kosnik grade IV subarachnoid hemorrhage, presenting with sudden-onset coma and severe left hemiplegia. We performed cranial clipping surgery for a ruptured aneurysm on the right middle cerebral artery the same day. Post-operative recovery proceeded smoothly, with gradual improvements in disturbed consciousness and left hemiplegia. Three weeks post-operation, CT revealed low-density areas in the right frontal and temporal lobe, believed to be due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as hydrocephaly. We then performed a lumbo-peritoneal (L-P) shunt for the hydrocephaly. Two months later, the patient experienced shunt occlusion, and we performed a ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt revision (pressure: 6 cm H(2)O). Headaches, severe decline in cognitive function, and worsened left hemiplegia were observed seven weeks post-shunt revision. Cranial CT revealed widespread low-density areas in right posterior cerebral white matter. We suspected unilateral posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after performing cranial MRI and cerebral angiography. Increasing the set pressure of the shunt improved the symptoms and radiographic findings. PRES is typically bilateral, and unilateral incidents are rare. This is the first report of unilateral PRES secondary to shunt operation. Its unilaterality appears to have been caused by unilateral brain damage or adhesions to the brain surface from the subarachnoid cerebral hemorrhage. Overdrainage post-shunt can also induce PRES. Diagnosis of PRES is more difficult in unilateral cases;practitioners must keep PRES in mind as a rare complication post-shunt operation. PMID:27270150

  13. Effect of fasudil hydrochloride, a protein kinase inhibitor, on cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemic symptoms after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jizong; Zhou, Dingbiao; Guo, Jing; Ren, Zyuan; Zhou, Liangfu; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Bainan; Wang, Renzhi

    2006-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of fasudil hydrochloride, a novel protein kinase inhibitor, were evaluated for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm and associated cerebral ischemic symptoms in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This randomized open trial with nimodipine as the control included 72 patients who underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm of Hunt and Hess grades I to IV. For 14 days following surgery, patients were administered either 30 mg of fasudil hydrochloride by intravenous injection over a period of 30 minutes three times a day or 1 mg/hr of nimodipine by continuous intravenous infusion. Fasudil hydrochloride and nimodipine both showed inhibitory effects on cerebral vasospasm. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was five of 33 patients in the fasudil group and nine of 32 patients in the nimodipine group. Good recovery evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale was achieved by 23 of 33 patients in the fasudil group and 19 of 34 patients in the nimodipine group. Both drugs significantly improved consciousness levels and neurological deficits such as aphasia. However, fasudil hydrochloride improved motor disturbance more than nimodipine. Adverse reactions occurred in 13 of 37 patients receiving fasudil hydrochloride and 15 of 35 patients receiving nimodipine. There were no serious adverse events in the fasudil group. The results of this clinical trial indicate that fasudil hydrochloride is a safe and efficient agent for suppressing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery for ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  14. Elevated relative risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with colder weather in the mid-Atlantic region.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Lara, Lucia; Kowalski, Robert G; Schneider, Eric B; Tamargo, Rafael J; Nyquist, Paul

    2015-10-01

    We have previously reported an increase of 0.6% in the relative risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in response to every 1°F decrease in the maximum daily temperature (Tmax) in colder seasons from patients presenting to our regional tertiary care center. We hypothesized that this relationship would also be observed in the warmer summer months with ambient temperatures greater than 70°F. From prospectively collected incidence data for aSAH patients, we investigated absolute Tmax, average daily temperatures, intraday temperature ranges, and the variation of daily Tmax relative to 70°F to assess associations with aSAH incidence for patients admitted to our institution between 1991 and 2009 during the hottest months and days on which Tmax>70°F. For all days treated as a group, the mean Tmax (± standard deviation) was lower when aSAH occurred than when it did not (64.4±18.2°F versus 65.8±18.3°F; p=0.016). During summer months, the odds ratio (OR) of aSAH incidence increased with lower mean Tmax (OR 1.019; 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.037; p=0.043). The proportion of days with aSAH admissions was lower on hotter days than the proportion of days with no aSAH (96% versus 98%; p=0.006). aSAH were more likely to occur during the summer and on days with a temperature fluctuation less than 10°F (8% versus 4%; p=0.002). During the hottest months of the year in the mid-Atlantic region, colder maximum daily temperatures, a smaller heat burden above 70°F, and smaller intraday temperature fluctuations are associated with increased aSAH admissions in a similar manner to colder months. These findings support the hypothesis that aSAH incidence is more likely with drops in temperature, even in the warmer months.

  15. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  16. Effect of the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Cong; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Wang, Lin; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: Vasospasm-related injury such as delayed ischemic neurological defect (DIND) or cerebral infarction is an important prognostic factor for aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage can achieve a better outcome in aneurismal SAH patients after coiling or clipping remains the subject of debate. Here, we report a meta-analysis of the related available literature to assess the effect of continuous CSF drainage on clinical outcomes in patients with aneurismal SAH. Methods: Case-control studies regarding the association between aneurismal SAH and CSF drainage were systematically identified through online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, and Springer Link). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for the eligible studies. The fixed-effects model was performed when homogeneity was indicated. Alternatively, the random-effects model was utilized. Results: This meta-analysis included 11 studies. Continuous CSF drainage obviously improved patients’ long-term outcome (odds ratio [OR] of 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37–5.98, P < 0.01). CSF drainage also reduced angiographic vasospasm (OR of 0.35, 95% CI, 0.23–0.51, P < 0.01), symptomatic vasospasm (OR of 0.32, 95% CI, 0.32–0.43, P < 0.01), and DIND (OR of 0.48, 95% CI, 0.25–0.91, P = 0.03), but there was no significant difference between the CSF drainage group and the no CSF drainage group on shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) prevention (OR of 1.04, 95% CI, 0.52–2.07, P = 0.91). Further analysis on lumbar drainage (LD) and external ventricular drainage (EVD) indicated that LD had a better outcome (OR of 3.11, 95% CI, 1.18–8.23, P = 0.02), whereas no significant difference in vasospasm-related injury was detected between the groups (OR of 1.13, 95% CI, 0.54–2.37, P = 0.75). Conclusion: Continuous CSF drainage is an effective treatment for aneurismal SAH patients; lumbar drainage

  17. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Malik, Ahmed A; Saeed, Omar; Defillo, Archie; Sherr, Gregory T; Suri, M Fareed K

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) increases after menopause. Anecdotal data suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may reduce the rate of SAH and aneurysm formation in women. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of HRT on occurrence of SAH in a large prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. METHODS The data were analyzed for 93, 676 women 50-79 years of age who were enrolled in the observational arm of the Women's Health Initiative Study. The effect of HRT on risk of SAH was determined over a period of 12 ± 1 years (mean ± SD) using Cox proportional hazards analysis after adjusting for potential confounders. Additional analysis was performed to identify the risk associated with "estrogen only" and "estrogen and progesterone" HRT among women. RESULTS Of the 93, 676 participants, 114 (0.1%) developed SAH during the follow-up period. The rate of SAH was higher among women on active HRT compared with those without HRT used (0.14% vs 0.11%, absolute difference 0.03%, p < 0.0001). In unadjusted analysis, participants who reported active use of HRT were 60% more likely to suffer an SAH (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Compared with women without HRT use, the risk of SAH continued to be higher among women reporting active use of HRT (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2) after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, race/ethnicity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of SAH was nonsignificantly higher among women on "estrogen only" HRT (RR 1.4, 95% CI 0.91-2.0) than "estrogen and progesterone" HRT(RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-2.1) after adjusting for the above-mentioned confounders. CONCLUSIONS Postmenopausal women, particularly those at risk for SAH due to presence of unruptured aneurysms, family history, or cardiovascular risk factors, should be counseled against use of HRT.

  18. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Mangieri, Paola; Naves, Luciana A; Suzuki, Kunio; Ferreira, Moema; Domingues, Lucilia

    2004-03-01

    We have previously reported that subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm (SH) is associated with changes in the hormonal profile in the first 24 hours after the event. We proposed that the hormonal changes observed are due to the intense stress to which the patients are exposed. However, the thyroidal hormonal profile is indicative of the presence of a nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In this paper, we examined whether the change in the thyroid hormone profile is compatible with a NTIS. Two groups of patients were included in the study: A) 30 patients with SH (21 females and 9 males; 41.7+/-11.4 years) and B) a control group including 25 patients with benign diseases of the spine (BDS) (lumbar disc hernia or stable spinal trauma) (8 females and 17 males; 41.3+/-14.2 years). In a subgroup of eight patients of each group serum triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 levels were measured. The blood samples were obtained between 8:00 and 9:00 AM. The following results were obtained: The SH group had smaller serum T3 and free T4 levels than the BDS group (p<0.05): T3 (ng/mL): SH = 58.7+/-1.1 and BDS = 74.5+/-13.9; free T4 (ng/dL): SH = 0.9+/-0.2 and BDS = 1.1+/-0.3. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between the two groups: T4 ( microg/dL): SH = 6.9+/-1.1 and BDS = 7.4+/-2.1; TSH ( microUI/mL): SH = 1.5+/-0.8 and BDS = 1.8+/-1,0. In the sample of eight patients of each group we had the following results: T3 (ng/mL): SH = 66.8+/-3.8 and BDS = 77.2+/-1.1 (p <0.05); reverse T3 (ng/dL): SH = 32.8+/-8 and BDS = 24.7+/-2.2 (NS); T3/ reverse T3 ratio: SH = 2.6+/-0.3 and BDS = 3.3+/-0.4 (NS). Thyreoglobulin and microsomal antibodies were not detectable, except in one patient in the SH group. In conclusion, the SH patients present serum levels of T3 and free T4 significantly lower than that of BDS patients; the thyroidal hormone profile suggests that SH patients have

  19. In-hospital outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cocaine use in the USA.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Santosh B; Moradiya, Yogesh; Shah, Shreyansh; Naval, Neeraj S

    2014-12-01

    Cocaine use is associated with higher mortality in small retrospective studies of brain-injured patients. We aimed to explore in-hospital outcomes in a large population based study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with cocaine use. aSAH patients were identified from the 2007-2010 USA Nationwide Inpatient Sample using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Demographics, comorbidities and surgical procedures were compared between cocaine users and non-users. The primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and home discharge/self-care. Secondary outcomes were vasospasm treated with angioplasty, hydrocephalus, gastrostomy and tracheostomy. There were 103,876 patients with aSAH. The cocaine group were younger (45.8 ± 9.8 versus 58.4 ± 15.8, p<0.001), predominantly male (53.3% versus 38.5%, p<0.001) and had a higher proportion of black patients (36.9% versus 11.5%, p<0.001). The incidence of seizures was higher among cocaine users (16.2% versus 11.1%, p<0.001). Endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysms (24% versus 18.5%, p<0.001) was more frequent in cocaine users. The univariate analysis showed higher rates of in-hospital mortality and vasospasm treated with angioplasty, but lower home discharge in the cocaine group. In the multivariate analysis, the cocaine cohort had higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.61, p<0.001) and lower home discharge rates (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.87, p<0.001) after adjusting for confounders. Rates of vasospasm treated with angioplasty however were similar between the two groups. Cocaine use was found to be independently associated with poor outcomes, particularly higher mortality and lower home discharge rates. Cocaine use however, was not associated with vasospasm that required treatment with angioplasty. Prospective confirmation is warranted.

  20. Clinical features of recurrent stroke after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Taizen; Yoshioka, Shotaroh; Sasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2012-06-14

    There have been many reports about the prognosis and risk factors of stroke recurrence following brain infarction (BI). However, little is known about the stroke recurrence after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). Therefore, we explored the recurrent stroke patients after initial PICH retrospectively, to reveal the critical factors of stroke recurrence. Acute BI (n=4013) and acute PICH patients (n=1067) admitted to the hospital between April 2000 and March 2009 were consecutively screened. PICH patients with a history of ICH and BI patients with a history of ICH were then classified into the ICH-ICH group (n=64, age 70.8±9.5 years) and ICH-BI group (n=52, age 72.8±9.7years), respectively. ICH lesions were categorized into ganglionic and lober types according to the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subtypes of BI were classified into cardioembolism, large-artery atherosclerosis, small-artery occlusion and others. There was no difference in incidence of risk factors between ICH-ICH and ICH-BI groups. Distribution of initial PICH lesions was significantly abundant in the lobar type in the ICH-ICH group (P<0.01) and in ganglionic type in the ICH-BI group (P<0.02). Age of onset was significantly older in recurrent lobar ICH compared with recurrent ganglionic ICH (P<0.01: 73.6±10.0 and 59.1±9.0 years, respectively). In conclusion, ganglionic ICH patients may have a chance of recurrent stroke in both brain infarction and ganglionic ICH, suggesting the participation of atherosclerosis in intracranial arteries. Lobar ICH patients were older and prone to recurrent lobar ICH, suggesting the participation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy as a risk of stroke recurrence. PMID:23139848

  1. Neuroimaging characteristics of ruptured aneurysm as predictors of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: pooled analyses of the SAHIT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Schweizer, Tom A; Thorpe, Kevin E; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Neuroimaging characteristics of ruptured aneurysms are important to guide treatment selection, and they have been studied for their value as outcome predictors following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Despite multiple studies, the prognostic value of aneurysm diameter, location, and extravasated SAH clot on computed tomography scan remains debatable. The authors aimed to more precisely ascertain the relation of these factors to outcome. METHODS The data sets of studies included in the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) repository were analyzed including data on ruptured aneurysm location and diameter (7 studies, n = 9125) and on subarachnoid clot graded on the Fisher scale (8 studies; n = 9452) for the relation to outcome on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months. Prognostic strength was quantified by fitting proportional odds logistic regression models. Univariable odds ratios (ORs) were pooled across studies using random effects models. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for fixed effect of study, age, neurological status on admission, other neuroimaging factors, and treatment modality. The neuroimaging predictors were assessed for their added incremental predictive value measured as partial R(2). RESULTS Spline plots indicated outcomes were worse at extremes of aneurysm size, i.e., less than 4 or greater than 9 mm. In between, aneurysm size had no effect on outcome (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.09 for 9 mm vs 4 mm, i.e., 75th vs 25th percentile), except in those who were treated conservatively (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35). Compared with anterior cerebral artery aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms tended to result in slightly poorer outcome in patients who underwent endovascular coil embolization (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82-1.57) or surgical clipping (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.57); the relation was statistically significant only in the latter. Fisher CT subarachnoid clot burden was related to outcome in a gradient manner. Each

  2. Treatment and outcome of severe intraventricular extension in patients with subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nieuwkamp, D J; de Gans, K; Rinkel, G J; Algra, A

    2000-02-01

    Severe intraventricular hemorrhage caused by extension from subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage leads to hydrocephalus and often to poor outcome. We conducted a systematic review to compare conservative treatment, extraventricular drainage, and extraventricular drainage combined with fibrinolysis. We carried out a search in Medline of the literature between January 1966 and December 1998 and an additional hand-search from January 1990 to December 1998. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted to gather unpublished data. We reviewed the reference lists of all relevant articles. Two authors independently assessed eligibility of the studies and extracted data on characteristics of study design, patients, and treatment. Patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Main outcome measures were death and poor outcome (defined as death or dependency) at the end of follow-up. No randomized clinical trial has yet been conducted so far, and we therefore reviewed only observational studies. The case fatality rate for conservative treatment (ten studies) was 78%. For extraventricular drainage (seven studies) it was 58% [relative risk versus conservative treatment (RR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.99]. For extraventricular drainage with fibrinolytic agents (five studies) the case fatality rate was 6% (RR 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.24). The poor outcome rate for conservative treatment was 90%, that for extraventricular drainage 89% (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.75-1.30) and that for extraventricular drainage with fibrinolytic agents 34% (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.21-0.68). All RR values remained essentially the same after adjusting for age, sex, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons scale, study design, and year of publication for the studies that provided these data. Outcome is thus poor in patients with intraventricular extension of subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. This meta-analysis suggests that treatment with ventricular drainage combined

  3. Alterations of caveolin-1 expression in a mouse model of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ye; Wang, Xue-Min; Zhong, Ming; Li, Ze-Qun; Wang, Zhi; Tian, Zuo-Fu; Zheng, Kuang; Tan, Xian-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression levels of caveolin-1 in the basilar artery following delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCVS) in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in order to investigate the association between caveolin-1 and DCVS, and its potential as a treatment for DCVS of SAH. A total of 150 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into blank, saline and SAH groups. The SAH and saline groups were subdivided into days 3, 5, 7 and 14 following the establishment of the model. The murine model of SAH was established by double injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magana and DCVS was detected using Bederson neurological severity scores. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the inner perimeter of the basilar artery pipe and variations in the thickness of the basilar artery wall. Alterations in the levels of caveolin-1 protein in the basilar artery were measured using immunofluorescence and western blot analysis; whereas alterations in the mRNA expression levels of caveolin-1 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In the present study, 15 mice succumbed to SAH-induced DCVS in the day 3 (n=3), 5 (n=5) and 7 (n=2) groups. No mortality was observed in the blank control and saline groups during the process of observation in the SAH group, All mice in the SAH groups exhibited Bederson neurological severity scores ≥1; whereas no neurological impairment was detected in the blank and normal saline groups, demonstrating the success of the model. HE staining was used to assess vasospasm and the results demonstrated that the inner perimeter of the basal artery pipe decreased at day 3 in the SAH group; whereas values peaked in the day 7 group. The thickness of the basal artery wall significantly increased (P<0.05), as compared with the blank and saline groups, in which no significant alterations in the wall thickness and the inner perimeter of the basal artery pipe

  4. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  5. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after medical prolactinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Hollon, Todd C; Shastri, Ravi; Trobe, Jonathan D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are believed to have a low risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), given the confines of the dural rings and the anterior clinoid process. The risk may be greater when the bony and dural protection has been eroded. We report a case of spontaneous SAH from rupture of a cavernous ICA aneurysm in a patient whose large prolactinoma had markedly decreased in size as the result of cabergoline treatment. After passing a balloon test occlusion, the patient underwent successful endovascular vessel deconstruction. This case suggests that an eroding skull base lesion may distort normal anterior cranial base anatomy and allow communication between the cavernous ICA and subarachnoid space. The potential for SAH due to cavernous ICA aneurysm rupture should be recognised in patients with previous pituitary or other skull base lesions adjacent to the cavernous sinus. PMID:27277584

  6. Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2014-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm. PMID:25485154

  7. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebral vasospasm, and as a therapeutic approach to subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kokkoris, Stelios; Andrews, Peter; Webb, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the most potent microvascular vasodilators identified to date. Vascular relaxation and vasodilation is mediated via activation of the CGRP receptor. This atypical receptor is made up of a G protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a single transmembrane protein called receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP), and an additional protein that is required for Gas coupling, known as receptor component protein (RCP). Several mechanisms involved in CGRP-mediated relaxation have been identified. These include nitric oxide (NO)-dependent endothelium-dependent mechanisms or cAMP-mediated endothelium-independent pathways; the latter being more common. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction that occurs several days after the hemorrhage and is often fatal. The vasospasm occurs in 30–40% of patients and is the major cause of death from this condition. The vasoconstriction is associated with a decrease in CGRP levels in nerves and an increase in CGRP levels in draining blood, suggesting that CGRP is released from nerves to oppose the vasoconstriction. This evidence has led to the concept that exogenous CGRP may be beneficial in a condition that has proven hard to treat. The present article reviews: (a) the pathophysiology of delayed ischemic neurologic deficit after SAH (b) the basics of the CGRP receptor structure, signal transduction, and vasodilatation mechanisms and (c) the studies that have been conducted so far using CGRP in both animals and humans with SAH. PMID:23162536

  8. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition reduces cerebral vasospasm following a subarachnoid hemorrhage injury in canines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguang; Khatibi, Nikan H; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yan, Junhao; Chen, Chunhua; Hu, Qin; Meng, Haiwei; Han, Hongbin; Liu, Shuwei; Zhou, Changman

    2012-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a vital role in regulating growth, proliferation, survival, and protein synthesis among cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the mTOR pathway following subarachnoid hemorrhage brain injury--specifically investigating its ability to mediate the activation of cerebral vasospasm. Additionally, we investigated whether key signaling pathway molecules such as the mTOR, P70S6K1, and 4E-BP1 play a role in the process. Thirty dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, SAH (subarachnoid hemorrhage), SAH+DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), SAH+Rapamycin and SAH+AZD8055. An established canine double-hemorrhage model of SAH was used by injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna on days 0 and 2. Angiography was performed at days 0 and 7. Clinical behavior, histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot of mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in the basilar arteries were examined. In the SAH and SAH+DMSO groups, severe angiographic vasospasm was obtained (34.3±19.8%, 38.4±10.3) compared with that in Sham (93.9±5.0%) respectively. mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA increased in the sample of spastic basilar arteries (p<0.05). In the SAH+RAPA and SAH+AZD8055 groups, Rapamycin and AZD8055 attenuated angiographic vasospasm (62.3±15.9% and 65.2±10.3%) while improving appetite and activity scores (p<0.05) on days 5 through 7. Rapamycin and AZD8055 significantly reduced the level and expression of mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA (p<0.05). In conclusion, our study suggests that the mTOR molecular signaling pathway plays a significant role in cerebral vasospasm following SAH, and that inhibition of the mTOR pathway has the potential to become an attractive strategy to treat vasospasm following SAH. PMID:22177999

  9. High-volume hemofiltration and prone ventilation in subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo, Rodrigo; Romero, Carlos; Ugalde, Diego; Bustos, Patricio; Diaz, Gonzalo; Galvez, Ricardo; Llanos, Osvaldo; Tobar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful treatment of two patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock using simultaneous prone position ventilation and high-volume hemofiltration. These rescue therapies allowed the patients to overcome the critical situation without associated complications and with no detrimental effects on the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Prone position ventilation is now an accepted therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-volume hemofiltration is a non-conventional hemodynamic support that has several potential mechanisms for improving septic shock. In this manuscript, we briefly review these therapies and the related evidence. When other conventional treatments are insufficient for providing safe limits of oxygenation and perfusion as part of basic neuroprotective care in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, these rescue therapies should be considered on a case-by-case basis by an experienced critical care team. PMID:25028955

  10. Haptoglobin phenotype predicts the development of focal and global cerebral vasospasm and may influence outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Blackburn, Spiros; Neal, Dan; Mendez, Nicholas V; Wharton, Jeffrey A; Waters, Michael F; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-27

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) and the resulting delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) significantly contribute to poor outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Free hemoglobin (Hb) within the subarachnoid space has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CV. Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free pro-oxidant Hb, thereby modulating its harmful effects. Humans can be of three Hp phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, or Hp2-2. In several disease states, the Hp2-2 protein has been associated with reduced ability to protect against toxic free Hb. We hypothesized that individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype would have more CV, DCI, mortality, and worse functional outcomes after aSAH. In a sample of 74 aSAH patients, Hp2-2 phenotype was significantly associated with increased focal moderate (P = 0.014) and severe (P = 0.008) CV and more global CV (P = 0.014) after controlling for covariates. Strong trends toward increased mortality (P = 0.079) and worse functional outcomes were seen for the Hp2-2 patients with modified Rankin scale at 6 wk (P = 0.076) and at 1 y (P = 0.051) and with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended at discharge (P = 0.091) and at 1 y (P = 0.055). In conclusion, Hp2-2 phenotype is an independent risk factor for the development of both focal and global CV and also predicts poor functional outcomes and mortality after aSAH. Hp phenotyping may serve as a clinically useful tool in the critical care management of aSAH patients by allowing for early prediction of those patients who require increased vigilance due to their inherent genetic risk for the development of CV and resulting DCI and poor outcomes.

  11. Impaired neurovascular coupling to ictal epileptic activity and spreading depolarization in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage: Possible link to blood–brain barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Maren K. L.; Chassidim, Yoash; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Revankar, Gajanan S.; Major, Sebastian; Kang, Eun-Jeung; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sandow, Nora; Scheel, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Dreier, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spreading depolarization describes a sustained neuronal and astroglial depolarization with abrupt ion translocation between intraneuronal and extracellular space leading to a cytotoxic edema and silencing of spontaneous activity. Spreading depolarizations occur abundantly in acutely injured human brain and are assumed to facilitate neuronal death through toxic effects, increased metabolic demand, and inverse neurovascular coupling. Inverse coupling describes severe hypoperfusion in response to spreading depolarization. Ictal epileptic events are less frequent than spreading depolarizations in acutely injured human brain but may also contribute to lesion progression through increased metabolic demand. Whether abnormal neurovascular coupling can occur with ictal epileptic events is unknown. Herein we describe a patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in whom spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events were measured using subdural opto-electrodes for direct current electrocorticography and regional cerebral blood flow recordings with laser-Doppler flowmetry. Simultaneously, changes in tissue partial pressure of oxygen were recorded with an intraparenchymal oxygen sensor. Isolated spreading depolarizations and clusters of recurrent spreading depolarizations with persistent depression of spontaneous activity were recorded over several days followed by a status epilepticus. Both spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events where accompanied by hyperemic blood flow responses at one optode but mildly hypoemic blood flow responses at another. Of note, quantitative analysis of Gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detected impaired blood–brain barrier integrity in the region where the optode had recorded the mildly hypoemic flow responses. The data suggest that abnormal flow responses to spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events, respectively, may be associated with blood

  12. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in elderly patients: long-term outcome and prognostic factors in an interdisciplinary treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Schöller, Karsten; Massmann, Maike; Markl, Gertraud; Kunz, Mathias; Fesl, Gunther; Brückmann, Hartmut; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The number of elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is increasing with the aging of the population. However, management recommendations based on long-term outcome data and analyses of prognostic factors are scarce. Our study focused exclusively on elderly patients aged ≥ 60 years at the onset of SAH. Patients were selected from an in-house database and compared in cohorts of age 60-69, 70-79, and ≥ 80, regarding pre-existing medical conditions, treatment, clinical course including complications, and outcome. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for death and disability. A total of 256 patients (138 aged 60-69, 93 aged 70-79, 25 aged ≥ 80) with putative aneurysmal SAH who had been admitted to our hospital between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2007 were extracted. The median follow-up of our total cohort was 35.5 months (range <1-154 months). Endovascular or conservative aneurysm treatment was applied more often with increasing age (p < 0.006). The 1-year survival rate was 78, 65, and 38 % in the three age groups, respectively (p = 0.0002); most of the patients died from the initial hemorrhage or from medical complications. Patients aged <70 with an initial World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) score of I-III showed the best clinical recovery. WFNS score, age, and clipping/coiling were extracted as prognostic factors from the Cox model. Elderly patients who get admitted with a good WFNS score (I-III) seem to benefit from aggressive treatment whereas caution seems to be warranted particularly in patients ≥ 70 years of age who get admitted in a WFNS score of IV and V because of their limited short- and long-term prognosis.

  13. Does isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage merit a lower intensity level of observation than other traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed

    Phelan, Herb A; Richter, Adam A; Scott, William W; Pruitt, Jeffrey H; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L; Wolf, Steven E

    2014-10-15

    Evidence is emerging that isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (ITSAH) may be a milder form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). If true, ITSAH may not benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) admission, which would, in turn, decrease resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective review of all TBI admissions to our institution between February 2010 and November 2012 to compare the presentation and clinical course of subjects with ITSAH to all other TBI. We then performed descriptive statistics on the subset of ITSAH subjects presenting with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13-15. Of 698 subjects, 102 had ITSAH and 596 had any other intracranial hemorrhage pattern. Compared to all other TBI, ITSAH had significantly lower injury severity scores (p<0.0001), lower head abbreviated injury scores (p<0.0001), higher emergency department GCS (p<0.0001), shorter ICU stays (p=0.007), higher discharge GCS (p=0.005), lower mortality (p=0.003), and significantly fewer head computed tomography scans (p<0.0001). Of those ITSAH subjects presenting with a GCS of 13-15 (n=77), none underwent placement of an intracranial monitor or craniotomy. One subject (1.3%) demonstrated a change in exam (worsened headache and dizziness) concomitant with a progression of his intracranial injury. His symptoms resolved with readmission to the ICU and continued observation. Our results suggest that ITSAH are less-severe brain injuries than other TBI. ITSAH patients with GCS scores of 13-15 demonstrate low rates of clinical progression, and when progression occurs, it resolves without further intervention. This subset of TBI patients does not appear to benefit from ICU admission. PMID:24926612

  14. [Complete remission of consciousness disturbances and spasticity due to a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage after intrathecal baclofen therapy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Typically, intrathecal baclofen therapy(ITB)for spasticity is continuously required because the spasticity can recur if the ITB is stopped. Thus, an infusion pump for the ITB is permanently implanted. Some sporadic cases exhibiting remarkable improvements in their spasticity and consciousness disturbances have been reported after implanting the ITB pump. We experienced a rare case involving removal of the ITB pump after the spasticity resolved and the consciousness disturbances markedly improved. A 15-year-old girl developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm in the right anterior cerebral artery. Her initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4(E1V1M2). Trapping of the aneurysm and decompression craniotomy were performed. Subsequently, she underwent a tracheotomy, and a percutaneous gastrostomy(PEG)tube was implanted because of persistent consciousness disturbances. Cranioplasty and lumbar-peritoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus were performed after 1 month. An ITB pump was implanted to improve the spasticity observed mainly in the lower extremities 61 days after hemorrhage onset. Right hemiparesis remained due to Kernohan's notch. After transfer to the rehabilitation hospital, her consciousness disturbances and spasticity remarkably improved(1.9 to 1.0 and 3.5 to 1.0 on the Ashworth scale for the upper and lower extremities, respectively). The tracheostomy and PEG tubes were removed, and the baclofen dose was gradually reduced. She was completely off baclofen after 7 months, and she was discharged with a short leg brace and a cane for walking. The baclofen pump was then removed. In this case, temporary ITB improved the spasticity and consciousness disturbances.

  15. Medical Management of Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Peter; He, Shuhan; Amar, Arun Paul; Mack, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Evidence suggests a multifactorial etiology and this concept remains supported by the assortment of therapeutic modalities under investigation. The authors provide an updated review of the literature for previous and recent clinical trials evaluating medical treatments in patients with cerebral vasospasm secondary to aSAH. Currently, the strongest evidence supports use of prophylactic oral nimodipine and initiation of triple-H therapy for patients in cerebral vasospasm. Other agents presented in this report include magnesium, statins, endothelin receptor antagonists, nitric oxide promoters, free radical scavengers, thromboxane inhibitors, thrombolysis, anti-inflammatory agents and neuroprotectants. Although promising data is beginning to emerge for several treatments, few prospective randomized clinical trials are presently available. Additionally, future investigational efforts will need to resolve discrepant definitions and outcome measures for cerebral vasospasm in order to permit adequate study comparisons. Until then, definitive recommendations cannot be made regarding the safety and efficacy for each of these therapeutic strategies and medical management practices will continue to be implemented in a wide-ranging manner.

  16. Critical care management of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society's Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Diringer, Michael N; Bleck, Thomas P; Claude Hemphill, J; Menon, David; Shutter, Lori; Vespa, Paul; Bruder, Nicolas; Connolly, E Sander; Citerio, Giuseppe; Gress, Daryl; Hänggi, Daniel; Hoh, Brian L; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Le Roux, Peter; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Schmutzhard, Erich; Stocchetti, Nino; Suarez, Jose I; Treggiari, Miriam; Tseng, Ming-Yuan; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wolf, Stefan; Zipfel, Gregory

    2011-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an acute cerebrovascular event which can have devastating effects on the central nervous system as well as a profound impact on several other organs. SAH patients are routinely admitted to an intensive care unit and are cared for by a multidisciplinary team. A lack of high quality data has led to numerous approaches to management and limited guidance on choosing among them. Existing guidelines emphasize risk factors, prevention, natural history, and prevention of rebleeding, but provide limited discussion of the complex critical care issues involved in the care of SAH patients. The Neurocritical Care Society organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference on the critical care management of SAH to address this need. Experts from neurocritical care, neurosurgery, neurology, interventional neuroradiology, and neuroanesthesiology from Europe and North America were recruited based on their publications and expertise. A jury of four experienced neurointensivists was selected for their experience in clinical investigations and development of practice guidelines. Recommendations were developed based on literature review using the GRADE system, discussion integrating the literature with the collective experience of the participants and critical review by an impartial jury. Recommendations were developed using the GRADE system. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based not only on the quality of the data but also tradeoffs and translation into practice. Strong consideration was given to providing guidance and recommendations for all issues faced in the daily management of SAH patients, even in the absence of high quality data. PMID:21773873

  17. Induced hypertension for the treatment of cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Direct effect on cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Muizelaar, J.P.; Becker, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    The best treatment for symptomatic cerebral ischemia from presumed vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains a matter of controversy. A direct effect of any treatment modality on regional cerebral blood flow has never been documented. In a series of 43 patients operated on for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms, five patients (11.6%) developed clinical signs of cerebral ischemia postoperatively. In four of those patients, the diagnosis of vasospasm was made with measurements of cerebral blood flow (133Xe inhalation or intravenous injection, 10-16 detectors, cerebral blood flow infinity). Treatment with induced arterial hypertension with phenylephrine was instituted. Hemodilution was instituted in one patient; the other three patients already had hematocrits in the range of 33. Within 1 hour, the cerebral blood flow measurement was repeated to document the effect of treatment. The average pretreatment hemispherical blood flow on the operated side was 18.8 mL/100 g per minute, on the contralateral side 21.0 mL/100 g per minute. With treatment these flows increased to 30.8 and 35.8 mL/100 g per minute, respectively. There was also an immediate and obvious positive clinical effect in all patients. The role of measurement of cerebral blood flow in the clinical management of vasospasm is discussed. We stress the theoretical and practical advances of measurements of cerebral blood flow over cerebral angiography, especially in comatose patients.

  18. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  19. [The relationship between aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and meteorological parameters based on a series of 236 French patients].

    PubMed

    Rué, M; Camiade, E; Jecko, V; Bauduer, F; Vignes, J-R

    2014-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a sudden and potentially severe event with mortality rates ranging between 24 and 30 % depending on the initial clinical condition. Studies have attempted to assess the possible influence of meteorological parameters on the occurrence of SAH. However, this idea remains very controversial and the results vary widely from one study to another. Our study is the second largest French series, and first performed in a homogeneous series of patients. The aim of our study was to attempt to establish a relationship between the weather (i.e.) temperature variations and daily variations of atmospheric pressure in the days before the onset of SAH and the same day and the occurrence of non-traumatic SAH in a homogeneous population of 236 patients from a single center, over a period of 7 years (2002 to 2008). This retrospective study does not suggest any relationship between the occurrence of SAH and meteorological data studied. Moreover, no relationship was observed between mean changes in temperature or pressure and the occurrence of SAH, that the day of the bleeding or the days preceding the SAH. However, a female predominance was observed and a relatively high mortality rate of 18.3 %. The distribution of the occurrence of an SAH was random. As it seems impossible to provide logistics and organization of care for non-traumatic SAH, the care system must remain vigilant throughout the year.

  20. Association between S100B Levels and Long-Term Outcome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pui Man Rosalind; Du, Rose

    2016-01-01

    S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), a well-studied marker for neurologic injury, has been suggested as a candidate for predicting outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a pooled analysis summarizing the associations between S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with radiographic vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurologic deficit (DIND), delayed cerebral infarction, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) outcome. A literature search using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the EMBASE databases was performed to identify relevant studies published up to May 2015. The weighted Stouffer's Z method was used to perform a pooled analysis of outcome measures with greater than three studies. A total of 13 studies were included in this review. Higher serum S100B level was found to be associated with cerebral infarction as diagnosed by CT (padj = 3.1 x 10(-4)) and worse GOS outcome (padj = 5.5 x 10(-11)). There was no association found between serum and CSF S100B with radiographic vasospasm or DIND. S100B is a potential prognostic marker for aSAH outcome.

  1. Is the circulating plasma volume sufficiently maintained? Fluid management of an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the acute phase.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Moro, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Jun; Hirayama, Teruyasu

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is a well-known cause of mortality and morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Prevention of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm is the basic management after SAH. Numerous pharmaceutical therapies and endovascular treatments are available against cerebral vasospasm, but none of them have so far proven to improve the outcome. We have focused on maintaining the circulation volume in order to prevent cerebral vasospasm. But to maintain the central venous pressure, huge infusion volume was required, and hyponatremia was frequently observed due to natriuresis and osmotic diuresis. Excessive natriuresis and diuresis cannot be managed through sodium and water replacement, since sodium replacement induces further natriuresis and diuresis (desalination), and water replacement induces hyponatremia. We therefore administered fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone to inhibit excessive natriuresis and diuresis. The efficacy of sodium reabsorption therapy is extremely high to maintain the circulation volume that might have a therapeutic effect to prevent cerebral vasospasm. In this article, we review our institution's experience regarding the management of patients with aneurysmal SAH and also discuss the importance of water and sodium balance when managing such patients.

  2. Use of Intra-aortic- Balloon Pump Counterpulsation in Patients with Symptomatic Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neurogenic Stress Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mufti, Fawaz; Morris, Nicholas; Lahiri, Shouri; Roth, William; Witsch, Jens; Machado, Iona; Agarwal, Sachin; Park, Soojin; Meyers, Philip M.; Connolly, E. Sander; Claassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intra-aortic counterpulsation balloon pumps (IABPs) have been widely used to augment hemodynamics in critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock and have recently been proposed as a management strategy for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC). Prior case series have described the use of IABP as a means to manage cardiogenic shock in this patient population; however, we sought to describe our experience with IABP as a means to wean vasopressor requirement while augmenting hemodynamics and maintaining pressures at goal. Methods Five patients were identified from a single center, prospective, observational cohort study that received an IABP for the management of ischemia related to cerebral vasospasm in the setting of NSC. We evaluated all cases for efficacy of IABP in reducing vasopressor requirement, and complications. Results Vasopressor requirements were reduced by a mean of 50% (range 25–65%) following IABPs placement within 24–48 h. There were no significant complications from IABPs. Out of the five patients, the outcome in three cases was favorable (mRS≤1). Two patients suffered delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), one patient passed away due to severe sepsis, and one patient was left with severe disability. Only one patient required anticoagulation and that was for a preexisting deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion The use of IABPs may be beneficial as an adjunctive therapy in SAH patients with concomitant symptomatic vasospasm and NSC. PMID:27403221

  3. Long-term assessment of motor and cognitive behaviours in the intraluminal perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Silasi, Gergely; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-03-17

    The endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a commonly used model in rats as it is performed without a craniotomy and accurately mimics the physiological effects of SAH in humans. The long-term behavioural profile of the model, however, has not been characterized. Given that humans often have cognitive deficits following SAH, we set out to characterize the behavioural profile as well as the spontaneous temperature changes of rats following intraluminal perforation. Rats were pre-trained on three motor tasks (tapered beam, limb-use asymmetry and the horizontal ladder tasks) prior to receiving a SAH. The animals were then assessed on post-surgical days 3, 7, 14 and 21 on these tasks. At the completion of motor testing, the rats were assessed on a moving platform version of the Morris water task. Despite significant mortality (33%), SAH did not result in lasting motor deficits on any of the tasks examined. However, the SAH group did show a minor cognitive impairment in the Morris water task. In addition, SAH produced a slight, but significant elevation in body temperature (vs. sham operated rats) despite an acute decrease in general home cage activity. The majority of the animals did not have any observable infarcts and the SAH did not significantly affect cortical thickness. In summary, the endovascular perforation model of SAH results in no lasting motor deficits and only minor cognitive impairment in survivors, which alone would be difficult to evaluate in neuroprotection or rehabilitation studies. PMID:19059287

  4. [Massive natriuresis and polyuria after triple craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Berendes, E; Scherer, R; Schuricht, G; Rol, R; Hengst, K

    1992-11-01

    A thirty-year-old male patient suffered subarachnoidal haemorrhage from an angioma positioned in the cranio-cervical transition. After rebleeding twice the patient developed a hydrocephalus internus malresorptivus and excessive natriuresis and polyuria, accompanied by depressed renin activity and extremely low aldosterone plasma levels. Neither fluid restriction and sodium substitution, nor administration of hydro-chlorothiazide/indomethacin affected natriuresis and polyuria. It was only after treatment with fludrocortisone-acetate/hydrocortisone that hyponatraemia and polyuria were resolved. At the same time a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was applied. Differential diagnosis excluded the syndromes of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion, renal and cerebral diabetes insipidus, osmotic receptor hypofunction, chronic renal dysfunction and tubular necrosis. Natriuresis and polyuria developed under dexamethasone therapy. Since patient history, physical examination and laboratory criteria could not explain the electrolyte and fluid imbalance, this might be attributed to the hydrocephalus. Similar disturbances have been reported from other patients with intracranial disorders. Mechanical pressure exercised on the hypothalamus might cause the disturbance of fluid and sodium balance. Assuming a cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a putative natriuretic factor coming from the brain or an imbalance in the cerebral renin-angiotensin-system, as described in rats and dogs, must be discussed.

  5. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009.

  6. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  7. Subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage after alcohol ingestion and illicit use of sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Antar, Veysel; Sutpideler, Neslihan; Baran, Oguz; Bitirak, Gorkem

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil is a drug used in the treatment of male impotence. Few cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage following the use of sildenafil have been cited in the literature. A 42-year-old man was admitted to the emergency outpatient clinic of İstanbul Educational and Research Hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He had ingested alcohol, taken 50mg sildenafil and had sexual intercourse. Non-contrast cranial tomography revealed an intracerebral hematoma with extension to the ventricles. Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme inhibitor. With the inhibition of PDE-5, the amount of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) in the smooth vascular muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum increases, leading to a relaxation of muscles and vasodilatation. Studies have shown that the NO-c-GMP pathway leads to cerebral vasodilatation with a similar mechanism. The literature has shown that the effect of PDE-1 and PDE-2 on cerebral bleeding control is affected by sildenafil. This increased blood flow increases the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Although data concerning the presentation of intracerebral hematoma in connection with the combined use of alcohol ingestion and use of sildenafil is inadequate, it can nevertheless be thought that the combined use increases the risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and caution is in order concerning the matter. PMID:26037192

  8. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress and Brain Edema in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yu-shu; Wang, Ju-lei; Feng, Da-yun; Qin, Huai-zhou; Wen, Hua; Yin, Zhong-min; Gao, Guo-dong; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress. The effects of quercetin on brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however, have not been investigated. This study was designed to explore the effects of quercetin on oxidative stress and brain edema after experimental SAH using four equal groups (n = 16) of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, including a sham group, an SAH + vehicle group, an SAH + quercetin10 group, and an SAH + quercetin50 group. The rat SAH model was induced by injection of 0.3 ml of non-heparinised arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. In the SAH + quercetin10 and SAH + quercetin50 groups, doses of 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, were directly administered by intraperitoneal injection at 30 min, 12 h, and 24 h after SAH induction. Cerebral tissue samples were extracted for enzymatic antioxidant determination, lipid peroxidation assay, caspase-3 activity and water content testing 48 h after SAH. Treatment with a high dose (50 mg/kg) of quercetin markedly enhanced the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and treatment with this dose significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Caspase-3 and brain edema was ameliorated and neurobehavioral deficits improved in rats that received the high dose of quercetin. The findings suggest that the early administration of optimal dose of quercetin may ameliorate brain damage and provide neuroprotection in the SAH model, potentially by enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. PMID:24516353

  9. The Development of Neuroendocrine Disturbances over Time: Longitudinal Findings in Patients after Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kopczak, Anna; Krewer, Carmen; Schneider, Manfred; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Schneider, Harald Jörn; Stalla, Günter Karl

    2015-12-22

    Previous reports suggest that neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may still develop or resolve months or even years after the trauma. We investigated a cohort of n = 168 patients (81 patients after TBI and 87 patients after SAH) in whom hormone levels had been determined at various time points to assess the course and pattern of hormonal insufficiencies. Data were analyzed using three different criteria: (1) patients with lowered basal laboratory values; (2) patients with lowered basal laboratory values or the need for hormone replacement therapy; (3) diagnosis of the treating physician. The first hormonal assessment after a median time of three months after the injury showed lowered hormone laboratory test results in 35% of cases. Lowered testosterone (23.1% of male patients), lowered estradiol (14.3% of female patients) and lowered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) values (12.1%) were most common. Using Criterion 2, a higher prevalence rate of 55.6% of cases was determined, which correlated well with the prevalence rate of 54% of cases using the physicians' diagnosis as the criterion. Intraindividual changes (new onset insufficiency or recovery) were predominantly observed for the somatotropic axis (12.5%), the gonadotropic axis in women (11.1%) and the corticotropic axis (10.6%). Patients after TBI showed more often lowered IGF-I values at first testing, but normal values at follow-up (p < 0.0004). In general, most patients remained stable. Stable hormone results at follow-up were obtained in 78% (free thyroxine (fT4) values) to 94.6% (prolactin values).

  10. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Wei; Wu, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. PMID:27529233

  11. The Development of Neuroendocrine Disturbances over Time: Longitudinal Findings in Patients after Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kopczak, Anna; Krewer, Carmen; Schneider, Manfred; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka; Schneider, Harald Jörn; Stalla, Günter Karl

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that neuroendocrine disturbances in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may still develop or resolve months or even years after the trauma. We investigated a cohort of n = 168 patients (81 patients after TBI and 87 patients after SAH) in whom hormone levels had been determined at various time points to assess the course and pattern of hormonal insufficiencies. Data were analyzed using three different criteria: (1) patients with lowered basal laboratory values; (2) patients with lowered basal laboratory values or the need for hormone replacement therapy; (3) diagnosis of the treating physician. The first hormonal assessment after a median time of three months after the injury showed lowered hormone laboratory test results in 35% of cases. Lowered testosterone (23.1% of male patients), lowered estradiol (14.3% of female patients) and lowered insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) values (12.1%) were most common. Using Criterion 2, a higher prevalence rate of 55.6% of cases was determined, which correlated well with the prevalence rate of 54% of cases using the physicians’ diagnosis as the criterion. Intraindividual changes (new onset insufficiency or recovery) were predominantly observed for the somatotropic axis (12.5%), the gonadotropic axis in women (11.1%) and the corticotropic axis (10.6%). Patients after TBI showed more often lowered IGF-I values at first testing, but normal values at follow-up (p < 0.0004). In general, most patients remained stable. Stable hormone results at follow-up were obtained in 78% (free thyroxine (fT4) values) to 94.6% (prolactin values). PMID:26703585

  12. The effect of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate on neurological outcome in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Matthew; Melamed, Israel; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Ohayon, Sharon; Leibowitz, Akiva; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Blood glutamate scavengers have been shown to effectively reduce blood glutamate concentrations and improve neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury and stroke in rats. This study investigates the efficacy of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Isotonic saline, 250 mg/kg oxaloacetate, or 125 mg/kg pyruvate was injected intravenously in 60 rats, 60 minutes after induction of SAH at a rate of 0.1 ml/100 g/min for 30 minutes. There were 20 additional rats that were used as a sham-operated group. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 90 minutes after SAH. Neurological performance was assessed at 24 h after SAH. In half of the rats, glutamate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured 24 h after SAH. For the remaining half, the blood brain barrier permeability in the frontal and parieto-occipital lobes was measured 48 h after SAH. Blood glutamate levels were reduced in rats treated with oxaloacetate or pyruvate at 90 minutes after SAH (p < 0.001). Cerebrospinal fluid glutamate was reduced in rats treated with pyruvate (p < 0.05). Neurological performance was significantly improved in rats treated with oxaloacetate (p < 0.05) or pyruvate (p < 0.01). The breakdown of the blood brain barrier was reduced in the frontal lobe in rats treated with pyruvate (p < 0.05) and in the parieto-occipital lobes in rats treated with either pyruvate (p < 0.01) or oxaloacetate (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate as a therapeutic neuroprotective strategy in a rat model of SAH. PMID:22711471

  13. VAP-1 blockade prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-associated cerebrovascular dilating dysfunction via repression of a neutrophil recruitment-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haoliang; Testai, Fernando D; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; N Pavuluri, Mani; Zhai, Fengguo; Nanegrungsunk, Danop; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2015-04-01

    Our previous findings indicated that in rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), suppression of post-SAH neuroinflammation via vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) blockade provides significant neuroprotection. We and others have reported that neuroinflammation contributes to cerebral microvascular impairment. Thus, in the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) treatment with LJP-1586, a selective VAP-1 blocker, prevents SAH-associated pial arteriolar dilating dysfunction; and (2) the vasculoprotective effect of LJP-1586 arises from inhibiting SAH-elicited neutrophil recruitment. We utilized an endovascular perforation model of SAH. Rats subjected to SAH were either treated with LJP-1586 or rendered neutropenic via anti-neutrophil-antibody treatment. Findings from these groups were compared to their respective control groups. At 48 h post-SAH, rats were evaluated for neurobehavioral function, pial venular leukocyte trafficking, and pial arteriolar reactivity to topically-applied acetylcholine (ACh) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). Pial arteriolar responses decreased at 48 h post-SAH. However, in the presence of LJP-1586, those responses were significantly preserved. Neutrophil-depletion yielded a substantial suppression of SAH-associated leukocyte adhesion and infiltration. This was accompanied by a significant preservation of pial arteriolar dilating function, suggesting a direct link between neutrophil recruitment and the loss of cerebral microvascular reactivity. Moreover, neutrophil depletion also was associated with significant protection of neurobehavioral function. The present findings suggest that attenuating SAH-linked elevation in neutrophil trafficking will protect against the development of microvascular dysfunction and subsequent neurological impairment.

  14. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Wei; Wu, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. PMID:27529233

  15. Early whole-brain CT perfusion for detection of patients at risk for delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Dolatowski, Karoline; Schramm, Peter; Moerer, Onnen; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT This prospective study investigated the role of whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) studies in the identification of patients at risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) and of tissue at risk for delayed cerebral infarction (DCI). METHODS Forty-three patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were included in this study. A CTP study was routinely performed in the early phase (Day 3). The CTP study was repeated in cases of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD)-measured blood flow velocity (BFV) increase of > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours and/or on Day 7 in patients who were intubated/sedated. RESULTS Early CTP studies revealed perfusion deficits in 14 patients, of whom 10 patients (72%) developed DIND, and 6 of these 10 patients (60%) had DCI. Three of the 14 patients (21%) with early perfusion deficits developed DCI without having had DIND, and the remaining patient (7%) had neither DIND nor DCI. There was a statistically significant correlation between early perfusion deficits and occurrence of DIND and DCI (p < 0.0001). A repeated CTP was performed in 8 patients with a TCD-measured BFV increase > 50 cm/sec within 24 hours, revealing a perfusion deficit in 3 of them (38%). Two of the 3 patients (67%) developed DCI without preceding DIND and 1 patient (33%) had DIND without DCI. In 4 of the 7 patients (57%) who were sedated and/or comatose, additional CTP studies on Day 7 showed perfusion deficits. All 4 patients developed DCI. CONCLUSIONS Whole-brain CTP on Day 3 after aSAH allows early and reliable identification of patients at risk for DIND and tissue at risk for DCI. Additional CTP investigations, guided by TCD-measured BFV increase or persisting coma, do not contribute to information gain.

  16. The effect of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate on neurological outcome in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Matthew; Melamed, Israel; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Ohayon, Sharon; Leibowitz, Akiva; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Blood glutamate scavengers have been shown to effectively reduce blood glutamate concentrations and improve neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury and stroke in rats. This study investigates the efficacy of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Isotonic saline, 250 mg/kg oxaloacetate, or 125 mg/kg pyruvate was injected intravenously in 60 rats, 60 minutes after induction of SAH at a rate of 0.1 ml/100 g/min for 30 minutes. There were 20 additional rats that were used as a sham-operated group. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 90 minutes after SAH. Neurological performance was assessed at 24 h after SAH. In half of the rats, glutamate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured 24 h after SAH. For the remaining half, the blood brain barrier permeability in the frontal and parieto-occipital lobes was measured 48 h after SAH. Blood glutamate levels were reduced in rats treated with oxaloacetate or pyruvate at 90 minutes after SAH (p < 0.001). Cerebrospinal fluid glutamate was reduced in rats treated with pyruvate (p < 0.05). Neurological performance was significantly improved in rats treated with oxaloacetate (p < 0.05) or pyruvate (p < 0.01). The breakdown of the blood brain barrier was reduced in the frontal lobe in rats treated with pyruvate (p < 0.05) and in the parieto-occipital lobes in rats treated with either pyruvate (p < 0.01) or oxaloacetate (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate as a therapeutic neuroprotective strategy in a rat model of SAH.

  17. Prolonged Cerebral Circulation Time Is the Best Parameter for Predicting Vasospasm during Initial CT Perfusion in Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun Fu; Hsu, Sanford P. C.; Lin, Chung Jung; Guo, Wan Yuo; Liao, Chih Hsiang; Chu, Wei Fa; Hung, Sheng Che; Shih, Yang Shin; Lin, Yen Tzu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to imitate angiographic cerebral circulation time (CCT) and create a similar index from baseline CT perfusion (CTP) to better predict vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Forty-one SAH patients with available DSA and CTP were retrospectively included. The vasospasm group was comprised of patients with deterioration in conscious functioning and newly developed luminal narrowing; remaining cases were classified as the control group. The angiography CCT (XA-CCT) was defined as the difference in TTP (time to peak) between the selected arterial ROIs and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Four arterial ROIs were selected to generate four corresponding XA-CCTs: the right and left anterior cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRA2 and XA-CCTLA2) and right- and left-middle cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRM2 and XA-CCTLM2). The CCTs from CTP (CT-CCT) were defined as the differences in TTP from the corresponding arterial ROIs and the SSS. Correlations of the different CCTs were calculated and diagnostic accuracy in predicting vasospasm was evaluated. Results Intra-class correlations ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. The correlations of XA-CCTRA2, XA-CCTRM2, XA-CCTLA2, and XA-CCTLM2 with the corresponding CT-CCTs were 0.64, 0.65, 0.53, and 0.68, respectively. All CCTs were significantly prolonged in the vasospasm group (5.8–6.4 s) except for XA-CCTLA2. CT-CCTA2 of 5.62 was the optimal cut-off value for detecting vasospasm with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity 82.4% Conclusion CT-CCTs can be used to interpret cerebral flow without deconvolution algorithms, and outperform both MTT and TTP in predicting vasospasm risk. This finding may help facilitate management of patients with SAH. PMID:26986626

  18. Postpartum cerebral angiopathy presenting with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and interval development of neurological deficits: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Bai, Harrison X; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Yanqiao; Tan, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy (PCA) is a cerebrovascular disease that occurs during the postpartum period. It is characterized by reversible multifocal vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. We report a patient with PCA proven by cerebral angiography that revealed multifocal, segmental narrowing of the cerebral arteries and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient suddenly deteriorated with focal neurological deficits on the 5 th day of hospitalization. She was treated with calcium-channel blockers and monitored with daily transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Her symptoms gradually improved and she was discharged on the 11 th day of hospitalization. At 1-month follow-up, patient was completely symptom-free with no neurological deficits.

  19. Role of nitric oxide and mechanisms involved in cerebral injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage: is nitric oxide a possible answer to cerebral vasospasm?

    PubMed

    Crobeddu, Emanuela; Pilloni, Giulia; Tardivo, Valentina; Fontanella, Marco M; Panciani, Pier P; Spena, Giannantonio; Fornaro, Riccardo; Altieri, Roberto; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ajello, Marco; Zenga, Francesco; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral vasospasm represents the most critical event that could occur after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therapy is only partially effective because cerebral arterial constriction is not fully understood yet. One of the most important biological messenger associated to SAH is nitric oxide (NO), that is considered local regulator of cerebral blood flow. Different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) forms play a role in different biological processes, one of which is to link neuronal activity to blood flow in cerebral cortex. We performed a reassessment of the literature to summarize the role of NO as the main inflammatory pathway activated after SAH to clarify its importance for treatment of vasospasm.

  20. Intracranial biodegradable silica-based nimodipine drug release implant for treating vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage in an experimental healthy pig and dog model.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Simola, Outi; Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant.

  1. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  2. Prognosis Predicting Score for Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Risk Modeling Study for Individual Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guoli; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Qiang; Zuo, Qiao; Zhang, Lei; Hong, Bo; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2016-02-01

    The elderly patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have a greater risk of poor clinical outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT) than younger patients do. Hence, it is necessary to explore which factors are associated with poor outcome and develop a predictive score specifically for elderly patients with aSAH receiving EVT. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a predictive score for 1-year outcomes in individual elderly patients with aSAH underwent EVT.In this 10-year prospective study, 520 consecutive aSAH elderly (age ≥ 60 years) patients underwent EVT in a single center were included. The risk factors, periprocedural, and 1-year follow-up data of all patients were entered in a specific prospective database. The modified Rankin scale was used for evaluating clinical outcome. To optimize the model's predictive capacity, the original matrix was randomly divided in 2 submatrices (learning and testing). The predictive score was developed using Arabic numerals for all variables based on the variable coefficients (β) of multivariable logistic regression analysis in the learning set and the predictive performance evaluation was assessed in the testing set. The risk classes were constructed using classification criteria based on sensitivity and specificity. The poor outcome rate at 1 year was 26.15%. Six risk factors, including age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications, were independently associated with poor outcome and assembled the Changhai score. The discriminative power analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the Changhai score was statistically significant (0.864, 0.824-0.904, P < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the Changhai score were 82.07% and 78.06%, respectively. Our study indicated that age, hypertension, Hunt-Hess scale, Fisher scale, aneurysm location, and periprocedural complications were independent risk

  3. Blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid-enhanced pericyte microvasculature contraction in rat retina: A novel in vitro study of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Qiang; Cui, Gaoyu; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Weihua; Zhao, Hengli; Zhang, John H.; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previously, it was widely accepted that the delayed ischemic injury and poor clinical outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was caused by cerebral vasospasm. This classical theory was challenged by a clazosentan clinical trial, which failed to improve patient outcome, despite reversing angiographic vasospasm. One possible explanation for the results of this trial is the changes in microcirculation following SAH, particularly in pericytes, which are the primary cell type controlling microcirculation in the brain parenchyma. However, as a result of technical limitations and the lack of suitable models, there was no direct evidence of microvessel dysfunction following SAH. In the present study, whole-mount retinal microvasculature has been introduced to study microcirculation in the brain following experimental SAH in vitro. Artificial blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid (BSCF) was applied to the retinal microvasculature to test the hypothesis that the presence of subarachnoid blood affects the contractile properties of the pericytes containing cerebral microcirculation during the early phase of SAH. It was observed that BCSF induced retina microvessel contraction and that this contraction could be resolved by BCSF wash-out. Furthermore, BCSF application accelerated pericyte-populated collagen gel contraction and increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, BCSF induced an influx of calcium in cultured retinal pericytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates increased contractility of retinal microvessels and pericytes in the presence of BCSF in vitro. These findings suggest that pericyte contraction and microvascular dysfunction is induced following SAH, which could lead to greater susceptibility to SAH-induced ischemia.

  4. Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Two Important Italian Political Leaders: A Paradigm of Ethical and Technological Evolution of Neurosurgery During the Past Half-Century.

    PubMed

    Longatti, Pierluigi; Giombelli, Ermanno; Pavesi, Giacomo; Carteri, Alessandro; Feletti, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    For a curious and extraordinary coincidence, 5 of the 7 most relevant leaders of the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, which was established in 1921, has been the biggest Communist Party in Western Countries) suffered a cerebral stroke. Cerebrovascular diseases afflicted also Stalin and Lenin, and a number of Presidents of the United States. We present the stories of 2 important Italian political leaders who shared both the leadership role of the major left Italian Party and the dramatic experience of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Retracing their medical incidents, separated by 50 years of history, we show how a fatal medical disease has become neurosurgical and successfully cured thanks to the advances of neurosurgery, neuroradiology, and hospital organization. A neurologic disease that was disgraceful 50 years ago has lost any disquieting and embarrassing significance in the present time to the light of evolution of vascular neurosurgery.

  5. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Kanat, Ayhan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Yolas, Coskun; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref; Gundogdu, Betul; Duman, Aslihan; Kanat, Ilyas Ferit; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Context: Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. Aims: The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on bowel dilatation severity. Settings and Design: An experimental rabbit study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13), serum saline (SS) (SS; N = 7) and control (N = 5) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm3 in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm3 in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm3 in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies. PMID:25972712

  6. [Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages after administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in a patient with acute ischemicstroke due to anterior cerebral artery dissection: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Ken; Koyama, Seigo; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2011-06-01

    A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of right hemiparesis. At admission, he was alert and well oriented. His verbal comprehension seemed good, but his speech was not fluent. He could not stand or walk owing to the right hemiparesis, which was severe in the lower extremity. Computed tomographic (CT) scans on admission showed no abnormality. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging performed after the CT showed a high-intensity lesion in the left cingulate gyrus. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed occlusion and irregularity of the left A2 portion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). At 1 h 50 min after the onset of the hemiparesis, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 0.6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. At 1 h after the administration of rt-PA, he became drowsy and his right hemiparesis deteriorated. CT scans performed again showed a hematoma in the left frontal lobe and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the anterior interhemispheric fissure. He was treated conservatively. MRA performed on the 18th day after admission showed recanalization of the left ACA and abnormal dilatation of the left A2 segment. The abnormal dilatation was also depicted by 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) performed on the 26th day after admission and even on the 33rd and 77th days. As seen in our case, the definite diagnosis of dissection confined to the ACA frequently needs serial angiographies; therefore, its diagnosis immediately after the onset is often difficult. Thrombolytic therapy by intravenous administration of rt-PA for cerebral infarction caused by dissection of the ACA may recanalize the occluded site and facilitate the progression of the dissection, resulting in intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages. In patients with cerebral infarction due to ACA dissection, strict control of blood pressure and careful observation are necessary after thrombolytic therapy by rt-PA.

  7. The AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism as a risk factor and outcome predictor of primary intracerebral and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Golenia, Aleksandra; Turaj, Wojciech; Baird, Alison E; Moskala, Marek; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka; Pera, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Associations between the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene A1166C polymorphism and hypertension, aortic abdominal aneurysms (as a risk factor) as well as cardiovascular disorders (as a risk factor and an outcome predictor) have been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the role of this polymorphism as risk factors and outcome predictors in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We have prospectively recruited 1078 Polish participants to the study: 261 PICH patients, 392 aSAH patients, and 425 unrelated control subjects. The A1166C AGTR1 gene polymorphism was studied using the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared with other ethnically different populations. The A1166C polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PICH or aSAH. Among the aSAH patients the AA genotype was associated with a good outcome, defined by a Glasgow Outcome Scale of 4 or 5 (p<0.02). The distribution of A1166C genotypes in our cohort did not differ from other white or other populations of European descent. In conclusion, we found an association between the A1166C AGTR1 polymorphism and outcome of aSAH patients, but not with the risk of PICH or aSAH. PMID:25168322

  8. Comparative clinical trial of epsilon amino-caproic acid and tranexamic acid in the prevention of early recurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, U M; Sayed, K

    1981-01-01

    A comparative controlled clinical trial of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA), 36 g/day and tranexamic acid (TEA), 6 g/day, was undertaken to assess their effectiveness in reducing early recurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Of 90 patients treated with EACA recurrent haemorrhage was seen in 8% of these patients and 7% of the patients developed delayed ischaemic deficit. The total pre-operative mortality in EACA-group was 11%. Of 61 patients treated with TEA, 10% had recurrent haemorrhage and delayed ischaemic deficit occurred in 5% of the patients. The total pre-operative mortality in TEA-group was 11%. No difference was found between the effectiveness and side-effects of these drugs. PMID:7031186

  9. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration as a cause of recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Akdag, Arzu; Arici, Sule; Kaya, Mete; Turgut, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is acystic or solid congenital lung malformation comprised of non functional lung tissue that does not communicate with the normal tracheobronchial tree and has a systemic arterial blood supply. There are two forms of sequestration: intralobar and extralobar. Its treatment is surgical resection. Here we presented a case of premature neonate with extralobar pulmonary sequestration who had respiratory failure and recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage. Following surgery, the patient showed significant clinical improvement.

  10. Blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid-enhanced pericyte microvasculature contraction in rat retina: A novel in vitro study of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Qiang; Cui, Gaoyu; Zhu, Gang; Tang, Weihua; Zhao, Hengli; Zhang, John H.; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Previously, it was widely accepted that the delayed ischemic injury and poor clinical outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was caused by cerebral vasospasm. This classical theory was challenged by a clazosentan clinical trial, which failed to improve patient outcome, despite reversing angiographic vasospasm. One possible explanation for the results of this trial is the changes in microcirculation following SAH, particularly in pericytes, which are the primary cell type controlling microcirculation in the brain parenchyma. However, as a result of technical limitations and the lack of suitable models, there was no direct evidence of microvessel dysfunction following SAH. In the present study, whole-mount retinal microvasculature has been introduced to study microcirculation in the brain following experimental SAH in vitro. Artificial blood-filled cerebrospinal fluid (BSCF) was applied to the retinal microvasculature to test the hypothesis that the presence of subarachnoid blood affects the contractile properties of the pericytes containing cerebral microcirculation during the early phase of SAH. It was observed that BCSF induced retina microvessel contraction and that this contraction could be resolved by BCSF wash-out. Furthermore, BCSF application accelerated pericyte-populated collagen gel contraction and increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, BCSF induced an influx of calcium in cultured retinal pericytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates increased contractility of retinal microvessels and pericytes in the presence of BCSF in vitro. These findings suggest that pericyte contraction and microvascular dysfunction is induced following SAH, which could lead to greater susceptibility to SAH-induced ischemia. PMID:27698742

  11. Mild hypothermia protects against early brain injury in rats following subarachnoid hemorrhage via the TrkB/ERK/CREB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ou; Zhou, Fenggang; Zheng, Yongri; Li, Qingsong; Wang, Jianjiao; Zhu, Yulan

    2016-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a severe neurological disease, which is associated with a significant number of cases of premature mortality and disability worldwide. Mild hypothermia (MH) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce neuronal injury following SAH. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of MH's protective role in the process of SAH. The present study demonstrated that MH was able to protect against early brain injury in a rat model of SAH. Treating SAH rats with MH reduced the release of reactive oxygen species and prevented activation of apoptotic cascades. Furthermore, the protective effects of MH were shown to be mediated by enhanced activity of the tropomyosin receptor kinase B/extracellular signal‑regulated kinases/cAMP response element binding protein (TrkB/ERK/CREB) pathway. Inhibition of TrkB/ERK/CREB activity using a small molecule inhibitor largely abolished the beneficial effects of MH in SAH rats. These results outline an endogenous mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of MH in SAH. PMID:27600366

  12. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol alleviates early brain injury by modulating oxidative stress and Akt and nuclear factor-κB pathways in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    FU, PENG; HU, QUAN

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, present in olive oil and in the wastewater generated during olive oil processing. DOPET has various biological and pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to determine whether DOPET alleviates early brain injury (EBI) associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) through suppression of oxidative stress and Akt and nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH + vehicle group and SAH + DOPET group. Mortality, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain water content were assessed. Oxidative stress, Akt, NF-κB p65 and caspase-3 assays were also performed. DOPET induced a reduction in brain water content, and decreased the BBB permeability of SAH model rats. Furthermore, DOPET effectively controlled oxidative stress, NF-κB p65 and caspase-3 levels, in addition to significantly increasing Akt levels in the cortex following SAH. These results provide evidence that DOPET attenuates apoptosis in a rat SAH model through modulating oxidative stress and Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:27168841

  13. Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 reduces subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury in rats via calcineurin-mediated NMDAR and NFAT dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yibin; Tian, Xiaodi; Shen, Haitao; Dou, Yang; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 (TRPC1/4) are considered to be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, a SAH rat model was employed to study the roles of TRPC1/4 in the early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic SAH in vitro. The protein levels of TRPC1/4 increased and peaked at 5 days after SAH in rats. Inhibition of TRPC1/4 by SKF96365 aggravated SAH-induced EBI, such as cortical cell death (by TUNEL staining) and degenerating (by FJB staining). In addition, TRPC1/4 overexpression could increase calcineurin activity, while increased calcineurin activity could promote the dephosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Calcineurin antagonist FK506 could weaken the neuroprotection and the dephosphorylation of NMDAR induced by TRPC1/4 overexpression. Contrarily, calcineurin agonist chlorogenic acid inhibited SAH-induced EBI, even when siRNA intervention of TRPC1/4 was performed. Moreover, calcineurin also could lead to the nuclear transfer of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), which is a transcription factor promoting the expressions of TRPC1/4. TRPC1/4 could inhibit SAH-induced EBI by supressing the phosphorylation of NMDAR via calcineurin. TRPC1/4-induced calcineurin activation also could promote the nuclear transfer of NFAT, suggesting a positive feedback regulation of TRPC1/4 expressions. PMID:27641617

  14. Role of L-type Ca(2+) channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum and Rho kinase in rat basilar artery contractile properties in a new model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; Muñoz-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Vilches-Arenas, Angel; Porras-González, Cristina; Castellano, Antonio; Ureña, Juan; González-Montelongo, María del Carmen

    2015-09-01

    We have previously described that L-type Ca(2+) channels' (LTCCs) activation and metabotropic Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) regulate RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) activity and sustained arterial contraction. We have investigated whether this signaling pathway can be altered in a new experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For this purpose, arterial reactivity was evaluated on days 1 to 5 after surgery. A significant increase of basal tone, measured 4 and 60min after normalization, was observed on day 5 after SAH and at 60min on days 2 and 3 after SAH. This phenomenon was suppressed with LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors. We have also studied arterial rings vasoreactivity in response to high K(+) solutions. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the phasic component of the high K(+)-induced contraction between sham and SAH groups, whereas a significant increase in the sustained contraction was observed on day 5 after SAH. This latter component was sensitive to fasudil, and selectively reduced by low nifedipine concentration, and phospholipase C and SR-ATPase inhibitors. Therefore, our data suggest that the metabotropic function of LTCCs is potentiated in SAH. Our results could provide a new strategy to optimize the pharmacological treatment of this pathological process.

  15. Follow-up of Large Aneurysms Treated with Coil Embolization at an Acute Stage in Patients with Poor-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, S.; Tanaka, N.; Tani, S.; Nakamura, S.; Ohbuchi, H.; Hirota, K.; Iwabuchi, S.; Kasuya, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the clinical and angiographic outcome of large aneurysms treated with coil embolization at an acute stage in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Between July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2004, eight consecutive WFNS grade 5 patients with large aneurysms (15~23mm) were treated with endovascular coil embolization within two days and followed for at least 30 months. There were three middle cerebral and five internal carotid artery aneurysms. No patients were treated by craniotomy and none survived without treatment. Two patients died of primary brain damage or cerebral vasospasm within one month. One patient died of pneumonia at 24 months. Four patients were alive with good recovery or moderate disability at the time of final follow-up (30~66 months). Angiography immediately after the procedure showed complete occlusion in three, neck remnant in four, and body filling in one patient. No complication was seen related to the procedure. Three aneurysms that were initially neck remnant developed body filling due to coil compaction. Two were re-treated with coils at six and 12 months and resulted in neck remnant. One patient refused re-treatment and died of re-bleeding. Endovascular coil embolization can be selected at an acute stage for the treatment of aneurysms in patients with poor-grade SAH without intraparenchymal hematoma even if the aneurysm is large. Serial follow up by MRA/angiography is necessary for at least 12 months. PMID:20465928

  16. Downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression with perfluorooctyl-bromide nanoparticles reduces early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Rui; Li, Xia; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of perfluorooctyl-bromide (PFOB) nanoparticles on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and its downstream target genes in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Healthy male Sprague Dawley rats (n=100) were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, SAH, SAH + vehicle, SAH + 5 mg/kg PFOB and SAH + 10 mg/kg PFOB. A rat model of SAH was created by endovascular perforation, and PFOB treatment (5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg injected into the caudal vein) was initiated 1 h after SAH. All rats were subsequently sacrificed 24 h after surgery. Treatment with PFOB significantly alleviated EBI (including neurological dysfunction, brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB), and neural cell apoptosis). In addition, it also suppressed the expression of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BNIP3 in the rat hippocampus. The effects of 10 g/kg PFOB were found to be more obvious than those of 5 g/kg PFOB. Our work demonstrated that PFOB treatment alleviated EBI after SAH, potentially through downregulation of the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, which led to reduced cell apoptosis, BBB disruption and brain edema. PMID:27347319

  17. Pramipexole-Induced Hypothermia Reduces Early Brain Injury via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junwei; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Chenglin; Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Yin, Jia; Zuo, Gang; Duan, Xiaochun; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown neuroprotective effects of hypothermia. However, its effects on subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) remain unclear. In this study, a SAH rat model was employed to study the effects and mechanisms of pramipexole-induced hypothermia on EBI after SAH. Dose-response experiments were performed to select the appropriate pramipexole concentration and frequency of administration for induction of mild hypothermia (33-36 °C). Western blot, neurobehavioral evaluation, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining were used to detect the effects of pramipexole-induced hypothermia on SAH-induced EBI, as well as to study whether controlled rewarming could attenuate these effects. Inhibitors targeting the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway were administered to determine whether the neuroprotective effect of pramipexole-induced hypothermia was mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of pramipexole at 0.25 body weight once per 8 hours was found to successfully and safely maintain rats at mild hypothermia. Pramipexole-induced hypothermia ameliorated SAH-induced brain cell death, blood-brain barrier damage and neurobehavioral deficits in a PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling-dependent manner. Therefore, we may conclude that pramipexole-induced hypothermia could effectively inhibit EBI after SAH in rats via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. PMID:27026509

  18. The Ras/Raf/Erk Pathway Mediates the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Apoptosis of Hippocampal Neurons Through Phosphorylation of p53.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dayun; Wang, Bao; Ma, Yulong; Shi, Wei; Tao, Kai; Zeng, Weijun; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguo; Qin, Huaizhou

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal apoptosis in EBI after SAH have not been fully elucidated. The present study showed that EBI induced significantly neuronal apoptosis activation of Ras/Raf/Erk signals in hippocampus after SAH. Intracisternal administration of PD98059, an inhibitor of Erk1/2, decreased the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and alleviated the cognitive deficits induced by SAH. Interestingly, an increase in phosphorylation of p53 was paralleled with p-Erk, and PD98059 also blocked the level of p-p53. In primary cultures, oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) treatment significantly increased p-Erk, p-p53, and apoptosis, which was used to mimic the pathological injury of SAH. Both p53 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PD98059 reduced the OxyHb-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PD98059 significantly decreased the levels of p-Erk and p-p53; however, p53 siRNA had little effect on the level of p-Erk. Taken together, our study implicates that the Ras/Raf/Erk signals contribute to neuronal death through the phosphorylation of p53 in hippocampus after SAH and also suggests Erk/p53 as a potential target for clinical drug treatment of SAH.

  19. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits.

  20. A hypothesis on possible neurochemical mechanisms of action of cervical spinal cord stimulation in prevention and treatment of cerebral arterial vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yin, D; Slavin, K V

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with the high incidence of development of cerebral vasospasm that results in morbidity and mortality due to delayed cerebral ischemia. So far there are no consistently effective therapies for treatment of vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH. It is well known that cervical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can induce vasodilatation and increase cerebral blood flow (CBF). Based on the experiments in animals and the studies in humans, we have proposed the possibility to use SCS as a therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm after SAH. However, the physiological mechanisms of action of SCS in this regard are poorly understood. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of vasospasm after SAH may provide insight into the role of SCS in such conditions. We hypothesize that effect of SCS on vasodilatation may be related to modulation of activity of phosphodiesterases 5 (PDE-5) and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), resulting in enhancement of nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, which may help prevent and/or treat vasospasm after SAH. Further investigations on the physiological mechanisms of action of SCS would be necessary to support this hypothesis. PMID:26141634

  1. A higher aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage incidence in women prior to menopause: a retrospective analysis of 4,895 cases from eight hospitals in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Yao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Heng; Yang, Lin; Zeng, Xian Jun; Yang, Jian; Peng, Guang Ming; Ahuja, Anil; Yang, Zheng Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a devastating disease. Despite the risk factors, including hypertension, cigarette smoking and alcohol use, are more common in men, aneurysmal SAH belongs to a few diseases which the incidence is higher in women than in men. Sex hormones, especially estrogen, might be protective against this condition. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) seems to be associated with a reduced risk for aneurysmal SAH. This study aims to know the prevalence of aneurysmal SAH of men and women at different ages. Methods The age and gender information of 4,895 case of aneurysmal SAH (3,016 females, 1,879 males) were collected retrospectively from eight institutions in mainland China. The prevalence of aneurysmal SAH of men and women at different ages was analyzed. Results The data showed women had a higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH than men starting at late thirties, and men might have a higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH than women only before 37-year-old. Conclusions Menopause may not be the only dominant factor causing higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH in women than in men. PMID:27190767

  2. Rutin Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Provides Neuroprotection in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Possibly Through Suppressing the RAGE-NF-κB Inflammatory Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guangzhi; Dong, Yushu; Huo, Rentao; Wen, Kai; Zhang, Yinsong; Liang, Guobiao

    2016-06-01

    As is known to all, neuroinflammation plays a vital role in early brain injury pathogenesis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It has been shown that rutin have a property of inhibiting inflammation in many kinds of animal models. However, the effect of rutin on neuroinflammation after SAH remains uninvestigated. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of rutin on neuroinflammation and the underlying mechanism in an experimental rat model of SAH performed by endovascular perforation. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group, SAH + vehicle group and SAH + rutin group (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered at 30 min after SAH. After sacrificed at 24 h after SAH, all rats were examined by following tests, including neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier permeability, brain water content and neuronal cell death in cerebral cortex. The level of inflammation in brain was estimated by means of multiple molecules, including RAGE, NF-κB, and inflammation cytokines. Our results indicated that rutin could significantly downregulate the increased level of REGE, NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines in protein level. In addition, rutin could also ameliorate a series of secondary brain injuries such as brain edema, destruction of blood-brain barrier, neurological deficits and neuronal death. This study indicated that rutin administration had a neuroprotective effect in an experimental rat model of SAH, possibly through inhibiting RAGE-NF-κB mediated inflammation signaling pathway. PMID:26869040

  3. Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 reduces subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury in rats via calcineurin-mediated NMDAR and NFAT dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yibin; Tian, Xiaodi; Shen, Haitao; Dou, Yang; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 (TRPC1/4) are considered to be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, a SAH rat model was employed to study the roles of TRPC1/4 in the early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic SAH in vitro. The protein levels of TRPC1/4 increased and peaked at 5 days after SAH in rats. Inhibition of TRPC1/4 by SKF96365 aggravated SAH-induced EBI, such as cortical cell death (by TUNEL staining) and degenerating (by FJB staining). In addition, TRPC1/4 overexpression could increase calcineurin activity, while increased calcineurin activity could promote the dephosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Calcineurin antagonist FK506 could weaken the neuroprotection and the dephosphorylation of NMDAR induced by TRPC1/4 overexpression. Contrarily, calcineurin agonist chlorogenic acid inhibited SAH-induced EBI, even when siRNA intervention of TRPC1/4 was performed. Moreover, calcineurin also could lead to the nuclear transfer of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), which is a transcription factor promoting the expressions of TRPC1/4. TRPC1/4 could inhibit SAH-induced EBI by supressing the phosphorylation of NMDAR via calcineurin. TRPC1/4-induced calcineurin activation also could promote the nuclear transfer of NFAT, suggesting a positive feedback regulation of TRPC1/4 expressions. PMID:27641617

  4. [Effect of normobaric hyperoxia on cerebral oxygenation, metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Solodov, A A; Petrikov, S S; Klychnikova, E V; Tazina, E V; Krylov, V V; Godkov, M A; Khamidova, L T

    2013-01-01

    The development of cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to cerebral aneurysms rupture results in cerebral circulation disturbances. Application of normobaric hyperoxia can be an effective way for improving of oxygen delivery to injured brain tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess of normobaric hyperoxia influence on intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral oxygenation and metabolism, oxidative stress and endogenous factors of vascular regulation in II critically ill patients with nontraumatic SAH due to cerebral aneurysms rupture. Increase of FiO2 from 0.3 to 0.5 and 1.0 was accompanied with brain oxygen tension (PbrO2) increase and cerebral extraction ratio for oxygen (O2ER) decrease. Application of normobaric hyperoxia had no effect on ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial blood pressure and cerebral metabolism. The results obtained from patients with nontraumatic SAH showed an evident increase of oxidative stress which had a significant effect on vascular endothelial function, causing an imbalance in the endogenous regulation of vascular tone. Application of normobaric hyperoxia was not accompanied by an increase of free-radical processes in critically ill patients with nontraumatic SAH due to cerebral aneurysms rupture.

  5. Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 reduces subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early brain injury in rats via calcineurin-mediated NMDAR and NFAT dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yibin; Tian, Xiaodi; Shen, Haitao; Dou, Yang; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel 1/4 (TRPC1/4) are considered to be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, a SAH rat model was employed to study the roles of TRPC1/4 in the early brain injury (EBI) after SAH. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic SAH in vitro. The protein levels of TRPC1/4 increased and peaked at 5 days after SAH in rats. Inhibition of TRPC1/4 by SKF96365 aggravated SAH-induced EBI, such as cortical cell death (by TUNEL staining) and degenerating (by FJB staining). In addition, TRPC1/4 overexpression could increase calcineurin activity, while increased calcineurin activity could promote the dephosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Calcineurin antagonist FK506 could weaken the neuroprotection and the dephosphorylation of NMDAR induced by TRPC1/4 overexpression. Contrarily, calcineurin agonist chlorogenic acid inhibited SAH-induced EBI, even when siRNA intervention of TRPC1/4 was performed. Moreover, calcineurin also could lead to the nuclear transfer of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), which is a transcription factor promoting the expressions of TRPC1/4. TRPC1/4 could inhibit SAH-induced EBI by supressing the phosphorylation of NMDAR via calcineurin. TRPC1/4-induced calcineurin activation also could promote the nuclear transfer of NFAT, suggesting a positive feedback regulation of TRPC1/4 expressions.

  6. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade due to Filariasis Successfully Treated with Ivermectin and Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Sachan, Mohit; Saraf, Sameer; Verma, Chandra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis presenting with pericardial effusion with tamponade is rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who was admitted with severe dyspnea and chest pain since 2 days. Echocardiogram showed massive pericardial effusion with tamponade. Pericardial fluid aspiration drained 1.2 L of hemorrhagic fluid. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. She was treated with diethyl carbamazine and discharged. Six weeks later, she presented again with massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of W. bancrofti. This time she was treated with ivermectin and albendazole and cured. Hemorrhagic effusion resolved completely. Though relatively uncommon, tropical diseases must always be considered in the etiological diagnosis of recurrent pericardial effusion. PMID:26240733

  7. Correlation of Transcranial Color Doppler to N20 Somatosensory Evoked Potential Detects Ischemic Penumbra in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Piero; Zanatta, Paolo; Morghen, Ilaria; Bosco, Enrico; Forini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects present interhemispheric symmetry of middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity and N20 cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) can modify this pattern, since high regional brain vascular resistances increase blood flow velocity, and impaired regional brain perfusion reduces N20 amplitude. The aim of the study is to investigate the variability of MCA resistances and N20 amplitude between hemispheres in SAH. Methods: Measurements of MCA blood flow velocity (vMCA) by transcranial color-Doppler and median nerve SSEP were bilaterally performed in sixteen patients. MCA vascular changes on the compromised hemisphere were calculated as a ratio of the reciprocal of mean flow velocity (1/vMCA) to contralateral value and correlated to the simultaneous variations of interhemispheric ratio of N20 amplitude, within each subject. Data were analysed with respect to neuroimaging of MCA supplied areas. Results: Both interhemispheric ratios of 1/vMCA and N20 amplitude were detected >0.65 (p <0,01) in patients without neuroimages of injury. Both ratios became <0.65 (p <0.01) when patients showed unilateral images of ischemic penumbra and returned >0.65 if penumbra disappeared. The two ratios no longer correlated after structural lesion developed, as N20 detected in the damaged side remained pathological (ratio <0.65), whereas 1/vMCA reverted to symmetric interhemispheric state (ratio >0.65), suggesting a luxury perfusion. Conclusion: Variations of interhemispheric ratios of MCA resistance and cortical N20 amplitude correlate closely in SAH and allow identification of the reversible ischemic penumbra threshold, when both ratios become <0.65. The correlation is lost when structural damage develops. PMID:21660110

  8. The dilemma of complicated shunt valves: How to identify patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who will benefit from a simple valve?

    PubMed Central

    von der Brelie, Christian; Meier, Ullrich; Gräwe, Alexander; Lemcke, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophisticated shunt valves provide the possibility of pressure adjustment and antisiphon control but have a higher probability of valve dysfunction especially in a posthemorrhagic setting. The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical outcome of patients with shunt dependent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in order to identify patients who would benefit from a simple differential pressure valve. Methods: From 2000 to 2013, 547 patients with aneurysmatic SAH were treated at our institution, 114 underwent ventricular shunt placement (21.1%). 47 patients with available pre- and post-operative computed tomography scans, and an available follow-up of minimum 6 months were included. In order to measure the survival time which a nonprogrammable differential pressure valve would have had in an individual patient we defined the initial equalized shunt survival time (IESS). IESS is the time until surgical revisions of fixed differential pressure or flow-regulated valves for the treatment of over- or under-drainage as well as re-programming of adjustable valves due to over- or under-drainage. Results: Twenty patients were treated with fixed differential pressure valves, 15 patients were treated with flow-regulated valves, and 12 underwent ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement with differential pressure valves assisted by a gravitational unit. Patients who reacted with remarkable changes of the ventricular width after the insertion of external ventricular drainage (EVD), before shunt placement, showed a significantly longer IESS. Conclusions: Decline of the ventricular width after EVD placement was a predictor for successful VP shunt therapy in the later course of disease. Possibly, this could allow identifying patients who benefit from a simple differential pressure valve or a flow-regulated valve, and thus could possibly avoid valve-associated complications of a programmable valve in the later course of

  9. Protective effects of Ephedra sinica extract on blood-brain barrier integrity and neurological function correlate with complement C3 reduction after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shilun; Li, Wenyan; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Hengli; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Liu, Xin; Zhang, John H; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2015-11-16

    Early brain injury, which is associated with brain cell death, blood-brain barrier disruption, brain edema, and other pathophysiological events, is thought to be the main target in the prevention of poor outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Emerging evidences indicates that complement system, especially complement C3 is detrimental to neurological outcomes of SAH patients. Recently, Ephedra sinica extract was extracted and purified, which exhibits ability to block the activity of the classical and alternative pathways of complement, and improve neurological outcomes after spinal cord injury and ischemic brain injury. However, it is still unclear whether Ephedra sinica extract could attenuate early brain injury after SAH. In the present study, a standard endovascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. Ephedra sinica extract (15mg/kg) was orally administrated daily and evaluated for effects on modified Garcia score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation and fluorescence, cortex cell death by TUNEL staining, and the expressions of complement C3/C3b, activated C3, sonic hedgehog, osteopontin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 by western bolt and immunofluorescence staining. We founded that the Ephedra sinica extract alleviated the blood-brain barrier disruption and brain edema, eventually improved neurological functions after SAH in rats. These neuroprotective effects was associated with the inhibition of complement C3, possibly via upregulating sonic hedgehog and osteopontin signal, and reducing the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Taking together, these observations suggested complement C3 inhibition by the Ephedra sinica extract may be a protective factor against early brain injury after SAH. PMID:26518242

  10. A proposed definition of symptomatic vasospasm based on treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in Japan: Consensus 2009, a project of the 25th Spasm Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of unified information on diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) among the hospitals in Japan. Thus, the aim of the study was to define the current practice in this area based on a survey by Japanese neurosurgeons. Methods: A survey on diagnosis and treatment of CV was sent to 414 hospitals each of which performs >100 neurosurgeries annually. Results: Responses were received from 240 hospitals (58.0%). Because accurate criteria for diagnosis of symptomatic vasospasm (SVS) were used in only 33.8% of the hospitals, we proposed a clinical definition of SVS that was approved at the 25th Spasm Symposium (Consensus 2009). This definition is simplified as follows: (1) the presence of neurological worsening; (2) no other identifiable cause of neurological worsening; and (3) confirmation of vasospasm by medical examinations. The results also showed that the Fisher CT scale is used differently for patients with ICH or IVH, with 41.3% of cases with ICH/IVH based on SAH that met Fisher criteria classified into Fisher group 1, 2 or 3, and 46.3% classified into Fisher group 4. There were no major differences in prophylactic therapies of CV and therapy for cerebral ischemia among the hospitals. Endovascular treatment for vasospasm was performed in most hospitals (78.7%); however, the criteria differed among the hospitals: (1) angiographic vasospasm and SVS appeared (37.9%), (2) only when aggressive therapy was ineffective (41.4%). Conclusion: We established a clinical definition of SVS based on the results of this survey (Consensus 2009). PMID:21748027

  11. High-Dose Simvastatin Is Effective in Preventing Cerebral Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sung Woong; Kang, Hee In; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Moon, Byung Gwan; Kim, Joo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to assess the effect of high-dose simvastatin on cerebral vasospasm and its clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Korean patients. Methods This study was designed as a prospective observational cohort study. Its subjects were aneurysmal SAH patients who had undergone aneurysm clipping or coiling. They were assigned to 1 of 3 groups : the 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg simvastatin groups. The primary end-point was the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm. The clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score after 1 month and 3 months. The risk factors of the development of vasospasm were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety nine patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated and screened. They were sequentially assigned to the 20 mg (n=22), 40 mg (n=34), and 80 mg (n=31) simvastatin groups. Symptomatic vasospasm occurred in 36.4% of the 20 mg group, 8.8% of the 40 mg group, and 3.2% of the 80 mg group (p=0.003). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that poor Hunt-Hess grades (OR=5.4 and 95% CI=1.09-26.62) and high-dose (80 mg) simvastatin (OR=0.09 and 95% CI=0.1-0.85) were independent factors of symptomatic vasospasm. The clinical outcomes did not show a significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion This study demonstrated that 80 mg simvastatin treatment was effective in preventing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH, but did not improve the clinical outcome in Korean patients. PMID:26587185

  12. Pramipexole-Induced Hypothermia Reduces Early Brain Injury via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwei; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Chenglin; Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Yin, Jia; Zuo, Gang; Duan, Xiaochun; Li, Haiying; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown neuroprotective effects of hypothermia. However, its effects on subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) remain unclear. In this study, a SAH rat model was employed to study the effects and mechanisms of pramipexole-induced hypothermia on EBI after SAH. Dose-response experiments were performed to select the appropriate pramipexole concentration and frequency of administration for induction of mild hypothermia (33–36 °C). Western blot, neurobehavioral evaluation, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining were used to detect the effects of pramipexole-induced hypothermia on SAH-induced EBI, as well as to study whether controlled rewarming could attenuate these effects. Inhibitors targeting the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway were administered to determine whether the neuroprotective effect of pramipexole-induced hypothermia was mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of pramipexole at 0.25 mg/kg body weight once per 8 hours was found to successfully and safely maintain rats at mild hypothermia. Pramipexole-induced hypothermia ameliorated SAH-induced brain cell death, blood-brain barrier damage and neurobehavioral deficits in a PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling-dependent manner. Therefore, we may conclude that pramipexole-induced hypothermia could effectively inhibit EBI after SAH in rats via PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. PMID:27026509

  13. Value of Three-Dimensional Maximum Intensity Projection Display to Assist in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Based Grading in a Mouse Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Kazumasu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Taki, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most devastating cerebrovascular disorders. We report on the diagnostic value of three-dimensional (3-D) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstruction of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), processed using graphical user interface-based software, to aid in the accurate grading of endovascular-perforation-induced SAH in a mouse model. Material/Methods A total of 30 mice were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation; three (10%) were scored as grade 0, six (20%) as grade 1, six (20%) as grade 2, eight (27%) as grade 3, and seven (23%) as grade 4 according to T2*-weighted coronal slices. In comparison, none of mice were scored as grade 0, eight (27%) as grade 1, five (17%) as grade 2, nine (30%) as grade 3, and eight (27%) as grade 4 based on subsequent evaluation using reconstructed 3-D MIP images. Results Mice scored as grade 0 (10%; no visible SAH) on T2*-coronal images were categorized as grades 1 (thin/localized SAH) and 3 (thick/diffuse SAH) according to 3-D MIP images. Grades based on T2* 3-D MIP images were more closely correlated with conventional SAH score (r2=0.59; P<0.0001) and neurological score (r2=0.25; P=0.005) than those based on T2*-coronal slices (r2=0.46; P<0.0001 for conventional score and r2=0.15; P=0.035 for neurological score). Conclusions These results suggest that 3-D MIP images generated from T2*-weighted MRI data may be useful for the simple and precise grading of SAH severity in mice to overcome the weakness of the current MRI-based SAH grading system. PMID:27307024

  14. Dopamine D2-Receptor-Mediated Increase in Vascular and Endothelial NOS Activity Ameliorates Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Caudell, Danielle N.; Cooper, Matthew; Clark, Joseph F.; Shutter, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious complication resulting in delayed neurological deficit, increased morbidity, mortality, longer hospital stays, and rehabilitation time. It afflicts approximately 35 per 100,000 Americans per year, and there is currently no effective therapy. We present in vitro data suggesting that increasing intrinsic nitric oxide relaxation pathways in vascular smooth muscle via dopaminergic agonism ameliorates cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Methods Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with cerebral vasospasm after SAH (CSFV) was used to induce vasospasm in porcine carotid artery in vitro. Dopamine was added to test its ability to reverse spasm, and specific dopamine receptor antagonists were used to determine which receptor mediated the protection. Immunohistochemical techniques confirmed the presence of dopamine receptor subtypes and the involvement of NOS in the mechanism of dopamine protection. Results Dopamine receptor 1, 2, and 3 subtypes are all present in porcine carotid artery. Dopamine significantly reversed spasm in vitro (67% relaxation), and this relaxation was prevented by Haloperidol, a D2R antagonist (10% relaxation, P < 0.05), but not by D1 or D3-receptor antagonism. Both eNOS and iNOS expression were increased significantly in response to CSFV alone, and this was significantly enhanced by addition of dopamine, and blocked by Haloperidol. Conclusion Cerebral vasospasm is significantly reversed in a functional measure of vasospasm in vitro by dopamine, via a D2R-mediated pathway. The increase in NOS protein seen in both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle in response to CSFV is enhanced by dopamine, also in a D2R-dependent mechanism. PMID:18807216

  15. [Spontaneous dissection of the anterior cerebral artery that simultaneously presented with cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage, successfully treated with conservative management: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nanbara, Sho; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Takashi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We recently encountered a rare case of anterior cerebral artery dissection (ACAD) that accompanied fresh cerebral infarction (CI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). An initial head CT showed a thin SAH in the interhemispheric cistern and cortical sulcus of the left frontal surface. Subsequent MRI performed 10 min after head CT scan revealed a fresh infarction in the left ACA region. MR-and digital subtraction angiograms demonstrated a dissection in the A2 portion of the left ACA with a leak of contrast media around the left A3 portion, suggesting that the bleeding occurred in a distal portion of the main dilation. Without anti-thrombotic therapy, the patient recovered without complications by blood pressure control and administration of brain-function protection therapies. We found 11 cases similar to the present case in the literature. All cases presented with lower-extremity dominant hemiparesis; however, sudden onset headache was rare. Blood pressure was not well-controlled in 4 out of the 6 known hypertensive cases. Main sites of dissection were located at the A2 portion in all cases except one A3 lesion, and extended to A3 in 2 cases. Conservative therapy led to favorable outcome in 8 cases, while 4 cases underwent surgical interventions for increasing risk of aneurysm rupture after initial observational therapies. Re-bleeding did not occur in any of the 12 cases reviewed. These data suggest that conservative treatment can be considered for an initial management of ACAD with simultaneous CI and SAH. More evidence needs to be accumulated to establish the optimal therapeutic approach for ACAD associated with CI and SAH.

  16. Fisetin alleviates early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen-hui; Wang, Chun-xi; Xie, Guang-bin; Wu, Ling-yun; Wei, Yong-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Hang, Chun-hua; Zhou, Meng-liang; Shi, Ji-xin

    2015-12-10

    Early brain injury (EBI) determines the unfavorable outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection properties in several brain injury models, but the role of fisetin on EBI following SAH remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the effects of fisetin on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham and SAH groups, fisetin (25mg/kg or 50mg/kg) or equal volume of vehicle was given at 30min after SAH. Neurological scores and brain edema were assayed. The protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), p65, ZO-1 and bcl-2 was examined by Western blot. TLR 4 and p65 were also assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was perform to assess neural cell apoptosis. High-dose (50mg/kg) fisetin significantly improved neurological function and reduced brain edema at both 24h and 72h after SAH. Remarkable reductions of TLR 4 expression and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation to nucleus were detected after fisetin treatment. In addition, fisetin significantly reduced the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased neural cell apoptosis and increased the protein expression of ZO-1 and bcl-2. Our data provides the evidence for the first time that fisetin plays a protective role in EBI following SAH possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway.

  17. Alterations in the expression of protease-activated receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the basilar artery of rats following a subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    LI, GANG; WANG, QING-SONG; LIN, TING-TING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm (CVS). The rat models were established by twice injecting blood into the cisterna magna, after which the following experimental groups were established: The normal group, the SAH3d group, the SAH5d group and the SAH7d group. The rats were perfused and the basilar artery was removed for histological examination. The cross-sectional area of the basilar artery lumen was measured using computer software; and the protein expression of PAR1 and TNF-α was detected by immunohistochemistry. The cross-sectional area of the basilar artery of the rats in the SAH model groups was significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner, as compared with the normal group. The protein expression of PAR1 and TNF-α in the SAH3d, SAH5d and SAH7d groups was significantly increased over time (P<0.05), as compared with the normal group. CVS was detected in the basilar artery, and was associated with wall thickening and significant narrowing of the lumen, thus suggesting that the present model may be used for investigating cerebrovascular disease following SAH. The immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the protein expression of PAR1 and TNF-α was significantly increased in the basilar artery of the SAH model rats, and were positively correlated with the degree of CVS. PMID:26997984

  18. Rituximab: an emerging treatment for recurrent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tse, J R; Schwab, K E; McMahon, M; Simon, W

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is associated with high mortality rates. Treatment typically consists of aggressive immunosuppression with pulse-dose steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange therapy. Mortality rates remain high despite use of multiple medical therapies. We present a case of recurrent DAH in a 52-year-old female with SLE after a deceased donor renal transplant who was successfully treated with rituximab. Our report highlights the pathophysiologic importance of B-cell-mediated immunosuppression in SLE-associated DAH and suggests that rituximab may represent a viable alternative to cyclophosphamide in the treatment of this disease. We also review eight other reported cases of rituximab use in SLE-associated DAH.

  19. [The ways of prophylaxis of the gastro-intestinal hemorrhage recurrence].

    PubMed

    Liakhovs'kyĭ, V I; Liul'ka, O M; Kravtsiv, M I; Zaiets', S M

    2014-04-01

    Through three-years period 57 patients, suffering gastro-intestinal hemorrhage (GIH) of the ulcer genesis, were treated in the clinic. Among them were 37 (64.9%) men and 20 (35.1%) women. The patients have had (56.3 +/- 4.7) yrs old at average. The treatment programm for the patients have included a local arrest of GIH, medicinal therapy, directed on restoration of the circulating blood volume, gastric secretion inhibition, rising of the blood coagulation property. In cases of a middle and severe blood loss the blood preparations were transfused--the erythrocytic mass and freshly frozen plasm. Three patients were operated in the high period of GIH. The GIH recurrence was absent. In 7 - 8 days, if a persistent hemostasis was achieved, the patients were transferred to therapeutic department for the conservative therapy prolongation.

  20. [Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Milojević, T M; Baljozović, B V; Rakić, M Lj; Nestorović, B D; Dostanić, M M; Milaković, B D; Kojić, Z Z; Repac, N R; Cvrkota, I S

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm causes permanent neurolological deficit or death occurance in 13% of clinical cases. Peak frequency is from 8-10th day after SAH. The purpose of this study is factor analysis that may have influence on vasospasm development , as well as predictor determination. The study is prospective and analysis 192 patients treated in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The majority of patients were admitted in hospital in first four days after SAH, and 184 had GCS over 7. Univariate methods of factor analysis were used, and for significance of predictors influence testing multivariante regression analysis was used. Vasospasm occurred in 22,40% of all cases. No relationships have been found between sex, age, previous hypertension, timing of surgery, appearance of hydrocephalus and intracerebral hematoma, hypertermia or mean arterial blood pressure, with occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Factors with significantly associated with the occurance of vasospasm were: hearth disease, hypernatriemia, Hct, clinical grade on admission as well as preoperative clinical grade and Fisher CT scan grade. In the first four days after SAH, Fisher scan grade, preoperative clinical grade and Hct, appeared as predictors. After four days, clinical grade on admission and hypernatiemia, showed as poredictors. PMID:18792575

  1. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Exam, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture with an Exploration of Test Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Hussain, Adnan M.; Ward, Michael J.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M.; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. Objectives To perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH. A secondary objective was to delineate probability of disease thresholds for imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). Methods PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and research meeting abstracts were searched up to June 2015 for studies of emergency department (ED) patients with acute headache clinically concerning for spontaneous SAH. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR−) likelihood ratios. To identify test- and treatment-thresholds, we employed the Pauker-Kassirer method with Bernstein test-indication curves using the summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 5,022 publications were identified, of which 122 underwent full text-review; 22 studies were included (average SAH prevalence 7.5%). Diagnostic studies differed in assessment of history and physical exam findings, CT technology, analytical techniques used to identify xanthochromia, and criterion standards for SAH. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was variable; however, most had a relatively low-risk of biases. A history of neck pain (LR+ 4.1 [95% CI 2.2-7.6]) and neck stiffness on physical exam (LR+ 6.6 [4.0-11.0]) were the individual findings most strongly associated with SAH. Combinations of findings may rule out SAH, yet promising clinical decision rules await external validation. Non-contrast cranial CT within 6 hours of headache onset accurately ruled-in (LR+ 230 [6-8700]) and ruled-out SAH (LR− 0

  2. Preventive effect of continuous cisternal irrigation with magnesium sulfate solution on angiographic cerebral vasospasms associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro; Esaki, Takanori; Nakao, Yasuaki; Tokugawa, Joji; Watanabe, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Although cerebral vasospasm (CV) is one of the most important predictors for the outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), no treatment has yet been established for this condition. This study investigated the efficacy of continuous direct infusion of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solution into the intrathecal cistern in patients with an aneurysmal SAH. METHODS An SAH caused by a ruptured aneurysm was identified on CT scans within 72 hours after SAH onset. All patients were treated by surgical clipping and randomized into 2 groups: a control group of patients undergoing a standard treatment and a magnesium (Mg) group of patients additionally undergoing continuous infusion of 5 mmol/L MgSO4 solution for 14 days. The Mg(2+) concentrations in serum and CSF were recorded daily. Neurological examinations were performed by intensive care clinicians. Delayed cerebral ischemia was monitored by CT or MRI. To assess the effect of the Mg treatment on CV, the CVs were graded on the basis of the relative degree of constriction visible on cerebral angiograms taken on Day 10 after the SAH, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed daily to measure blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurological outcomes and mortality rates were evaluated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale at 3 months after SAH onset. RESULTS Seventy-three patients admitted during the period of April 2008 to March 2013 were eligible and enrolled in this study. Three patients were excluded because of violation of protocol requirements. The 2 groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, or Fisher grade. In the Mg group, the Mg(2+) concentration in CSF gradually increased from Day 4 after initiation of the continuous MgSO4 intrathecal administration. No such increase was observed in the control group. No significant changes in the serum Mg(2+) levels were observed for 14 days, and no

  3. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system induced by a single-episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study using MRI-enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (χ2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume.

  4. Unpredicted Sudden Death due to Recurrent Infratentorial Hemangiopericytoma Presenting as Massive Intratumoral Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshihide; Kato, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Unpredicted sudden death arising from hemangiopericytoma with massive intracranial hemorrhage is quite rare. We encountered a patient with recurrent infratentorial hemangiopericytoma presenting as life-threatening massive intracerebral hemorrhage. A 43-year-old man who had undergone craniotomy for total resection of an infratentorial hemangiopericytoma 17 months earlier presented with morning headache and generalized convulsions. Computed tomography revealed a massive hematoma in the right infratentorial region causing tonsillar herniation and emergency surgery was performed to evacuate the hematoma. Histological findings revealed hemangiopericytoma with hemorrhage. Neurological status remained unimproved and brain death was confirmed postoperatively. Hemangiopericytoma presenting as massive hemorrhage is quite rare. Since the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage should be considered, careful postoperative long-term follow-up is very important to identify tumor recurrences, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa, even if the tumor is completely removed.

  5. Recurrent Bleeding Within 24 Hours After Uterine Artery Embolization for Severe Postpartum Hemorrhage: Are There Predictive Factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, Sebastien Chabrot, Pascal Kastler, Adrian; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Cassagnes, Lucie; Gallot, Denis; Boyer, Louis

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively identify predictive factors of recurrent bleeding within 24 h after uterine artery embolization (UAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Materials and Methods: A total of 194 patients underwent UAE for PPH between August 1999 and April 2009 at our institution. Twelve patients experienced recurrent bleeding within the next 24 h; a second attempt at UAE was thus necessary, which was successful in 10 cases. In two cases, hemostatic hysterectomy was performed. Epidemiological, gynecological-obstetrical, anatomic, and biological data were analyzed. Results: Complete data were available for 148 of the 194 (76%) included patients. Sixty-four (43%) were primiparous, 18 (12.2%) had a placenta accreta, 21 (14%) had a coagulopathy, and 28 (18.9%) had an anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature. Mean age and pregnancy term were similar in both recurring and nonrecurrent bleeding groups. After multivariate analysis, three criteria emerged as risk factors of recurrent bleeding: primiparity (10 patients, 83%; odds ratio [OR] = 18.84; P = 0.014), coagulation disorders (6 patients, 50%; OR = 12.08; P = 0.006), and anatomic variant of the uterine arterial vasculature (28 patients; OR = 9.83; P = 0.003). Conclusions: earch for uterine collaterals must be performed before UAE for PPH. Primiparity and coagulation disorders increase the risk of recurrent bleeding after UAE for PPH.

  6. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p < 0.01). The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p < 0.01). This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  7. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p < 0.01). The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p < 0.01). This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH. PMID:26539501

  8. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p < 0.01). The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p < 0.01). This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH. PMID:26539501

  9. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH.

  10. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH. PMID:27000704

  11. Molsidomine for the prevention of vasospasm-related delayed ischemic neurological deficits and delayed brain infarction and the improvement of clinical outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a single-center clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Angelika; Schmidt, Christoph; Wölfer, Johannes; Manthei, Gerd; Jacobs, Andreas H; Brüning, Roland; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Stummer, Walter; Pluta, Ryszard M; Hesselmann, Volker

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are responsible fora poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), most likely because of a decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) in the cerebral microcirculation. In this study, the authors examined the effects of treatment with the NO donor molsidomine with regard to decreasing the incidence of spasm-related delayed brain infarctions and improving clinical outcome in patients with SAH. METHODS Seventy-four patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH were included in this post hoc analysis. Twenty-nine patients with SAH and proven CVS received molsidomine in addition to oral or intravenous nimodipine. Control groups consisted of 25 SAH patients with proven vasospasm and 20 SAH patients without. These patients received nimodipine therapy alone. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) before and after treatment was analyzed for CVS-related infarcts. A modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to assess outcomes at a 3-month clinical follow-up. RESULTS Four of the 29 (13.8%) patients receiving molsidomine plus nimodipine and 22 of the 45 (48%) patients receiving nimodipine therapy alone developed vasospasm-associated brain infarcts (p < 0.01). Follow-up revealed a median mNIHSS score of 3.0 and a median mRS score of 2.5 in the molsidomine group compared with scores of 11.5 and 5.0, respectively, in the nimodipine group with CVS (p < 0.001). One patient in the molsidomine treatment group died, and 12 patients in the standard care group died (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis, patients with CVS who were treated with intravenous molsidomine had a significant improvement in clinical outcome and less cerebral infarction. Molsidomine offers a promising therapeutic option in patients with severe SAH and CVS and should be assessed in a prospective study.

  12. Sonographic findings in an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Tongsong, Theera; Puntachai, Pongsun; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this series was to describe sonographic features of an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space with a thin cerebral mantle and possible associations. Between January 2004 and December 2013, fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space were prospectively recruited and followed. Histories of medical and familial diseases, as well as other demographic data such as drug exposure and lifestyles, were assessed and prospectively recorded. The women were investigated for possible associated factors. Ten pregnant women were recruited. Their fetuses showed various degrees of a widened subarachnoid space, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Nearly all were diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Four cases had normal brain structures documented at midpregnancy anomaly screening. Only 1 case had a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space at 20 weeks' gestation. Two fetuses had exposure to alcohol in utero; 2 were proven to have cytomegalovirus infection; 1 had subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to maternal use of warfarin; and 1 had a diagnosis of lissencephaly. Only 1 case in this series had normal postnatal development. A prenatal series of fetal widened subarachnoid spaces with possible associated factors is described. Although such relationships were not fully proven, they should be index cases for future studies.

  13. Embolization of Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Resistant to Endoscopic Treatment: Results and Predictors of Recurrent Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric Rao, Pramod; Ota, Shinichi; Lin Mingde; Kwak, Byung-Kook; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2010-12-15

    Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage is a frequent complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of UGI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, but the differential diagnosis is diverse and includes tumors; ischemia; gastritis; arteriovenous malformations, such as Dieulafoy lesions; Mallory-Weiss tears; trauma; and iatrogenic causes. Aggressive treatment with early endoscopic hemostasis is essential for a favorable outcome. However, severe bleeding despite conservative medical treatment or endoscopic intervention occurs in 5-10% of patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization. Surgical intervention is usually an expeditious and gratifying endeavor, but it can be associated with high operative mortality rates. Endovascular management using superselective catheterization of the culprit vessel, < sandwich> occlusion, or blind embolization has emerged as an alternative to emergent operative intervention for high-risk patients and is now considered the first-line therapy for massive UGI bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Indeed, many published studies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and its high technical and clinical success rates, which range from 69 to 100% and from 63 to 97%, respectively, even if the choice of the best embolic agent among coils, cyanaocrylate glue, gelatin sponge, or calibrated particles remains a matter of debate. However, factors influencing clinical outcome, especially predictors of early rebleeding, are poorly understood, and few studies have addressed this issue. This review of the literature will attempt to define the role of embolotherapy for acute nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage that fails to respond to endoscopic hemostasis and to summarize data on factors predicting angiographic and embolization failure.

  14. [Hemorrhagic stroke associated to neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    Tellez-Zenteno, J F; Negrete-Pulido, O; Cantú, C; Márquez, C; Vega-Boada, F; García Ramos, G

    2003-06-01

    A well-known complication of neurocysticercosis is cerebral arteritis, which is usually manifested by cerebral ischemia. Only anecdotal cases of hemorrhagic stroke associated to this parasitosis have been described. Previously there are only two reported cases of this association. One of these cases had an intracystic hemorrhage confirmed by autopsy without cerebrovascular risk factors. Autopsy revealed an inflammatory arteriopathy adjacent to the cyst intracystic hemorrhage. The second case had a subarachnoidal hemorrhage secondary to the rupture of an aneurysm in the right anteroinferior cerebellar artery. At surgery, the aneurysm was found to be surrounded by a thickened-leptomeninges, which histologically showed the presence of cysticercous with dense inflammation. Our first patient was a 32 year-old female developed a lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage around a cysticercotic lesion. The second patient was a 34 year-old male developed an intracystic hemorrhage. As cerebral angiography was normal in both patients, cerebral hemorrhages were considered to be related to cysticercotic arteritis of small penetrating vessels. We conclude that cysticercosis is associated with differenttypes of intracranial hemorrhage, as documented the present cases. In neurocysticercosis endemic areas, cysticercotic arteritis should be added to the list of causes of intracranial hemorrhage in young people. PMID:12768515

  15. Efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of severe recurrent epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: results of a prospective phase II clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Quaglia, Federica; Klersy, Caherine; Pagella, Fabio; Ornati, Federica; Chu, Francesco; Matti, Elina; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Plumitallo, Sara; Grignani, Pierangela; Olivieri, Carla; Bastia, Raffaella; Bellistri, Francesca; Danesino, Cesare; Benazzo, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. Severe recurrent epistaxis is the most common presentation, frequently leading to severe anemia. Multiple therapeutic approaches have been tried, but they are largely palliative with variable results.We aimed to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in reducing epistaxis in patients with HHT refractory to standard therapy. Methods HHT patients with severe recurrent epistaxis refractory to mini-invasive surgical procedures were included in an open label, phase II, prospective, non-randomized, single-centre study. Thalidomide was administered at a starting dose of 50 mg/day orally. In the event of no response, thalidomide dosage was increased by 50 mg/day every four weeks until response to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day. After response achievement, patients were treated for eight to16 additional weeks. Monthly follow-up was based on the epistaxis severity score and transfusion need, with adverse events being reported (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01485224). Findings Thirty-one patients, mean age 62∙6 (SD 11∙1) years, were enrolled (median follow-up 15∙9 months, 25th-75th 10∙1-22∙3). Treatment induced cessation of bleeding in three cases (9∙7%) and a significant decrease in all epistaxis parameters in 28 cases (90∙3%). Twenty-five patients (80∙7%) obtained remission with 50 mg/day of thalidomide, five (16∙1%) with 100 mg/day and one (3∙2%) with 150 mg/day. Treatment significantly increased hemoglobin levels (p<0∙001), and abolished or greatly decreased the transfusion need (p<0∙001).Only nonserious, grade I, adverse effects were observed, including constipation and drowsiness. Median time to relapse after the end of therapy was 6∙4 months. No correlation was found between genetic or clinical features and response to thalidomide or toxicity. Interpretation Low-dose thalidomide is safe and very effective in reducing

  16. Adiposity and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Green, Jane; Beral, Valerie; Sudlow, Cathie L.M.; Brown, Anna; Kirichek, Oksana; Price, Alison; Yang, TienYu Owen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare associations of body mass index (BMI) with ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke risk, and to review the worldwide evidence. Methods: We recruited 1.3 million previously stroke-free UK women between 1996 and 2001 (mean age 57 years [SD 5]) and followed them by record linkage for hospital admissions and deaths. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted relative risks for ischemic and hemorrhagic (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) stroke in relation to BMI. We conducted a meta-analysis of published findings from prospective studies on these associations. Results: During an average follow-up of 11.7 years, there were 20,549 first strokes, of which 9,993 were specified as ischemic and 5,852 as hemorrhagic. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (relative risk 1.21 per 5 kg/m2 BMI, 95% confidence interval 1.18–1.23, p < 0.0001) but a decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (relative risk 0.89 per 5 kg/m2 BMI, 0.86–0.92, p < 0.0001). The BMI-associated trends for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly different (heterogeneity: p < 0.0001) but were not significantly different for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 2,790) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 3,062) (heterogeneity: p = 0.5). Published data from prospective studies showed consistently greater BMI-associated relative risks for ischemic than hemorrhagic stroke with most evidence (prior to this study) coming from Asian populations. Conclusions: In UK women, higher BMI is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke but decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The totality of the available published evidence suggests that BMI-associated risks are greater for ischemic than for hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:27605176

  17. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  18. Superficial siderosis is a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Linn, Jennifer; Wollenweber, Frank A; Lummel, Nina; Bochmann, Katja; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Bruckmann, Hartmut; Dichgans, Martin; Opherk, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Supratentorial superficial siderosis (SS) is a frequent imaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). It is most probably caused by focal subarachnoid hemorrhages (fSAHs). Based on single-case observations, it has been proposed that such fSAHs might be a predisposing factor for future intracranial hemorrhage. Here we tested the hypothesis if a SS as a residue of fSAHs must be regarded as a warning sign for future intracranial hemorrhage. Fifty-one consecutive patients with SS and no apparent cause other than possible or probable CAA were identified through a database search and followed-up for a median interval of 35.3 months (range 6-120 months). Main outcome measures were rate and location of new intracranial hemorrhages. Twenty-four patients (47.1 %) had experienced any new intracranial hemorrhage, 18 patients (35.3 %) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and in 13 of them (25.5 %), the hemorrhage was located at the site of pre-existing siderosis. Six patients (11.7 %) had developed a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), four of them at the site of siderosis. Patients with SS are at substantial risk for subsequent intracranial hemorrhage. SS can be considered a warning sign of future ICH or SAH, which frequently occur adjacent to pre-existing SS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  20. Clinical and Predictive Significance of Hyponatremia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Javanović, Gordana; Stanisavljević, Snežana; Uvelin, Arsen; Vrsajkov, Jelena Panti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Hyponatremia after SAH was the object of several studies with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine a predictive correlation of hyponatremia with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor clinical outcome. Material and Methods: We have used a retrospective hospital chart review of 82 patients with SAH treated from August 2008 to August 2010. Patients were divided into hyponatremia and normonatremia groups. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium level <135 mmol/l. Information compared and analyzed included demographics, preoperative neurological status, aneurysm characteristics, postoperative intensive care, duration of stay, DCI and clinical outcome at hospital discharge. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Thirty-two patients with SAH (39%) developed hyponatremia. In that group we had a significantly higher WFNS score at admission (p=0.03) and longer duration of stay in intensive care (p=0.001). DCI with transit or definitive deficit included 20 patients (62%) in the hyponatremia group, and 19 patients (38%) in the normonatremia group (p=0.03). Binary enter logistic regression revealed a significant correlation of hyponatremia with DCI (p=0.03) and poor clinical outcome (p=0.001). Conclusion: This result revealed a possible use of hyponatremia as an additional predictor of developing DCI and poor clinical outcome. PMID:25207008

  1. Idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a multicentre series of 220 patients.

    PubMed

    Sarabia, R; Lagares, A; Fernández-Alén, J A; Arikan, F; Vilalta, J; Ibáñez, J; Maillo, A; Gabarros, A; Domínguez, J; Horcajadas, A; Ballenilla, F; Rodríguez-Boto, G; Llacer, J L; Arrese, I; de la Lama, A; Santamarta, D; Delgado, P; Muñoz, M F

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND. The Spanish neurosurgical society created a multicentre data base on spontaneous SAH to analyze the real problematic of this disease in our country. This paper focuses on the group of patients with idiopathic SAH (ISAH). METHODS. 16 participant hospitals collect their spontaneous SAH cases in a common data base shared in the internet through a secured web page, considering clinical, radiological, evolution and outcome variables. The 220 ISAH cases collected from November 2004 to November 2007 were statistically analyzed as a whole and divided into 3 subgroups depending on the CT blood pattern (aneurysmal, perimesencephalic, or normal). RESULTS. The 220 ISAH patients constitute 19% of all 1149 spontaneous SAH collected in the study period. In 46,8% of ISAH the blood CT pattern was aneurysmal, which was related to older age, worse clinical condition, higher Fisher grade, more hydrocephalus and worse outcome, compared to perimesencephalic (42.7%) or normal CT (10.4%) pattern. Once surpassed the acute phase, outcome of ISAH patients is similarly good in all 3 ISAH subgroups, significantly better as a whole compared to aneurysmal SAH patients. The only variable related to outcome in ISAH after a logistic regression analysis was the admission clinical grade. CONCLUSIONS. ISAH percentage of spontaneous SAH is diminishing in Spain. Classification of ISAH cases depending on the blood CT pattern is important to differentiate higher risk groups although complications are not negligible in any of the ISAH subgroups. Neurological status on admission is the single most valuable prognostic factor for outcome in ISAH patients.

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  3. Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

  4. [Subarachnoid hematoma and spinal anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Dupeyrat, A; Dequiré, P M; Mérouani, A; Moullier, P; Eid, G

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of spinal subarachnoid haematoma occurring after spinal anaesthesia are reported. In the first case, lumbar puncture was attempted three times in a 81-year-old man; spinal anaesthesia trial was than abandoned, and the patient given a general anaesthetic. He was given prophylactic calcium heparinate soon after surgery. On the fourth day, the patient became paraparetic. Radioculography revealed a blockage between T10 and L3. Laminectomy was performed to remove the haematoma, but the patient recovered motor activity only very partially. The second case was a 67-year-old man, in whom spinal anaesthesia was easily carried out. He was also given prophylactic calcium heparinate soon after surgery. On the fourth postoperative day, pulmonary embolism was suspected. Heparin treatment was then started. Twelve hours later, lumbar and bilateral buttock pain occurred, which later spread to the neck. On the eighth day, the patient had neck stiffness and two seizures. Emergency laminectomy was carried out, which revealed a subarachnoid haematoma spreading to a level higher than T6 and below L1, with no flow of cerebrospinal fluid, and a non pulsatile spinal cord. Surgery was stopped. The patient died on the following day. Both these cases are similar to those previously reported and point out the role played by anticoagulants. Because early diagnosis of spinal cord compression is difficult, the prognosis is poor, especially in case of paraplegia. PMID:2278424

  5. Haemoglobin scavenging after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Durnford, A; Dunbar, J; Galea, J; Bulters, D; Nicoll, J A R; Boche, D; Galea, I

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and effective clearance of cell-free haemoglobin after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is important to prevent vasospasm and neurotoxicity and improve long-term outcome. Haemoglobin is avidly bound by haptoglobin, and the complex is cleared by CD163 expressed on the membrane surface of macrophages. We studied the kinetics of haemoglobin and haptoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid after SAH. We show that haemoglobin levels rise gradually after SAH. Haptoglobin levels rise acutely with aneurysmal rupture as a result of injection of blood into the subarachnoid space. Although levels decline as haemoglobin scavenging occurs, complete depletion of haptoglobin does not occur and levels start rising again, indicating saturation of CD163 sites available for haptoglobin-haemoglobin clearance. In a preliminary neuropathological study we demonstrate that meningeal CD163 expression is upregulated after SAH, in keeping with a proinflammatory state. However, loss of CD163 occurs in meningeal areas with overlying blood compared with areas without overlying blood. Becauses ADAM17 is the enzyme responsible for shedding membrane-bound CD163, its inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy after SAH.

  6. Hemorrhagic onset of spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Paz, Daniel de Araujo; Rodrigues, Thiago Pereira; Gandolfi, Ana Camila de Castro; Lamis, Fabricio Correa; Stavale, João Norberto; Suriano, Italo Capraro; Cetl, Luiz Daniel Marques Neves; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumors that generally induce slow progressive cord compression. Here, the authors describe a case of sudden-onset palsy of the lower extremities caused by hemorrhagic spinal angiolipoma. An emergent laminectomy was performed to achieve total lesion removal. Follow-up examinations indicated neurological improvement and the absence of recurrence.

  7. Obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Despite the availability of potent drugs, effective surgical techniques, and extensive blood banking facilities, post-partum hemorrhage remains a major cause of death in the United States. A hemorrhage bundle developed by the New York Safe Motherhood Initiative provides clear guidelines for reducing such deaths. This bundle focuses on risk assessment, preparation, diagnosis, and the provision of several management algorithms. Implementation of the protocols and approaches contained in this document, or their equivalent, on a systems basis and a consideration of several additional recommendations for individual care will reduce the likelihood of death from hemorrhage.

  8. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (≤20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74–340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102

  9. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePlus

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... and sweaty. These symptoms are followed by a shock -like state. Bleeding appears as tiny spots of ...

  10. Surgical Outcomes of Hemorrhagic Metastatic Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Heon; Jung, Eugene; Gwak, Ho Shin; Shin, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Hemorrhagic metastatic brain tumors are not rare, but little is known about the surgical outcome following treatment. We conducted this study to determine the result of the surgical outcome of hemorrhagic metastatic brain tumors. Materials and Methods From July 2001 to December 2008, 21 patients underwent surgery for hemorrhagic metastatic brain tumors at our institution. 15 patients had lung cancer, 3 had hepatocellular carcinoma, and the rest had rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and sarcoma. 20 patients had macroscopic hemorrhage in the tumors, and one patient had intracerebral hemorrhage surrounding the tumor. A retrospective clinical review was conducted focusing on the patterns of presenting symptoms and signs, as well as local recurrence following surgery. Results Among 21 hemorrhagic brain metastases, local recurrence developed in two patients. The 12 month progression free survival rate was 86.1%. Mean time to progression was 20.8 months and median survival time after surgery was 11.7 months. Conclusion The results of our study showed that hemorrhagic metastatic brain tumors rarely recurred after surgery. Surgery should be considered as a good treatment option for hemorrhagic brain metastasis, especially in cases with increased intracranial pressure or severe neurologic deficits. PMID:21811426

  11. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Traclet, J; Lazor, R; Cordier, J-F; Cottin, V

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is defined by the presence of red blood cells originating from the lung capillaries or venules within the alveoli. The diagnosis is established on clinical features, radiological pattern, and especially bronchoalveolar lavage. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may have many immune or non-immune causes. Immune causes of DAH include vasculitides, connective tissue diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome). Treatment is both supportive and causal, often based on high dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy (especially intravenous cyclophosphamide). Plasma exchanges are performed in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, and are considered in systemic vasculitis. Non-immune causes of DAH mainly include heart diseases, coagulation disorders, infections, drug toxicities and idiopathic DAH. Treatment of non-immune DAH is that of its cause. Whatever the cause, DAH is an emergency requiring prompt assessment and early treatment.

  12. [Hemorrhagic enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Brobmann, G F; van Lessen, H; Springorum, H W; Thomas, C

    1976-10-21

    Intestinal infarction in the absence of organic vascular occlusion received increasing attention in recent years. The clinical picture is discussed based on results in 9 cases, an attempt to suggest a possible pathophysiological mechanism is made. Prophylactic digitalisation especially in the elderly patient in the absence of severe heart failure and in cases with already low mesenteric perfusion may lead to a further vasoconstriction and to hemorrhagic enteropathy. Therapeutic possibilities are discussed. PMID:1086816

  13. Moyamoya disease associated with asymptomatic mosaic Turner syndrome: a rare cause of hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Benjamin R; Rao-Frisch, Anitha; Otvos, Balint; Mitchell, Anna; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly involving the intracranial carotid arteries that can present clinically with either ischemic or hemorrhagic disease. Moyamoya syndrome, indistinguishable from moyamoya disease at presentation, is associated with multiple clinical conditions including neurofibromatosis type 1, autoimmune disease, prior radiation therapy, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. We present the first reported case of an adult patient with previously unrecognized mosaic Turner syndrome with acute subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of moyamoya syndrome. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with associated flame-shaped intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Physical examination revealed short stature, pectus excavatum, small fingers, micrognathia, and mild facial dysmorphism. Cerebral angiography showed features consistent with bilateral moyamoya disease, aberrant intrathoracic vessels, and an unruptured 4-mm right superior hypophyseal aneurysm. Genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome. Our case report is the first documented presentation of adult moyamoya syndrome with subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial presentation of mosaic Turner syndrome. It illustrates the utility of genetic evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease and dysmorphism.

  14. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns.

    PubMed

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V

    1996-04-01

    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  15. Reversible and Asymptomatic Gyral and Subarachnoid Contrast Enhancement after Carotid Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Vangosa, Alessandra Briatico; Tortora, Domenico; Modestino, Francesco; Cotroneo, Antonio R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of sulcal hyperdensity in patients after endovascular procedures is not necessarily attributable to hemorrhage. It may frequently indicate the absolute or concomitant extravasation of contrast material into the subarachnoid spaces. This case report describes the clinical case of an 84-year-old patient with 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid who presented with a diffuse gyral and sulcal hyperdensity in the right temporal-occipital and frontal lobes at routine post-carotid stenting (CAS) brain CT scan. The patient was asymptomatic and CT findings were interpreted as contrast enhancement hyperattenuation and no therapeutic decisions were made. A 24-hour follow-up brain CT demonstrated the complete resolution of the hyperdensity, confirming the diagnosis. In this patient we considered the concomitant presence of gyral and sulcal hyperdensity as the consequence of reversible damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) determining a transitory extravasation of contrast material. Asymptomatic gyral and subarachnoid contrast enhancement following CAS is generally indicative of benign and transitory damage to the BBB and is not to be misinterpreted as hemorrhage. PMID:25923674

  16. To Look Beyond Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Messerer, Mahmoud; Oddo, Mauro; Daniel, Roy Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed. PMID:24967389

  17. [Cerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Motoyama, Yasushi; Yamada, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains a serious condition for which early aggressive care is warranted. Japanese evidence-based stroke guidelines were published in 2015 to present the current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. In the spontaneous ICH, topics focused on prevention, management in the acute and chronic stage, complications, management of coagulopathy and blood pressure, prevention and control of secondary brain injury and intracranial pressure, the role of surgery, and other pathologies of ICH. The management of ICH in pregnancy and the puerperium was newly added. These guidelines provide a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with ICH. PMID:27333758

  18. Postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Su, Cindy W

    2012-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a very common obstetric emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Understanding its etiology is fundamental to effectively managing PPH in an acute setting. Active management of the third stage of labor is also a key component in its prevention. Management strategies include conservative measures (medications, uterine tamponade, and arterial embolization) as well as surgical interventions (arterial ligations, compression sutures, and hysterectomy). Creating a standardized PPH protocol and running simulation-based drills with a multidisciplinary team may also help decrease maternal morbidity and improve perinatal outcomes, although further studies are needed. PMID:22309588

  19. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following γ knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed.

  20. [Severe hemorrhagic gastritis of radiation origin].

    PubMed

    Flobert, C; Cellier, C; Landi, B; Berger, A; Durdux, C; Palazzo, L; Carnot, F; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1998-02-01

    Severe gastric complications due to radiotherapy are uncommon, in particular hemorrhagic gastritis. A high total dose and, above all, high daily fraction appear to be the main risk factors in gastric injuries. A case of hemorrhagic gastritis induced by radiotherapy requesting a total gastrectomy is reported. The patient was treated for a primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hemorrhagic gastritis occurred despite a low total dose (40 Gy) and 2 Gy daily fractions. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and repeated biopsies are usually insufficient to exclude a tumor recurrence. Endoscopic ultrasonography may argue for a recurrence or for radiation lesions. As the conservative treatment is usually ineffective, these gastrointestinal radiation injuries ought to be treated surgically. Besides it allows to ascertain the benign nature of radiation lesions. PMID:9762196

  1. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kota; Kato, Shunsuke; Nagano, Hiroto; Ohtsukasa, Shunro; Kawachi, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities. PMID:27807449

  2. Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Serra E Moura Garcia, C; Sokolova, A; Torre, M L; Amaro, C

    2016-01-01

    Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy is a small vessel leucocytoclastic vasculitis affecting young infants. It is characterized by large, target-like, macular to purpuric plaques predominantly affecting the face, ear lobes and extremities. Non-pitting edema of the distal extremities and low-grade fever may also be present. Extra-cutaneous involvement is very rare. Although the lesions have a dramatic onset in a twenty-four to forty-eight hour period, usually the child has a non-toxic appearance. In most cases there are no changes in laboratory parameters. The cutaneous biopsy reveals an inflammatory perivascular infiltrate. It is a benign and auto-limited disease, with complete resolution within two to three weeks leaving no sequelae in the majority of cases. No recurrences are described. We report a case of a 42-day old girl admitted at our hospital with Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy.

  3. Spinal subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia: case report.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Marion; Strzelecki, Antoine; Houadec, Mireille; Krikken, Isabelle Ranz; Danielli, Antoine; Souza Neto, Edmundo Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    Subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia is known to be very rare. In the majority of these cases, spinal anaesthesia was difficult to perform and/or unsuccessful; other risk factors included antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, and direct spinal cord trauma. We report a case of subarachnoid haematoma after spinal anaesthesia in a young patient without risk factors. PMID:27591468

  4. Developmental prognosis for infants with benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces.

    PubMed

    Nickel, R E; Gallenstein, J S

    1987-04-01

    The development of nine infants with enlarged subarachnoid spaces identified by specific CT-scan criteria was prospectively followed to two to three years of age. Infants with intracranial hemorrhage, CNS anomaly, microcephaly or other factors of potentially major negative impact on their development were excluded. All study infants had normal or only minimally increased ventricular size and none developed hydrocephalus. Head circumference was greater than or equal to 90th percentile in all cases, and six fathers also had a head circumference greater than or equal to 90th percentile. Six infants had gross motor delay and mild hypotonia in the first year. One, born at 30 weeks gestational age, had transient dystonia. At follow-up all the infants were developing normally, apart from four with minor concerns. Infants with macrocephaly or rapid head-growth, CT-scan findings of enlarged subarachnoid spaces and normal to minimally increased ventricular size, and who have a parent with macrocephaly, have a good developmental prognosis and a characteristic pattern of neuromotor development in the first year.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, L.B.J.; Otterspoor, L.C.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The combination of these two conditions imposes important treatment dilemmas. We describe two patients with this combination of life-threatening conditions. Patient 1 was treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention followed by clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Six months after discharge the patient's memory and orientation had almost completely recovered. Patient 2 was treated with aspirin until coiling of the aneurysm could be performed. After successful coiling low-molecular-weight heparin was added. One week later the patient died due to a free wall rupture. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:284-7.19789696) PMID:19789696

  6. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  7. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  8. Intracranial hemorrhage from undetected aneurysmal rupture complicating transphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Tarun; Uy, Edilfavia Mae; Rai, Mridula; Kannan, Subramanian; Senatus, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old man who presented with a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma which extended into the suprasellar region. He underwent a transcranial resection of the tumor followed eight months later by transsphenoidal surgery for the residual tumor. Postoperatively he developed massive subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram revealed a leaking anterior communicating artery aneurysm which was not seen on the computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography before the surgery. Complications of transsphenoidal surgery, particularly vascular hemorrhagic complications, and risk of rupture of undetected aneurysms are discussed.

  9. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  10. Glioblastoma Multiforme with Hemorrhage Mimicking an Aneurysm: Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Navneet; Aggarwal, Ashish; Vyas, Sameer; Sanghvi, Ankur; Salunke, Pravin; Garg, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Background A sudden onset of neurological symptoms in patients is conventionally thought to be due to vascular phenomenon, with one common differential diagnosis being subarachnoid hemorrhage. Another important differential diagnosis is ischemic stroke. An uncommon cause of such acute symptoms can be hemorrhage in a pre-existing tumor, that is, intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH). Purpose ITH is an important, though uncommon differential diagnosis in cases of sudden onset of neurological deterioration. Methods and Result A 60-year-old male presented with seizures and loss of consciousness 12 h prior to admission. The episode was sudden in onset. After detailed clinical and radiological investigations, the patient was diagnosed with glioma with bleed and was successfully operated upon. Conclusion The combination of hemorrhage and ischemic stroke pointed more towards an aneurysm rather than a tumor bleed. There were pointers both in favor of and against both the diagnosis. Therefore, a complex hemorrhagic cerebral tumor with acute presentation and discordant finding on CT or CT angiography should be characterized preoperatively. A large thrombosed aneurysm remains an important differential diagnosis. PMID:27780994

  11. Methicillin Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Bracis, R.; Sanders, C. V.; Gilbert, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a recognized complication of methicillin therapy. Hemorrhagic cystitis due to methicillin has not been emphasized. Evidence of hemorrhagic cystitis developed in six patients receiving methicillin therapy and was confirmed by cystoscopy in three of them. PMID:907335

  12. Hypercoagulability in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Sehnal, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia (HHT), low iron levels due to inadequate replacement after hemorrhagic iron losses are associated with elevated factor-VIII plasma levels and consecutively increased risk of venous thrombo-embolism. Here, we report a patient with HHT, low iron levels, elevated factor-VIII, and recurrent venous thrombo-embolism. A 64-year-old multimorbid Serbian gipsy was diagnosed with HHT at age 62 years. He had a history of recurrent epistaxis, teleangiectasias on the lips, renal and pulmonary arterio-venous malformations, and a family history positive for HHT. He had experienced recurrent venous thrombosis (mesenteric vein thrombosis, portal venous thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis), insufficiently treated with phenprocoumon during 16 months and gastro-intestinal bleeding. Blood tests revealed sideropenia and elevated plasma levels of coagulation factor-VIII. His history was positive for diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, cerebral abscess, recurrent ischemic stroke, recurrent ileus, peripheral arterial occluding disease, polyneuropathy, mild renal insufficiency, and epilepsy. Following recent findings, hypercoagulability was attributed to the sideropenia-induced elevation of coagulation factor-VIII. In conclusion, HHT may be associated with hypercoagulability due to elevated factor-VIII associated with low serum iron levels from recurrent bleeding. Iron substitution may prevent HHT patients from hypercoagulability. PMID:26167029

  13. Ischemia triggered by spreading neuronal activation is induced by endothelin-1 and hemoglobin in the subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Gabor C; Einhäupl, Karl M; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Dreier, Jens P

    2003-11-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm has a major impact on the outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two important candidates to cause the arterial spasm are the red blood cell product oxyhemoglobin and the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, although oxyhemoglobin alone is not sufficient to induce cerebral ischemia and endothelin-1 leads to ischemia only at relatively high concentrations. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of oxyhemoglobin and endothelin-1 triggered spreading neuronal activation in rat cortex in vivo. In contrast with the expected transient increase of regional cerebral blood flow during spreading depression, however, cerebral blood flow decreased profoundly and was long-lasting, paralleled by delayed repolarization of the steady (direct current) potential. These changes are characteristic of cortical spreading ischemia. Replacing oxyhemoglobin for the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine mimicked these effects, implicating nitric oxide scavenging functions of oxyhemoglobin. Furthermore, the effect of endothelin-1 was related to a reduction of Na(+)-/K(+)-ATPase activity rather than solely to its vasoconstrictive properties. In conclusion, the threshold concentration of endothelin-1 that induces cerebral ischemia is profoundly reduced via a complex interaction between the neuronal/astroglial network and the cortical microcirculation if nitric oxide availability declines. The results may have implications for the understanding of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related cortical lesions.

  14. Computed tomographic diagnosis of intraventricular hemorrhage: etiology and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Graeb, D.A.; Robertson, W.D.; Lapointe, J.S.; Nugent, R.A.; Harrison, P.B.

    1982-04-01

    Sixty-eight patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) were reviewed retrospectively to determine the etiology and prognosis, relationship to delayed hydrocephalus, and effect on neurological outcome. The most common causes were a ruptured aneurysm, trauma, and hypertensive hemorrhage. Ruptured aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery can often be predicted from the nonenhanced CT scan. The total mortality rate was 50%; however, 21% of patients returned to normal or had only mild disability. Patients in whom no cause was identified had a better prognosis. Delayed hydrocephalus was related to the effects of subarachnoid hemorrahage rather than obstruction of the ventricular system by blood. IVH per se is seldon a major factor in the neurological outcome.

  15. Corticosteroid therapy of experimental hydrocephalus after intraventricular-subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, H. A.; Wilson, Rene B.; Patel, P. P.; Esmaili, M.

    1974-01-01

    Symptomatic hydrocephalus after subarachnoid haemorrhage seems to result both from mechanical obstruction of arachnoid villi and basilar cisterns and from an inflammatory cellular reaction in the villi. Subarachnoid haemorrhage was induced in rabbits using whole blood injected through an implanted intraventricular needle. Control rabbits receiving intraventricular methyl prednisolone acetate but no blood, developed ventricular dilation significantly more often than untreated controls. Eighty-three per cent of rabbits with untreated experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage developed moderate to severe hydrocephalus. Intramuscular steroid therapy significantly reduced the incidence of hydrocephalus. Images PMID:4406223

  16. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  17. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment in the pre-operative management of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, A A; Illingworth, R

    1981-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients treated with epsilon aminocaproic acid 24 grams daily prior to surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysms have been compared with the previous 100 patients managed similarly but without anti-fibrinolytic drugs. No other alterations in management were made and the two series are closely comparable in all other respects. Fewer episodes of recurrent haemorrhage and deaths from this cause occurred in the treated patients, but more cases of cerebral ischaemia occurred. Neither difference is statistically significant and overall more deaths occurred in the patients treated with antifibrinolytic drugs. The value of this method of treatment in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is questioned. PMID:7229645

  18. Retinal hemorrhages in newborn.

    PubMed

    Govind, A; Kumari, S; Lath, N K

    1989-02-01

    Two hundred and fifty eight newborn babies were studied for the presence of retinal hemorrhages between 1-3 days of birth. The overall incidence of retinal hemorrhages was found to be 18.9%. It was observed that the incidence of retinal hemorrhages was higher in unassisted vaginal deliveries than in assisted births. Also, a two fold higher incidence was noted in term infants as compared to preterm babies. No association was seen with birth asphyxia.

  19. Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M D

    1993-05-01

    Adrenal cysts are uncommon. They may be fatal if they hemorrhage and are not rapidly diagnosed. Most adrenal cysts are small and asymptomatic. When they are symptomatic, it is usually because the cyst has enlarged, causing flank discomfort, gastrointestinal complaints, and hemorrhage. Occasionally, a palpable mass may be found. It is thought that hemorrhage occurs secondary to trauma or some toxic or infectious process. The author describes a case in which a previously healthy man had a sudden hemorrhage within a benign adrenal cyst with infarction of the kidney. A discussion of adrenal cysts follows.

  20. Recurrent varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Rotker, Katherine; Sigman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele recurrence is one of the most common complications associated with varicocele repair. A systematic review was performed to evaluate varicocele recurrence rates, anatomic causes of recurrence, and methods of management of recurrent varicoceles. The PubMed database was evaluated using keywords “recurrent” and “varicocele” as well as MESH criteria “recurrent” and “varicocele.” Articles were not included that were not in English, represented single case reports, focused solely on subclinical varicocele, or focused solely on a pediatric population (age <18). Rates of recurrence vary with the technique of varicocele repair from 0% to 35%. Anatomy of recurrence can be defined by venography. Management of varicocele recurrence can be surgical or via embolization. PMID:26806078

  1. Isolated spinal artery aneurysm: a rare culprit of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sung, Tony H T; Leung, Warren K W; Lai, Bill M H; Khoo, Jennifer L S

    2015-04-01

    Isolated spinal artery aneurysm is a rare lesion which could be accountable for spontaneous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man presenting with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to the neck and back, with subsequent headache and confusion. Initial computed tomography aortogram revealed incidental finding of subtle acute spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A set of computed tomography scans of the brain showed further acute intracranial subarachnoid haemorrhage with posterior predominance, small amount of intraventricular haemorrhage, and absence of intracranial vascular lesions. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thrombosed intradural spinal aneurysm with surrounding sentinel clot, which was trapped and excised during surgical exploration. High level of clinical alertness is required in order not to miss this rare but detrimental entity. Its relevant aetiopathological features and implications for clinical management are discussed.

  2. Surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling for elderly patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Dan; Su, Yin; O'Malley, Alistair J.; Labropoulos, Nicos; Goodney, Phillip; MacKenzie, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The comparative effectiveness of the two treatment options (surgical clipping and endovascular coiling) for ruptured cerebral aneurysms has not been studied in real-world practice in the United States. We investigated the association of treatment method for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2007 to 2012, using a 100% sample of Medicare fee-for-service claims data. An instrumental variable analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and create pseudo-randomization on treatment method. In sensitivity analysis, controlling only for measured confounding, we used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting, with mixed effects to account for clustering at the HRR level. Results During the study period, there were 3,210 patients, who underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms, and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1,206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping, and 2,004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference of coiling in comparison to clipping for 1-year postoperative mortality (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.70-1.54), likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.72-1.58), or 30-day readmission rate (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 0.70-1.87). Clipping however was associated with 2.7 days longer length of stay (LOS) (95%CI, 0.45-4.99). The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted and inverse probability weighted models. Conclusions In a cohort of Medicare patients, we did not demonstrate a difference in mortality, rate of discharge to rehabilitation, and readmissions between clipping and coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with slightly longer LOS. PMID:26311713

  3. Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Delayed Cerebral Infarction after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ivanidze, J.; Kesavabhotla, K.; Kallas, O.N.; Mir, D.; Baradaran, H.; Gupta, A.; Segal, A.Z.; Claassen, J.; Sanelli, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with SAH are at increased risk of delayed infarction. Early detection and treatment of delayed infarction remain challenging. We assessed blood-brain barrier permeability, measured as permeability surface area product, by using CTP in patients with SAH with delayed infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective study of patients with SAH with delayed infarction on follow-up NCCT. CTP was performed before the development of delayed infarction. CTP data were postprocessed into permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT maps. Coregistration was performed to align the infarcted region on the follow-up NCCT with the corresponding location on the CTP maps obtained before infarction. Permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT values were then obtained in the location of the subsequent infarction. The contralateral noninfarcted region was compared with the affected side in each patient. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to determine statistical significance. Clinical data were collected at the time of CTP and at the time of follow-up NCCT. RESULTS Twenty-one patients with SAH were included in the study. There was a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product in the regions of subsequent infarction compared with the contralateral control regions (P < .0001). However, CBF and MTT values were not significantly different in these 2 regions. Subsequent follow-up NCCT demonstrated new delayed infarction in all 21 patients, at which time 38% of patients had new focal neurologic deficits. CONCLUSIONS Our study reveals a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product preceding delayed infarction in patients with SAH. Further investigation of early permeability changes in SAH may provide new insights into the prediction of delayed infarction. PMID:25572949

  4. Clinical outcome prediction in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage – Alterations in brain–body interface

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Benjamin W. Y.; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Angle, Mark; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; Macdonald, R. Loch; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mitchell A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain–body associations are essential in influencing outcome in patients with ruptured brain aneurysms. Thus far, there is scarce literature on such important relationships. Methods: The multicenter Tirilazad database (3551 patients) was used to create this clinical outcome prediction model in order to elucidate significant brain–body associations. Traditional binary logistic regression models were used. Results: Binary logistic regression main effects model included four statistically significant single prognostic variables, namely, neurological grade, age, stroke, and time to surgery. Logistic regression models demonstrated the significance of hypertension and liver disease in development of brain swelling, as well as the negative consequences of seizures in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and post-admission fever worsening neurological outcome. Conclusions: Using the aforementioned results generated from binary logistic regression models, we can identify potential patients who are in the high risk group of neurological deterioration. Specific therapies can be tailored to prevent these detriments, including treatment of hypertension, seizures, early detection and treatment of myocardial infarction, and prevention of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27583179

  5. Multiple hemorrhages in brain after spine surgery supra- and infra-tentorial components together.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Baran; Işık, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Ekşi, Emel Ece Özcan; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cranial and spinal surgeries is a well-documented entity, so far concomitant supra- and infra-tentorial hemorrhage after spine surgery has rarely been reported in the literature. A 57-year-old woman presented with intractable low back pain and severely impaired mobility. One year ago, she underwent lumbar laminectomy and fusion with posterior spinal instrumentation between L2 and S1. She developed adjacent segment disease at the upper level of the instrumented vertebra. She had a revision surgery and underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion with bilateral transpedicular instrumentation between T10 and S1. She had severe headache, somnolence, and left hemiparesia 48 h after the surgery. Her emergent head computed tomography depicted intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral symmetrical cerebellar hemorrhages and pneumocephalus. She was treated nonsurgically and she got better despite some residual deficits. Symptoms including constant headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, new onset seizure, and focal neurological deficit after spine surgeries should raise suspicion for intracranial intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. PMID:26692705

  6. Multiple hemorrhages in brain after spine surgery supra- and infra-tentorial components together

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Baran; Işık, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Ekşi, Emel Ece Özcan; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cranial and spinal surgeries is a well-documented entity, so far concomitant supra- and infra-tentorial hemorrhage after spine surgery has rarely been reported in the literature. A 57-year-old woman presented with intractable low back pain and severely impaired mobility. One year ago, she underwent lumbar laminectomy and fusion with posterior spinal instrumentation between L2 and S1. She developed adjacent segment disease at the upper level of the instrumented vertebra. She had a revision surgery and underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion with bilateral transpedicular instrumentation between T10 and S1. She had severe headache, somnolence, and left hemiparesia 48 h after the surgery. Her emergent head computed tomography depicted intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral symmetrical cerebellar hemorrhages and pneumocephalus. She was treated nonsurgically and she got better despite some residual deficits. Symptoms including constant headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, new onset seizure, and focal neurological deficit after spine surgeries should raise suspicion for intracranial intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. PMID:26692705

  7. Multiple hemorrhages in brain after spine surgery supra- and infra-tentorial components together.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Baran; Işık, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Ekşi, Emel Ece Özcan; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cranial and spinal surgeries is a well-documented entity, so far concomitant supra- and infra-tentorial hemorrhage after spine surgery has rarely been reported in the literature. A 57-year-old woman presented with intractable low back pain and severely impaired mobility. One year ago, she underwent lumbar laminectomy and fusion with posterior spinal instrumentation between L2 and S1. She developed adjacent segment disease at the upper level of the instrumented vertebra. She had a revision surgery and underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion with bilateral transpedicular instrumentation between T10 and S1. She had severe headache, somnolence, and left hemiparesia 48 h after the surgery. Her emergent head computed tomography depicted intra-parenchymal hemorrhage in the right parietal lobe accompanying with subarachnoid hemorrhage, bilateral symmetrical cerebellar hemorrhages and pneumocephalus. She was treated nonsurgically and she got better despite some residual deficits. Symptoms including constant headache, nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness, new onset seizure, and focal neurological deficit after spine surgeries should raise suspicion for intracranial intra-parenchymal hemorrhage.

  8. [Experimental Subarachnoid hemmorrhage in dogs--effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on cerebral arterial spasm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Noda, S

    1975-09-01

    Adult mongrel dogs were used. The posterior communicating artery was punctured with a fine needle and subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced, which simulated aneurysmal rupture in human. The cerebral basal arteries were constricted remarkably after the puncture. However this vasospasm disappeared in about 60-120 minutes. After this restoration, the vessels began to be constricted again and reduced their diameter in greater degree with lapse of time. Effect of various drugs and sympathectomy on the experimental spasm induced by this method were studied utilizing the magnified vertebral angiography. The drugs used were papverine, isoxuprine, methysergide, phentolamine and propranolol. One of these drugs was given to each dog into the vertebral artery 15 minutes after the puncture of the artery for study of the early spasm, and the same procedure was carried out 24 hours after the late spasm. Vertebral arteriograms were taken immediately after and at 5, 10 and 30 minutes after injection of the drug. Diameter changes of the cerebral basal arteries were measured on the film. Smooth muscle relaxtants, papaverine and isoxsuprine, were effective on relieving the early and the late spasm. An antiserotonin agent, methysergide, relieved slightly the early spasm, but it had no effect on the late spasm. Phentolamine, that is an adrenergic blocking agent, relieved the early spam remarkably, but it was less effective on the late spam. A beta adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol, was effective on relieving neither the early nor the late spasm. Two weeks after the removal of the bilateral upper cervical ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by the smae method as mentioned above in four dogs. Arteriograms taken 24 hours after puncture of the posterior communicating artery in these dogs showed vasoconstriction as same as in the non-sympathectomized dogs. From these experimental results, it was suggested that an etiological difference in the early and the late spasm may exist

  9. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  10. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  11. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia - HHT

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throughout Body Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disorder that affects about one in 5,000 people and causes arterial blood to flow directly into the veins, creating weakened ballooned vessels that can rupture. Interventional radiologists ...

  12. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers.

  13. Efficacy of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Inserted for Refractory Hemorrhage of Duodenal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Orii, Takashi; Karasawa, Yukihiko; Kitahara, Hiroe; Yoshimura, Masaki; Okumura, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Because of advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy and improvements in the quality of stents, it has become routine to place a stent as palliative therapy for malignant gastrointestinal obstruction. On the other hand, stent placement for malignant gastrointestinal hemorrhage has scarcely been reported, although it may be performed for hemorrhage of the esophageal varicose vein. We recently experienced a patient with refractory hemorrhage from an unresectable duodenal cancer who underwent placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) and thereafter had no recurrence of the hemorrhage. A 46-year-old man underwent laparotomy to radically resect a cancer in the third portion of the duodenum, which invaded widely to the superior mesenteric vein and its branches and was considered unresectable. After stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy was performed, chemotherapy was initiated according to the regimen of chemotherapy of far advanced gastric cancer. One year and 4 months after induction of chemotherapy, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the hemorrhage oozing from the duodenal cancer, and endoscopic hemostasis, such as injection of hypertonic saline epinephrine and argon plasma coagulation, was unsuccessful. Twenty days after emergence of the hemorrhage, an endoscopic covered SEMS was placed with confirmation by fluoroscopy. Immediately after placement of the stent, the tarry stool stopped and the anemia ceased to progress. The recurrence of the hemorrhage has not been confirmed without migration of the stent. SEMS is an effective hemostatic procedure for malignant refractory hemorrhage. PMID:27403118

  14. Efficacy of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Inserted for Refractory Hemorrhage of Duodenal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orii, Takashi; Karasawa, Yukihiko; Kitahara, Hiroe; Yoshimura, Masaki; Okumura, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Because of advances in the technology of gastrointestinal endoscopy and improvements in the quality of stents, it has become routine to place a stent as palliative therapy for malignant gastrointestinal obstruction. On the other hand, stent placement for malignant gastrointestinal hemorrhage has scarcely been reported, although it may be performed for hemorrhage of the esophageal varicose vein. We recently experienced a patient with refractory hemorrhage from an unresectable duodenal cancer who underwent placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) and thereafter had no recurrence of the hemorrhage. A 46-year-old man underwent laparotomy to radically resect a cancer in the third portion of the duodenum, which invaded widely to the superior mesenteric vein and its branches and was considered unresectable. After stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy was performed, chemotherapy was initiated according to the regimen of chemotherapy of far advanced gastric cancer. One year and 4 months after induction of chemotherapy, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the hemorrhage oozing from the duodenal cancer, and endoscopic hemostasis, such as injection of hypertonic saline epinephrine and argon plasma coagulation, was unsuccessful. Twenty days after emergence of the hemorrhage, an endoscopic covered SEMS was placed with confirmation by fluoroscopy. Immediately after placement of the stent, the tarry stool stopped and the anemia ceased to progress. The recurrence of the hemorrhage has not been confirmed without migration of the stent. SEMS is an effective hemostatic procedure for malignant refractory hemorrhage. PMID:27403118

  15. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Terrance T; Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Brody, David L

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury-axonal injury-is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage, raising

  16. Experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage results in multifocal axonal injury

    PubMed Central

    Magnoni, Sandra; MacDonald, Christine L.; Dikranian, Krikor; Milner, Eric; Sorrell, James; Conte, Valeria; Benetatos, Joey J.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Brody, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The great majority of acute brain injury results from trauma or from disorders of the cerebrovasculature, i.e. ischaemic stroke or haemorrhage. These injuries are characterized by an initial insult that triggers a cascade of injurious cellular processes. The nature of these processes in spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is poorly understood. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, a particularly deadly form of intracranial haemorrhage, shares key pathophysiological features with traumatic brain injury including exposure to a sudden pressure pulse. Here we provide evidence that axonal injury, a signature characteristic of traumatic brain injury, is also a prominent feature of experimental subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using histological markers of membrane disruption and cytoskeletal injury validated in analyses of traumatic brain injury, we show that axonal injury also occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage in an animal model. Consistent with the higher prevalence of global as opposed to focal deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage and traumatic brain injury in humans, axonal injury in this model is observed in a multifocal pattern not limited to the immediate vicinity of the ruptured artery. Ultrastructural analysis further reveals characteristic axonal membrane and cytoskeletal changes similar to those associated with traumatic axonal injury. Diffusion tensor imaging, a translational imaging technique previously validated in traumatic axonal injury, from these same specimens demonstrates decrements in anisotropy that correlate with histological axonal injury and functional outcomes. These radiological indicators identify a fibre orientation-dependent gradient of axonal injury consistent with a barotraumatic mechanism. Although traumatic and haemorrhagic acute brain injury are generally considered separately, these data suggest that a signature pathology of traumatic brain injury—axonal injury—is also a functionally significant feature of subarachnoid haemorrhage

  17. Recurrent novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent novae seem to be a rather inhomogeneous group: T CrB is a binary with a M III companion; U Sco probably has a late dwarf as companion. Three are fast novae; two are slow novae. Some of them appear to have normal chemical composition; others may present He and CNO excess. Some present a mass-loss that is lower by two orders of magnitude than classical novae. However, our sample is too small for saying whether there are several classes of recurrent novae, which may be related to the various classes of classical novae, or whether the low mass-loss is a general property of the class or just a peculiarity of one member of the larger class of classical novae and recurrent novae.

  18. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Felipe Gonçalves; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells) has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.

  19. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Felipe Gonçalves; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells) has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field. PMID:27698671

  20. Pontine infarcts and hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Pontine infarcts are often part of a large ischemia involving the brainstem, although infarcts may be restricted to the pons. In both cases, infarcts in the pons are characterized by interesting clinical patterns resulting from a variety of cranial nerve dysfunctions, eye movement disorders and motor, sensory and cerebellar manifestations, either isolated or in combination. The anteromedial and anterolateral territories are the most commonly involved. Penetrating branch artery disease is the most common etiology. Ten percent of all intracerebral hemorrhages are located in the pons, and small hemorrhages in this brainstem structure may, in some instances, give rise to unusual clinical manifestations. PMID:22377887

  1. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Parambil, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an underrecognized and underdiagnosed autosomal-dominant angiodysplasia that has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 5000 individuals, with variable clinical presentations even within family members with identical mutations. The most common manifestations are telangiectasias of the skin and nasal mucosa. However, HHT can often be complicated by the presence of arteriovenous malformations and telangiectasias in the lungs, brain, gastrointestinal tract, and liver that are often silent and can lead to life-threatening complications of stroke and hemorrhage. This article reviews HHT for the pulmonologist, who is not uncommonly the first practitioner to encounter these patients. PMID:27514597

  2. Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio; Houdart, Emmanuel; Moret, Jacques

    2007-02-15

    We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

  3. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to chronic hemorrhage from a giant invasive prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jacob; Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Fraifeld, Shifra; Moscovici, Samuel; Rosenthal, Guy; Shoshan, Yigal; Itshayek, Eyal

    2013-07-01

    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder caused by deposition of hemosiderin in neuronal tissue in the subpial layer of the CNS due to slow subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage. The most common neurologic manifestations include progressive gait ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and corticospinal tract signs. We present a case of superficial siderosis in a 43-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with sudden onset bilateral visual deterioration and a loss of consciousness. A hemorrhagic giant prolactinoma was diagnosed based on brain CT scan, T1-weighted MRI, and an endocrine blood examination. Susceptibility-weighted non-contrast MRI showed pathognomonic signs of superficial siderosis in the form of a hypointensity rim surrounding the brainstem, cerebellar fissures, and cranial nerves VII and VIII. This report demonstrates that superficial siderosis can be caused by pituitary apoplexy.

  4. Experimental animal models and inflammatory cellular changes in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tao; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2015-01-01

    Stroke, including cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, is the leading cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Animal models have greatly contributed to our understanding of the risk factors and the pathophysiology of stroke, as well as the development of therapeutic strategies for its treatment. Further development and investigation of experimental models, however, are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of stroke and to enhance and expand novel therapeutic targets. In this article, we provide an overview of the characteristics of commonly-used animal models of stroke and focus on the inflammatory responses to cerebral stroke, which may provide insights into a framework for developing effective therapies for stroke in humans. PMID:26625873

  5. Temporary postoperative visual loss associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after laparoscopic appendectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyo Jin; Jun, Jong Hun; Cha, Dong Guk; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-09-01

    Postoperative visual loss (POVL) after non-ophthalmic surgery is rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.013 to 0.2%. Most perioperative visual loss is associated with spine operations and cardiac bypass procedures. The most common cause of POVL is ischemic optic neuropathy. However, there are no previous reports of postoperative visual loss after laparoscopic appendectomy. A 43-year-old female with no underlying disease underwent laparoscopic appendectomy; the operation was completed in one hour and her blood pressure was stable during the perioperative period. In the post-anesthetic care unit, the patient complained of nausea and headache, but she did not complain of any unusual visual symptoms. Approximately one hour after arriving at the ward, the patient complained of visual disturbance. Neurologic examination revealed left homonymous hemianopsia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage were found in the occipital area on brain MRI. PMID:25302101

  6. Idiopathic Spontaneous Intramedullary Hemorrhage: A Report of a Rare Case of Repeated Intramedullary Hemorrhage with Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byeong Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented with acute voiding difficulty, numbness and weakness of both lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary hemorrhagic mass that extended from T9 to T10. T8-T10 laminotomy and surgical removal of the hemorrhagic mass was performed. The pathological diagnosis was hematoma. Her neurological status remained the same after the operation. At 5 days post-operation, the patient suddenly became paraplegic, and MRI that was immediately performed revealed a recurrent intramedullary hemorrhage. Emergent surgical evacuation was performed. Again, histological examination showed only hematoma, without any evidence of abnormal vessels or a tumor. A postoperative MRI revealed no abnormal lesions other than those resulting from postoperative changes. At a 9-month follow up, the patient could walk a short distance with the aid of a walker. Because spontaneous intramedullary hemorrhage with unknown etiology is very rare, it is essential to perform a meticulous inspection of the hemorrhagic site to find the underlying cause. Repeated hemorrhage can occur; therefore, close observation of patients after surgery is important in cases without an apparent etiology. Urgent surgical evacuation is important to improve outcomes in these cases. PMID:26834818

  7. Subarachnoid block for caesarean section in severe preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sujata; Salhotra, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations and it complicates about 6–8% of pregnancies. Severe preeclampsia poses a dilemma for the anesthesiologist especially in emergency situations where caesarean deliveries are planned for uninvestigated or partially investigated parturients. This article is aimed to review the literature with regards to the type of anesthesia for such situations. A thorough search of literature was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Google to retrieve the articles. Studies on parturients with severe preeclampsia, undergoing caesarean section, were included in this article. There is growing evidence to support the use of subarachnoid block in such situations when the platelet counts are >80,000 mm-3. Better hemodynamic stability with the use of low-dose local anesthetic along with additives and better neonatal outcomes has been found with the use of subarachnoid block when compared to general anesthesia. PMID:21772674

  8. Prohemostatic interventions in obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie-Pierre; Basso, Olga

    2012-04-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy is associated with substantial hemostatic changes, resulting in a relatively hypercoagulable state. Acquired coagulopathy can, however, develop rapidly in severe obstetric hemorrhage. Therefore, prohemostatic treatments based on high fresh frozen plasma and red blood cell (FFP:RBC) ratio transfusion and procoagulant agents (fibrinogen concentrates, recombinant activated factor VII, and tranexamic acid) are crucial aspects of management. Often, evidence from trauma patients is applied to obstetric hemorrhage management, although distinct differences exist between the two situations. Therefore, until efficacy and safety are demonstrated in obstetric hemorrhage, clinicians should be cautious about wholesale adoption of high FFP:RBC ratio products. Applications of transfusion protocols, dedicated to massive obstetric hemorrhage and multidisciplinarily developed, currently remain the best available option. Similarly, while procoagulant agents appear promising in treatment of obstetric hemorrhage, caution is nonetheless warranted as long as clear evidence in the context of obstetric hemorrhage is lacking. PMID:22510859

  9. Delayed Consecutive Contralateral Thalamic Hemorrhage after Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hun; Choi, Hyuk Jai; Yang, Jin Seo; Kang, Suk Hyung; Cho, Yong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic hemorrhagic events have ranged from 12 to 19 in prior reports, with a time lag between bilateral thalamic hemorrhage of up to two days. Herein, we report the first case of delayed (17 days) consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage after spontaneous first thalamic hemorrhage. A 65-year-old female initially presented with a drowsy mentality with a left-side motor weakness (grade II/III). Brain computed tomography (CT) demonstrated right side thalamic and intraventricular hemorrhage. She regained alertness with mild residual motor weakness (grade III/IV) under medical management. Seventeen days later, a sudden and generalized tonic-clonic seizure developed. Brain CT scans revealed a new contralateral thalamic hemorrhage coincident with microbleeds. Neurologic status remained unchanged, consisting of a stuporous mentality with quadriparesis of grade II/II. We report the first case of delayed consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage up to 17 days after first thalamic hemorrhage. The case highlights the need for close monitoring of patients with thalamic hemorrhage who experience microbleeds on the contralateral side, due to the possibility of delayed hemorrhage.

  10. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Romero, Javier M; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Primary or nontraumatic spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15% of all strokes, and has a poor prognosis. ICH has a mortality rate of almost 50% when associated with intraventricular hemorrhage within the first month, and 80% rate of dependency at 6 months from onset. Neuroimaging is critical in identifying the underlying etiology and thus assisting in the important therapeutic decisions. There are several imaging modalities available in the workup of patients who present with ICH, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A review of the current imaging approach, as well as a differential diagnosis of etiologies and imaging manifestations of primary versus secondary intraparenchymal hemorrhage, is presented. Active bleeding occurs in the first hours after symptom onset, with early neurologic deterioration. Identifying those patients who are more likely to have hematoma expansion is an active area of research, and there are many ongoing therapeutic trials targeting this specific patient population at risk. PMID:27432674

  11. Pneumocephalus and Pneumorrhachis due to a Subarachnoid Pleural Fistula That Developed after Thoracic Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Ki; Kim, Woo-Jae; Kim, Ho-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Yun-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Development of a communication between the spinal subarachnoid space and the pleural space after thoracic spine surgery is uncommon. Subarachnoid pleural fistula (SAPF), a distressing condition, involves cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Here we report an unusual case of SAPF, occurring after thoracic spine surgery, that was further complicated by pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis postthoracentesis, which was performed for unilateral pleural effusion. PMID:27799999

  12. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome due to hemorrhagic brain infarction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a condition featuring hyponatremia and dehydration caused by head injury, operation on the brain, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor and so on. However, there are a few reports of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by cerebral infarction. We describe a patient with cerebral infarction who developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. Case presentation A 79-year-old Japanese woman with hypertension and arrhythmia was admitted to our hospital for mild consciousness disturbance, conjugate deviation to right, left unilateral spatial neglect and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a broad ischemic change in right middle cerebral arterial territory. She was diagnosed as cardiogenic cerebral embolism because atrial fibrillation was detected on electrocardiogram on admission. She showed hyponatremia accompanied by polyuria complicated at the same time with the development of hemorrhagic transformation on day 14 after admission. Based on her hypovolemic hyponatremia, she was evaluated as not having syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone but cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. She fortunately recovered with proper fluid replacement and electrolyte management. Conclusions This is a rare case of cerebral infarction and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. It may be difficult to distinguish cerebral salt-wasting syndrome from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, however, an accurate assessment is needed to reveal the diagnosis of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome because the recommended fluid management is opposite in the two conditions. PMID:25055823

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients

  14. [Seizures caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Shim, Susy; Christiansen, Ulla Birgitte; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard

    2016-07-25

    This case report describes a pregnant woman of gestational week 37 + 2 days who was admitted to the hospital with first-time seizures. The patient was stabilized, and an acute caesarian section was performed due to the possible aetiology of eclampsia and the advanced gestational age. Because of the atypical clinical history and normal maternal blood samples a computed tomography of the cerebrum was performed demonstrating a subarachnoid haemorrhage. A computed tomography-angiography revealed an aneurism at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurism was coiled the following day to reduce the risk of rebleeding. PMID:27460576

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L

    1996-01-01

    Dengue has been known for more than 200 years. The first dengue viruses were isolated about 50 years ago. Prior to the 1950's, dengue was considered a mild febrile disease, though rare hemorrhagic and fatal cases were known to occur. After that date, the first epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) appeared in Southeast Asia, and DHF became the most important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the region. The emergence of DHF epidemics was first explained by mutations affecting dengue viruses, making them more virulent, but this hypothesis was not retained. Then, the "secondary infection" or "immune enhancement" theory was proposed to explain the increased virulence of dengue viruses when children had a secondary infection. This second hypothesis is still actually favoured. However, observations in Southeast Asia, some Pacific islands, and Americas do not agree with the "secondary infection" hypothesis, which consequently has been modified several times. Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the recognition that some viral strains are more virulent than others. Another hypothesis is the selection of more virulent dengue strains by the new vector Ae. aegypti, replacing the local vector Ae. albopictus, when urbanization and modern transportation increased in Southeast Asia after the last war. Comparisons between epidemics are very difficult, because of the distinction between DHF cases according to WHO criteria and dengue fever (DF) cases with hemorrhages. This distinction has no pathogenic or prognostic grounds, and makes the task of clinicians more difficult. The actual situation in countries facing dengue epidemics makes clear that this disease will continue to be a public health problem for some time to come.

  16. Trochlear Nerve Schwannoma With Repeated Intratumoral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2016-09-01

    Trochlear nerve schwannoma is extremely rare, with only 35 pathologically confirmed patients being reported in the literature. Here, the authors report a patient of trochlear nerve schwannoma in the prepontine cistern manifesting as facial pain and double vision and presenting the image characteristics of repeated intratumoral hemorrhage, which has never been reported in the literature. Total tumor along with a portion of the trochlear nerve was removed by using a retrosigmoid approach. Facial pain disappeared after operation, and the diplopia remained. Follow-up studies have shown no tumor recurrence for 2 years and the simultaneous alleviation of diplopia. Information regarding the clinical presentation, radiological features and surgical outcomes of trochlear nerve schwannoma are discussed and reviewed in the paper. PMID:27607129

  17. Neurological involvement in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Courthéoux, Patrick; Babin, Emmanuel; Bergot, Emmanuel; Touzé, Emmanuel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by epistaxis, telangiectases, and multi-organ vascular dysplasia. Head and neck localizations of HHT are recurrent, frequent associated with serious complications. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and imaging patterns of neurological involvement in HHT and to discuss the role of interventional radiology in the management of HHT patients. Based on a multidisciplinary experience of twenty years at our center, we report here the different aspects of neurological involvement of HHT. Depending on the genetic type of the disease, vascular abnormalities may affect different organs. The knowledge of neurological involvement according to specific localization of HHT makes detection easier. As cerebral or spinal arteriovenous fistula may be present in patients with epistaxis or pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), radiologists should be able to detect high-risk lesions and prevent related complications. Finally, we review indications and techniques of embolization for hemorrhagic lesions and emphasize that endovascular therapies are very effective and safe in experienced hands. Head and neck imaging is commonly used for the diagnosis of HHT. Imaging plays also a key role for patient evaluation before treatment as pluridisciplinary management is needed. PMID:27059009

  18. Protective effects of cilostazol against hemorrhagic stroke: Current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshinori; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-07-01

    Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor and is known to have pleiotropic effects including antiplatelet and vasodilatation effects and protective effects on endothelial cells. Cilostazol also reportedly reduced stroke recurrence, poststroke intracranial hemorrhage, and extracranial bleeding in a meta-analysis. Although it is known that cilostazol has the potential to suppress hemorrhagic stroke, the precise mechanisms remained unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effects and mechanisms of cilostazol against hemorrhagic stroke. We found that cilostazol prevented the hemorrhagic transformation induced by focal cerebral ischemia in mice treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator or warfarin via protecting endothelial cells and tight junction proteins. We also demonstrated that cilostazol attenuated collagenase-induced intracranial hemorrhage in mice. In vitro studies showed that endothelial cells, pericytes, tight junction proteins, adherence junction proteins, and the basement membrane, which are all components of the blood-brain barrier, were protected by the administration of cilostazol following collagenase injury. These results suggested that cilostazol reduces hemorrhagic stroke by protecting the entire blood-brain barrier. Here, we review the protective effects of cilostazol on the blood-brain barrier that result in the prevention of hemorrhagic stroke, discuss the results we obtained using multiple hemorrhagic stroke models, and introduce potential future applications of cilostazol.

  19. Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, J W

    1989-01-01

    Twelve distinct viruses associated with hemorrhagic fever in humans are classified among four families: Arenaviridae, which includes Lassa, Junin, and Machupo viruses; Bunyaviridae, which includes Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan viruses; Filoviridae, which includes Marburg and Ebola viruses; and Flaviviridae, which includes yellow fever, dengue, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Omsk viruses. Most hemorrhagic fever viruses are zoonoses, with the possible exception of the four dengue viruses, which may continually circulate among humans. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are found in both temperate and tropical habitats and generally infect both sexes and all ages, although the age and sex of those infected are frequently influenced by the possibility of occupational exposure. Transmission to humans is frequently by bite of an infected tick or mosquito or via aerosol from infected rodent hosts. Aerosol and nosocomial transmission are especially important with Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Marburg, and Ebola viruses. Seasonality of hemorrhagic fever among humans is influenced for the most part by the dynamics of infected arthropod or vertebrate hosts. Mammals, especially rodents, appear to be important natural hosts for many hemorrhagic fever viruses. The transmission cycle for each hemorrhagic fever virus is distinct and is dependent upon the characteristics of the primary vector species and the possibility for its contact with humans.

  20. Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mracsko, Eva; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable. PMID:25477782

  1. Ankaferd hemostat in the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Basaranoglu, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to any hemorrhage ascribed to the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, extending from the mouth to the anal canal. Despite the recent improvements in the endoscopic, hemostatic and adjuvant pharmacologic techniques, the reported mortality is still around 5%-10% for peptic ulcer bleeding and about 15%-20% for variceal hemorrhages. Although endoscopic management reduces the rates of re-bleeding, surgery, and mortality in active bleeding; early recurrence ratios still occur in around 20% of the cases even with effective initial hemostatic measures. In this quest for an alternative pro-hemostatic agent for the management of GI bleedings, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) offers a successful candidate, specifically for “difficult-to-manage” situations as evidenced by data presented in several studies. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. It is effective in both bleeding individuals with normal hemostatic parameters and in patients with deficient primary and/or secondary hemostasis. ABS also modulates the cellular apoptotic responses to hemorrhagic stress, as well as hemostatic hemodynamic activity. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and wound healing, ABS is now becoming an effective alternative hemostatic medicine for gastrointestinal bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements. The aim of this review is to outline current literature experience suggesting the place of ABS in the management of GI bleeding, and potential future controlled trials in this complicated field. PMID:22046083

  2. [Giant racemose subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis: A case report].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Larsen, Alvaro; Monteagudo, Maria; Lozano-Setien, Elena; Garcia-Garcia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system. It is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium, which can affect different anatomical sites. In Spain there is an increasing prevalence mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. The extraparenchymal forms are less common, but more serious because they usually develop complications. Neuroimaging plays a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease, supported by serology and a compatible clinical and epidemiological context. First-line treatments are cysticidal drugs such as albendazole and praziquantel, usually coadministered with corticosteroids, and in some cases surgery is indicated. We here report a case of neurocysticercosis with simultaneous intraventricular and giant racemose subarachnoid involvement.

  3. Hemorrhagic complications in dermatologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bunick, Christopher G.; Aasi, Sumaira Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize, manage, and, most importantly, prevent hemorrhagic complications is critical to performing dermatologic procedures that have safe and high quality outcomes. This article reviews the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and patient dynamics that are central to preventing such an adverse outcome. Specifically, the role that anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, hypertension, and other medical conditions play in the development of postoperative hemorrhage are discussed. In addition, this article provides practical guidelines on managing bleeding during and after surgery. PMID:22515669

  4. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Gubler, D J

    1998-07-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to develop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  5. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes. PMID:23678356

  6. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Park, Moo Suk

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes.

  7. Endovascular treatment resolves non-hemorrhagic brainstem dysfunction due to tentorial dural AV fistula.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, V; Kastrup, O; Wanke, I

    2009-02-01

    Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulas (tDAVF) clinically present usually with subarachnoid and/or intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Reported rates range from 58% to 92% and neurological deficits occur in 79% to 92% of patients. This is due to venous congestion resulting from retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage, which rarely, can be clinically silent. A 69-year-old woman presented with vertigo, double vision and gait instability. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography revealed a tDAVF with retrograde cerebellar venous drainage directed through the vein of Galen into the straight sinus. MRI showed extensive cerebellar edema due to venous congestion. Clinical manifestations of cerebellar and brainstem dysfunction resolved completely after transarterial embolization with N-butylcyanoacrylate.

  8. The optic nerve sheath hemorrhage is a non-specific finding in cases of suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Marc De; Beuls, Emile; Jorens, Philippe G; Parizel, Paul; Jacobs, Werner

    2015-11-01

    In young infants, the triad consisting of acute encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhages, and a subdural hematoma is a nonspecific finding. It has traumatic and non-traumatic etiologies. The triad may be found among a vast spectrum of natural diseases. Optic nerve sheath hemorrhage in infants is typically detected at autopsy. It is a nonspecific finding that can be found in traumatic and non-traumatic etiologies. Neither the triad nor the ONSH are pathognomonic for an abusive head injury. Opposite to the triad, the spectrum of non-traumatic etiologies of ONSH is limited. In infants ONSH rarely occurs in spontaneous subarachnoidal hemorrhage or in infectious conditions. Our results show that the clinical significance of the optic nerve sheath hemorrhage in the forensic work-up of fatal cases of alleged abusive head injury is its limited differential diagnosis. Only after careful differential diagnosis ONSH may contribute to the diagnosis of AHT. However, the main limitation of our study is the sampling bias, as the eyes are usually removed when abusive head trauma is suspected. PMID:26386200

  9. Deferoxamine alleviates chronic hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage through iron chelation and Wnt1/Wnt3a inhibition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hui; Li, Fei; Hu, Rong; Yuan, Yikai; Gong, Guoqi; Hu, Shengli; Feng, Hua

    2015-03-30

    Post-hemorrhagic chronic hydrocephalus (PHCH) is a common complication after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The mechanism of PHCH is not fully understood, and its treatment is relatively difficult. In the present study, a rat model of PHCH was used to elucidate the role of iron in the pathogenesis of PHCH. The action of deferoxamine (DFX) in IVH-induced PHCH, the expression of brain ferritin, the concentration of iron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and changes in Wnt1/Wnt3a gene expression were determined. Results indicate that iron plays an important role in the occurrence of hydrocephalus after IVH. The iron chelator, DFX, can decrease the concentrations of iron and ferritin after cerebral hemorrhage and can thereby decrease the incidence of hydrocephalus. In addition, after IVH, the gene expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a was enhanced, with protein expression also upregulated; DFX was able to suppress both gene and protein expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a in brain tissue. This indicates that iron may be the key stimulus that activates the Wnt signaling pathway and regulates subarachnoid fibrosis after cerebral hemorrhage, and that DFX may be a candidate for preventing PHCH in patients with IVH.

  10. [The use of extra-intracranial microanastomosis in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Dash'yan, V G; Luk'yanchikov, V A; Tokarev, A S; Polunina, N A; Sytnik, A V; Solodov, A A; Grigor'eva, E V; Kudryashova, N E; Guseinova, G K

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования — оценить применение экстра-инракраниального микроанастомоза (ЭИКМА) в лечении ишемии головного мозга у больных с нетравматическим субарахноидальным кровоизлиянием (САК). Материал и методы. С 01.01.14 по 01.07.15 в отделении неотложной нейрохирургии НИИ скорой помощи им. Н.В. Склифосовского оперированы 229 пациентов по поводу разрыва интракраниальных аневризм, из них 9 с развитием выраженного и распространенного ангиоспазма, субкомпенсированной и декомпенсированной ишемией головного мозга симультанно выполнено клипирование разорвавшихся интракраниальных аневризм и наложение ЭИКМА. Возраст пациентов варьировал от 32 до 52 лет (средний — 36 лет). Тяжесть состояния в предоперационном периоде соответствовала III—IV степени по шкале Hunt—Hess. Операцию выполняли на 1—2-е сутки от поступления пациентов в стационар, 1—8-е сутки от развития САК. Результаты и заключение. У 4 больных наблюдали отличные и хорошие исходы, у 3 — глубокую инвалидизацию, 2 — умерли. Ухудшение состояния умерших было связано с развитием декомпенсированной ишемии головного мозга на фоне прогрессирующего ангиоспазма, сопровождающегося высокими линейными скоростями кровотока по артериям головного мозга и дальнейшим снижением перфузии пораженного полушария. Выполнение симультанного клипирования интракраниальных аневризм и ЭИКМА в остром периоде САК у больных с субкомпенсированной ишемией головного мозга позволяет улучшить результаты лечения. Наиболее перспективными для использования представленной методики являются пациенты с проксимальным ангиоспазмом М1- и М2-сегментов средней мозговой артерии в первые 24 ч после развития очагового неврологического дефицита, доказанным снижением перфузии в соответствующем сосудистом бассейне.

  11. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Preeti, L; Magesh, KT; Rajkumar, K; Karthik, Raghavendhar

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous ulcers are common painful mucosal conditions affecting the oral cavity. Despite their high prevalence, etiopathogenesis remains unclear. This review article summarizes the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and recent trends in the management of recurrent apthous stomatitis. PMID:22144824

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  13. Predictors of outcome in childhood intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective consecutive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Beslow, Lauren A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G; Zimmerman, Robert A; Feiler, Alana M; Kasner, Scott E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose To describe features of children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine predictors of short-term outcome in a single-center prospective cohort study. Methods Single-center prospective consecutive cohort study of spontaneous ICH in children age 1-18 years from January 2006 to June 2008. Exclusion criteria were inciting trauma; intracranial tumor; isolated epidural, subdural, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Hospitalization records were abstracted. Follow-up assessments included outcome scores using the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). ICH volumes and total brain volumes (TBV) were measured by manual tracing. Results Twenty-two patients, median age of 10.3 years (range 4.2-16.6 years), had presenting symptoms of headache in 77%, focal deficits 50%, altered mental status 50%, and seizures 41%. Vascular malformations caused hemorrhage in 91%. Surgical treatment (hematoma evacuation, lesion embolization or excision) was performed during acute hospitalization in 50%. One patient died acutely. At median follow-up of 3.5 months (range 0.3-7.5 months), 71% of survivors had neurological deficits; 55% had clinically significant disability. Outcome based on PSOM and KOSCHI scores was worse in patients with ICH volume >2% of TBV (p=0.023) and altered mental status at presentation (p = 0.005). Conclusions Spontaneous childhood ICH was due mostly to vascular malformations. Acute surgical intervention was commonly performed. Although death was rare, 71% of survivors had persisting neurological deficits. Larger ICH volume and altered mental status predicted clinically significant disability. PMID:20019325

  14. The Importance of Cerebral Aneurysms in Childhood Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lori C.; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Wu, Yvonne W.; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior population-based studies of pediatric hemorrhagic stroke (HS) had too few incident cases to assess predictors of cerebral aneurysms, a HS etiology that requires urgent intervention. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of HS (intracerebral [ICH], subarachnoid [SAH], and intraventricular hemorrhage [IVH]) using the population of all children <20 years of age enrolled in a large Northern Californian health care plan (1/1993–12/2003). Cases were identified through electronic searches and confirmed through independent chart review by two neurologists, with adjudication by a third; traumatic hemorrhages were excluded. Logistic regression was used to examine potential predictors of underlying aneurysm. Results Within a cohort of 2.3 million children followed for a mean of 3.5 years, we identified 116 cases of spontaneous HS (overall incidence, 1.4 per 100,000 person-years). Cerebral aneurysms were identified in 15 (13%) of HS cases. Among 21 children with pure SAH, 57% were found to have an underlying aneurysm, compared to only 2% of 58 children with pure ICH and 5% of 37 children with a mixed pattern of hemorrhage (ICH and SAH). Independent predictors of an underlying aneurysm included pure SAH (OR 76; 95% CI: 9–657, p<0.001) and late adolescent age (15–19 years vs. younger age groups; OR 6.4; 95% CI: 1.0–40, p=0.047). Conclusions Cerebral aneurysms cause the majority of spontaneous SAH in children, and account for more than 10% of childhood HS overall. Children, and particularly teenagers, presenting with spontaneous SAH should be promptly evaluated with cerebrovascular imaging. PMID:19023102

  15. Subperiostial recurrence of chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sumanth; Deavers, Michael; Lin, Patrick; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of subperiosteal recurrence of chondroblastoma adjacent to the greater trochanter that was initially thought to represent septic arthritis of the hip in a 10-year-old girl. Soft-tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma is very rare, with fewer than ten cases reported in the literature. We demonstrate the recurrence on both CT and MRI. The MRI clearly demonstrates the soft-tissue recurrence and the associated inflammatory changes, with signal characteristics not unlike the primary tumor. PMID:27307836

  16. Subarachnoid space of the CNS, nasal mucosa, and lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R T; Tigges, J; Arnold, W

    1979-04-01

    We have briefly reviewed the literature pertaining to the movement of tracer molecules and infectious organisms within the olfactory nerve. There is a body of evidence indicating that tracers placed in the CSF will quickly move via the olfactory nerve to the nasal mucosa and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Organic and inorganic tracer materials and organisms as diverse as viruses, a bacillus, and an amoeba, when placed in the nasal cavity, have been shown to move from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb and the CSF. We think that a portion of the data on tracer movement is due to incorporation of tracer materials and organisms into the axoplasm of the olfactory neurons with subsequent anterograde or retrograde axoplasmic transport. However, some of the movement of tracers may occur within the olfactory perineural space. This space may be continuous with a subarachnoid extension that surrounds the olfactory nerve as it penetrates the cribriform plate. To our knowledge, no one has yet followed the perineural space to determine if it is continuous from olfactory receptor to olfactory bulb. The consideration of this space and its role is the main reason for this review. PMID:85446

  17. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  18. Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage: a clinicoradiological and TCD correlation.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R; Sharma, B S; Gupta, S K; Khandelwal, N; Tiwari, M K; Khosla, V K

    2001-06-01

    Twenty five consecutive patients with CT proven pure traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (tSAH) were studied, prospectively over a 6 month period. They constituted 2% of all head injuries. Most of the patients (88%) had a mild or moderate head injury at the time of admission, with a mean glasgow comma scale (GCS) of 10.68. The CT scan findings were divided into 3 grades. Grade 1 - blood in hemispheric region only (n=4), grade 2 - blood in basal region only (n=11), grade 3 - blood in both hemispheric as well as basal region (n=10). Transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) velocities were recorded in all patients by insonating the middle cerebral artery, internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery on both sides. All patients were also subjected to digital substraction angiography (DSA). All patients with mild head injury had normal TCD velocity (<100 cm/sec), while TCD velocities of more than 150 cm/sec were seen only in one patient with severe head injury. Patients with severe head injury were found to have grade 3 tSAH on CT. No statistically significant correlation was found between the CT grade and TCD velocities. Angiographic vasospasm was found in 2 patients with severe head injury only. 90.2% of patients had good outcome at discharge. PMID:11447432

  19. Quality of life and cognitive deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hütter, B O; Gilsbach, J M; Kreitschmann, I

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 58 patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with a late result either good (GOS = I) or fair (GOS = II), patients were examined 1-5 years after the acute event for their quality of life including a neuropsychological examination. Cognitive deficits were found in visual short-term memory (46%) and in the three parameters of a reaction-time task ranging from 31 to 65%. Further deficits were found in verbal long-term memory (28%), concentration (5-13%) and language (11%). The quality of life was reduced in the SAH patients according to a self-rating scale in motivation (50%), interests (47%), mental capacity (47%), free-time activities (52%), social relationships (39%), concentration (70%), fine motor co-ordination (25%) and sleep (47%). A further 77% of the patients reported more frequent headaches since their SAH. Depression was found in 30% of the SAH patients. Life-satisfaction was significantly reduced in 37%, whereas 48% of the SAH patients suffered from increased emotional lability and in 41% motivation was significantly reduced. Negative job consequences like loss of job or demotion were reported by 16% of the patients investigated and an additional 15% had been retired. PMID:7576273

  20. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF - 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  1. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  2. Elevated Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein-I in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Diseases : Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) is thought to be related to the abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Accordingly, a higher CRABP-I level could cause disorganized vessel walls by causing immature SMC phenotypes and altering extracellular matrix proteins which could result in vulnerable arterial walls with inadequate responses to hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that elevated CRABP-I level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Moreover, we also extended this hypothesis in patients with vascular malformation according to the presence of hemorrhage. Methods We investigated the CSF of 26 patients : SAH, n=7; unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), n=7; arteriovenous malformation (AVM), n=4; cavernous malformation (CM), n=3; control group, n=5. The optical density of CRABP-I was confirmed by Western blotting and presented as mean±standard error of the measurement. Results CRABP-I in SAH (0.33±0.09) was significantly higher than that in the UIA (0.12±0.01, p=0.033) or control group (0.10±0.01, p=0.012). Hemorrhage presenting AVM (mean 0.45, ranged 0.30-0.59) had a higher CRABP-I level than that in AVM without hemorrhage presentation (mean 0.16, ranged 0.14-0.17). The CRABP-I intensity in CM with hemorrhage was 0.21 and 0.31, and for CM without hemorrhage 0.14. Overall, the hemorrhage presenting group (n=11, 0.34±0.06) showed a significantly higher CRABP-I intensity than that of the non-hemorrhage presenting group (n=10, 0.13±0.01, p=0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that elevated CRABP-I in the CSF could be related with aneurysm rupture. Additionally, a higher CRABP-I level seems to be associated with hemorrhage development in vascular malformation. PMID:25733988

  3. Optimal management of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neetika; Khunger, Monica; Gupta, Arjun; Kumar, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known by the eponym Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1) or ACVRLK1 (HHT2) genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%–60% of affected individuals), liver (~40%–70%), brain (~10%), and spine (~1%). Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs), presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options. PMID:25342923

  4. Severe cochlear dysplasia causing recurrent meningitis: a surgical lesson.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Proops, D W; Phelps, P D

    1993-08-01

    Meningitis may be the sole presenting sign of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula of the temporal bone. An eight-year-old boy suffering from recurrent meningitis was found to have bilateral severe cochlear dysplasia. Bilateral tympanotomies were performed, planning to obliterate each vestibule. In the right ear a stapedectomy was performed, resulting in a torrential 'CSF gusher' and difficulty in packing the vestibule. CSF rhinorrhoea requiring revision surgery and two episodes of gram-negative bacterial meningitis complicated the post-operative management, resulting in a prolonged hospital stay. Subsequently, the left ear was managed in a different fashion, leaving the stapes in situ, with grafts placed to seal the oval window niche. We would recommend this alternative procedure in cases of severe cochlear dysplasia, where abnormalities of the vestibule and basal turn of the cochlea mean that performing a stapedectomy to pack the vestibule may result in a severe 'CSF gusher', by opening directly into the subarachnoid space.

  5. Assessing preventability for obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Micaela; Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Hibbard, Judith U; Simonson, Louise; Scott, Shirley; Koch, Abby; Schy, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2011-12-01

    We sought to determine preventability for cases of obstetric hemorrhage, identify preventable factors, and compare differences between levels of hospital. We retrospectively reviewed a 1-year cohort of severe and near-miss obstetric hemorrhage in an urban perinatal network. An expert panel, using a validated preventability model, reviewed all cases. Preventability and distribution of preventability factors were compared between levels of hospital care. Sixty-three severe and near-miss obstetric hemorrhage cases were identified from 11 hospitals; 54% were deemed potentially preventable. Overall preventability was not statistically different by level of hospital, and 88% were provider related. The only treatment-related preventability factors were significantly different between levels of hospital and significantly less common in level III hospitals (p < 0.01). The majority of obstetric hemorrhage was preventable. The most common potentially preventable factor was provider treatment error, and this was significantly more common in level II hospitals. New interventions should be focused on decreasing providers' treatment errors.

  6. Vital bleach of hemorrhagic discoloration.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Schmidt, J C

    1991-05-01

    An unusual case is presented of a maxillary central incisor with hemorrhagic discoloration that was successfully treated with the thermocatalytic vital bleach technique. This case emphasizes the need for a thorough radiographic and clinical examination to include vitality tests when a patient presents with a discolored tooth.

  7. Assessing preventability for obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Micaela; Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Hibbard, Judith U; Simonson, Louise; Scott, Shirley; Koch, Abby; Schy, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2011-12-01

    We sought to determine preventability for cases of obstetric hemorrhage, identify preventable factors, and compare differences between levels of hospital. We retrospectively reviewed a 1-year cohort of severe and near-miss obstetric hemorrhage in an urban perinatal network. An expert panel, using a validated preventability model, reviewed all cases. Preventability and distribution of preventability factors were compared between levels of hospital care. Sixty-three severe and near-miss obstetric hemorrhage cases were identified from 11 hospitals; 54% were deemed potentially preventable. Overall preventability was not statistically different by level of hospital, and 88% were provider related. The only treatment-related preventability factors were significantly different between levels of hospital and significantly less common in level III hospitals (p < 0.01). The majority of obstetric hemorrhage was preventable. The most common potentially preventable factor was provider treatment error, and this was significantly more common in level II hospitals. New interventions should be focused on decreasing providers' treatment errors. PMID:21698554

  8. Mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Arboviruses continue to be a significant source of disease, especially in regions where their insect hosts are endemic. This article highlights these diseases, with particular focus on dengue, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fever. A general background is provided, as well information concerning diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Hemorrhagic complications of severe pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stroud, W H; Cullom, J W; Anderson, M C

    1981-10-01

    Massive hemorrhage associated with pancreatitis is a rare but frequently lethal complication. Fifteen patients with this complication are presented. Bleeding occurred in four patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, in three patients with pancreatic abscesses, in seven patients with pseudocysts, and in one patient with chronic relapsing pancreatitis following longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy. The initial presentation of hemorrhage was gastrointestinal in eight patients and retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal in seven. Abdominal pain with associated nausea and vomiting was present in all patients on admission. Duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization averaged 6 days. During hospitalization the 15 patients received a total of 512 units of blood for transfusions ranging from 8 to 177 units. Admission amylase values were of no benefit in assessing severity of the disease, but application of Ranson's criteria accurately predicted both severity and prognosis. The common denominator in all cases of bleeding appeared to be the presence of an overwhelming or continuing inflammatory process with necrosis and erosion of adjacent vascular and visceral structures. The overall mortality rate in the series was 53.3%. Those patients with hemorrhage associated with pseudocyst formation had the highest survival rates, whereas those with necrotizing pancreatitis and hemorrhage had an extremely poor response to aggressive medical and/or surgical management.

  10. Physical activity and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a population based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Fann, J; Kukull, W; Katon, W; Longstreth, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate physical activity as a risk factor for subarachnoid haemorrhage.
METHODS—A population based case-control study in King County, Washington. A standardised, personal interview was used to determine physical activity during the past year and at the onset of the bleed for case patients and a similar reference time for control subjects. Conditional logistic regression and a case cross over analysis were performed in which each case patient served as his or her own control. Subjects were 149 men and women with incident, spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage and two control subjects per case patient. Control subjects were identified through random digit dialing and matched on age, sex, and respondent type.
RESULTS—Four of the 149 (2.7%) case patients were engaged in vigorous physical activity at the time of their subarachnoid haemorrhage. With those who were engaged in non-vigorous or no physical activity serving as the reference group, the relative risk of sustaining a subarachnoid haemorrhage for those engaged in vigorous physical activity was 11.6 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2-113.2). In the case cross over analysis, the relative risk was 15.0 (95% CI 4.3-52.2). Higher levels of long term regular physical activity over the past year were associated with a lower, but not statistically significant, risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (test for trend, p=0.3).
CONCLUSION—The risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage is increased during vigorous physical activity, although only a few result from this mechanism.

 PMID:11080229

  11. Disproportionate subarachnoid space hydrocephalus—outcome and perivascular space

    PubMed Central

    Akiguchi, Ichiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Budka, Herbert; Watanabe, Yuko; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Shiino, Akihiko; Ogita, Mihoko; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Jungwirth, Susanne; Krampla, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify the prevalence of MRI features of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus in possible idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (DESH-iNPH) and to describe the clinico-radiological features and outcomes of a community-based investigation (The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study). Methods Of the 697 inhabitants (all 75 years old), 503 completed extensive neurological examinations at baseline and were followed up every 30 months thereafter with MRIs, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Section (UPDRSM). The DESH-iNPH participant data were compared with the data from participants with Evans index ratios >0.3 (ex vacuo hydrocephalus), cerebral small-vessel diseases, and normal MRIs. The widening of perivascular space was also evaluated by MRI in these groups. Results Eight participants with DESH-iNPH (1.6%) and 76 with ex vacuo hydrocephalus (16.1%) at baseline were identified. The mean MMSE in DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs was 26.4, 27.9, and 28.3, respectively, and the mean UPDRSM was 9.75, 2.96, and 1.87, respectively. After a 90-month follow-up, the mortality rates for DESH-iNPH, ex vacuo hydrocephalus, and normal MRIs were 25.0%, 21.3%, and 10.9%, respectively. The perivascular-space widening scores were significantly smaller in the DESH-iNPH cases, particularly at the centrum semiovale, compared to cerebral small-vessel disease and ex vacuo hydrocephalus cases. Interpretation The prevalence of DESH-iNPH was 1.6% for participants aged 75 years and revealed significantly lower MMSE and higher UPDRSM scores compared to the ex vacuo hydrocephalus and controls. Moreover, it is suggested that perivascular-space narrowing is a morphological and pathophysiological marker of DESH-iNPH. PMID:25356428

  12. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20–25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  13. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  14. Management of recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Suzumori, Nobuhiro

    2014-05-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is classically defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses. Many researchers have now revised this definition to two or more pregnancy losses because of the recent increase in the prevalence of childless couples. Established causes of recurrent miscarriage are antiphospholipid antibodies, uterine anomalies and abnormal chromosomes in either partner, particularly translocations. Antiphospholipid syndrome is the most important treatable cause of recurrent miscarriage. However, it is not yet established as to what kind of testing should be conducted in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Standardization of tests for antiphospholipid antibodies is needed. On the other hand, embryonic aneuploidy is the most frequent cause of recurrent miscarriage. Chromosome analysis of the embryo is important, because it has good predictive value for subsequent live birth. It is not necessary to give any medications for unexplained cases of recurrent miscarriage, and provision of psychological support may be the most important to encourage the couples to continue to conceive until a live birth results.

  15. Is There a Role for Empiric Gastroduodenal Artery Embolization in the Management of Patients with Active Upper GI Hemorrhage?

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Shaheen Chan, Victoria Shrivastava, Vivek Anthony, Susan Uberoi, Raman Bratby, Mark

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo assess the relative efficacy of empiric gastroduodenal artery (GDA) embolization in reducing recurrent hemorrhage compared to image-guided targeted embolization.MethodsData were retrospectively collected for consecutive patients who had catheter angiography for major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from May 2008 to November 2010 (n = 40). The total number of cases were divided into two main groups according to angiographic findings: those that demonstrated a site of hemorrhage on catheter angiography (group 1, n = 13), and those where the site of hemorrhage was not identified on catheter angiography (group 2, n = 27). Group 2 was then further divided into patients who received empiric embolization (group 2a, n = 20) and those who had no embolization performed after angiography (group 2b, n = 7).ResultsThe technical and clinical success rates for embolization in groups 1 and 2a were, respectively, 100 vs. 95 %, and 85 vs. 80 %. There was no statistical significance in the recurrent hemorrhage rate, reintervention rate, or 30 day mortality between targeted and empiric embolization groups. There were no complications attributed to embolization within this study cohort.ConclusionCases of duodenal-related major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage where no embolization is performed have poor outcome. Empiric embolization of the GDA in patients with major upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage refractory to endoscopic treatment appears to be a safe and effective treatment, with low reintervention rates and good clinical outcome comparable to patients where the site of hemorrhage is localized and embolized with computed tomographic angiography or catheter angiography and embolized.

  16. Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Related to Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Keval; Griffing, George T.; Hauptman, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction caused by transient wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricular apex and mid ventricle in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Recurrent episodes are rare but have been reported, and several cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have been described in the presence of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy, documented by repeat coronary angiography and evaluations of left ventricular function, in the presence of recurrent hyperthyroidism related to Graves disease. After both episodes, the patient's left ventricular function returned to normal when her thyroid function normalized. These findings suggest a possible role of thyroid-hormone excess in the pathophysiology of some patients who have takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27127432

  17. Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Related to Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Keval; Griffing, George T; Hauptman, Paul J; Stolker, Joshua M

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction caused by transient wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricular apex and mid ventricle in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Recurrent episodes are rare but have been reported, and several cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have been described in the presence of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy, documented by repeat coronary angiography and evaluations of left ventricular function, in the presence of recurrent hyperthyroidism related to Graves disease. After both episodes, the patient's left ventricular function returned to normal when her thyroid function normalized. These findings suggest a possible role of thyroid-hormone excess in the pathophysiology of some patients who have takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:27127432

  18. Imaging of adrenal and renal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Nancy A; Lostumbo, Antonella; Adam, Sharon Z; Remer, Erick M; Nikolaidis, Paul; Yaghmai, Vahid; Berggruen, Senta M; Miller, Frank H

    2015-10-01

    Hemorrhage of the kidneys and adrenal glands has many etiologies. In the adrenal glands, trauma, anticoagulation, stress, sepsis, surgery, and neoplasms are common causes of hemorrhage. In the kidneys, reasons for hemorrhage include trauma, bleeding diathesis, vascular diseases, infection, infarction, hemorrhagic cyst rupture, the Antopol-Goldman lesion, and neoplasms. Angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma are the neoplasms most commonly associated with hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastases, and pheochromocytoma are associated with hemorrhage in the adrenal glands. Understanding the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features, and causes of hemorrhage in the kidneys and adrenal glands is critical. It is also important to keep in mind that mimickers of hemorrhage exist, including lymphoma in both the kidneys and adrenal glands, and melanoma metastases in the adrenal glands. Appropriate imaging follow-up of renal and adrenal hemorrhage should occur to exclude an underlying malignancy as the cause. If there is suspicion for malignancy that cannot be definitively diagnosed on imaging, surgery or biopsy may be warranted. Angiography may be indicated when there is a suspected underlying vascular disease. Unnecessary intervention, such as nephrectomy, may be avoided in patients with benign causes or no underlying disease. Appropriate management is dependent on accurate diagnosis of the cause of renal or adrenal hemorrhage and it is incumbent upon the radiologist to determine the etiology.

  19. Dabigatran-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Szarlej, Dorota K.; Rincon, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolization in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Although dabigatran has a favorable safety profile, predictable pharmacokinetics, fewer drug interactions than warfarin, and does not require monitoring, clinical data regarding dabigatran reversal are limited. In addition, currently available laboratory assays allow measurement of the presence, but not extent, of dabigatran-associated anticoagulation. Patient age, renal function, weight, concurrent drug therapy, adherence, and concomitant disease states can affect dabigatran’s efficacy and safety. Management of dabigatran-related intracranial hemorrhage must be approached on a case-by-case basis and include assessment of degree of anticoagulation, severity of hemorrhage, renal function, timing of last dabigatran dose, and risk of thromboembolic events. Initial management includes dabigatran discontinuation and general supportive measures. Oral activated charcoal should be administered in those who ingested dabigatran within 2 hours. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4PCCs), activated PCC, or recombinant activated factor VII use may be reasonable but is not evidence based. Reserve fresh frozen plasma for patients with dilutional coagulopathy. If readily available, hemodialysis should be considered, particularly in patients with advanced kidney injury or excessive risk of thromboembolic events. More clinical studies are needed to determine a standardized approach to treating dabigatran-associated intracranial hemorrhage. Institutional protocol development will facilitate safe, efficacious, and timely use of the limited management options. PMID:26425251

  20. Brain parenchymal, subarachnoid racemose, and intraventricular cysticercosis in an Indian man

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D; Dubey, T; Prabhakar, S

    1999-01-01

    The coexistence of brain parenchymal cysts at various stages of evolution, both intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose, is reported in a patient with neurocysticercosis. The condition has a variety of presentations, depending on the location of the cyst. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of this condition in India.


Keywords: brain parenchymal cyst; cysticercosis; albendazole PMID:10448497

  1. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Pobereskin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.
METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.
RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).
CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.

 PMID:11181855

  2. The effect of subarachnoid erythrocyte lysate on brain injury: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Huan; Han, Yan-Ling; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Chen-Hui; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Hua-Sheng; Chen, Qiang; Fan, Jie-Mei; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abundant erythrocytes remain and lyse partially in the subarachnoid space after severe subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). But the effect of subarachnoid erythrocyte lysate on brain injury is still not completely clear. In this study, autologous erythrocytes (the non-lysate group) and their lysate (the lysate group) were injected separately into the cistern magna of rabbits to induce a model of experimental SAH, although the control group received isotonic sodium chloride solution instead of erythrocyte solution. Results showed that vasospasm of the basilar artery was observed at 72 h after experimental SAH, but there was no significant difference between the non-lysate group and the lysate group. Brain injury was more severe in the lysate group than in the non-lysate group. Meanwhile, the levels of peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2), IL-6 and TNF-α in brain cortex and in CSF were significantly higher in the lysate group than those in the non-lysate group. These results demonstrated that brain injury was more likely to be caused by erythrocyte lysate than by intact erythrocytes in subarachnoid space, and inflammation response positively correlated with Prx2 expression might be involved in mechanism of brain injury after SAH. PMID:27279653

  3. Microchimerism in recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Gammill, Hilary S; Stephenson, Mary D; Aydelotte, Tessa M; Nelson, J Lee

    2014-11-01

    Maternal-fetal cell exchange during pregnancy results in acquisition of microchimerism, which can durably persist in both recipients. Naturally acquired microchimerism may impact maternal-fetal interaction in pregnancy. We conducted studies to ask whether microchimerism that a woman acquired from her own mother is detectable before or during pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fetal microchimerism was also assayed. Women with primary idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (n=23) and controls (n=31) were studied. Genotyping was conducted for probands, their mothers and the fetus, a non-shared polymorphism identified and quantitative polymerase chain reaction performed to measure microchimerismin peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Preconception comparisons were made between recurrent miscarriage subjects and controls, using logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank sum. Longitudinal microchimerism in subsequent pregnancies of recurrent miscarriage subjects was described. There was a trend toward lower preconception detection of microchimerism in recurrent miscarriage versus controls, 6% vs. 19% (1/16 vs. 6/31, P=0.2). During pregnancy, 3/11 (27%) of recurrent miscarriage subjects who went on to have a birth had detection of microchimerism from their own mother, whereas neither of two subjects who went on to miscarry had detection (0/2). This initial data suggest that microchimerism from a woman's own mother, while detectable in women with recurrent miscarriage, may differ from controls and according to subsequent pregnancy outcome. Further studies are needed to determine the cell types, quantities and any potential functional role of microchimerism in recurrent miscarriage.

  4. Recurrent mixed tumor.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1986-01-01

    Recurrence of benign neoplasms can usually be attributed to incomplete excision. Such is the case with benign mixed tumors of salivary glands. Certain histopathologic features of mixed tumors, however, appear to facilitate recurrences. These are: a predominantly myxoid composition, and transcapsular extension by the tumor. Multicentric origin is possible, but it must be regarded as a much lower order of probability.

  5. Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

    1999-10-01

    Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects.

  6. Dose response study of subarachnoid diamorphine for analgesia after elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R W; Kinsella, S M; Smith, A; Thomas, T A

    1999-10-01

    Subarachnoid diamorphine provides excellent analgesia after elective caesarean section but the optimum dose is still uncertain. We therefore investigated the effects of three regimens of subarachnoid diamorphine. Forty parturients were assigned to one of four groups. A control group received no diamorphine in their subarachnoid bupivacaine and three study groups received 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg or 0.3 mg diamorphine added to 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in a semi-blind randomised design study. All women received a 100 mg diclofenac suppository at the end of the caesarean section and were provided with morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) postoperatively. The patients were assessed for pain, morphine usage and side-effects at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after the subarachnoid injection. Postoperative visual analogue scores for pain and PCA morphine consumption were significantly lower, and mean time to first use of morphine was significantly longer in the 0.3 mg diamorphine group. The mean (SD) dose of PCA morphine used over 24 h was 39.4 (14.7), 25.6 (16.5), 21.6 (15.9) and 3.1 (3.6) mg, and mean time to first use of morphine was 1.6 (0.5), 3.0 (1.4), 3.4 (2.4) and 14.1 (9.4) h, in the 0, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg and 0.3 mg groups respectively. Side-effects of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were dependent on the dose of spinal diamorphine but did not require treatment in any patients. We conclude that 0.3 mg subarachnoid diamorphine provides significantly better postoperative pain relief than the smaller doses with an acceptable increase in side-effects. PMID:15321116

  7. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from bungee jumping.

    PubMed

    Manos, Daria; Hamer, Okka; Müller, Nestor L

    2007-11-01

    Pulmonary hemorrhage is a relatively common complication of blunt chest trauma. Occasionally, it may result from pulmonary barotrauma after scuba diving or from sports activities not associated with barotrauma such as long breath-hold diving. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from a bungee jump in a previously healthy man. Bungee jumping is an increasingly popular sport with relatively few reported injuries. To our knowledge pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described.

  8. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of South America.

    PubMed

    Tesh, Robert B

    2002-09-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiology and distinguishing features of three viral hemorrhagic fevers (dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever and arenaviral hemorrhagic fever) that have emerged as important public health problems in South America. Although the etiology, natural history and control of the three diseases are different, their clinical manifestations and histopathology findings are similar and can be difficult to differentiate. Consequently, early recognition and correct diagnosis are essential for effective control measures to be initiated.

  9. Hemorrhagic cystitis: A challenge to the urologist

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Kumar, Santosh; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N.

    2010-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes except in immunocompromised hosts. These cases can be challenging problems for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity and sometimes mortality for the patients. A variety of modalities of treatment have been described for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis but there is none that is uniformly effective. Some progress has been made in the understanding and management of viral hemorrhagic cystitis. This article reviews the common causes of severe hemorrhagic cystitis and the currently available management options. PMID:20877590

  10. Spontaneous Massive Adrenal Hemorrhage: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Small focal hemorrhage may present subclinically, but massive hemorrhage may lead to rapid cardiovascular collapse and ultimately death if not diagnosed appropriately and treated quickly. Most cases reported in the literature have been treated conservatively. In an event of increasing hemorrhage during conservative management, it may be tricky to intervene surgically because of the hematoma around the gland. Here we describe a case where we managed a large spontaneous AH by a combination of angioembolization and laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

  11. Spontaneous Massive Adrenal Hemorrhage: A Management Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Small focal hemorrhage may present subclinically, but massive hemorrhage may lead to rapid cardiovascular collapse and ultimately death if not diagnosed appropriately and treated quickly. Most cases reported in the literature have been treated conservatively. In an event of increasing hemorrhage during conservative management, it may be tricky to intervene surgically because of the hematoma around the gland. Here we describe a case where we managed a large spontaneous AH by a combination of angioembolization and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. PMID:27579389

  12. Hepatic hemorrhage in malignant rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Ikeda, K; Saida, Y; Takenaka, R; Shibata, M; Takeuchi, T

    1996-12-01

    Intrahepatic hemorrhage is a serious and life-threatening complication in liver disease. We describe a patient who had two episodes of intrahepatic hemorrhage after having malignant rheumatoid arthritis for 8 yr. Abdominal CT scans revealed a large intrahepatic, subcapsular hematoma. Arteriography demonstrated irregularity, caliber change, and pseudoaneurysms of the right hepatic artery, suggesting vasculitis as a cause of the bleeding. The hemorrhage was first treated with transcatheter arterial embolization, which failed to exert long term control, but arterial infusion of a large dose of prednisolone when the hemorrhage appeared was successful in managing it.

  13. Predictors of Recurrent AKI.

    PubMed

    Siew, Edward D; Parr, Sharidan K; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Eden, Svetlana K; Peterson, Josh F; Bansal, Nisha; Hung, Adriana M; Fly, James; Speroff, Ted; Ikizler, T Alp; Matheny, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent AKI is common among patients after hospitalized AKI and is associated with progressive CKD. In this study, we identified clinical risk factors for recurrent AKI present during index AKI hospitalizations that occurred between 2003 and 2010 using a regional Veterans Administration database in the United States. AKI was defined as a 0.3 mg/dl or 50% increase from a baseline creatinine measure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge from the index hospitalization. Time to recurrent AKI was examined using Cox regression analysis, and sensitivity analyses were performed using a competing risk approach. Among 11,683 qualifying AKI hospitalizations, 2954 patients (25%) were hospitalized with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge. Median time to recurrent AKI within 12 months was 64 (interquartile range 19-167) days. In addition to known demographic and comorbid risk factors for AKI, patients with longer AKI duration and those whose discharge diagnosis at index AKI hospitalization included congestive heart failure (primary diagnosis), decompensated advanced liver disease, cancer with or without chemotherapy, acute coronary syndrome, or volume depletion, were at highest risk for being hospitalized with recurrent AKI. Risk factors identified were similar when a competing risk model for death was applied. In conclusion, several inpatient conditions associated with AKI may increase the risk for recurrent AKI. These findings should facilitate risk stratification, guide appropriate patient referral after AKI, and help generate potential risk reduction strategies. Efforts to identify modifiable factors to prevent recurrent AKI in these patients are warranted.

  14. Surgical clipping of a recurrent small saccular aneurysm after repeated coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Wataya, Takafumi; Hojo, Masato; Doi, Daisuke; Yamagata, Sen

    2005-07-01

    A 59-year-old healthy woman presented with sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (grade I according to the Hunt and Hess classification) due to a ruptured small right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. The ruptured PCA aneurysm was completely embolized with three Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). However, follow-up DSA 3 months after the initial coiling confirmed refilling of the aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully re-embolized with two GDCs. Follow-up DSA 10 months later revealed regrowth of the aneurysm. Surgical clipping was performed without compromising the parent vessels. Long-term angiographic follow up is necessary even in patients with small saccular aneurysms which are apparently completely embolized by endovascular coil treatment.

  15. Propylthiouracil-induced alveolar hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Bünyamin; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Kacemer, Hasret; Demirkan, Halil; Altuntaş, Atilla; Dirican, Nigar; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Şahin, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Thionamide induced vasculitis is a multisystem disease. The patients may present with different clinical signs and findings due to organ involvement. These patients are almost always perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) or antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) positive. Clinical findings are not seen in all of the patients who are ANCA positive while using thionamide. Although symptoms usually resolve with drug discontinuation, some patients, however, require high-dose steroids, immunosuppressants, or plasmapheresis. We present here a case of alveolar hemorrhage induced by propilthiouracil (PTU) during treatment with PTU for Graves’ disease; patients completely recovered with corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis.

  16. Hemorrhagic collision metastasis in a cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Sundarakumar, Dinesh K; Marshall, Desiree A; Keene, C Dirk; Rockhill, Jason K; Margolin, Kim A; Kim, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old patient with recurrent choriocarcinoma of the testis presented with headache and progressive left homonymous hemianopsia. On initial MRI a grade 4 arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was identified in the right occipital lobe, which was further characterized by catheter angiography. Continued worsening of the headache in the following days prompted a follow-up MRI, which revealed a new T2 hypointense nodule and adjacent vasogenic edema in the periphery of the AVM. A follow-up MRI showed a marked increase in the size of the nodule with intrinsic enhancement and worsening perilesional edema. Based on the imaging evolution, the nodule was diagnosed as a metastasis and the patient was started on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One week after the MRI he developed a sudden hemorrhage within the mass requiring decompression craniectomy and resection of both AVM and tumor. The histopathology of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of choriocarcinoma metastasis to the AVM. PMID:25239982

  17. Hemorrhagic collision metastasis in a cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Sundarakumar, Dinesh K; Marshall, Desiree A; Keene, C Dirk; Rockhill, Jason K; Margolin, Kim A; Kim, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old patient with recurrent choriocarcinoma of the testis presented with headache and progressive left homonymous hemianopsia. On initial MRI a grade 4 arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was identified in the right occipital lobe, which was further characterized by catheter angiography. Continued worsening of the headache in the following days prompted a follow-up MRI, which revealed a new T2 hypointense nodule and adjacent vasogenic edema in the periphery of the AVM. A follow-up MRI showed a marked increase in the size of the nodule with intrinsic enhancement and worsening perilesional edema. Based on the imaging evolution, the nodule was diagnosed as a metastasis and the patient was started on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One week after the MRI he developed a sudden hemorrhage within the mass requiring decompression craniectomy and resection of both AVM and tumor. The histopathology of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of choriocarcinoma metastasis to the AVM. PMID:25239982

  18. Hemorrhagic collision metastasis in a cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Sundarakumar, Dinesh K; Marshall, Desiree A; Keene, C Dirk; Rockhill, Jason K; Margolin, Kim A; Kim, Louis J

    2015-10-01

    A 26-year-old patient with recurrent choriocarcinoma of the testis presented with headache and progressive left homonymous hemianopsia. On initial MRI a grade 4 arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was identified in the right occipital lobe, which was further characterized by catheter angiography. Continued worsening of the headache in the following days prompted a follow-up MRI, which revealed a new T2 hypointense nodule and adjacent vasogenic edema in the periphery of the AVM. A follow-up MRI showed a marked increase in the size of the nodule with intrinsic enhancement and worsening perilesional edema. Based on the imaging evolution, the nodule was diagnosed as a metastasis and the patient was started on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One week after the MRI he developed a sudden hemorrhage within the mass requiring decompression craniectomy and resection of both AVM and tumor. The histopathology of the resected mass confirmed the diagnosis of choriocarcinoma metastasis to the AVM. PMID:25261441

  19. [Mucosal changes in the periulcer zone and endocrine system in patients with gastroduodenal ulcer, complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, M V

    2014-07-01

    Examination of patients, suffering gastroduodenal ulcer, complicated by hemorrhage, was conducted, using clinical, microbiological, immunohistochemical methods and chromatomassspectrography. Enhanced activity of inducible NO-synthase, contamination of periulcer zone with microorganisms Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus beta-haemoliticus, enhancement of contents of catecholamines and serotonin in the blood serum were revealed. These changes are most expressed in severe blood loss, unstable local endoscopic hemostasis, high risk of a recurrent hemorrhage occurrence. The data obtained permit to prognosticate severity of a pathologic process course and to improve the treatment programe.

  20. Recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kamini A; Pillai, Jyothi R

    2006-08-01

    Recurrent abortions are hisheartening to the couple and also to the treating clinicians. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy weighing 500 g or less. Recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion is defined as three or more consective abortions. Important factors involved in recurrent early pregnancy loss are genetic factors, endocrine factors, anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infectious factors and environmental factors. The factors are described in a nutshell in the text. Any severe infection that leads to bacteraemia orviraemia can cause sporadic miscarriage. Congenital uterine abnormalities have been associated most often with second-trimestar pregnancy loss. As regarding management of recurrent pregnancy loss the clinician has limited options. The use of aspiration in low dose (75 mg) and heparin is beneficial in APS positive patients. Multivitamins and folic acid assume importance in thrombophilic disorders. Tender live care with regular antenatal check-ups go a great way in achieving live term pregnancy.

  1. Subchorionic hemorrhage treatment with dydrogesterone.

    PubMed

    Pelinescu-Onciul, Dimitrie

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of progestogenic therapy for the prevention of spontaneous abortions in patients with subchorionic hemorrhage. One hundred pregnant women with bleeding and ultrasonographic evidence of subchorionic hematoma were treated with oral dydrogesterone 40 mg/day. Only cases in which the embryo was viable were included. The follow-up included ultrasonography and intravaginal examination. Of the 100 pregnancies, 93 had a favorable evolution with maintenance of pregnancy. The abortion rate was therefore 7%. This compares with an abortion rate of 18.7% obtained in a previous study in women with subchorionic hematoma treated with micronized progesterone. The abortion rate was therefore reduced by up to 37% with dydrogesterone, as most cases had large-volume hematomas at the first visit and thus a poor prognosis. In conclusion, the marked immunomodulatory effect of dydrogesterone in maintaining a T helper-2 cytokine balance means that it is a good choice for preventing abortion in women suffering from subchorionic hemorrhage. PMID:17943544

  2. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in a yak

    PubMed Central

    Raabis, Sarah M.; Byers, Stacey R.; Han, Sushan; Callan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection was diagnosed in a 3-year-old yak. The yak had signs of intermittent tremors, dysphagia, oral ulcerative lesions, hemorrhagic enteritis, tachypnea, and thrombocytopenia. Postmortem diagnostics confirmed EHDV (serotype 2) using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gross and histopathological results were consistent with EHDV reported in other species. PMID:24688138

  3. Postpartum hemorrhage: use of hemostatic combat gauze.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Bernd C; Rezniczek, Günther A; Rolf, Norbert; Maul, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Cheap and simple interventions that are intended to minimize postpartum hemorrhage are of major public health concern. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in which conservative interventions had failed. The use of a chitosan-covered gauze that originally was developed for combat trauma allowed us to achieve hemostasis, and a seemingly inevitable hysterectomy was avoided. PMID:22011588

  4. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  5. First outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A K; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A H M; Ali, K S; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-07-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  7. Postadenoidectomy hemorrhage: how we do it?

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Nevzat; Evren, Cenk; Altun, Uzay

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Conventionally, adenoidectomy has been performed using blind curettage. Postoperative hemorrhage is the most common complication of surgery. There is no specific management algorithm in the literature. In this study, we described an endoscopic approach in the management of postadenoidectomy hemorrhage. Material and methods: Between 1995 and 2014, 7946 patients undergoing adenoidectomy under general anesthesia in our clinic were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had a rest adenoid tissue located in the choanae. Endoscopic excision of the tissue was performed without using a post-nasal pack. Results: All patients (100%) had a rest adenoid tissue located in the choanae. Hemorrhage was completely discontinued with endoscopic excision of the hemorrhagic tissue. Conclusion: Based on our study findings, we conclude that an endoscopic approach should be applied in all postoperative patients with hemorrhage who are unresponsive to conservative treatment modalities. PMID:25932238

  8. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Marie-France Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc; Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie; Khalil, Antoine

    2009-07-15

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  9. [Non-traumatic vitreous hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Conart, J-B; Berrod, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage is a serious disease whose incidence is 7 per 100,000 people per year. Posterior vitreous detachment with or without retinal tear, diabetic retinopathy, vascular proliferation after retinal vein occlusion, age-related macular degeneration and Terson's syndrome are the most common causes. Repeated ultrasonography may ignore a retinal tear or detachment and delay vitrectomy that is the only treatment for serious forms. The occurrence of retinal tear or detachment is a surgical emergency as well as rubeosis or diabetic tractional retinal detachment involving the macula. Intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic agents are helpful in clearing the vitreous cavity, facilitating laser photocoagulation and reducing the risks of bleeding during preretinal neovascular membranes dissection. PMID:26826742

  10. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  11. Congenital hemorrhagic disorders in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awidi, A S

    1984-07-29

    The results of a three year prospective study of inherited bleeding syndromes in Jordan is presented. There were 112 patients from 64 families. Of these there were 42 patients with hemophilia A, 23 with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, 22 with von Willebrand's disease, 11 with Christmas disease, 6 with hypofibrinogenemia, 3 with afibrinogenemia, 2 with factor XIII deficiency, 2 with storage pool disease and 1 with factor XI deficiency. The pattern of inherited bleeding syndromes in Jordan is different from that seen in Europe and U.S.A. in that Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is very common. High proportion of hemophiliacs were severe. Arthropathy was common. A significant number of bleeders had fatal hemorrhage. In a high proportion of patients, no family history of bleeding was found.

  12. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  13. [Repeated Cerebellar Hemorrhage Related to Rivaroxaban and Apixaban: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Mio; Toyama, Yuichiro; Tsurusaki, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Asako; Mima, Youhei; Kuwashiro, Takahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Yasaka, Masahiro; Okada, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of repeated cerebral hemorrhage associated with administration of rivaroxaban and apixaban. A 74-year-old man had undergone catheter ablation for non-valvular paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 2 years prior. Warfarin treatment was continued after successful catheter ablation, and was then changed to rivaroxaban in 1 year prior. Three months later, he developed subcortical cerebral hemorrhage in the right occipital lobe and pharmacotherapy was changed to apixaban. At the current presentation, he complained of headache and left visual field defect, and was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography of the head revealed recurrent hematoma at the same site as the previous hemorrhagic lesion. Administration of apixaban was subsequently stopped. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed no vascular anomalies around the hemorrhagic lesion, except for two microbleeds in the left cerebral cortex, suggesting amyloid angiopathy. We report the current case from the perspective of whether anticoagulation should be continued after successful catheter ablation, and whether anticoagulation is appropriate in patients with microbleed signals in the cerebral cortex. PMID:27156511

  14. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage following supratentorial cerebrovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ross; Kebriaei, Meysam; Gard, Andrew; Thorell, William; Surdell, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Three patients with remote cerebellar hemorrhage following supratentorial cerebrovascular surgery are presented. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage is a rare surgical complication that is most often associated with aneurysm clipping or temporal lobectomies. Bleeding occurs on the superior cerebellar cortex and is believed to be venous in origin. The precise pathogenesis of remote cerebellar hemorrhage has yet to be fully elucidated but is generally considered to be a consequence of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid loss causing caudal displacement of the cerebellum with resultant stretching of the supracerebellar veins. This case series will hopefully shed further light on the incidence, presentation, workup, and treatment of this particular complication of supratentorial surgery. PMID:24238635

  15. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient.

  16. Recurrent wheezing in children

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Michele; Piacentini, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent wheezing have a significant morbidity and it’s estimated that about one third of school-age children manifest the symptom during the first 5 years of life. Proper identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age may predict long-term outcomes and improve treatment and preventive approach, but the possibility to identify these children at preschool age remains limited. For many years authors focused their studies to identify early children with recurrent wheezing at risk to develop asthma at school age. Different phenotypes have been proposed for a more precise characterization and a personalized plan of treatment. The main criticism concerns the inability to define stable phenotypes with the risk of overestimating or underestimating the characteristics of symptoms in these children. The aim of this review is to report the recent developments on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent paediatric wheezing. PMID:26835404

  17. [Treatment of recurrent furunculosis].

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Stijnis, C Kees

    2013-01-01

    The management of recurrent furunculosis is difficult, and often disappointing. We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent furunculosis. The furunculosis persisted after treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment, chlorhexidine soap and instructions for washing clothes, towels and bed sheets for a period of 7 days. Treatment with low-dose clindamycin for three months ultimately proved successful. We propose a structural approach for recurrent furunculosis in which extensive history-taking is followed by appropriate tests. Before prescribing an oral antibiotic (preferably low-dose clindamycin or a macrolide for 3 months), the patient should use an antimicrobial nasal ointment and soap and follow hygienic instructions as mentioned above. Members of the household who also have signs of the infection should be treated. Hygienic education is an essential component of treatment. We believe that this approach will lead to a treatment that is more effective and efficient. PMID:23369819

  18. Recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Hatasaka, H H; Varner, M W

    1994-12-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss is a frustrating clinical dilemma for both patients and physicians because, in most cases, causes are nebulous and few treatments with proven benefit can be offered. Involved, expensive tests have frequently been proposed and their use has often filtered into clinical practice before their utility has been firmly demonstrated. Proposed causes of recurrent pregnancy loss include genetic and environmental etiologies, infectious agents, maternal congenital and acquired anatomic abnormalities, and immunologic and endocrinologic dysfunction. Appropriate management relies upon a realistic understanding of the often substantial limitations of currently available therapies.

  19. Tackling a Recurrent Pinealoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Palled, Siddanna; Kalavagunta, Sruthi; Beerappa Gowda, Jaipal; Umesh, Kavita; Aal, Mahalaxmi; Abdul Razack, Tanvir pasha Chitraduraga; Gowda, Veerabhadre; Viswanath, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Pineoblastomas are rare, malignant, pineal region lesions that account for <0.1% of all intracranial tumors and can metastasize along the neuroaxis. Pineoblastomas are more common in children than in adults and adults account for <10% of patients. The management of pinealoblastoma is multimodality approach, surgery followed with radiation and chemotherapy. In view of aggressive nature few centres use high dose chemotherapy with autologus stem cell transplant in newly diagnosed cases but in recurrent setting the literature is very sparse. The present case represents the management of pinealoblastoma in the recurrent setting with reirradiation and adjuvant carmustine chemotherapy wherein the management guidelines are not definitive. PMID:25210636

  20. Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Akintoye, Sunday O.; Greenberg, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease affecting the oral mucosa. It occurs mostly in healthy individuals and has atypical clinical presentation in immunocompromised individuals. The etiology of RAS is still unknown, but several local, systemic, immunologic, genetic, allergic, nutritional, and microbial factors, as well as immunosuppressive drugs, have been proposed as causative agents. Clinical management of RAS is based on severity of symptoms, frequency, size and number of lesions using topical and systemic therapies. The goals of therapy are to decrease pain and ulcer size, promote healing and decrease frequency of recurrence. PMID:24655523

  1. Risk Factors for DVT/PE in Patients with Stroke and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Mark; Michel, Kathleen; Antaky, Karin; Cherian, Sarah; Koyfmann, Feliks

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) are serious problems for patients admitted to the hospital with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). The purpose of this paper is to further understand the factors that place certain patients at increased risk of DVT/PE. Methods: At a 600 bed hospital, a retrospective analysis of data from 2613 patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke, SAH, ICH or TIA in the time range 1/2008 through 3/2012 was carried out. The data was taken from the hospital’s Get with the Guidelines database and included 28 variables. These included initial NIH stroke scale, length of stay, heart failure, ambulatory by day 2 after admission, altered mental status,and renal failure among others. Multiple analyses were carried out to determine whether there were univariable or multivariable effects of any of the factors on the risk for DVT/PE. Results: The risk of DVT/PE was highest in patients with SAH and ICH and smallest with TIA. Multivariable analyses were performed and revealed only altered level of consciousness or heart failure as significant risks for DVT/PE. With the limited available data, administration of subcutaneous heparin or other chemoprophylaxis did not reduce the risk of DVT/PE. Conclusion: Although many of the variables used to describe the stroke patient are correlated, in multivariable analyses only heart failure and altered level of consciousness were important risk factors for DVT/PE. The risk of DVT/PE was 7 fold greater in patients in patients with both of these risk factors. PMID:24847389

  2. Efficacy and safety of intravenous nimodipine administration for treatment of hypertension in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuqian; Fang, Wei; Tao, Lei; Li, Min; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Yafei; Ge, Shunnan; Gao, Li; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhihong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Boliang; Li, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicardipine (NC) is the most commonly used antihypertensive drug in neurological patients with hypertension. Although nimodipine (NM) is widely used to treat cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, trials exploring its antihypertensive effect after intravenous administration in subjects with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are scarce. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to compare the safety and efficacy of NC and NM administered intravenously in patients with ICH. Therapeutic responses were assessed by achievement of goal blood pressure (BP); use of additional medications for BP control; proportion of time spent within goal; variability in BP; time to goal BP; number of dose adjustments; variability in ICH volume, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and intracranial pressure; and drug-related complications. Results A total of 87 patients were eligible for analysis (n=46 [NC]; n=41 [NM]), and baseline characteristics between groups were similar. Both agents were effective in achieving goal BP during infusion, with 93.5% and 87.8% patients in the NC and NM groups achieving goal, respectively. Fewer additional medications were needed to control BP in the NC group. BP variability was similar and no differences were observed in the mean time to goal BP and mean numbers of dose adjustments between both groups. Interestingly, intracranial pressure declined (P=0.048) during NC administration but increased (P=0.066) after NM treatment. Finally, the incidences of hematoma expansion, neurological deterioration, and adverse drug events were similar in both groups. Conclusion NM is effective and safe for BP control in patients with ICH. PMID:26056454

  3. Spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage of myxopapillary ependymoma of the filum terminale: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Goda, Yuichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of acute onset cauda equina syndrome caused by a ruptured myxopapillary ependymoma with accompanying hemorrhage. A 26-year-old healthy woman developed muscle weakness and sensory disturbances in her bilateral lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge mass from the L1 body to the L2-3 disc level. She was able to ambulate with crutches after the tumor was successfully removed. To prevent recurrence, she received whole brain and spinal cord radiation. No sing of recurrence were detected at the 8 month follow up. PMID:25264068

  4. Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy: An important cause of cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shahina; Yadav, Sachchida Nand; Garga, Umesh Chandra; Chaudhary, Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) in the elderly. Although there are no pathognomic clinical features of CAA-related PICH, the association of white matter changes with lobar, recurrent, or multiple simultaneous hemorrhages in older patients should raise the suspicion of its diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis of CAA requires pathologic examination of the affected tissue. However, with modern imaging techniques, it is possible to diagnose the "probable CAA" in patients presenting with PICH. Gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive, noninvasive technique for identifying microhemorrhages in life. The diagnosis of CAA is important because of the likely implication it has on future management targeted to reduce risk of future bleeding. PMID:21716867

  5. [Retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma with rapidly progressing intracystic hemorrhage and lymph node involvement: a case report].

    PubMed

    Shiba, Masahiro; Takatera, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    We report a very rare case of retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma with rapidly progressing intracytic hemorrhage and lymph node involvement in a 34-year-old female. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of a severe pain in the lower abdominal region, followed by oligemic shock. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a retroperitoneal giant cyst with intracystic hematoma, which displaced the left kidney anteriorly. Because transarterial embolization was unsuccessful transabdominal left nephrectomy combined with excision of the giant cyst was performed to keep the continuing hemorrhage under control. Simultaneously, a swollen paraaortic lymph node was also resected. The histologic findings of resected tissue and lymph node were retroperitoneal angiomyolipoma with lymph node involvement. The patient is being followed up at our hospital without recurrence.

  6. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Li; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a routine procedure for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and is associated with many complications. A delayed hemorrhage after the VP shunt surgery, however, is quite rare. In this study, we report a case involving late-onset hemorrhage. The 67-year-old male patient with a history of head trauma and brain surgery underwent a VP shunt placement for hydrocephalus. The surgery course was uneventful and no bleeding was revealed in the first computed tomographic (CT) scan after the procedure. However, a massive intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred 8 h following adjustment of the valve system on the 8th day after surgery. Erosion of the vasculature by catheter cannulation and a sudden reduction of CSF pressure after downregulation of the valve could be one of the possible causes of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PMID:26632700

  7. [Subretinal hemorrhage. Natural course and staging].

    PubMed

    Bopp, S

    2012-07-01

    Subretinal hemorrhages are a complication of various diseases which arise from the choroidal or retinal circulation. Most commonly the underlying pathology is a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) especially in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Less common ocular diseases are those with non-AMD-related CNV and retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAM). Case studies have demonstrated a poor prognosis, however, a significant portion have favorable outcomes. Therefore, therapeutic decision-making is difficult. As a major difficulty in comparing different treatment modalities for submacular hemorrhages is the lack of a standardized definition of the extent of the hemorrhage. A classification for AMD-related subretinal hemorrhages including size, thickness and intraretinal location is suggested.

  8. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in yaks (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Hana; Davis, Charlie; Flinchum, John D; Bishop, Jeanette V; Schiebel, Anita; Duncan, Colleen; Spraker, Terry

    2013-05-01

    An epizootic of hemorrhagic disease associated with Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2) infections in yaks from 5 herds occurred in Colorado between August 21 and October 3, 2012. Affected yaks presented with fever, lethargy, anorexia, dyspnea, and swollen conjunctivae. Ulcerated dental pads, mucoid sanguineous nasal discharge, petechial hemorrhages in multiple organs, pulmonary edema, and serosanguinous fluid in the thorax, abdomen, and pericardial sac were observed at necropsy. Blood and tissue samples from 8 yaks with similar clinical signs and necropsy findings were positive for EHDV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 5 yaks were seropositive for EHDV. Tests for malignant catarrhal fever (Ovine herpesvirus 2), Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpesvirus 1, Foot-and-mouth disease virus, and Vesicular stomatitis virus were negative. The findings indicate that yaks are susceptible to infection with EHDV-2 and exhibit the clinical signs, and gross and histologic lesions of hemorrhagic disease observed in other ruminant species. PMID:23572453

  9. Peribulbar anesthesia causing bilateral orbital hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Garft, Kyla; Burt, Peter; Burt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral orbital hemorrhage as a complication of peribulbar anesthesia in a 78 year old man. Initially, unilateral orbital hemorrhage occurred but quickly spread to the contralateral side. Neuroophthalmological assessment revealed a proptosed tense globe with normal retinovascular findings. Visual acuity was adversely affected and this was conservatively managed with no lasting ophthalmic sequela. This patient’s case was reported as it illustrates an unusual complication of bilateral spread of orbital hemorrhage secondary to peribulbar anesthesia. It highlights how early ophthalmic assessment can ensure a good visual outcome in the setting of appropriate ophthalmic monitoring. The mechanisms of orbital hemorrhage spread and appropriate management options are discussed. PMID:27013899

  10. [Medical therapy for intracranial hemorrhage: update blood pressure management for prevention and acute treatment].

    PubMed

    Koga, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common stroke subtype in Japan. Hypertension is the leading cause. Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study (PROGRESS) revealed that blood pressure (BP) lowering could reduce stroke recurrence by 28% (ICH recurrence by 49%). The guideline for the management of hypertension (JSH2009) recommends BP control of ≤ 140/90 mm Hg for patients with prior stroke. BP is frequently elevated in acute ICH, although BP management strategy is controversial. The guideline from the American Stroke Association suggests if systolic BP (SBP) >180 mm Hg and there is no evidence of elevated intracranial pressure, then consider a modest reduction of BP. A nationwide survey revealed that SBP lowering to ≤ 160 mm Hg using intravenous nicardipine in acute ICH is a major strategy in Japan, and the safety was confirmed by a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) and Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) showed the feasibility and safety of early rapid BP lowering to 140 mm Hg. INTERACT2 and ATACH II are the randomized trials to compare the guideline-based control (<180 mm Hg) and strict control (<140 mm Hg). We have just started to enroll patients to ATACH II from Japan on February 2012.

  11. Recurrent infective endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Lossos, I. S.; Oren, R.

    1993-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease associated with high mortality. Patients surviving recurrent bouts of infective endocarditis are reported infrequently. We report on a non-drug abuser patient who experienced seven episodes of infective endocarditis--the largest number reported to our knowledge in a single non-drug abuser patient. PMID:8290417

  12. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  13. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  14. Recurrent Corneal Erosion

    MedlinePlus

    ... to apply a tight patch that restricts eye movement at night and upon waking so there is less likelihood of recurrence. If these rather simple procedures are not successful, the eye care professional may re-scrape the area to create a more irregular abrasion followed by ...

  15. Predicting Hemorrhagic Transformation of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Hillis, Argye E.; Lawrence, Erin; Dziedzic, Peter; Gottesman, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) increases the morbidity and mortality of ischemic stroke. Anticoagulation is often indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation, low ejection fraction, or mechanical valves who are hospitalized with acute stroke, but increases the risk of HT. Risk quantification would be useful. Prior studies have investigated risk of systemic hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients, but none looked specifically at HT. In our previously published work, age, infarct volume, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly predicted HT. We created the hemorrhage risk stratification (HeRS) score based on regression coefficients in multivariable modeling and now determine its validity in a prospectively followed inpatient cohort. A total of 241 consecutive patients presenting to 2 academic stroke centers with acute ischemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation over a 2.75-year period were included. Neuroimaging was evaluated for infarct volume and HT. Hemorrhages were classified as symptomatic versus asymptomatic, and by severity. HeRS scores were calculated for each patient and compared to actual hemorrhage status using receiver operating curve analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) comparing predicted odds of hemorrhage (HeRS score) to actual hemorrhage status was 0.701. Serum glucose (P < 0.001), white blood cell count (P < 0.001), and warfarin use prior to admission (P = 0.002) were also associated with HT in the validation cohort. With these variables, AUC improved to 0.854. Anticoagulation did not significantly increase HT; but with higher intensity anticoagulation, hemorrhages were more likely to be symptomatic and more severe. The HeRS score is a valid predictor of HT in patients with ischemic stroke and indication for anticoagulation. PMID:26765425

  16. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2011-03-01

    Roller coasters are probably one of the more popular rides at amusement parks around the world, and there are few reported injuries. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster in a previously healthy woman. The clinical course, management, and etiology of her case are discussed; and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described. PMID:20825914

  17. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:27625449

  18. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case.

  19. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    PubMed

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  20. Hemorrhagic sarcoid pleural effusion: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Onkar; Nair, Vidya; Talwar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Involvement of pleura by sarcoidosis remains a rare manifestation and varies from pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, hydropneumothorax, trapped lung, hemothorax, or chylothorax. Sarcoid pleural effusions presenting as hemorrhagic effusions are even more rare. We report a case of active pulmonary sarcoidosis presenting as hemorrhagic pleural effusion requiring tissue diagnosis to rule out malignancy. The rarity of the presentation prompted us to report this case. PMID:27625449

  1. Occult hemorrhage in children with severe ITP.

    PubMed

    Flores, Adolfo; Buchanan, George R

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the frequency and significance of clinically unapparent or occult hemorrhage in ITP. Therefore, we prospectively explored the sites and frequency of occult bleeding in children with severe ITP at diagnosis or upon symptomatic relapse in a prospective, single-institution cohort study of patients ≤ 18 years of age and a platelet count ≤ 10,000/mm(3) . Data collected included bleeding severity assessment, urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, and non-contrast brain MRI. Stool and urine samples were tested within 7 days of diagnosis or symptomatic relapse. Three months after diagnosis or relapse a noncontrast brain MRI evaluated hemosiderin deposits resulting from prior localized hemorrhage. Fifty-two ITP patients were enrolled with a mean platelet count of 4,000/mm(3) . A significant occurrence of occult hemorrhage was identified in the urine (27%) compared with clinically overt hematuria (0.91%, P < 0.0005). CNS microbleeding in the superficial cortex of the left frontal lobe was identified in one child with occult bleeding in the urinary tract. There was no relationship between occult hemorrhage and bleeding manifestations on physical examination. Occult hemorrhage was not a harbinger of subsequent bleeding. Our findings suggest that occult hemorrhage occurs with greater frequency than overt bleeding in children with severe ITP. CNS microbleeding is a potential risk in this patient population. Assessment of brain microbleeds and microscopic hematuria in this patient population require additional study.

  2. Congenital hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qingqiang; Zhang, Minfeng; Yang, Cheng; Cai, Wenchang; Zhao, Qian; Shen, Weifeng; Yang, Jiamei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fast-growing congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage are rare in clinical practice. Additionally, the clinical manifestations of and laboratory and imaging findings for this condition are often nonspecific and are particularly difficult to differentiate from those of hepatobiliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, thus posing great challenges for diagnosis and treatment. The 2 case reports presented here aim to analyze the diagnosis and treatment of 2 rare cases of congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage in the Chinese Han population to provide an important reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Diagnoses: These 2 case reports present 2 rare cases of congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage. Case 1 involved a 31-year-old patient with a very large, fast-growing hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage and elevated carbohydrate antigen 199. Case 2 involved a patient with intense, paroxysmal right upper abdominal pain; computed tomography suggested a hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage and possibly hepatobiliary cystadenoma. Outcomes: Both patients underwent liver resection. Postoperative follow-up showed that for both patients, the symptoms improved, the laboratory findings returned to normal levels, and the surgical outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion: Liver resection is an ideal treatment for patients with congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage, and especially those with fast-growing, symptomatic hepatic cysts or hepatic cysts that are difficult to differentiate from hepatobiliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:27759646

  3. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C.; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C.; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing. PMID:26106256

  4. Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizawa, Hideaki Toyota, Naoyuki; Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic abnormalities, technical success rate, clinical success rate, recurrence rate, complications, hemostatic period, hospital days, survival days, and patient outcome were all analyzed. Results. Angiographic abnormalities were identified during 85% of procedures (11/13). The technical success rate was 100% (13/13 procedures). The primary and secondary clinical success rates were 77% (10/13 procedures) and 67% (2/3 procedures), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 92%, and the recurrence rate was 22% (2/9 procedures) in patients whom we were able to observe during the 1-month period after embolization. No major complications occurred. Several patients in whom gelatin sponge particles had been used complained of transient local pain after the procedure. The median hemostatic period was 71 days (range 0-518 days). Median hospital and survival days were 59 days (range 3-209 days) and 141 days (range 4-518 days), respectively. Three patients survived and 7 patients died during the observation period. Only 1 of these 7 patients died from hemorrhage. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endovascular therapy is an effective, safe, and repeatable treatment for oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors.

  5. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC) to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD) and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures. PMID:25386355

  6. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.

    PubMed

    Hongsiriwon, Suchat

    2002-03-01

    A report of 19 cases of serologically-proven dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in infants aged 3-12 months who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Chon Buri Regional Hospital, Thailand, during 1995 to 1998. Subjects were 8 males and 11 females, with the peak age of 8 months. Four cases (21%) had DHF and other common co-infections ie pneumonia (2 cases), Staphylococcus aureus sepsis (1 case) and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis (1 case). The clinical manifestations of the 15 DHF cases were high fever (100%), coryza (93.3%), hepatomegaly (80%), drowsiness (53.3 %), and vomiting (46.7%); rash was observed in only 27%; one-fifth developed febrile convulsions. Sites of bleeding were the skin (petechiae) 58%, gastrointestinal system (melena) 16%, and mucous membrane (epistaxis) 5%; thrombocytopenia and increased hematocrit (> or =20%) were noted in 95% and 84% respectively. The majority of the patients (18 cases, 95%) had primary infection; only one (5%) had secondary infection. The clinical severity of the DHF was Grade I, II, and III (dengue shock syndrome) in 21%, 47% and 32% of cases respectively. After appropriate and effective management, all the infants recovered fully.

  7. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Hayes, E B; Gubler, D J

    1992-04-01

    Hundreds of thousands of dengue cases are reported worldwide each year. Given the difficulty in obtaining full reporting, the actual number of human infections is probably much higher than the number reported. Dengue is usually a nonspecific febrile illness that resolves with supportive therapy but the clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection through severe hemorrhage and sudden fatal shock. The pathophysiology of the severe forms of dengue may be related to sequential infection with different serotypes, variations in virus virulence, interaction of the virus with environmental and host factors or a combination of these factors. Control of dengue at the present time is dependent on control of the principal vector mosquito, A. aegypti. Efforts to achieve such control are now focusing on community education and action towards eliminating this mosquito's breeding sites near human dwellings. Vaccine development continues, but at present the only way to avoid dengue in an area where it is endemic or epidemic is to use repellents and mosquito barriers. The movement of people to and from tropical areas makes dengue an important differential diagnosis in any patient with an acute illness and history of recent travel to tropical areas. Because of continued infestation of the southeastern United States with A. aegypti, indigenous transmission in the continental United States remains a public health concern.

  8. Effects of continuous prostacyclin infusion on regional blood flow and cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage: statistical analysis plan for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main causes of mortality and morbidity following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the development of cerebral vasospasm, a frequent complication arising in the weeks after the initial bleeding. Despite extensive research, no effective treatment of vasospasm exists to date. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. In vitro models have shown a relaxing effect of prostacyclin after induced contraction in cerebral arteries, and a recent pilot trial showed a positive effect on cerebral vasospasm in a clinical setting. No randomized clinical trials have investigated the possible pharmacodynamic effects of prostacyclin on the human brain following SAH. Methods/Design This trial is a single centre, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, double blinded, clinical pilot trial. A total of 90 patients with SAH will be randomized to one of three intervention arms: epoprostenol at 1 ng/kg/min, epoprostenol at 2 ng/kg/min, or placebo in addition to the standard treatment. Trial medication will start on Day 5 after SAH and continue to Day 10. The primary outcome measure is changes in cerebral blood flow measured by a computed tomography (CT) perfusion scan. The secondary outcomes are vasospasm measured by a CT angiography, regional blood flow, clinical symptoms of cerebral ischemia, and outcome at three months (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Discussion The primary outcome has been altered slightly since the publication of our study protocol. Global cerebral blood flow is now primary outcome, whereas regional blood flow is a secondary outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01447095. Registration date: 11 October 2011. PMID:24929796

  9. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  10. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  11. Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT < 200 s state); severe coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 30% and preserving ACT > 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT < 200 s or ACT > 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT < 200-second state, follow-up angiography at 5-30 min after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed no evidence of recurrent hemorrhage. In the ACT > 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.

  12. Clinical results of renal artery embolization to control postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background With the wider application of nephron-sparing surgery, there has been an increase in the occurrence of postoperative hemorrhage. However, despite such an increase, there are only a limited number of reports regarding renal artery embolization (RAE) for the management of postoperative bleeding after nephron-sparing surgery, especially after robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). Purpose To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter RAE for postoperative hemorrhage after open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and RALPN. Material and Methods A total of 29 patients (17 men, 12 women; age range, 31–70 years) who were referred to our hospital for postoperative hemorrhage after partial nephrectomy, between December 2003 and December 2014, were selected. We retrospectively reviewed patients’ clinical data, angiographic findings, embolization details, and clinical outcomes. Results Embolization was performed in patients who underwent OPN (25/29) and RALPN (4/29). The angiographic findings were as follows: renal artery pseudoaneurysm (n = 18), contrast extravasation (n = 8), and arteriovenous fistula (n = 3). Fiber-coated microcoil and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was administered to the targeted bleeding renal arteries in 12 and 11 patients, respectively. In six patients, fiber-coated microcoil and NBCA were used concurrently. Technical and clinical successes were achieved in all patients (100%). Bleeding cessation was achieved in all patients, and no further relevant surgeries or interventions were required for hemorrhage control. There were no episodes of hemorrhagic recurrence during the follow-up period (median, 20 days; range, 7–108 days). Conclusion Angiography and RAE identified the origin of bleeding and could successfully preserve the residual renal function. PMID:27570638

  13. Recurrent Education: Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document, consisting of three parts, focuses on recurrent education and the need for more effective deployment of educational resources within member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The first section discusses the rationale for recurrent education. Recurrent education presents an educational opportunity…

  14. Relevance of 3D magnetic resonance imaging sequences in diagnosing basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Mezo, Roger; Lara García, Javier; Arroyo, Mariana; Fleury, Agnès

    2015-12-01

    Imagenological diagnosis of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is usually difficult when classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences are used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the advantages of 3D MRI sequences (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-state Acquisition (FIESTA) and Spoiled Gradient Recalled Echo (SPGR)) with respect to classical sequences (Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T1) in visualizing Taenia solium cyst in these locations. Forty-seven T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space were diagnosed in eighteen Mexican patients. A pre-treatment MRI was performed on all patients, and all four sequences (FIESTA, FLAIR, T1 SPGR, and T2) were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. The sensitivity of each sequence to detect the parasite membrane and scolex was evaluated, along with its capacity to detect differences in signal intensity between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cysts. FIESTA sequences allowed the visualization of cyst membrane in 87.2% of the parasites evaluated, FLAIR in 38.3%, SPGR in 23.4%, and T2 in 17.0%. The superiority of FIESTA sequences over the other three imaging methods was statistically significant (P<0.001). Scolices were detected by FIESTA twice as much as the other sequences did, although this difference was not significant (P>0.05). Differences in signal intensity between CSF and parasite cysts were significant in FIESTA (P<0.0001), SPGR (P<0.0001), and FLAIR (P=0.005) sequences. For the first time, the usefulness of 3D MRI sequences to diagnose T. solium cysts located in the basal cisterns of the subarachnoid space was demonstrated. The routine use of these sequences could favor an earlier diagnosis and greatly improve the prognosis of patients affected by this severe form of the disease.

  15. Evaluation of prostaglandin biosynthetic activity in canine basilar artery following subarachnoid injection of blood.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Murota, S I; Wakai, S; Asano, T; Sano, K

    1981-11-01

    Transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was investigated in the basilar artery by incubating sections of artery with carbon-14-labeled arachidonic acid. Thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that, in normal canine basilar arteries, 14C-arachidonic acid was transformed mainly to 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, a spontaneous metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI2). Among other prostaglandins, only a small amount of PGF2 alpha was detected, whereas PGD2, PGE2, and thromboxane B2 were not. Arteries removed on Days 3 and 8 after subarachnoid blood injection showed a prostaglandin synthesis profile similar to that in the normal cerebral artery. In borate-buffered saline (0.1M borate buffer, pH 9.0/0.15M NaCl = 1:9, vol/vol), canine basilar artery produced a PGI2-like substance that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Its anti-aggregatory activity was completely abolished by acidification. Aspirin likewise inhibited production of the anti-aggregatory substance. From these results, it was concluded that the anti-aggregatory activity was due solely to the production of PGI2 by the arterial specimen. Based on the above results, PGI2 biosynthetic activity in the cerebral artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection was bioassayed by measuring the inhibitory activity of the incubation product upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation following incubation of the arteries in borate-buffered saline for 5 to 30 minutes at 20 degrees C, using synthetic PGI2-Na as a standard. The synthetic activity of PGI2 in the artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection had diminished remarkably by Days 3 and 8. This diminution of PGI2 synthesis in the cerebral artery may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

  16. Recurrent Epistaxis and Bleeding as the Initial Manifestation of Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Davari, Kambiz; Eftekhari, Kambiz

    2016-03-01

    Severe thrombocytopenia with bleeding is rarely reported in children with brucellosis, and recurrent epistaxis is extremely rare. Brucellosis with hemorrhage should be differentiated from viral hemorrhagic fever, malignancy, and other blood disorders. Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is mandatory to differentiate from other blood diseases. An 8-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent epistaxis, petechiae and purpura on face and extremities and bleeding from the gums. During the hospitalization, he was febrile and complained of muscle pain. Leukopenias associated with thrombocytopenia were observed. BMA showed to be normal. Among the multiple tests requested, only serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-MercaptoEthanol test (2-ME) were positive. He was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) associated with co-trimoxazole and rifampin. Finally, fever subsided, and he was discharged with good condition and normal platelet count. Brucellosis should be a differential diagnosis in patients with fever and bleeding disorders and a history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy, in endemic areas. PMID:27107528

  17. Radiation fibrosis: differentiation from recurrent tumor by MR imaging: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, H.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Levitt, R.G.; Heiken, J.P.; Ling, D.; Totty, W.G.; Balfe, D.M.; Emani, B.; Wasserman, T.H.; Murphy, W.A.

    1985-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 21 patients who had undergone radiation therapy were analyzed and compared with those of 15 patients who had untreated tumors. T2-weighted images were most helpful in distinguishing recurrent tumor from radiation fibrosis. Radiation fibrosis, like muscle, usually remained low in signal intensity on T2-weighted images, while tumor demonstrated higher signal intensity. In no patient was the signal intensity of tumor the same or less than muscle on the T2-weighted images. However, relatively high signal intensity on T2-weighted images is not specific for tumor recurrence and may be seen in acute radiation pneumonitis, infection, hemorrhage, and even pulmonary radiation fibrosis.

  18. Late Recurrence of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm After Treatment Using an Endovascular Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Downer, Jonathan; Choji, Kiyoshi

    2008-11-15

    Endovascular stent placement and coil embolization have become established options in the treatment of visceral arterial aneurysms. In this article we report the case of an 83-year-old presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to a recurrent hepatic arterial aneurysm occurring 12 years after treatment with an endovascular stent. The recurrent aneurysm had resulted from stent fracture and was successfully treated by coil embolization. To our knowledge, stent fracture complicating the endovascular treatment of a visceral artery aneurysm has not been described in the published literature. With the increasing use of metallic endoprostheses in interventional radiology, recognizing and reporting device failure are of critical importance.

  19. Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, D S; Coe, F L

    1999-11-15

    The first episode of nephrolithiasis provides an opportunity to advise patients about measures for preventing future stones. Low fluid intake and excessive intake of protein, salt and oxalate are important modifiable risk factors for kidney stones. Calcium restriction is not useful and may potentiate osteoporosis. Diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and renal tubular acidosis should be considered in patients with nephrolithiasis. A 24-hour urine collection with measurement of the important analytes is usually reserved for use in patients with recurrent stone formation. In these patients, the major urinary risk factors include hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and hyperuricosuria. Effective preventive and treatment measures include thiazide therapy to lower the urinary calcium level, citrate supplementation to increase the urinary citrate level and, sometimes, allopurinol therapy to lower uric acid excretion. Uric acid stones are most often treated with citrate supplementation. Data now support the cost-effectiveness of evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent stones. PMID:10593318

  20. A Case of Sudden Deafness with Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage and Sudden Deafness.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Se Won; Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Su-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden hearing deterioration may occur in our population, but it is difficult to explain the exact pathophysiology and the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is usually useful to evaluate neural lesions such as acoustic schwannoma and hemorrhage in labyrinth. Recently some cases of SSNHL caused by intralabyrintine hemorrhage were reported by the advance of MRI. In the case of intralabyrintine hemorrhage, MRI showed a hyperintense signal in the labyrinth on the pre-contrast and contrast enhanced T1-weighted image and relatively weak intensity on T2-weighted image. The prognosis SSNHL by intralabyrintine hemorrhage is generally known to be poor. We report a case of sudden deafness with intralabyrintine hemorrhage who has a history of anticoagulant administration, with a review of literature.

  1. Pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome associated with an autochthonous case of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Setlik, Robert F; Ouellette, Daniel; Morgan, Julia; McAllister, C Kenneth; Dorsey, David; Agan, Brian K; Horvath, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michelle K; Purcell, Bret

    2004-07-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a much rarer form of the disease, occurs when a person previously infected with dengue is re-infected with a different viral serotype. In recent years the infection rates of dengue and both clinical syndromes have increased along the United States-Mexico border. We present the case of a 61-year-old Laotian female who presented with a 1-week history of fever, altered mental status, oral ulceration, and rash. The patient developed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and anemia requiring multiple transfusions. She eventually sustained multi-organ system failure and expired. Both the titer data and serologies were consistent with the diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. We hypothesize that this syndrome was the result of re-infection occurring within the United States. This case is also unusual in that it is the second reported in the literature of pulmonary hemorrhages associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  2. Neurosurgical versus endovascular treatment of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm: comparison of patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kamensky, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this critical review is to determine whether endovascular treatment (EVT) of a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has better patient outcomes than neurosurgical treatment (NST). A review of six cohort studies (listed in Table 1) was carried out and the main findings were summarised in the conclusion. In addition the list of author's recommendations is included at the end of the paper. Theatre practitioners involved in neurosurgery might find this review useful in enhancing their understanding of how SAH is currently treated. It could also bring some insights about the reasons why a particular modality of the treatment was chosen for their patient. PMID:26016283

  3. Subarachnoidal Neurocysticercosis non-responsive to cysticidal drugs: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis (NC) is one of the most frequent parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Cysticidal drugs, albendazole and praziquantel, are generally effective when parasites localize in the parenchyma. In contrast, parasites lodged in the subarachnoid basal cisterns are less responsive to treatment. Case Presentation The clinical and radiological pictures of six Mexican patients non-respondent to cysticidal treatment are presented. Conclusions The possible factors involved in the cysticidal non-response are discussed and hints are provided of potentially useful changes to therapeutic protocols. PMID:20202200

  4. Intracranial angiolipoma as cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vilela, P; Saraiva, P; Goulão, A

    2005-02-01

    A 33-year-old female with a longstanding history of seizures was admitted to our hospital with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) depicted a vascular fat-containing lesion overlying a right frontal cortical polymicrogyria. The diagnosis of angiolipoma was established. Conservatory management was undertaken with full recovery. She has been followed for 5 years since, with neither re-bleeding nor morphologic change of the lesion. This is a rare intracranial lesion, with only 11 intracranial angiolipomas published in the literature, and is the first case reported which is associated with SAH caused by this lesion.

  5. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage after heroin use.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neha; Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Frey, Jennifer A; Southern, Alison

    2015-08-01

    Heroin-associated stroke is a rare complication of use. Various proposed mechanisms of heroin-associated ischemic stroke have been proposed, including the following: cardioembolism in the setting of infective endocarditis, hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the setting of hypoxemia and hypotension, and infective arteritis or vasculitis from drug adulterants. A previously healthy 28-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and normal vitals after she was found wandering outside her apartment. During ambulance transport, she endorsed heroin use. The patient was alert but could not recall her name, place, or time. She intermittently responded "I don't know" to questioning and could not perform simple commands. No motor or sensory deficits were apparent other than sluggish pinpoint pupils. There were no signs of trauma other than antecubital track marks. Her laboratory results were unremarkable. Reevaluation at 2 hours after presentation showed persistent confusion and disorientation. A computed tomographic scan of the head was obtained, which showed a large 5.1 × 5-cm intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, vasogenic edema, and a 5-mm midline shift. A workup for cardioembolic, vasculitis, and other etiologies for stroke did not reveal an underlying cause. The patient remained confused with significant memory loss throughout her hospital stay and was eventually discharged to a long-term care facility. Drug abuse should be considered a risk factor for stoke in young adults. In patients with persistent neurologic deficits, physicians must be vigilant and order appropriate workup while managing drug overdose.

  6. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, H W; van der Groen, G

    1989-01-01

    Hantaviruses, the causative agents of HFRS, have become more widely recognized. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that these pathogens are distributed worldwide. People who come into close contact with infected rodents in urban, rural and laboratory environments are at particular risk. Transmission to man occurs mainly via the respiratory tract. The epidemiology of the hantaviruses is intimately linked to the ecology of their principal vertebrate hosts. Four distinct viruses are now recognized within the hantavirus genus and that number is likely to increase to six very soon; however, further investigations are necessary. Much more work is still needed before we fully understand the wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms of HFRS as well as the pathogenicity of the different viruses in the hantavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. HFRS is difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds alone and serological evidence is often needed. A fourfold rise in IgG antibody titer in a 1-week interval, and the presence of the IgM type of antibodies against hantaviruses are good evidence for an acute hantavirus infection. Physicians should be alert for HFRS each time they deal with patients with acute febrile flu-like illness, renal failure of unknown origin and sometimes hepatic dysfunction. Especially the mild form of HFRS is difficult to diagnose. Acute onset, headache, fever, increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and polyuria are signs and symptoms compatible with a mild form of HFRS. Differential diagnosis should be considered for the following diseases in the endemic areas of HFRS: acute renal failure, hemorrhagic scarlet fever, acute abdomen, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, spotted fevers, non-A, non-B hepatitis, Colorado tick fever, septicemia, dengue, heartstroke and DIC. Treatment of HFRS is mainly supportive. Recently, however, treatment of HFRS patients with ribavirin in China and Korea, within 7 days after onset of fever, resulted in a reduced

  7. [The role of modern methods for frontal tamponade in the strategic management of recurrent nasal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M M; Dibirova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Nasal hemorrhage remains a challenging clinical problem due to the high prevalence of this pathology that frequently recurs and leads to serious deterioration of the patient's condition. This paper deals with modern therapeutic modalities used to stop and control nasal bleeding. The authors proposed a device for arresting nasal bleeding and present its detailed description laying emphasis on its clinical efficacy and advantages over other methods for the management of recurrent nasal bleeding.

  8. Overview of ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William D.; Simpson, Douglas G.; Frizzell, Leon A.; Oelze, Michael L.; Zachary, James F.

    2003-10-01

    It is well documented that ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage can occur in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, and monkeys. Our own experimental studies have focused on mice, rats, and pigs as animal models. The characteristics of the lesions produced in mice, rats and pigs were similar to those described in studies by our research group and others, suggesting a common pathogenesis for the initiation and propagation of the lesions at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Five experimental in vivo studies have been conducted to evaluate whether cavitation is responsible for ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage. The studies evaluated the dependencies of hydrostatic pressure, frequency, pulse polarity, contrast agents and lung inflation, and the results of each study appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that the mechanism for the production of a lung hemorrhage was inertial cavitation. Other dependencies evaluated included beam width, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration, exposure duration, and animal species and age. The thresholds for producing ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage, in general, were less than the FDA's regulatory limit of a Mechanical Index (MI) of 1.9. Further, the MI does not appear to provide a risk-based index for lung hemorrhage. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. R01EB02641.

  9. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis.

  10. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:27635296

  11. Rescue endoscopic bleeding control for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage using clipping and detachable snaring.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Kim, B K; Seol, D C; Byun, S J; Park, K H; Sung, I K; Park, H S; Shim, C S

    2013-06-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding recurs after appropriate endoscopic therapy in 10 % - 15 % of cases. The mortality rate can be as high as 25 % when bleeding recurs, but there is no consensus about the best modality for endoscopic re-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clipping and detachable snaring (CDS) for rescue endoscopic control of nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage. We report a case series of seven patients from a Korean tertiary center who underwent endoscopic hemostasis using the combined method of detachable snares with hemoclips. The success rate of endoscopic hemostasis with CDS was 86 %: six of the seven patients who had experienced primary endoscopic treatment failure or recurrent bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis were treated successfully. In conclusion, rescue endoscopic bleeding control by means of CDS is an option for controlling nonvariceal UGI bleeding when no other method of endoscopic treatment for recurrent bleeding and primary hemostatic failure is possible.

  12. Global aphasia due to left thalamic hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ozeren, Ali; Koc, Filiz; Demirkiran, Meltem; Sönmezler, Abdurrahman; Kibar, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Global aphasia is an acquired language disorder characterized by severe impairments in all modalities of language. The specific sites of injury commonly include Wernike's and Broca's areas and result from large strokes--particularly those involving the internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries. Rarely, deep subcortical lesions may cause global aphasia. We present three cases with global aphasia due to a more rare cause: left thalamic hemorrhage. Their common feature was the large size of the hemorrhage and its extension to the third ventricule. HMPAO-SPECT in one of the cases revealed ipsilateral subcortical, frontotemporal cortical and right frontal cortical hypoperfusion. Left thalamic hemorrhage should be considered in the differential diagnosis of global aphasia. PMID:17114855

  13. Traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage with a good prognosis.

    PubMed

    Is, Merih; Gezen, Ferruh; Akgul, Mehmet; Dosoglu, Murat

    2011-01-01

    We report a 10-year-old girl with an isolated traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage following a traffic accident, who had a good prognosis. Her neurological examination upon arrival was normal and she had no complaint other than headache and vomiting. Computed tomography on admission showed a hemorrhage in the lateral and fourth ventricles. She had a Glasgow Coma Score of 15, and she was thus given only antiepileptic drugs for prophylaxis and followed. Computed tomography that was repeated 5 days after admission showed no blood and all ventricles were of normal size. There was no vascular pathology on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. The patient remains well 5 months after her accident. Intraventricular hemorrhage does not always have a poor prognosis.

  14. Renin responses to hemorrhage in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roarty, T.P.; Chadwick. K.J.; Raff, H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the role of beta adrenergic inhibition on the renin response to graded hemorrhage (hem) in conscious rats. Chronic femoral arterial (for measurement of mean arterial pressure - MAP) and venous (for drug infusion) catheters were implanted at least 5 days before experimentation. Hem was administered in < 2 min. 10 rats (CTL) were exposed to a total of 21 episodes of hemorrhage. 13 rats (B-block) were given 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride iv 20 min prior to hem (24 episodes total). Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pre-hem PRA levels were measured in the first 1 ml of hem blood. Hem resulted in hem volume-dependent decreases in blood pressure and increase-response to hemorrhage.

  15. Renin responses to hemorrhage to conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roarty, T.P.; Chadwick, K.J.; Raff, H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the role of beta adrenergic inhibition on the renin response to graded hemorrhage (hem) in conscious rats. Chronic femoral arterial (for measurement of mean arterial pressure - MAP) and venous (for drug infusion) catheters were implanted at least 5 days before experimentation. Hem was administered in < 2 min. 10 rats (CTL) were exposed to a total of 21 episodes of hemorrhage. 13 rats (B-block) were given 1 mg/kg propranolol hydrochloride iv 20 min prior to hem (24 episodes total). Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Pre-hem PRA levels were measured in the first 1 ml of hem blood. Hem resulted in hem volume-dependent decreases in blood pressure and increases in PRA. B-block did not significantly alter the mean renin response to hemorrhage.

  16. Primary Medullary Hemorrhage Associated with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyung-Min; Park, Jong-Moo; Lee, Jee-Young

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous primary medullary hemorrhage is a rare event. A 64-year-old man was admitted for sudden-onset vertigo and vomiting. His clinical features were similar to those of lateral medullary syndrome. The patient had no anticoagulant therapy, vascular malformation, or a caudal extension of a pontine hemorrhage. The patient had multiple hypertensive changes, including retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography, multiple cerebral microbleeds, and small-vessel changes on MRI. T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI performed 3 months prior to admission and contrast-enhanced MRI showed no evidence of vascular malformation. We concluded that the patient had uncontrolled hypertension that may have lead to primary medullary hemorrhage. PMID:20396466

  17. [A Case of Aplastic or Twig-Like Middle Cerebral Artery Presenting with an Intracranial Hemorrhage Two Years after a Transient Ischemic Attack].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Taku; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Koguchi, Motofumi; Tajima, Yutaka; Suzuyama, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Aplastic or twig-like middle cerebral artery (Ap/T-MCA) is a rare anatomical anomaly, which can be associated with intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral ischemia. A 52-year-old woman who presented with sudden headache was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormality; however, magnetic resonance angiogram revealed an occlusion or severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. Three-dimensional CT angiography demonstrated severe stenosis in the left middle cerebral artery. The patient was discharged without any neurological deficit; however, she subsequently complained of temporary weakness in the right hand. It was possibly due to a transient ischemic attack; therefore, cilostazol 200 mg/day was administered for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Single photon emission computed tomography(with or without administration of acetazolamide)showed neither significant decrease in the cerebral blood flow nor cerebrovascular reactivity; hence, surgical revascularization was not performed. However, two years after the initial admission, she was urgently admitted to our hospital with sudden headache and nausea followed by aphasia and weakness of the right extremities. CT images showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe. Cerebral angiography revealed that the left middle cerebral artery was Ap/T-MCA without cerebral aneurysms. The patient was treated conservatively, and she eventually recovered without any neurological deficit except mild aphasia. Since Ap/T-MCA is associated with both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, antiplatelet therapy should be administered carefully. Moreover, it is necessary to consider extracranial-intracranial bypass to reduce hemodynamic stress on the abnormal vessels.

  18. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia with Unusual Associations

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj; Ramasamy, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a report of an elderly lady who was hospitalized with progressive worsening of breathlessness and fatigue of one month's duration. Clinical evaluation of the patient revealed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension without left heart failure, and bilateral gluteal calcinosis cutis. Initially, CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) syndrome was considered in view of the telangiectasia and calcinosis cutis, but a strong autosomal inheritance pattern and endoscopies (nasal and upper gastrointestinal) favored a diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with rare associations. PMID:26180702

  19. Recovery from Intracranial Hemorrhage Due to Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Babamhmoodi, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare and fatal presentation of leptospirosis. In this paper we present the case of a 51-year-old male farmer who lives in northern Iran. He came to our hospital with a severe headache. A paraclinical evaluation showed clear signs of thrombocytopenia, and a brain MRI revealed left temporoparietal hemorrhage. Our preliminary diagnosis was Leptospirosis, and after 26 days of hospital care the patient was discharged in good condition. This paper will educationally help physicians in better diagnosis and treatment of leptospirosis. PMID:22013452

  20. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity.