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Sample records for recurrent syncopal episodes

  1. Recurrent syncope and chronic ear pain

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Andrew; Daverede, Luis; Wong, Winson; Loney, Elizabeth; Young, John

    2010-01-01

    An elderly gentleman presented to hospital with recurrent blackout episodes consistent with syncope and a 3-month history of right ear pain. Significant postural hypotension was recorded. White cell count and C reactive protein were elevated. MRI of the head and neck revealed a soft tissue abnormality in the right nasopharynx and base of skull. Tissue biopsies were obtained and microbiology specimens revealed a mixed growth of pseudomonas and diphtheroids. There was no histological evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of skull base infection was made. Infective involvement of the carotid sinus was considered to be the cause of the recurrent syncope and postural hypotension. The patient responded well to a 12-week course of intravenous meropenem. Inflammatory markers returned to normal and a repeat MRI after 3 months of treatment showed significant resolution of infection. The syncopal episodes and orthostatic hypotension resolved in parallel with treatment of infection. PMID:22791782

  2. Recurrent laughter-induced syncope.

    PubMed

    Gaitatzis, Athanasios; Petzold, Axel

    2012-07-01

    Syncope is a common presenting complaint in Neurology clinics or Emergency departments, but its causes are sometimes difficult to diagnose. Apart from vasovagal attacks, other benign, neurally mediated syncopes include "situational" syncopes, which occur after urination, coughing, swallowing, or defecation. A healthy 42-year-old male patient presented to the neurology clinic with a long history of faints triggered by spontaneous laughter, especially after funny jokes. Physical and neurological examination, and electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging were unremarkable. There was no evidence to suggest cardiogenic causes, epilepsy, or cataplexy and a diagnosis of laughing syncope was made. Laughter-induced syncope is usually a single event in the majority of cases, but may present as recurrent attacks as in our case. Some cases occur in association with underlying neurological conditions. Prognosis is good in the case of neurally mediated attacks. Laughter may not be recognized by physicians as a cause of syncope, which may lead to unnecessary investigations or misdiagnosis, and affect patients' quality of life.

  3. Recurrent postural vasovagal syncope: sympathetic nervous system phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vaddadi, Gautam; Guo, Ling; Esler, Murray; Socratous, Florentia; Schlaich, Markus; Chopra, Reena; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin; Trauer, Thomas; Lambert, Elisabeth

    2011-10-01

    The pathophysiology of vasovagal syncope is poorly understood, and the treatment usually ineffective. Our clinical experience is that patients with vasovagal syncope fall into 2 groups, based on their supine systolic blood pressure, which is either normal (>100 mm Hg) or low (70-100 mm Hg). We investigated neural circulatory control in these 2 phenotypes. Sympathetic nervous testing was at 3 levels: electric, measuring sympathetic nerve firing (microneurography); neurochemical, quantifying norepinephrine spillover to plasma; and cellular, with Western blot analysis of sympathetic nerve proteins. Testing was done during head-up tilt (HUT), simulating the gravitational stress of standing, in 18 healthy control subjects and 36 patients with vasovagal syncope, 15 with the low blood pressure phenotype and 21 with normal blood pressure. Microneurography and norepinephrine spillover increased significantly during HUT in healthy subjects. The microneurography response during HUT was normal in normal blood pressure and accentuated in low blood pressure phenotype (P=0.05). Norepinephrine spillover response was paradoxically subnormal during HUT in both patient groups (P=0.001), who thus exhibited disjunction between nerve firing and neurotransmitter release; this lowered norepinephrine availability, impairing the neural circulatory response. Subnormal norepinephrine spillover in low blood pressure phenotype was linked to low tyrosine hydroxylase (43.7% normal, P=0.001), rate-limiting in norepinephrine synthesis, and in normal blood pressure to increased levels of the norepinephrine transporter (135% normal, P=0.019), augmenting transmitter reuptake. Patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope, when phenotyped into 2 clinical groups based on their supine blood pressure, show unique sympathetic nervous system abnormalities. It is predicted that future therapy targeting the specific mechanisms identified in the present report should translate into more effective treatment.

  4. Syncopal episode as the presenting symptom of jugular vein thrombosis in pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Zaher O; Haberman, Shoshana

    2007-06-01

    Jugular vein thrombosis has been reported to occur in pregnant women who conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART). A 28-year-old woman at 17 weeks' gestation presented to the emergency room with a syncopal episode. She reported no arm pain or swelling, no neck pain or swelling, and no dyspnea or difficulty swallowing. Doppler sonography of the neck vasculature revealed acute bilateral internal jugular vein thromboses. Thrombophilia workup was normal. Intravenous anticoagulation with heparin was initiated, and the patient was discharged on low-molecular-weight heparin. Though rare, jugular vein thrombosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of syncopal episodes even in women who conceive without ART.

  5. [Treatment of recurrent neurocardiogenic syncope with cardiac inhibitors with ipratropium bromide].

    PubMed

    Friederich, H-C; Michaelsen, J; Hesse, C; Schellberg, D; Schwab, M; Herzog, W

    2004-06-01

    Pharmacological approaches for the treatment of cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope are controversially discussed in the literature. In acute treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope, anticholinergics (atropine) are used effectively. Randomised and placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating the preventive significance of anticholinergic agents in the therapy of cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope are still missing. We report the case of an 18-year-old male patient with recurrent convulsive, cardioinhibitory neurocardiogenic syncope. Vasovagal syncope occurred predominantly as centrally induced syncope triggered by negative emotions such as fear or by seeing blood. Under resting conditions, the patient revealed increased parasympathetic tone with nocturnal bradycardia of 38 beats/min. In the course of head-up tilt table testing a cardioinhibitory syncope with an asystolic pause of 10 seconds occurred without any prodromes after 10 minutes of upright positioning. In order to inhibit parasympathetic tone, medication with ipratropiumbromide was initiated. Time-variant analysis of heart rate variability (autoregressive model) during head-up tilt table testing showed under the medication with ipratropiumbromide a vagal mediated cardioinhibition to 56 beats/min, but no further sinus arrest. Throughout clinical follow-up of 6 months the patient remained syncope-free under the medication. The usefulness of ipratropiumbromide in inhibiting vagal mediated cardioinhibition will be discussed referring to the case report and to studies evaluating anticholinergic agents in the treatment of neurocardiogenic syncope.

  6. Recurrent syncope attributed to left main coronary artery severe stenosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zheng, Xinyi; Liu, Hua; Liu, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rarely manifest as recurrent syncope due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. We report a case of a 56-year-old Chinese male with complaints of paroxysmal chest burning sensation and distress for 2 weeks as well as loss of consciousness for 3 days. The electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed paroxysmal multimorphologic ventricular tachycardia during attack and normal heart rhythm during intervals. Coronary angiograph showed 90% stenosis in left main coronary artery and 80% stenosis in anterior descending artery. Two stents sized 4.0∗18 mm and 2.75∗18 mm were placed at left main coronary artery and anterior descending artery, respectively, during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The patient was discharged and never had ventricular arrhythmia again during a 3-month follow-up since the PCI. This indicated that ventricular tachycardia was correlated with persistent severe myocardial ischemia. Coronary vasospasm was highly suspected to be the reason of the sudden attack and acute exacerbation. PCI is recommended in patients with both severe coronary artery stenosis and ventricular arrhythmia. Removing myocardial ischemia may stop or relieve ventricular arrhythmia and prevent cardiac arrest.

  7. An episode of syncope attacks in adolescent schoolgirls: investigations, intervention and outcome.

    PubMed

    Lee, P W; Leung, P W; Fung, A S; Low, L C; Tsang, M C; Leung, W C

    1996-09-01

    An increasing number of students in a secondary convent girls school developed syncope attacks over a time course of about two months. Fourteen students who suffered from syncope and 12 other students from the same class with no symptoms were assessed by a team of psychologists and paediatricians with the aim of identifying the cause of the problem and to formulate possible remedial action. Psychological assessments included a mental state examination, developmental, personal and psychological history, state-trait anxiety, self-esteem, hypnotic suggestibility, and students' beliefs about the cause and nature of the syncope attacks. Physical investigations included physical examination, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. The results indicated that most participants and controls had no physical or psychological pathologies. The two groups were not different on the physical and psychological measures. Analyses of the interview data, however, indicated that all the syncope sufferers belonged to a cohesive and exclusive social network. Social psychological circumstances rather than individual psychopathology were noted to be primarily responsible for the spread and maintenance of the mass hysterical influence. Intervention consisted of health education, authoritative reassurance and back-up support. Follow-up assessment after three and 12 months indicated no further syncope episodes.

  8. Fluoxetine vs. placebo for the treatment of recurrent vasovagal syncope with anxiety sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flevari, Panayota; Leftheriotis, Dionyssios; Repasos, Evangelos; Katsaras, Dimitrios; Katsimardos, Andreas; Lekakis, John

    2017-01-01

    The optimal medical therapy of patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS) remains controversial. Fluoxetine is effective against anxiety and panic disorders, while its use has shown promising results for VVS. Anxiety sensitivity is a personality trait observed in a considerable proportion of patients with VVS, associated with predisposition to anxiety and panic disorders. Our aim was to examine whether fluoxetine exerts beneficial effects regarding VVS prevention in the subset of patients with anxiety sensitivity. We assessed 106 patients with typical history of recurrent VVS, without other comorbidities, and a diagnostic, positive head-up tilt test. A psychiatric examination ruled out clinical psychiatric disease. Their psychological, stress-related profile was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) questionnaire, a 16-item questionnaire, assessing fear of anxiety-related sensations, previously studied in VVS. Patients scoring positive for ASI (n = 60, 57% of the population) were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to receive either 10-40 mg fluoxetine daily (n = 40) or placebo (n = 20), and were followed-up for 1 year. A significant difference was observed between patients receiving fluoxetine and those with placebo, regarding the distribution of syncope-free time during the study (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the two groups regarding presyncopal events and the total number of patients who experienced syncope or presyncope during follow-up. Sensitivity to anxiety is a common personality trait in recurrent VVS. Fluoxetine is superior to placebo against syncope in these patients. This drug may be a first-line pharmacological treatment for this difficult-to-treat group. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Depressive episode characteristics and subsequent recurrence risk.

    PubMed

    Patten, Scott B; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Bulloch, Andrew G M; MacQueen, Glenda

    2012-11-01

    Clinical practice guidelines increasingly recognize the heterogeneity associated with major depressive episodes (MDE), e.g. through strategies such as watchful waiting. However, the implications of episode heterogeneity for long-term prognosis have not been adequately explored. In this project, we used data from a Canadian longitudinal study to evaluate recurrence risks for MDE after an initial episode in the mid-1990s. This study collected data from a community cohort between 1994/1995 and 2008/2009 using biannual interviews. Characteristics of the index episode: syndromal versus sub-syndromal, duration of symptoms, and indicators of seriousness (activity restriction, high distress or suicidal ideation) were recorded. The ability of these variables to predict MDE recurrence was explored using proportional hazards modeling. Additional analyses using generalized estimating equations were used to assess robustness. Even brief, sub-syndromal episodes not characterized by indicators of seriousness were associated with an increased risk of subsequent MDE. However, episodes meeting diagnostic criteria for MDE, those lasting longer than four weeks and those associated with indicators of seriousness were associated with much higher recurrence risk. Sub-syndromal episodes associated with these characteristics generally predicted subsequent MDE as strongly as the occurrence of MDE itself. The data source did not include assessment of all potentially relevant covariates. The assessment of MDE used an abbreviated instrument. Brief sub-syndromal episodes of depression are not usually targets of acute treatment, but such episodes have implications for subsequent MDE risk. Episode characteristics identify a range of outcomes that have potential implications for long-term management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Driving safety among patients with neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, A; Dhala, A; Blanck, Z; Deshpande, S; Akhtar, M; Sra, A J

    1999-11-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope is one of the most common causes of syncope. However, the important issue of driving related injury due to syncope in this population is not well defined. Risk of injury due to syncope while driving and driving behavior was evaluated in 155 consecutive patients (92 women and 63 men; mean age 49 +/- 19 years) with history of syncope in whom hypotension and syncope or presyncope could be provoked during head-up tilt testing. Patients with syncope and positive head-up tilt table test were treated with pharmacological therapy. All participants were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire regarding any driving related injuries and their driving behavior before tilt table testing and during follow-up. Prior to head-up tilt testing two patients had syncope while driving, and one of these patients had syncope related injury during driving. The mean duration of syncopal episodes was 50 +/- 14 months (range 12-72 months). Of the 155 patients, 52 (34%) had no warning prior to syncope, while 103 (6%) had warning symptoms such as dizziness prior to their clinical syncope. Following a diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope established by head-up tilt testing, six patients stopped driving on their own. During a median follow-up of 22 months recurrent syncope occurred in five (3.2%) patients. No patient had syncope or injury during driving. In conclusion, syncope and injury while driving in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope is rare. The precise mechanism of this is unclear but may be related to posture during driving. Consensus among the medical community will be needed to provide specific guidelines in these patients.

  11. Auricular syncope.

    PubMed

    Thakar, A; Deepak, K K; Kumar, S Shyam

    2008-10-01

    To describe a previously unreported syndrome of recurrent syncopal attacks provoked by light stimulation of the external auditory canal. A 13-year-old girl had been receiving treatment for presumed absence seizures, with inadequate treatment response. Imaging was normal. Careful history taking indicated that the recurrent syncopal attacks were precipitated by external auditory canal stimulation. Targeted autonomic function tests confirmed a hyperactive vagal response, with documented significant bradycardia and lightheadedness, provoked by mild stimulation of the posterior wall of the left external auditory canal. Abstinence from ear scratching led to complete alleviation of symptoms without any pharmacological treatment. Reflex syncope consequent to stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve is proposed as the pathophysiological mechanism for this previously undocumented syndrome.

  12. Recurrent syncope, orthostatic hypotension and volatile hypertension: think outside the box.

    PubMed

    Aung, Thein; Fan, Wuqiang; Krishnamurthy, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The baroreceptors in the neck and aortic arch are important regulators of sudden blood pressure changes. They are innervated by CN IX and X and synapse in the brainstem. Baroreceptor failure is an under-recognized cause of recurrent syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and volatile hypertension, which is refractory to and may in fact worsen with conventional treatments. Baroreflex failure can be the result of neck and chest radiation, head and neck surgery, and cerebrovascular accidents involving the brainstem nuclei. The management of baroreflex failure is a challenge since patient education, lifestyle changes, and family support are extremely important in managing blood pressure. Leg exercises and Thrombo-Embolic Deterrent Stockings (TED) stockings are important in treating orthostatic hypotension. Clonidine is the antihypertensive of choice for supine hypertension. Low-dose benzodiazepines are helpful in suppressing sympathetic surges. We have encountered two patients with baroreflex failure after chemotherapy and radiation to the neck or upper chest. Temporal relationship between symptoms onset and the history of head, neck, and upper chest radiation or trauma is important in reaching a diagnosis.

  13. Syncope as initial symptom for nephrotic syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuemei; Wang, Guangliang; Feng, Jiachun

    2015-01-01

    Although syncope and nephrotic syndrome are frequently encountered independently in pediatric practice, syncope as the initial symptom for nephrotic syndrome is rarely observed in the pediatric age group. In this report, we present the case of 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome who presented with a history of three episodes of syncope before admission. The syncope occurred after excessive fluid loss or inadequate intake of fluids and was relieved spontaneously. History taking revealed that the early morning palpebral edema, and laboratory tests showed decreased plasma protein levels and elevated serum lipid levels. Nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed, but could not be confirmed histopathologically because the patient’s parent refused consent for biopsy. The patient was managed with fluid expansion, correction of acidosis, and improvement of microcirculation to prevent recurrence of syncope, and glucocorticoids were administered to prevent disease progression. PMID:26629237

  14. Syncope cluster in a patient with vasovagal history.

    PubMed

    Zyśko, Dorota; Sokalski, Leszek; Gajek, Jacek; Loboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of a 55 year-old man with a history of vasovagal syncope who experienced six unexpected syncopal events over the course of two hours. Two of these occurred in the supine position during ECG monitoring, which showed a long-lasting sinus pause. Before the last syncopal episode, the ECG recording was started at the moment when the patient had the recurrence of presyncopal symptoms. Recordings showed sinus rhythm slowing for 12 s and then sinus arrest lasting for 29 s. A thorough clinical examination revealed no relevant abnormalities. The patient was treated with a permanent pacemaker implantation.

  15. Fainiting (Syncope)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden cardiac arrest and death. Types of Syncope Cardiovascular syncope – The most dangerous but rare type of ... or by structural damage to the heart. Non-cardiovascular syncope – The most common type (also called vasovagal ...

  16. Efficacy and feasibility of isometric arm counter-pressure manoeuvres to abort impending vasovagal syncope during real life.

    PubMed

    Croci, Francesco; Brignole, Michele; Menozzi, Carlo; Solano, Alberto; Donateo, Paolo; Oddone, Daniele; Puggioni, Enrico; Lolli, Gino

    2004-07-01

    Isometric arm exercises are able to increase blood pressure during the phase of impending vasovagal syncope. We evaluated their efficacy and feasibility during daily life in a group of 29 consecutive patients affected by vasovagal syncopes. The patients were trained to use arm tensing and/or handgrip in case of occurrence of symptoms of impending syncope. During 14+/-6 months of follow-up, 260 episodes of impending syncope were reported by 19 patients; the manoeuvres were self-administered by these patients in 98% of cases and were able to abort syncope in 99.6% of cases. Overall, 5 episodes of syncope occurred in 5 patients (17%), in 4 cases without and in 1 with activation of the manoeuvres. Syncope recurred in 4 (40%) of 10 patients aged >65 years versus only 1 (5%) of 19 patients aged < or =65 years, p=0.03. The non-responders had more episodes of impending syncope than responders (37+/-32 vs 3+/-4, p=0.001). Among 19 clinical variables, age in years was the only significant predictor of syncopal recurrence. No patients had injury or other adverse morbidity related to the relapses. Isometric arm counter-pressure manoeuvres are able to abort impending vasovagal syncope in most patients aged < or =65 years. Arm counter-pressure manoeuvres are feasible, safe and well accepted by the patients in the daily life.

  17. Syncope: causes, clinical evaluation, and current therapy.

    PubMed

    Benditt, D G; Remole, S; Milstein, S; Bailin, S

    1992-01-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem comprising the sudden loss of both consciousness and postural tone, with a subsequent spontaneous and relatively prompt recovery. Often it is difficult to differentiate a true syncopal spell from other conditions, such as seizure disorders, or from some simple accidents. Even more difficult is the identification of the cause of syncopal episodes. Nonetheless, establishing a definitive diagnosis ia an important task given the high risk of recurrent symptoms. Careful use of noninvasive and invasive cardiovascular studies (including electrophysiologic testing and tilt-table testing) along with selected hematologic, biochemical, and neurologic studies provides, in the majority of cases, the most effective strategy for obtaining a specific diagnosis and for directing therapy.

  18. Laughter-induced syncope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Alexander J; Frishman, William H

    2012-01-01

    Reported cases of syncope caused directly by laughter are rare. The common scenario described in a few reports involved episodes of fortuitous laughter, sometimes followed by a short prodrome of lightheadedness, facial flushing, and dizziness, followed by an episode of definite syncope. There were no seizure-like movements, automatisms, or bladder or bowel incontinence. After the syncopal episodes that were seconds in length, the patients regained consciousness, and at that point were fully oriented. These episodes could recur in a similar situation with such laughter. Many of these patients subsequently underwent full syncope workups, without elucidating a primary cardiac or neurologic cause. In this review of laughter-induced syncope, we describe a patient of ours who fit these descriptions. This phenomenon is likely a subtype of benign Valsalva-related syncope, with autonomic reflex arcs coming into play that ultimately result in global cerebral hypoperfusion. Besides the Valsalva produced by a great fit of laughter, laughter itself has its own neuroendocrine and vasculature effects that may play a role.

  19. Episodic syncope caused by ventricular flutter in a tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    DeLillo, Daniel M; Jesty, Sophy A; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    A captive, 9-yr-old castrated male tiger (Panthera tigris) from an exotic cat sanctuary and rescue facility was observed to have three collapsing episodes within a 2-wk interval prior to being examined by veterinarians. No improvement in clinical signs was noted after empiric treatment with phenobarbital. During a more complete workup for epilepsy, ventricular flutter was observed on electrocardiogram (ECG). The arrhythmia resolved with a single intravenous bolus of lidocaine. Cardiac structure and function were unremarkable on echocardiogram and cardiac troponin I levels were within normal limits for domestic felids. No significant abnormalities were noted on abdominal ultrasound. Complete blood count and biochemistry panel were unremarkable, and heartworm antigen and Blastomyces urine antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were negative. Antiarrhythmic treatment with sotalol was initiated. On follow-up ECG performed 1 mo later, no significant arrhythmias were noted, and clinical signs have completely resolved.

  20. Efficacy of tilt training in patients with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2006-06-01

    Besides pharmacological therapy and pacemaker implantation, tilt training is a promising method of treatment in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS). Tilt training is usually offered to patients with malignant or recurrent VVS which impairs their quality of life and carries a risk of injury. To assess the efficacy of tilt training in patients with VVS. The study group consisted of 40 patients (29 females, 11 males, aged 36.6+/-14 years, range 18-57 years) who underwent tilt training using tilt table testing according to the Westminster protocol. The mean number of syncopal episodes prior to the initiation of tilt training was 6.5+/-4.9 (range 0-20); 3 patients had a history of very frequent faints. According to the VASIS classification, type I VVS (mixed) was diagnosed in 17 patients, type II (cardioinhibitory) in 22 subjects, and type III (vasodepressive) in one patient. Mean follow-up duration was 35.1+/-13.5 months. The control group, which did not undergo the tilt testing programme, consisted of 29 patients with VVS (25 females, 4 males, mean age 44.2+/-15.0 years) who had a mean of 3.3+/-3.2 (range 0-12) syncopal episodes in the past (p <0.05 vs study group); 6 of these patients had only pre-syncopal episodes. Type I VVS was diagnosed in 23 controls and type II VVS in 6 control subjects (syncope occurred during the passive phase of tilt testing in 7 subjects, whereas the remaining 22 fainted during NTG infusion). Of the patients from the study group, 3 underwent pacemaker implantation at the time of the initiation of tilt training. At the end of follow-up, 31 (77.5%) patients remained free from syncope recurrences, 5 had syncopal episodes during the initial phase of tilt training, whereas the remaining 4 continued to suffer from syncopal episodes. Out of 3 patients with presyncope, 2 had no syncope recurrences whereas 1 patient continued to have presyncopal attacks. Out of 3 patients with pacemakers, 1 reported activation of pacing in the interventional mode

  1. Cardiac Arrhythmias in Experimental Syncope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-11-01

    cardiac toward respiratory alkalosis . Regardless of arriythmias by stress procedures. It follows these two extremes in the assumed change in that previous...frequently induced by respiratory maneuvers without syncope. Intravenous aidministration of atropine appatently prevented recurrence of cardiac...arrhythmia induced by respiratory maneuvers. Significant cardiac arrhythmia was also noted in simple orthostatic syncope. Loss of consciousness presents a

  2. Summer syncope syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer Juxiang; Sharda, Natasha; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Alpert, Joseph S

    2014-08-01

    Antihypertensive therapy is associated with significant relative risk reductions in the incidence of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke. However, a common adverse reaction to antihypertensive therapy is orthostatic hypotension, dehydration, and syncope. We propose that continued use of antihypertensive medications at the same dosage during the dry summer months in patients living in the Sonoran desert leads to an increase in syncopal episodes. All hypertensive patients who were treated with medications and admitted with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code diagnosis of syncope were included. They were defined as "cases" if they presented during the summer months (May to September 2012) and "controls" if they presented during the winter months (November 2012 to March 2013). The primary outcome measure was the presence of clinical dehydration. The statistical significance was determined using the 2-sided Fisher exact test. A total of 496 patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code diagnosis of syncope were screened, and 179 patients were included in the final analysis. In patients taking antihypertensive medications, there were a significantly higher number of cases of syncope secondary to dehydration or orthostatic hypotension during the summer months (45%) compared with the winter months (26%) (P = .01). The incidence of syncope was significantly higher in older patients (63%) compared with younger individuals (37%) during the summer months. The incidence of syncope increases during the summer months among people who reside in a dry desert climate and who are taking antihypertensive medications. On the basis of our findings, we describe an easily preventable condition that we define as the "Summer Syncope Syndrome." We recommend judicious reduction of antihypertensive therapy in patients residing in a hot and dry climate, particularly during the summer months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Fainting (Syncope)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Attack Heart Valve Problems Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Fainting (Syncope) Basic Facts & ... November 2016 Posted: March 2012 © 2018 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  4. Syncope (Fainting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to sudden changes in body position, can trigger syncope. It’s important to determine the cause of ... and heart rate malfunctions in response to a trigger, such as emotional stress or pain. NMS typically ...

  5. Summer syncope syndrome redux.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer Juxiang; Desai, Chirag; Singh, Nirmal; Sharda, Natasha; Fernandes, Aaron; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Alpert, Joseph S

    2015-10-01

    While antihypertensive therapy is known to reduce the risk for heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke, it can often cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope, especially in the setting of polypharmacy and possibly, a hot and dry climate. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the results of our prior study involving continued use of antihypertensive drugs at the same dosage in the summer as in the winter months for patients living in the Sonoran desert resulted in an increase in syncopal episodes during the hot summer months. All hypertensive patients who were treated with medications and admitted with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code diagnosis of syncope were included. This is a 3-year retrospective chart review study. They were defined as "cases" if they presented during the summer months (May to September) and "controls" if they presented during the winter months (November to March). The primary outcome measure was the presence of clinical dehydration. The statistical significance was determined using the 2-sided Fisher's exact test. A total of 834 patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code diagnosis of syncope were screened: 477 in the summer months and 357 in the winter months. In patients taking antihypertensive medications, there was a significantly higher number of cases of syncope secondary to dehydration during the summer months (40.5%) compared with the winter months (29%) (P = .04). No difference was observed in the type of antihypertensive medication used and syncope rate. The number of antihypertensives used did not increase the cases of syncope in either summer or winter. An increased number of syncope events was observed in the summer months among people who reside in a dry desert climate and who are taking antihypertensive medications. The data confirm our earlier observations that demonstrated a greater number of cases of syncope among people who reside

  6. Generalization Through the Recurrent Interaction of Episodic Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Dharshan; McClelland, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a perspective on the role of the hippocampal system in generalization, instantiated in a computational model called REMERGE (recurrency and episodic memory results in generalization). We expose a fundamental, but neglected, tension between prevailing computational theories that emphasize the function of the hippocampus in pattern separation (Marr, 1971; McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995), and empirical support for its role in generalization and flexible relational memory (Cohen & Eichenbaum, 1993; Eichenbaum, 1999). Our account provides a means by which to resolve this conflict, by demonstrating that the basic representational scheme envisioned by complementary learning systems theory (McClelland et al., 1995), which relies upon orthogonalized codes in the hippocampus, is compatible with efficient generalization—as long as there is recurrence rather than unidirectional flow within the hippocampal circuit or, more widely, between the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that recurrent similarity computation, a process that facilitates the discovery of higher-order relationships between a set of related experiences, expands the scope of classical exemplar-based models of memory (e.g., Nosofsky, 1984) and allows the hippocampus to support generalization through interactions that unfold within a dynamically created memory space. PMID:22775499

  7. Bradycardia, Syncope, and Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Glancy, D Luke; Helmcke, Frederick R; Hoang, Allen P

    2017-08-15

    A 55-year-old man with syncopal episodes was found to have sinus bradycardia at a rate of 37 beats/min, an episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy. After placement of a dual-chamber cardioverter defibrillator 4 years ago, he has had no further syncopal episodes, and there have been no defibrillator shocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vasovagal Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combined, the drop in blood pressure and slowed heart rate quickly reduce blood flow to your brain, and you faint. Sometimes there is no classical vasovagal syncope trigger, but common triggers include: Standing for long periods of time Heat exposure Seeing blood Having blood drawn Fear of ...

  9. Risk factors for recurrent episodes of care and work disability: case of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Verma, Santosh; Pransky, Glenn; Webster, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Recurrences of injuries are common and have significant socioeconomic consequences; it is important to identify associated risk factors as potential opportunities for prevention. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for low back pain (LBP) recurrence and the extent that variation in recurrence definition impacts identified risk factors. Patients with new claims for LBP reported in New Hampshire to a workers' compensation provider were selected (n = 2023) with a minimum of 3-year follow up. Alternative definitions of recurrence included a new episode of medical care and a new episode of lost work time (work disability). Risk factors better predicted disability-based than treatment-based recurrence. Longer durations of the initial episode of care or work disability were the most powerful predictors of recurrence, implying that shorter episodes of care and early return to work contribute to better outcomes.

  10. [Syncope: electrocardiogram and autonomic function tests].

    PubMed

    Uribe, William; Baranchuk, Adrián; Botero, Federico

    2016-12-23

    Syncope represents one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in the emergency department. A proper identification will allow a precise etiologic approach and the optimization of delivery of health resources.
Once knowing the classification of syncope; it is the clinical interrogatory what enables to discriminate which of these patients present with a neurogenic mediated syncope or a cardiac mediated syncope. The use of diagnostic methods such as the tilt test, will clarify what type of neurally mediated syncope predominates in the patient.
The electrocardiogram is the cornerstone in the identification of those patients who had a true episode of self-limited or aborted sudden death as the first manifestation of their syncope, a fact which provides prognostic and therapeutic information that will impact the morbidity and mortality.

  11. A novel psychophysiological treatment for vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Khurana, R K; Lynch, J J; Craig, F W

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transactional psychophysiological therapy (TPT) in a patient with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) and to quantify the capacity of human dialogue to effect significant and consistent measurable therapeutic cardiovascular (CV) changes. A 31-year-old nurse with recurrent VVS and a reproducibly abnormal tilt-table test was refractory to pharmacological and conventional psychiatric treatments. She was treated with TPT. Her CV responses during psychotherapy were incorporated into the dialogue as an important source of communicative information, and she was taught psychophysiological techniques to correct exaggerated CV responses. These responses, during 16 weekly and 12 subsequent monthly sessions, were analysed using a one-way multiple analysis of variance. As TPT progressed, the magnitude and lability of CV responses as well as frequency of VVS were reduced. She has been relatively asymptomatic for 14 years posttherapy. In conclusion, (1) TPT may be an effective primary/adjunctive treatment for patients with VVS; (2) TPT may reduce syncopal episodes, perhaps by normalizing limbic input to the brainstem baroreflex system.

  12. Etiology of Syncope and Unexplained Falls in Elderly Adults with Dementia: Syncope and Dementia (SYD) Study.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Andrea; Mussi, Chiara; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Franco; Bo, Mario; Riccio, Daniela; Martone, Anna Maria; Guadagno, Livia; Noro, Gabriele; Ghidoni, Giulia; Rafanelli, Martina; Marchionni, Niccolò; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the etiology of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) suspected to be syncope and unexplained falls in elderly adults with dementia. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Acute care wards, syncope units or centers for the diagnosis of dementia. Individuals aged 65 and older with a diagnosis of dementia and one or more episodes of T-LOC of a suspected syncopal nature or unexplained falls during the previous 3 months were enrolled. The causes of T-LOC suspected to be syncope and unexplained falls were evaluated using a simplified protocol based on European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Of 357 individuals enrolled, 181 (50.7%) had been referred for T-LOC suspected to be syncope, 166 (46.5%) for unexplained falls, and 10 (2.8%) for both. An initially suspected diagnosis of syncope was confirmed in 158 (87.3%), and syncope was identified as the cause of the event in 75 (45.2%) of those referred for unexplained falls. Orthostatic hypotension was the cause of the event in 117 of 242 (48.3%) participants with a final diagnosis of syncope. The simplified syncope diagnostic protocol can be used in elderly people with dementia referred for suspected syncope or unexplained falls. Unexplained falls may mask a diagnosis of syncope or pseudosyncope in almost 50% of cases. Given the high prevalence of orthostatic syncope in participants (~50%), a systematic reappraisal of drugs potentially responsible for orthostatic hypotension is warranted. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. [Vasovagal syncope and increased baroreceptor activity: evidence for increased sensibility of the baroreflex and its rapid reversal with acute administration of metoprolol].

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, G; De Vecchis, R; Ebraio, F; Corigliano, G G

    1997-07-01

    In 17 patients suffering from recurrent episodes of vasovagal syncope as well as in 21 healthy subjects without clinical episodes of presyncope or syncope, we evaluated the reflex decrease in heart rate evoked by the phenilephrine test. In the syncopal patients, the measurements were taken 4-12 hours after the clinical appearance of syncope. We divided the syncopal patients as follows: 9 patients, undergoing pharmacological treatment, and 8 untreated patients (drug free arm). In the pharmacological arm of the study, an alternate, randomized administration of metoprolol (150 mg twice daily for 2 days) and verapamil (80 mg every 6 hours for 2 days) was provided. Therefore, in the pharmacological arm as well as in drug free patients, we tested again the baroreflex sensitivity, by means of iv phenilephrine bolus, 3 and 7 days after the clinical appearance of the syncopal event. The baroreflex sensitivity values were significantly higher in the syncopal group compared to the control group (21 +/- 5 vs 13 +/- 4.5 ms/mm Hg; p < 0.01). Of the two tested drugs, only the metoprolol produced a fast (day 3) decrease in baroreflex sensitivity. On the basis of measurements taken after 7 days, we noted a pattern of widespread reduction in baroreflex sensitivity values, found in both treated and untreated patients. In conclusion, patients with vasovagal syncope exhibited a more pronounced maximal parasympathetic activation compared to the control group. The high baroreflex sensitivity values were soon (day 3) reduced by metoprolol, but not by verapamil therapy; a spontaneous normalization in baroreflex sensitivity values was found 7 days after the clinical episode, regardless of therapy.

  14. Unusual Clinical Presentation of Hemobilia with Recurrent Vasovagal Episodes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Hammad, Tariq; Sharma, Himani; Qamar, Khola; Khan, Mohammad Saud; Khan, Zubair; Nawras, Ali; Sodeman, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hemobilia is caused by the abnormal connection between a blood vessel and the bile duct, which is usually iatrogenic and caused by hepatobiliary procedures. The classic triad of hemobilia includes biliary colic, obstructive jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We present the case of an 80-year-old man who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by hemobilia. He had an unusual presentation of hemobilia in the form of transient vasovagal episodes in addition to abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  15. Rifaximin: a review of its use in reducing recurrence of overt hepatic encephalopathy episodes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2014-12-01

    Oral rifaximin 550 mg (Refero(®); Targaxan(®); Tixteller(®); Xifaxan(®)) twice daily, either alone or more commonly with medicines containing lactulose, is approved in several countries, including the UK, EU and USA, for use in adults with liver disease to reduce the recurrence of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Rifaximin is a broad-spectrum antibacterial that acts locally in the gut to reduce intestinal flora, including ammonia-producing species, with hyperammonaemia considered to play a central role in the pathogenesis of HE. In a 6-month, multinational trial in patients with liver disease, rifaximin 550 mg twice daily (± lactulose) was an effective and well tolerated treatment for reducing the recurrence of HE episodes. At study end, rifaximin therapy significantly prolonged the time to the first breakthrough HE episode compared with placebo (± lactulose), irrespective of geographical region or baseline patient and disease characteristics. Rifaximin treatment also significantly reduced HE-related hospitalizations and improved health-related quality of life compared with placebo. Furthermore, the efficacy of rifaximin with or without lactulose in reducing the recurrence of overt HE episodes was maintained after up to 2.5 years of treatment, with no new safety signals arising during this period. This article reviews the pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of rifaximin 550 mg twice daily in reducing the recurrence of overt HE episodes in adults with liver disease.

  16. Recurrent episodes associated with childbearing: a matrix of associations.

    PubMed

    Brockington, Ian

    2017-02-01

    A study of several hundred recurrent puerperal psychoses shows that about half of those with known onset recur in the same phase of reproduction, and half have onsets in different phases. Onsets in the same phase are especially a feature of prepartum psychosis and are the strongest indication of a specific trigger operating during pregnancy. Onsets in different phases provide a prima facie case for links between 'puerperal psychosis' and other reproductive onsets. They suggest that the 'picture puzzle' is not just about early onset puerperal psychosis, but a group of related reproductive triggers.

  17. [A case of subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis with recurrent aseptic meningitis 11 years after the first episode].

    PubMed

    Itokawa, Kaori; Fukui, Miki; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi; Sannohe, Seiya; Shimazu, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    We report a 29-year-old man with subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis (SNL) associated with recurrent aseptic meningitis following an 11-year remission period. In both episodes, headache and fever were followed by lymphadenopathy, with increased serum IgE level. Although pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid was confirmed at admission in the first episode, it appeared at one week after admission in the second episode. Administration of glucocorticoid was effective for treating meningitis. The present case suggests a pathomechanism for SNL that involves both an immunological background and an acute viral infection as triggers of exacerbation of aseptic meningitis.

  18. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia with syncope.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P H; Gray, K; Bicknell, P G; Rees, J R

    1977-10-01

    Thirty-two cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia complicated by syncope, cardiac arrhythmias or convulsions, singly or together, have been reported in the world literature. A further case is described and the clinical features of these thirty-three are reviewed. It is recommended that treatment should be undertaken as a matter of urgency. In the first place, Carbamezapine, with often the addition of Atropine, may prove effective. However, surgical intervention appears to give a better chance of permanent relief. Four alternative methods of surgery are discussed and the cervical or the intracranial approach recommended. Surgery should not be delayed in patients who fail to respond to medical treatment or in whom recurrence of symptoms occurs.

  19. Generalization through the Recurrent Interaction of Episodic Memories: A Model of the Hippocampal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Dharshan; McClelland, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a perspective on the role of the hippocampal system in generalization, instantiated in a computational model called REMERGE (recurrency and episodic memory results in generalization). We expose a fundamental, but neglected, tension between prevailing computational theories that emphasize the function of the hippocampus…

  20. Efficacy of an enterovaccine in recurrent episodes of diarrhea in the dog: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cerquetella, Matteo; Laus, Fulvio; Speranzini, Fabiana; Carnevali, Cristina; Spaterna, Andrea; Battaglia, Edda; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2012-02-01

    Recurrent episodes of self-limiting diarrhea in the dog, due to sudden dietary changes and to stressful or exciting situations, are conditions sometimes difficult to treat. Colifagina(®), a commercially available bacterial enterovaccine, showed, in previous studies performed on experimentally induced colitis in mice, to be able to improve both disease activity index and histological appearance, increase colonic secretion of IgA, and reduce inflammatory chemokine secretion. In the present study Colifagina(®) was administered to five dogs presenting recurrent episodes of self-limiting diarrhea and to one dog presenting chronic diarrhea. During the follow-up period, almost all patients decreased the number of episodes of abnormal defecation and the fecal score of such episodes improved in five out of six dogs. Even if further studies are needed to understand the exact potential of the compound, in dogs presenting recurrent episodes of self-limiting diarrhea due to sudden dietary changes and/or stressing or exciting situations, Colifagina(®) seems to be helpful in managing most of these patients.

  1. Episodic acyclovir therapy to abort recurrent attacks of genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed

    Whatley, J D; Thin, R N

    1991-05-01

    Frequent recurrence of genital herpes simplex infection can be a distressing condition. Continuous suppressive oral acyclovir is effective but expensive. Hitherto episodic therapy has given disappointing results. An open comparative study of patient initiated therapy is reported here. Acyclovir 200 mg five times daily for five days aborted 44% of recurrences and shortened 38% by greater than or equal to 50%, giving useful response in 82% of 34 recurrences. Acyclovir 400 mg twice daily for five days aborted 60% and shortened 17% giving useful benefit in 77% of 20 recurrences. Acyclovir 200 mg twice a day for five days gave unsatisfactory results. Patients were selected for frequent recurrences and a recognized prodrome, and care was taken to help to identify early prodromal symptoms. In these patients acyclovir in dosages of 200 mg five times daily for five days and 400 mg bd for five days proved convenient and cost effective.

  2. Personality and social support as predictors of first and recurrent episodes of depression.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-15

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with high personal and public health consequences, partly due to a high risk of recurrence. This longitudinal study examines personality traits, structural and subjective social support dimensions as predictors of first and recurrent episodes of depression in initially non-depressed subjects. Data were obtained from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). 1085 respondents without a current depression or anxiety diagnosis were included. 437 respondents had a prior history of depression, 648 did not. Personality dimensions were measured with the NEO-FFI, network size, partner-status, negative and positive emotional support were measured with the Close Person Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses (unadjusted and adjusted for clinical variables and sociodemographic variables) examined whether these psychosocial variables predict a new episode of depression at two year follow up and whether this differed among persons with or without a history of depression. In the unadjusted analyses high extraversion (OR:.93, 95% CI (.91-.96), P<.001), agreeableness (OR:.94, 95% CI (.90-.97), P<.001), conscientiousness (OR:.93, 95% CI (.90-.96), P<.001) and a larger network size (OR:.76, 95% CI (.64-.90), P=.001) significantly reduced the risk of a new episode of depression. Only neuroticism predicted a new episode of depression in both the unadjusted (OR:1.13, 95% CI (1.10-1.15), P<.001) and adjusted analyses (OR:1.06, 95% CI (1.03-1.10), P<.001). None of the predictors predicted first or recurrent episodes of depression differently. we used a relatively short follow up period and broad personality dimensions. Neuroticism seems to predict both first and recurrent episodes of depression and may be suitable for screening for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventing recurrence of bipolar I mood episodes and hospitalizations: family psychotherapy plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David A; Keitner, Gabor I; Ryan, Christine E; Kelley, Joan; Miller, Ivan W

    2008-11-01

    This study compared the efficacy of three treatment conditions in preventing recurrence of bipolar I mood episodes and hospitalization for such episodes: individual family therapy plus pharmacotherapy, multifamily group therapy plus pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy alone. Patients with bipolar I disorder were enrolled if they met criteria for an active mood episode and were living with or in regular contact with relatives or significant others. Subjects were randomly assigned to individual family therapy plus pharmacotherapy, multifamily group therapy plus pharmacotherapy, or pharmacotherapy alone, which were provided on an outpatient basis. Individual family therapy involved one therapist meeting with a single patient and the patient's family members, with the content of each session and number of sessions determined by the therapist and family. Multifamily group psychotherapy involved two therapists meeting together for six sessions with multiple patients and their respective family members, with the content of each session preset. All subjects were prescribed a mood stabilizer, and other medications were used as needed. Subjects were assessed monthly for up to 28 months. Following recovery from the index mood episode, subjects were assessed for recurrence of a mood episode and for hospitalization for such episodes. Of a total of 92 subjects that were enrolled in the study, 53 (58%) recovered from their intake mood episode. The analyses in this report focus upon these 53 subjects, 42 (79%) of whom entered the study during an episode of mania. Of the 53 subjects who recovered from their intake mood episode, the proportion of subjects within each treatment group who suffered a recurrence by month 28 did not differ significantly between the three treatment conditions. However, only 5% of the subjects receiving adjunctive multifamily group therapy required hospitalization, compared to 31% of the subjects receiving adjunctive individual family therapy and 38% of

  4. Modelling recurrent events: comparison of statistical models with continuous and discontinuous risk intervals on recurrent malaria episodes data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent events data analysis is common in biomedicine. Literature review indicates that most statistical models used for such data are often based on time to the first event or consider events within a subject as independent. Even when taking into account the non-independence of recurrent events within subjects, data analyses are mostly done with continuous risk interval models, which may not be appropriate for treatments with sustained effects (e.g., drug treatments of malaria patients). Furthermore, results can be biased in cases of a confounding factor implying different risk exposure, e.g. in malaria transmission: if subjects are located at zones showing different environmental factors implying different risk exposures. Methods This work aimed to compare four different approaches by analysing recurrent malaria episodes from a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of three malaria treatments [artesunate + amodiaquine (AS + AQ), artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL)], with continuous and discontinuous risk intervals: Andersen-Gill counting process (AG-CP), Prentice-Williams-Peterson counting process (PWP-CP), a shared gamma frailty model, and Generalized Estimating Equations model (GEE) using Poisson distribution. Simulations were also made to analyse the impact of the addition of a confounding factor on malaria recurrent episodes. Results Using the discontinuous interval analysis, AG-CP and Shared gamma frailty models provided similar estimations of treatment effect on malaria recurrent episodes when adjusted on age category. The patients had significant decreased risk of recurrent malaria episodes when treated with AS + AQ or AS + SP arms compared to AL arm; Relative Risks were: 0.75 (95% CI (Confidence Interval): 0.62-0.89), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88) respectively for AG-CP model and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64-0.89), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62-0.87) for the Shared gamma frailty model. With both

  5. Decreased Resting-State Activity in the Precuneus Is Associated With Depressive Episodes in Recurrent Depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Yuan, Zhen; Song, Lu-Ping; Jing, Bing; Lu, Hong-Yu; Tang, Li-Rong; Fan, Jin; Walter, Martin; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2017-04-01

    To investigate alterations in resting-state spontaneous brain activity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing multiple episodes. Between May 2007 and September 2014, 24 recurrent and 22 remitted patients diagnosed with MDD with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), and 69 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational level participated in this study. Among them, 1 healthy control was excluded due to excessive head motion. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was assessed for all recruited subjects during the completion of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Relationships between fALFF and clinical measurements, including number of depressive episodes and illness duration, were examined. Compared to patients with remitted MDD and to healthy controls, patients with recurrent MDD exhibited decreased fALFF in the right posterior insula and right precuneus and increased fALFF in the left ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Decreased fALFF in the right precuneus and increased fALFF in the right middle insula were correlated with the number of depressive episodes in the recurrent MDD groups (r = -0.75, P < .01 and r = 0.78, P < .01, respectively) and remitted MDD groups (r = -0.63, P < .01 and r = 0.41, P = .03, respectively). In addition to regions in the default mode network (DMN) and salience network, the altered resting-state activity in the middle temporal and visual cortices was also identified. Altered resting-state activity was observed across several neural networks in patients with recurrent MDD. Consistent with the emerging theory that altered DMN activity is a risk factor for depression relapses, the association between reduced fALFF in the right precuneus and number of depressive episodes supports the role of the DMN in the pathology of recurrent depression. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Risk Factors and Causes of Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Factors & Causes of Syncope Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Syncope The risk of cardiovascular syncope increases with ... Long QT syndrome and Brugada Syndrome Signs of Cardiovascular Syncope Cardiovascular syncope usually is sudden. There may ...

  7. Risk of Recurrent Pancreatitis and Progression to Chronic Pancreatitis After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Issa, Yama; Hagenaars, Julia C; Bakker, Olaf J; van Goor, Harry; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Bollen, Thomas L; van Ramshorst, Bert; Witteman, Ben J; Brink, Menno A; Schaapherder, Alexander F; Dejong, Cornelis H; Spanier, B W Marcel; Heisterkamp, Joos; van der Harst, Erwin; van Eijck, Casper H; Besselink, Marc G; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Boermeester, Marja A

    2016-05-01

    Patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis can develop recurrent or chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, little is known about the incidence or risk factors for these events. We performed a cross-sectional study of 669 patients with a first episode of acute pancreatitis admitted to 15 Dutch hospitals from December 2003 through March 2007. We collected information on disease course, outpatient visits, and hospital readmissions, as well as results from imaging, laboratory, and histology studies. Standardized follow-up questionnaires were sent to all available patients to collect information on hospitalizations and interventions for pancreatic disease, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus, medications, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients were followed up for a median time period of 57 months. Primary end points were recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Risk factors were evaluated using regression analysis. The cumulative risk was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 117 patients (17%), and CP occurred in 51 patients (7.6%). Recurrent pancreatitis developed in 12% of patients with biliary disease, 24% of patients with alcoholic etiology, and 25% of patients with disease of idiopathic or other etiologies; CP occurred in 3%, 16%, and 10% of these patients, respectively. Etiology, smoking, and necrotizing pancreatitis were independent risk factors for recurrent pancreatitis and CP. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores at admission also were associated independently with recurrent pancreatitis. The cumulative risk for recurrent pancreatitis over 5 years was highest among smokers at 40% (compared with 13% for nonsmokers). For alcohol abusers and current smokers, the cumulative risks for CP were similar-approximately 18%. In contrast, the cumulative risk of CP increased to 30% in patients who smoked and abused alcohol. Based on a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to Dutch hospitals, a first

  8. Cost utility of maintenance treatment of recurrent depression with sertraline versus episodic treatment with dothiepin.

    PubMed

    Hatziandreu, E J; Brown, R E; Revicki, D A; Turner, R; Martindale, J; Levine, S; Siegel, J E

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this study was to model, for patients at risk of recurrent depression, the cost-utility of maintenance therapy with sertraline compared with treatment of acute episodes with dothiepin ('episodic treatment'). Using clinical decision analysis techniques, a Markov state-transition model was constructed to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of the 2 therapeutic strategies. The model follows 2 cohorts of 35-year-old women at high risk for recurrent depression over their lifetimes. Model construction and relevant data (probabilities) for performing the analysis were based on existing clinical knowledge. Two physician panels were used to obtain estimates of recurrence probabilities not available in the literature, health utilities, and resource consumption. Costs were obtained from published sources. The baseline analysis showed that it costs 2172 British pounds sterling ($US3692, 1991 currency) to save an additional QALY with sertraline maintenance treatment. Sensitivity analysis showed that the incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from 557 British pounds sterling to 5260 British pounds sterling per QALY. Overall, the resulting ratios are considered to be well within the range of cost-utility ratios that support the adoption and appropriate utilisation of a technology. Based on the study assumptions, long term maintenance treatment with sertraline appears to be clinically and economically justified choice for patients at high risk of recurrent depression.

  9. Cognitive functions in first-episode depression and recurrent depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Talarowska, Monika; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Gałecki, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive deficits in the course of depressive disorders affect mainly memory, attention and the frontal functions. They are associated with both an earlier onset of symptoms and prolonged episodes. The main aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of differences in the effectiveness of cognitive processes between patients with a first episode of depression (ED-I) and recurrent depressive disorders (rDD). The study comprised 210 subjects: patients with ED-I (n=60) and patients with rDD (n=150). The assessment of cognitive functions was based on performance of the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the digit span from WAIS-R. There were no statistically significant differences between the analysed groups in the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative impact of depressive symptoms on the effectiveness of cognitive functions was observed. The ED-I group recorded better results compared to the rDD group in terms of the speed of information processing, visual-spatial and auditory-verbal memory and executive functions, auditory-verbal immediate and delayed memory, ability to learn and verbal fluency. The same differences were observed with respect to the patients from the ED-I group and the patients with the second episode of depression (ED-II) in the course of rDD. There are significant differences in cognitive functioning of patients with a depressive episode and recurrent depressive disorders. These differences are already visible from the second episode of a major depressive disorder. Memory, verbal fluency and frontal functions are reduced.

  10. Craniocervical Junction Meningiomas without Hydrocephalus Presenting Solely with Syncope: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Pierre-Olivier; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2018-06-01

    To our knowledge, there have not been any reported cases of a meningioma of the craniocervical region presenting solely with syncope as its initial symptom. Only 1 case of meningioma presenting with syncope has been published, but it was associated with hydrocephalus. We report 2 cases of syncope caused by a craniocervical junction meningioma, with syncope being the sole presenting symptom and without hydrocephalus. We discuss the possible pathophysiology, as well as the clinical relevance of this type of presentation. We reviewed the charts, operative details, and imagery of 2 cases of meningioma in the region of the craniocervical junction, with syncope as their sole presenting feature. We also reviewed the literature. In 1 case the syncope occurred spontaneously. In the other, it occurred during a Valsalva maneuver. Both meningiomas were surgically removed via a retromastoid approach. There was no recurrence of syncope following surgery. Following a literature review, we found 1 case of posterior fossa meningioma presenting with syncope, but hydrocephalus was also present. Syncope can be the sole manifestation of a meningioma of the craniocervical junction. Such syncopes are a consequence of transient dysfunction of the autonomous pathways in the medulla and/or of the medulla's output. In the absence of other causes of syncope, a meningioma in this region, even in the absence of hydrocephalus, should not be considered as fortuitous, but rather as the actual cause of syncope. Recognizing this possibility offers the potential for proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the syncope. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Associated with Recurrent Episodes of Atrial Fibrillation: The FRACTAL Registry

    PubMed Central

    REYNOLDS, MATTHEW R.; ESSEBAG, VIDAL; ZIMETBAUM, PETER; COHEN, DAVID J.

    2007-01-01

    Cost of Recurrent AF Introduction Drivers of cost in the atrial fibrillation (AF) population are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the resource utilization and costs of treating new-onset AF, with emphasis on the incremental costs associated with recurrent episodes of AF over time. Methods and Results An inception cohort of 973 AF patients was followed at 3–6 month intervals in an observational registry over a mean of 24 ± 9 months. AF therapies, clinical outcomes, and both inpatient and outpatient medical resource utilization were tracked at each follow-up interval. Registry patients were managed primarily with cardioversion and pharmacological therapy. Direct healthcare costs were calculated from a U.S. perspective by multiplying measures of resource utilization by representative price weights. Costs were compared among patients in whom the initial episode of AF became permanent and patients who initially achieved sinus rhythm and had either 0, 1–2, or ≥3 documented recurrences during follow-up. Mean annual costs for these four groups were $2,372, $3,385, $6,331, and $10,312 per patient per year, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend), with the largest variation related to hospital costs. In multivariable analysis controlling for demographic characteristics and baseline cardiac and comorbid conditions, each documented recurrence of AF was found to increase annual healthcare costs by ∼$1,600. Conclusion Following initial diagnosis, patients with AF treated with traditional therapies incur $4,000–$5,000 in annual direct healthcare costs. Costs are markedly higher in patients with multiple AF recurrences. These data may be helpful in evaluating the economic impact of new technologies for treating AF. PMID:17451468

  12. Masquerading bundle branch block as a presenting manifestation of complete atrioventricular block that caused syncope.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zhenyu; Tian, Ying; Yang, Xinchun; Liu, Xingpeng

    2017-10-01

    A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with the main complaints of stuffiness and shortness of breath. An ECG from precordial leads on admission showed masquerading bundle branch block. Syncope frequently occurred after admission. During syncope episodes, ECG telemetry showed that the syncope was caused by intermittent complete atrioventricular block, with the longest RR interval lasting for 4.36 s. At the gap of syncope, ECG showed complete right bundle branch block accompanied by alternation of left anterior fascicular block and left posterior fascicular block. The patient was implanted with a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker. Follow-up of 9 months showed no reoccurrence of syncope.

  13. Risk factors associated with recurrent homelessness after a first homeless episode.

    PubMed

    McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.

  14. Scleroderma en coup de sabre with recurrent episodes of brain hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takehiro; Asano, Yoshihide; Oka, Tomonori; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Nonaka, Senshu; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    We report a 39-year-old man referred to our facility with linear sclerotic lesions along the several Blaschko's lines of the scalp. A year before the referral, he had had an episode of brain hemorrhage, although there was no evidence of vascular malformation or any other risk factors of brain hemorrhage for his young age. On the diagnosis of scleroderma en coup de sabre, prednisolone intake was initiated, and the skin lesions were well controlled. However, in the course of our follow up, he had another episode of brain hemorrhage, again without any evidence of cerebral vascular abnormalities. Organic intracranial abnormalities in this disease are well-documented, but there have been few reports on comorbid recurrent brain hemorrhages. We herein discuss the possible relationship of the skin lesions with the brain hemorrhages in our case, taking notice of the implication of developmental abnormalities behind these apparently independent phenomena inside and outside the cranium. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Aura phenomena during syncope.

    PubMed

    Benke, T; Hochleitner, M; Bauer, G

    1997-01-01

    We studied the frequency and clinical characteristics of aura phenomena in 60 patients with cardiac and 40 subjects with vasovagal syncopes. The majority (93%) of all syncope patients recalled having experienced an aura. Aura phenomena were similar in both groups and were mostly compound auras comprising epigastric, vertiginous, visual, or somatosensory experiences, but were more detailed in the noncardiac group. The localizing significance of auras preceding a syncope was generally poor. Although hard to distinguish from epileptic auras from their structure and shape, syncope-related auras lacked symptoms that are commonly reported after epileptic seizures such as tastes, smells, déjà vu phenomena, scenic visual perceptions, and speech impairments. A detailed anamnestic exploration of auras seems worthwhile in unexplained disorders of consciousness.

  16. Analysis of hair cortisol level in first-episodic and recurrent female patients with depression compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinxue; Sun, Guizhi; Zhao, Liansheng; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Xiang; Lin, Dongtao; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2015-04-01

    Although accumulating evidence has shown increased cortisol levels in serum, saliva, or 24-h urine samples in depression, a number of studies did not find the association between cortisol levels and depression. Hair cortisol levels reflect long-term and historical information of cortisol and hair cortisol analysis has been applied in the research of psychiatric diseases. The aim of this study is to compare the hair cortisol levels between patients with depression and healthy controls. Hair cortisol levels of 22 first-episodic and 13 recurrent female patients with depression and 30 healthy controls were measured and compared using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The relationship between hair cortisol levels and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) or Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) scores were also examined. Before disease episode, no significant differences were observed among healthy controls, first-episodic patients and recurrent patients. In disease episode, the hair cortisol level in first-episodic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls or recurrent patients, while no significant difference was observed between recurrent patients and healthy controls. No significant correlation was found between HAMD or HAMA scores and hair cortisol levels in patients. First, long-term effects of antidepressants on the results cannot be excluded without detailed medication information of the recurrent patients. Second, sample sizes might be relatively small. Our results indicate that hair cortisol levels increased in disease episode in first-episodic, but not recurrent patients with depression, which may suggest that episodes of disease have influence on cortisol levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacing for neurally mediated syncope: is placebo powerless?

    PubMed

    Brignole, M; Sutton, R

    2007-01-01

    After two recent controlled trials failed to prove superiority of cardiac pacing over placebo in patients affected by neurally mediated syncope, a widely accepted opinion is that cardiac pacing therapy is not very effective and that a strong placebo effect exists. To measure the effect of placebo pacing therapy. We compared the recurrence rate of syncope during placebo vs. no treatment in controlled trials of drug or pacing therapy. Syncope recurred in 38% of 252 patients randomized to placebo pooled from five trials vs. 34% of 881 patients randomized to no treatment pooled from eight trials. The corresponding recurrence rate with active cardiac pacing was 15% in 203 patients from six trials. Placebo is not an effective therapy for neurally mediated syncope. Different selection criteria in patients who are candidates for cardiac pacing-for example, presence, absence, or severity of the cardioinhibitory reflex may separate positive from negative trials.

  18. The Current Indication for Pacemaker in Patients with Cardioinhibitory Vasovagal Syncope

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent cause of syncope is vasovagal reflex. It is associated with worse quality of life, depression, fatigue and physical injury. Recurrence of vasovagal syncope is an aggravating, reaching the rate of 69%. Initial step and pharmacological treatment may not work, especially in patients with recurrent syncope without prodrome. These patients can present cardioinhibitory response with asystole. Studies were designed to analyses the effectiveness of pacemaker for prevention of syncope. In this review, nonrandomized clinical trials, open-label randomized, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, and studies based on tilt test or Implantable Loop Recorder findings will be discussed. PMID:27651841

  19. Clinical relevance of syncope and presyncope induced by tilt testing.

    PubMed

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Koźluk, Edward; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor

    2009-08-01

    The authors investigated the relation between presyncope and syncope induced by tilt testing (HUTT) and demographics, medical history and HUTT data.The demographics, syncopal burden, data regarding the spontaneous syncope and reproduction of symptoms during HUTT were compared among patients with induced syncope and presyncope. The study group consisted of 574 patients (371 women, 203 men), aged 43.7 +/- 18.5 years. Patients with syncope induced by HUTT (418 patients, 63.9% women) had a higher number of syncopal episodes in their medical history. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that syncope provocation was independently related to the cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction (OR 7.8, CI 4.2-14.4, P < 0.001), NTG use (OR 1.7, CI: 1.0-2.7, P < 0.05), the reproduction of the symptoms during HUTT (OR 2.0, CI: 1.3-3.1, P < 0.01) and the higher number of syncopal episodes (OR 2.0, CI: 1.3-3.0, P < 0.01). In patients with positive HUTT during a passive phase it was related to the cardiodepressive type of reaction (OR 26.5, CI: 5.9-118.5, P < 0.001). In the group with positive HUTT after NTG syncope was related to the cardiodepressive type (OR 5.7, CI: 2.9-11.2, P < 0.001), vasovagal history (OR 2.0, CI: 1.2-3.3, P < 0.01), reproduction of the spontaneous symptoms (OR 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.1, P < 0.05) and higher number of syncopal episodes (OR 2.1, CI: 1.3-3.3, P < 0.01). Syncope is more frequently a HUTT outcome than presyncope. The provocation of syncope in the passive phase of HUTT depends only on the cardiodepressive type of neurocardiogenic reaction. The induction of presyncope after nitroglycerin provocation is related to the possibility of a false positive reaction.

  20. Episodic Dural Stimulation in Awake Rats: A Model for Recurrent Headache

    PubMed Central

    Oshinsky, Michael L.; Gomonchareonsiri, Sumittra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To model, in rats, the development of chronic trigeminal nociceptive hypersensitivity seen in patients with recurrent headache. Background Pathophysiology studies suggest that patients with recurrent migraine headache experience repeated bouts of dural nociceptor activation. In some patients, the severity and frequency of headache attacks increase over time. Patients with recurrent headache are hypersensitive to nitric oxide donors, such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Current trigeminal pain models do not reflect the repeated episodic nature of dural nociceptor activation in patients with recurrent headache. Repeated nociceptor activation creates long-lasting changes in the periphery and brain due to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. An animal model of repeated activation of dural nociceptors will facilitate the study of the physiological changes caused by repeated, episodic pain and the factors important for the transition of episodic to chronic migraine. Methods We induced dural inflammation by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through a cannula on the dura in awake behaving rats. This was repeated 3 times per week for up to 4 weeks. Periorbital pressure sensory testing was used to monitor the change in trigeminal sensitivity. Rats were challenged with GTN to test the hypothesis that many dural stimulations are required to model the hypersensitivity of migraine patients. Quantitative trigeminal sensory testing and microdialysis in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) were used to measure GTN hypersensitivity. Results Multiple infusions of IS (>8), over weeks, induced a long-lasting decrease in periorbital pressure thresholds that lasted >3 weeks after the last infusion. In contrast, IS infusion in IS-naive rats and those that received 3 IS infusions produced only short-lasting decreases in periorbital pressure thresholds. Rats that received more than 8 IS infusions showed a marked increase in their neurochemical and behavioral responses to GTN

  1. Diagnostic yield of device interrogation in the evaluation of syncope in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Robert N; Pickett, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Device interrogation has become a standard part of the syncope evaluation for patients admitted with permanent pacemakers (PPM) or implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), although few studies have shown interrogation yields clinically useful data. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic yield of device interrogation as well as other commonly performed tests in the workup of unexplained syncope in patients with previously implanted PPMs or ICDs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 88 patients admitted to our medical center for syncope with previously implanted pacemakers between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2015 using ICD-9 billing data. Pacemaker interrogation demonstrated an arrhythmia as the cause for syncope in 4 patients (4%) and evidence of device failure secondary to perforation in 1 patient (1%). The cause of syncope was unknown in 34 patients (39%). Orthostatic hypotension was the most commonly identified cause of syncope (26%), followed by vasovagal syncope (13%), autonomic dysfunction (5%), ventricular arrhythmia (3%), atrial arrhythmia (2%), congestive heart failure (2%), stroke (2%), and other less common causes (8%). History was the most important determinant of syncope (36%), followed by orthostatic vital signs (14%), device interrogations (4%), head CT (2%), and transthoracic echocardiogram (1%). Device interrogation is rarely useful for elucidating a cause of syncope without concerning physical exam, telemetry, or EKG findings. Interrogation may occasionally yield paroxysmal arrhythmias responsible for syncopal episode, but these rarely alter clinical outcomes. Interrogation appears to be more useful in patients with syncope after recent device placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H W G M; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical features of MS including relapsing-remitting episodes and secondary-progressive disability. To address the contribution of recurrent inflammatory events and ageing as factors that amplify progressive neurological disease, we examined EAE in 8- to 12-week-old and 12-month-old ABH mice. Compared with the relapsing-remitting (RREAE) and secondary progressive (SPEAE) EAE observed in young mice, old mice developed progressive disease from onset (PEAE) associated with pronounced axonal damage and increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells and microglia/macrophages, but not B cells. Whereas the clinical neurological features of PEAE and SPEAE were comparable, the pathology was distinct. SPEAE was associated with significantly reduced perivascular infiltrates and T-cell numbers in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with PEAE and the acute phase of RREAE. In contrast to perivascular infiltrates that declined during progression from RREAE into SPEAE, the numbers of microglia clusters remained constant. Similar to what is observed during MS, the microglia clusters emerging during EAE were associated with axonal damage and oligodendrocytes expressing heat-shock protein B5, but not lymphocytes. Taken together, our data reveal that the course of EAE is dependent on the age of the mice. Younger mice show a relapsing-remitting phase followed by progressive disease, whereas old mice immediately show progression. This indicates that recurrent episodes of inflammation in the CNS, as well as age, contribute to progressive neurological disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Emotional stress as a cause of syncope and torsade de pointes in patients with long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vukmirović, Mihailo; Vukmirović, Irena Tomašević; Angelkov, Lazar; Vukmirović, Filip

    2015-02-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of myocardial repolarization characterized by the prolongation of QT interval and high risk propensity of torsade de pointes (TdP) that can lead to syncope, cardiac arrest and sudden death. Episodes may be provoked by various stimuli depending on the type of the condition. A 25-year-old famele patient was hospitalized due to syncope that occurred immediately after her solo concert, first time in her life. The patient studied solo singing and after intensive preparations the first solo concert was organized. Electrocardiography (ECG) on admission registered frequent ventricular premature beats (VES), followed by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia--TdP that degenerated into ventricular fibrilation (VF). After immediate cardioversion magnesium and beta-blockers were administered. TdP was registered again several times preceded by VES. The corrected QT interval (QTc) was 516 msec. For secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death, a cardioverter defibrillator was implanted, and beta-blockers continued. After a 1-year follow-up there were no recurrent episodes of TdP, and measured QTc was reduced to 484 msec. Patients with syncope following intensive emotional stress should be evaluated for malignant arrhythmias in the context of LQTS.

  4. First episode of preschool wheeze requiring hospitalization: a prospective study on the chance of recurrence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Chantawarangul, Karaked; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada

    2017-09-17

    Although wheezing is very common in preschoolers, epidemiologic studies in Thailand are quite limited. The likelihood of having a second wheezing episode following the first attack remains unclearly established. This study aims to investigate the incidence of recurrent wheezing in preschool children presenting with first wheezing episode and identify the associated factors. The study is an observational prospective study conducted at the inpatient pediatric department. Patients admitted with first episode of wheezing were followed up as an outpatient approximately one week after hospital discharge and subsequently followed up by telephone 3-monthly with a structured questionnaire seeking information concerning recurrent wheezing, defined as having a second wheezing episode requiring bronchodilator within a 1-year period. The total of 97 patients, aged 6 months to 5 years, were recruited from June 2014 to November 2015. Thirty-five patients were excluded because of inaccessibility for telephone follow-up. Amongst the remaining 62 patients, twenty-eight (45.2%) had recurrent wheezing within one year. The mean lapse duration was 4.7 ± 3.7 months after the first episode. Having an allergic sensitization to aeroallergen was a risk factor for recurrent wheezing (OR 2.48, 95%CI 1.81-3.4). Although not statistically significant, having an allergic sensitization to food seems to be another related factor (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.75-3.18). The recurrent rate of wheezing was 45%, which was considerably significant. Allergic sensitization to aeroallergen might increase the risk. These patients should be followed up, especially within the first year after their first wheezing episode.

  5. Treatment for Syncope

    MedlinePlus

    ... When it comes to treatment, there is no "one size fits all" approach, making an accurate diagnosis very important. Treatment should address the underlying cause of syncope . Depending on the diagnosis, ... or controlled with one or more of the following therapies: Simple reassurance, ...

  6. [Syncope and occupational risk survey: the role of continuing education and multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Barbic, F; Angaroni, L; Orlandi, M; Costantino, G; Dipaola, E; Borleri, D; Borchini, R; D'Adda, F; Perego, F; Borella, M; Galli, A; Solbiati, M; Casazza, G; Furlan, R; Seghizzi, P

    2011-01-01

    Syncope is a common disorder characterized most of the times by a positive clinical outcome. However, it may turn to a life threatening event even for working colleagues and third party when occurring during an high risk job. We have recently found that, out of 670 patients admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) for syncope, about 50% were potential workers, being their age between 18 and 65 years. Also, we found that in this group of patients syncope recurrence was as high as 11% at 6 months. It is unknown how physicians address the problem of the occupational risk in patients suffering from syncope and how occupational aspects are taken into account in the clinical judgment before work readmission. One hundred eighty five doctors (149 occupational physicians, OP), participating in a work-shop on syncope, were asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their clinical experience and their attention to the occupational aspects in patients after syncope. Despite long lasting clinical experience, 41% of OP did not scrutinize syncope as a relevant symptom in their daily activity. 65% of the other specialists were used to address the occupational risk aspects in their syncope patients. A multidisciplinary approach involving continuing education on safety at work might reduce work accidents due to syncope relapse and promote a safe and suitable re-employment of patients with syncope. scrutinize syncope as a relevant symptom in their daily activity. 65% of the other specialists were used to address the occupational risk aspects in their syncope patients. A multidisciplinary approach involving continuing education on safety at work might reduce work accidents due to syncope relapse and promote a safe and suitable re-employment of patients with syncope.

  7. Neural correlates of working memory in first episode and recurrent depression: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Dilara; Dietsche, Bruno; Konrad, Carsten; Dannlowski, Udo; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

    2018-06-08

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) show deficits in working memory (WM) performance accompanied by bilateral fronto-parietal BOLD signal changes. It is unclear whether patients with a first depressive episode (FDE) exhibit the same signal changes as patients with recurrent depressive episodes (RDE). We investigated seventy-four MDD inpatients (48 RDE, 26 FDE) and 74 healthy control (HC) subjects performing an n-back WM task (0-back, 2-back, 3-back condition) in a 3T-fMRI. FMRI analyses revealed deviating BOLD signal in MDD in the thalamus (0-back vs. 2-back), the angular gyrus (0-back vs. 3-back), and the superior frontal gyrus (2-back vs. 3-back). Further effects were observed between RDE vs. FDE. Thus, RDE displayed differing neural activation in the middle frontal gyrus (2-back vs. 3-back), the inferior frontal gyrus, and the precentral gyrus (0-back vs. 2-back). In addition, both HC and FDE indicated a linear activation trend depending on task complexity. Although we failed to find behavioral differences between the groups, results suggest differing BOLD signal in fronto-parietal brain regions in MDD vs. HC, and in RDE vs. FDE. Moreover, both HC and FDE show similar trends in activation shapes. This indicates a link between levels of complexity-dependent activation in fronto-parietal brain regions and the stage of MDD. We therefore assume that load-dependent BOLD signal during WM is impaired in MDD, and that it is particularly affected in RDE. We also suspect neurobiological compensatory mechanisms of the reported brain regions in (working) memory functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Familial predisposition to vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Tabin, Mateusz; Paprocka, Magdalena; Mercik, Agnieszka; Misztal, Jowita; Nowak, Piotr; Zysko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    A handful of studies suggest a familial predisposition to vasovagal syncope (WS) but the scope of information available to date is poor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of vasovagal syncope and its familial occurrence in the young. The studied group consisted of 281 women and 111 men, aged 18-32 years. Forty-seven percent of the population had one brother or sister, and the mean number of individuals per family was 4.4 +/- 1.0. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions regarding syncopal history. Syncope was reported in 32.1% of the patients studied (36.7% in women vs. 20.7% in men; P < 0.05), 29.1% of mothers, 16.8% of fathers, 30.9% of sisters and 14.2% of brothers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive history regarding the syncope in the whole group of students was related to the female gender (OR 2.17; CI: 1.28-3.7), the history of a syncope in mother (OR 1.74; CI: 1.09-2.78) and the history of a syncope in father (OR 2.22; CI: 1.28-3.86; P < 0.001). A positive history of syncope in male relatives increases the risk of syncope in men and women, whereas a positive history of syncope in female relatives increases the risk of syncope in women only. Female gender independently of the family history increases the risk of syncope. The genetics of the vasovagal syncope could be polygenic but the mechanisms of a transmission remain unclear to date.

  9. [Neonatal sepsis caused by group B streptococci: atypical and recurrent disease episodes].

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Eva; Dekker, Sarah; van der Meer-Kappelle, Laura H; Noordzij, Jeroen G

    2013-01-01

    Both neonates of male twins born at 30 weeks and 3 days gestation presented with late-onset sepsis caused by an infection with group B streptococci (GBS), shortly after one another. Although the younger twin recovered with a standard regimen of 10 days penicillin G i.v., the older twin had three recurrent episodes with GBS positive blood cultures. Oropharyngeal, faecal, urine, liquor and breast milk cultures were GBS negative. Using echocardiography and a PET/CT scan, a persistent endovascular focus was discovered. We treated him with penicillin G i.v. for 4 weeks, after which he recovered completely. Another male neonate born at 26 weeks gestation presented with GBS sepsis and developed an erythematous swelling of the right mandibula within 12 hours. Ultrasound revealed parotitis, which is rare in neonates (3.8 per 10,000). Risk factors for parotitis include prematurity, low birth weight and dehydration (i.e., diuretic usage). Parotitis can be complicated by abscess formation.

  10. Heavy Smoking Is Associated With Lower Age at First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis and a Higher Risk of Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-08-01

    There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.

  11. Personality in remitted major depressive disorder with single and recurrent episodes assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    PubMed

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported increased harm avoidance (HA) assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, such findings may have been related with depression severity and number of depressive episodes. The aims of the present study were twofold: to examine TCI personality profile in remitted MDD (DSM-IV) patients and to compare TCI personality between MDD patients with single episode (SGL-MDD) and those with recurrent episodes (REC-MDD) in order to elucidate personality profile associated with recurrence. TCI was administered to 86 outpatients with remitted SGL-MDD (12 male and 17 female patients; mean age 43.2 ± 12.1 years) and REC-MDD (26 male and 31 female patients; 40.3 ± 11.6 years), and 529 healthy controls (225 men and 304 women; 43.4 ± 15.5 years), matched for age, sex and education years. Logistic regression analyses were performed in which single/recurrent episodes of depression were the dependent variable and age, sex, age of onset, family history of psychiatric disease and TCI scores were entered as possible predictors. The remitted MDD patients had significantly higher scores on HA (P < 0.001) and lower scores on self-directedness (P < 0.001), compared with the controls. HA (P = 0.03), its subscore, fatigability (P = 0.03), and family history of psychiatric disease were found to be positive predictors for recurrence. There are differences in personality profile between remitted MDD patients and controls, and between remitted REC-MDD and SGL-MDD patients, suggesting that they are trait markers. HA and fatigability might be useful to assess risk for recurrence of depression. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Analyzing recurrent events when the history of previous episodes is unknown or not taken into account: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Albert; Casanovas, Georgina; Alvarado, Sergio; Moriña, David

    Researchers in public health are often interested in examining the effect of several exposures on the incidence of a recurrent event. The aim of the present study is to assess how well the common-baseline hazard models perform to estimate the effect of multiple exposures on the hazard of presenting an episode of a recurrent event, in presence of event dependence and when the history of prior-episodes is unknown or is not taken into account. Through a comprehensive simulation study, using specific-baseline hazard models as the reference, we evaluate the performance of common-baseline hazard models by means of several criteria: bias, mean squared error, coverage, confidence intervals mean length and compliance with the assumption of proportional hazards. Results indicate that the bias worsen as event dependence increases, leading to a considerable overestimation of the exposure effect; coverage levels and compliance with the proportional hazards assumption are low or extremely low, worsening with increasing event dependence, effects to be estimated, and sample sizes. Common-baseline hazard models cannot be recommended when we analyse recurrent events in the presence of event dependence. It is important to have access to the history of prior-episodes per subject, it can permit to obtain better estimations of the effects of the exposures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Vulnerability for new episodes in recurrent major depressive disorder: protocol for the longitudinal DELTA-neuroimaging cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mocking, Roel J T; Figueroa, Caroline A; Rive, Maria M; Geugies, Hanneke; Servaas, Michelle N; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W J; Vaz, Frédéric M; Wichers, Marieke; van Straalen, Jan P; de Raedt, Rudi; Bockting, Claudi L H; Harmer, Catherine J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is widely prevalent and severely disabling, mainly due to its recurrent nature. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MDD-recurrence may help to identify high-risk patients and to improve the preventive treatment they need. MDD-recurrence has been considered from various levels of perspective including symptomatology, affective neuropsychology, brain circuitry and endocrinology/metabolism. However, MDD-recurrence understanding is limited, because these perspectives have been studied mainly in isolation, cross-sectionally in depressed patients. Therefore, we aim at improving MDD-recurrence understanding by studying these four selected perspectives in combination and prospectively during remission. Methods and analysis In a cohort design, we will include 60 remitted, unipolar, unmedicated, recurrent MDD-participants (35–65 years) with ≥2 MDD-episodes. At baseline, we will compare the MDD-participants with 40 matched controls. Subsequently, we will follow-up the MDD-participants for 2.5 years while monitoring recurrences. We will invite participants with a recurrence to repeat baseline measurements, together with matched remitted MDD-participants. Measurements include questionnaires, sad mood-induction, lifestyle/diet, 3 T structural (T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and MR-spectroscopy. fMRI focusses on resting state, reward/aversive-related learning and emotion regulation. With affective neuropsychological tasks we will test emotional processing. Moreover, we will assess endocrinology (salivary hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate) and metabolism (metabolomics including polyunsaturated fatty acids), and store blood for, for example, inflammation analyses, genomics and proteomics. Finally, we will perform repeated momentary daily assessments using experience sampling methods at baseline. We

  14. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Kemner, S M; Mesman, E; Nolen, W A; Eijckemans, M J C; Hillegers, M H J

    2015-01-01

    Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of life events on the onset and recurrence of mood episodes in bipolar offspring, as well as the effects of temperament, coping and parenting style on this association. Bipolar offspring (n = 108) were followed longitudinally from adolescence to adulthood. Mood disorders were assessed with: the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders; life events with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule; and psychological measures using the Utrecht Coping List, Temperament and Character Inventory and short-EMBU (memories of upbringing instrument). Anderson-Gill models (an extension of the Cox proportional hazard model) were utilized. Life events were associated with an increased risk for first and, although less pronounced, subsequent mood episodes. There was a large confounding effect for the number of previous mood episodes; findings suggest a possible kindling effect. Passive coping style increased the risk of mood episode onset and recurrent episodes, but also altered the effect of life events on mood disorders. Harm avoidance temperament was associated with mood episode recurrence. Life events are especially a risk factor in the onset of mood disorders, though less so in recurrent episodes. Psychological features (passive coping and harm-avoidant temperament) contribute to the risk of an episode occurring, and also have a moderating effect on the association between life events and mood episodes. These findings create potential early intervention strategies for bipolar offspring.

  15. Microneurographic evidence of sudden sympathetic withdrawal in carotid sinus syncope; treatment with ergotamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, F.; Biaggioni, I.

    1994-01-01

    A proportion of patients with carotid sinus syncope (CSS) remain symptomatic even after pacemaker implantation because of persistence of a vasodepressor component. We report a patient with CSS whose syncopal episodes could be reproduced by carotid sinus massage and were due to profound hypotension associated with sudden sympathetic withdrawal, based on direct measurements of sympathetic nerve traffic. A double-blind trial with inhaled ergotamine provided significant symptomatic relief.

  16. Functional Analysis of Episodic Self-Injury Correlated with Recurrent Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    A functional analysis examined the consequences that maintained episodic self-injury and the relationship between those consequences and otitis media for a 26-month-old child with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that self-injury occurred only during periods of otitis media and may have served as a sensory escape function. (Author/CR)

  17. Self-blame-Selective Hyperconnectivity Between Anterior Temporal and Subgenual Cortices and Prediction of Recurrent Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Lythe, Karen E; Moll, Jorge; Gethin, Jennifer A; Workman, Clifford I; Green, Sophie; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Deakin, John F W; Zahn, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Patients with remitted major depressive disorder (MDD) were previously found to display abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity (fMRI) between the right superior anterior temporal lobe (RSATL) and the subgenual cingulate cortex and adjacent septal region (SCSR) when experiencing self-blaming emotions relative to emotions related to blaming others (eg, "indignation or anger toward others"). This finding provided the first neural signature of biases toward overgeneralized self-blaming emotions (eg, "feeling guilty for everything"), known to have a key role in cognitive vulnerability to MDD. It is unknown whether this neural signature predicts risk of recurrence, a crucial step in establishing its potential as a prognostic biomarker, which is urgently needed for stratification into pathophysiologically more homogeneous subgroups and for novel treatments. To use fMRI in remitted MDD at baseline to test the hypothesis that RSATL-SCSR connectivity for self-blaming relative to other-blaming emotions predicts subsequent recurrence of depressive episodes. A prospective cohort study from June 16, 2011, to October 10, 2014, in a clinical research facility completed by 75 psychotropic medication-free patients with remitted MDD and no relevant comorbidity. In total, 31 remained in stable remission, and 25 developed a recurring episode over the 14 months of clinical follow-up and were included in the primary analysis. Thirty-nine control participants with no personal or family history of MDD were recruited for further comparison. Between-group difference (recurring vs stable MDD) in RSATL connectivity, with an a priori SCSR region of interest for self-blaming vs other-blaming emotions. We corroborated our hypothesis that during the experience of self-blaming vs other-blaming emotions, RSATL-SCSR connectivity predicted risk of subsequent recurrence. The recurring MDD group showed higher connectivity than the stable MDD group (familywise error-corrected P

  18. 77-year-old female with syncope.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Mahmoud A; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-15

    A 77-year-old female was referred for evaluation of an episode of syncope while eating breakfast. There was no history of fall, syncope, prodrome, dyspnoea, chest discomfort or palpitations. Medical history was notable for hyperlipidaemia and treated hypertension. Blood pressure was 140/90 mm Hg, pulse 85  beats per minute (BPM). No murmurs were present on cardiac examination. ECG revealed normal sinus rhythm with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (see online supplementary figure S1). Holter monitor demonstrated rare premature ventricular complexes (<1% of beats), without heart block or ventricular tachycardia. Transthoracic echocardiogram is shown in figure 1. Which of the following is the explanation for the flow indicated by the yellow arrow? Aortic stenosisCoronary artery flow, indicative of coronary fistulaHypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical pouchHypertensive heart diseaseMitral stenosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Cardiac pacing for severe childhood neurally mediated syncope with reflex anoxic seizures

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, K; Wilson, N; Hewitt, J; Norrie, J; Stephenson, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether permanent cardiac pacing could prevent syncope and seizures in children with frequent severe neurally mediated syncope, and if so whether dual chamber pacing was superior to single chamber ventricular pacing.
METHODS—Dual chamber pacemakers were implanted into 12 children (eight male, four female) aged 2-14 years (median 2.8 years) with frequent episodes of reflex anoxic seizures and a recorded prolonged asystole during an attack. The pacemaker was programmed to sensing only (ODO), single chamber ventricular pacing with hysteresis (VVI), and dual chamber pacing with rate drop response (DDD) for four month periods, with each patient allocated to one of the six possible sequences of these modes, according to chronological order of pacemaker implantation. The parent and patient were blinded to the pacemaker mode and asked to record all episodes of syncope or presyncope ("near miss" events). The doctor analysing the results was blinded to the patient and pacemaker mode.
RESULTS—One patient was withdrawn from the study after the pacemaker was removed because of infection. In the remaining children, both dual chamber and single chamber pacing significantly reduced the number of syncopal episodes compared with sensing only (p = 0.0078 for both). VVI was as effective as DDD for preventing syncope, but DDD was superior to VVI in reducing near miss events (p = 0.016).
CONCLUSIONS—Permanent pacing is an effective treatment for children with severe neurally mediated syncope and reflex anoxic seizures. VVI is as effective as DDD in preventing syncope and seizures, but DDD is superior in preventing overall symptoms.


Keywords: syncope; reflex anoxic seizures; pacing; paediatric cardiology PMID:10573501

  20. Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: influence of mood state and recurrence of episodes.

    PubMed

    Nery, Fabiano G; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark A; Monkul, E Serap; Najt, Pablo; Matsuo, Koji; Cloninger, C Robert; Soares, Jair C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personality traits between major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and healthy comparison subjects (HC) and examine if personality traits in patients are associated with specific clinical characteristics of the disorder. Sixty MDD patients (45 depressed, 15 remitted) were compared to 60 HC using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Analysis of covariance, with age and gender as covariates, was used to compare the mean Temperament and Character Inventory scores among the subject groups. Depressed MDD patients scored significantly higher than HC on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower on reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Remitted MDD patients scored significantly lower than HC only on self-directedness. Comorbidity with anxiety disorder had a main effect only on harm avoidance. Harm avoidance was positively correlated with depression intensity and with number of episodes. Self-directedness had an inverse correlation with depression intensity. MDD patients present a different personality profile from HC, and these differences are influenced by mood state and comorbid anxiety disorders. When considering patients who have been in remission for some time, the differences pertain to few personality dimensions. Cumulated number of depressive episodes may result in increased harm avoidance. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Extreme Cognitions in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Personality Disorder Characteristics and Risk for Episode Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Weiss, Rachel B.; Ong, Mian-Li; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are often characterized by cognitive inflexibility and affective extremities, including “extreme” or polarized thoughts and beliefs, which have been shown to predict a more severe course of illness. However, little research has evaluated factors that may be associated with extreme cognitions, such as personality disorders, which are often characterized by extreme, inflexible beliefs and also are associated with poor illness course in BSDs. The present study evaluated associations between BSDs, personality disorder characteristics, and extreme cognitions (polarized responses made on measures of attributional style and dysfunctional attitudes), as well as links between extreme cognitions and the occurrence of mood episodes, among euthymic young adults with BSDs (n = 83) and demographically-matched healthy controls (n = 89) followed prospectively for three years. The relationship between personality disorder characteristics and negative and positive extreme cognitions was stronger among BSD participants than among healthy controls, even after statistically accounting for general cognitive styles. Furthermore, extreme negative cognitions predicted the prospective onset of major depressive and hypomanic episodes. These results suggest that extreme cognitive styles are most common in individuals with BSDs and personality disorder characteristics, and they provide further evidence that extreme negative cognitions may confer risk for mood dysregulation. PMID:25645172

  2. [Approach to syncope in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Okan

    2017-09-01

    Elderly syncope currently accounts a substantial number of emergency admissions. Unfortunately, in elderly syncope we are faced with major difficulties while providing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. It is quite necessary to distinguish between syncope and non-syncopal causes which create further difficulties during diagnostic work-up because of co-morbid conditions and poly-pharmacy used by the elderly. The present article aims to describe causes of elderly syncope and its differential diagnosis as well as tips and tricks during diagnostic process.

  3. Isometric arm counter-pressure maneuvers to abort impending vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Brignole, Michele; Croci, Francesco; Menozzi, Carlo; Solano, Alberto; Donateo, Paolo; Oddone, Daniele; Puggioni, Enrico; Lolli, Gino

    2002-12-04

    We hypothesized that isometric arm exercises were able to increase blood pressure (BP) during the phase of impending vasovagal syncope and allow the patient to avoid losing consciousness. Hypotension is always present during the prodromal phase of vasovagal syncope. We evaluated the effect of handgrip (HG) and arm-tensing in 19 patients affected by tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. The study consisted of an acute single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over tilt-table efficacy study and a clinical follow-up feasibility study. In the acute tilt study, HG was administered for 2 min, starting at the time of onset of symptoms of impending syncope. In the active arm, HG caused an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 92 +/- 10 mm Hg to 105 +/- 38 mm Hg, whereas in the placebo arm SBP decreased from 91 +/- 11 mm Hg to 73 +/- 21 mm Hg (p = 0.008). Heart rate behavior was similar in the two arms. In the active arm, 63% of patients became asymptomatic, versus 11% in the control arm (p = 0.02); conversely, only 5% of patients developed syncope, versus 47% in the control arm (p = 0.01). The patients were trained to self-administer arm-tensing treatment as soon as symptoms of impending syncope occurred. During 9 +/- 3 months of follow-up, the treatment was actually performed in 95/97 episodes of impending syncope (98%) and was successful in 94/95 (99%). No patients suffered injury or other adverse morbidity related to the relapses. Isometric arm contraction is able to abort impending vasovagal syncope by increasing systemic BP. Arm counter-pressure maneuvers can be proposed as a new, feasible, safe, and well accepted first-line treatment for vasovagal syncope.

  4. Etiological diagnosis, prognostic significance and role of electrophysiological study in patients with Brugada ECG and syncope.

    PubMed

    Giustetto, Carla; Cerrato, Natascia; Ruffino, Enrico; Gribaudo, Elena; Scrocco, Chiara; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Bianchi, Francesca; Bortnik, Miriam; Rossetti, Guido; Carvalho, Paula; Riccardi, Riccardo; Castagno, Davide; Anselmino, Matteo; Bergamasco, Laura; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-08-15

    Syncope is considered a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias in Brugada patients. Distinguishing a benign syncope from one due to ventricular arrhythmias is often difficult, unless an ECG is recorded during the episode. Aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of syncopal episodes in a large population of Brugada patients and evaluate the role of electrophysiological study (EPS) and the prognosis in the different subgroups. One hundred ninety-five Brugada patients with history of syncope were considered. Syncope were classified as neurally mediated (group 1, 61%) or unexplained (group 2, 39%) on the basis of personal and family history, clinical features, triggers, situations, associated signs, concomitant therapy. Most patients underwent EPS; they received ICD or implantable loop-recorder on the basis of the result of investigations and physician's judgment. At 62±45months of mean follow-up, group 1 showed a significantly lower incidence of arrhythmic events (2%) as compared to group 2 (9%, p<0.001). Group 2 patients with positive EPS showed the highest risk of arrhythmic events (27%). No ventricular events occurred in subjects with negative EPS. Etiological definition of syncope in Brugada patients is important, as it allows identifying two groups with different outcome. Patients with unexplained syncope and ventricular fibrillation induced at EPS have the highest risk of arrhythmic events. Patients presenting with neurally mediated syncope showed a prognosis similar to that of the asymptomatic and the role of EPS in this group is unproven. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reninoma presenting as cardiac syncope

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Shahid I; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Khan, Khursheed A; Alai, Mohd Sultan; Shera, Altaf Hussain; Ahangar, Abdul G; Khan, Yasir Bashir; Nayeem-ul-Hassan; Irshad, Ifat

    2011-01-01

    Reninoma, a renin-secreting tumor of the juxta-glomerular cells of the kidney, is a rare but surgically treatable cause of secondary hypertension in children. We report a case of reninoma presenting as cardiac syncope with long QTc on electrocardiogram due to hypokalemia. PMID:21677812

  6. Syncope: what is the trigger?

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, R

    2003-02-01

    Although a syncopal attack is frequently preceded by prodromal symptoms, sometimes the onset can be so abrupt that there is no warning at all. The switch in autonomic responses responsible for such an attack is quite rapid and dramatic, but the trigger for this remains one of the unresolved mysteries in cardiovascular physiology.

  7. Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular variability interactions investigated through conditional joint transfer entropy in subjects prone to postural syncope.

    PubMed

    Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Mazzucco, Claudio Enrico; Rossato, Gianluca; Tonon, Davide; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    A model-based conditional transfer entropy approach was exploited to quantify the information transfer in cerebrovascular (CBV) and cardiovascular (CV) systems in subjects prone to develop postural syncope. Spontaneous beat-to-beat variations of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCBFV) derived from a transcranial Doppler device, heart period (HP) derived from surface electrocardiogram, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) derived from finger plethysmographic arterial pressure device were monitored at rest in supine position (REST) and during 60° head-up tilt (TILT) in 13 individuals (age mean  ±  standard deviation: 28  ±  9 years, min-max range: 18-44 years, 5 males) with a history of recurrent episodes of syncope (SYNC) and in 13 age- and gender-matched controls (NonSYNC). Respiration (R) obtained from a thoracic belt was acquired as well and considered as a conditioning signal in transfer entropy assessment. Synchronous sequences of 250 consecutive MCBFV, HP, MAP, SAP and R values were utilized to estimate the information genuinely transferred from MAP to MCBFV (i.e. disambiguated from R influences) and vice versa. Analogous indexes were computed from SAP to HP and vice versa. Traditional time and frequency domain analyses were carried out as well. SYNC subjects showed an increased genuine information transfer from MAP to MCBFV during TILT, while they did not exhibit the expected rise of the genuine information transfer from SAP to HP. We conclude that SYNC individuals featured an impaired cerebral autoregulation visible during TILT and were unable to activate cardiac baroreflex to cope with the postural challenge. Traditional frequency domain markers based on transfer function modulus, phase and coherence functions were less powerful or less specific in typifying the CBV and CV controls of SYNC individuals. Conditional transfer entropy approach can identify the impairment of CBV and CV controls and provide

  8. Rates and predictors of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder after the first lifetime episode of depression--a prospective 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bukh, J D; Andersen, P K; Kessing, L V

    2016-04-01

    In depression, non-remission, recurrence of depressive episodes after remission and conversion to bipolar disorder are crucial determinants of poor outcome. The present study aimed to determine the cumulative incidences and clinical predictors of these long-term outcomes after the first lifetime episode of depression. A total of 301 in- or out-patients aged 18-70 years with a validated diagnosis of a single depressive episode were assessed from 2005 to 2007. At 5 years of follow-up, 262 patients were reassessed by means of the life chart method and diagnostic interviews from 2011 to 2013. Cumulative incidences and the influence of clinical variables on the rates of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder, respectively, were estimated by survival analysis techniques. Within 5 years, 83.3% obtained remission, 31.5% experienced recurrence of depression and 8.6% converted to bipolar disorder (6.3% within the first 2 years). Non-remission increased with younger age, co-morbid anxiety and suicidal ideations. Recurrence increased with severity and treatment resistance of the first depression, and conversion to bipolar disorder with treatment resistance, a family history of affective disorder and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse. The identified clinical characteristics of the first lifetime episode of depression should guide patients and clinicians for long-term individualized tailored treatment.

  9. Association Between Baseline Blood Pressures, Heart Rates, and Vasovagal Syncope in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Himanshu; Gupta, Ruchi; Hassan, Romana; Kern, Jeffrey H

    2018-01-28

    Vasovagal syncope is the most common cause of syncope in children and adults, accounting for 50-66% of unexplained syncope. There are no studies establishing the relationship between syncope, baseline heart rate, and blood pressure. To identify a possible association between baseline blood pressure and heart rate with syncope. We conducted a questionnaire-based chart review study. A questionnaire was distributed to the guardian of children between eight and 18 years of age who attended the Pediatric Ambulatory Care Clinic at Flushing Hospital Medical Center. Based on the responses in the questionnaire, subjects were classified either as cases (positive for syncope) or controls (negative for syncope). Children and adolescents with neurological, cardiac, or any medical condition that can cause syncopal episodes were excluded from the study. Data collected from the questionnaire included age, gender, ethnicity, medical history, family history of syncope, and the amount of salt used in food. Anthropometric and vital signs for the current visit (height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heart rate) and vital signs from two previous visits were collected from electronic medical records. The data was analyzed using t-test and chi-square test with Microsoft Excel software (Microsoft Office Standard, v. 14, Microsoft; 2010); p<0.05 was considered significant. A total of 197 subjects were included in this study. There were 18 cases and 179 controls. Of the cases, (4/18) 22.2% were more likely to have a systolic blood pressure lower than the 10th percentile for their gender, age, and height as compared with controls (7/179) 3.9%, p = 0.003. The subjects with a history of syncope were more likely to add salt to their food (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences between cases and controls for age, gender, ethnicity between cases and controls for systolic blood pressure. No significant difference was observed between the heart rates of cases and controls. Children

  10. Time series and recurrence interval models to predict the vulnerability of streams to episodic acidification in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deviney, Frank A.; Rice, Karen C.; Hornberger, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Acid rain affects headwater streams by temporarily reducing the acid‐neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the water, a process termed episodic acidification. The increase in acidic components in stream water can have deleterious effects on the aquatic biota. Although acidic deposition is uniform across Shenandoah National Park (SNP) in north central Virginia, the stream water quality response during rain events varies substantially. This response is a function of the catchment's underlying geology and topography. Geologic and topographic data for SNP's 231 catchments are readily available; however, long‐term measurements (tens of years) of ANC and accompanying discharge are not and would be prohibitively expensive to collect. Transfer function time series models were developed to predict hourly ANC from discharge for five SNP catchments with long‐term water‐quality and discharge records. Hourly ANC predictions over short time periods (≤1 week) were averaged, and distributions of the recurrence intervals of annual water‐year minimum ANC values were model‐simulated for periods of 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours. The distributions were extrapolated to the rest of the SNP catchments on the basis of catchment geology and topography. On the basis of the models, large numbers of SNP streams have 6‐ to 168‐hour periods of low‐ANC values, which may stress resident fish populations. Smaller catchments are more vulnerable to episodic acidification than larger catchments underlain by the same bedrock. Catchments with similar topography and size are more vulnerable if underlain by less basaltic/carbonate bedrock. Many catchments are predicted to have successive years of low‐ANC values potentially sufficient to extirpate some species.

  11. Syncope in the young athlete: Assessment of prognosis in subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Ribeiro, Carlos; Freitas, João

    2016-01-01

    Syncope is a common but concerning event in young athletes. Although mostly due to benign reflex causes, syncope may be arrhythmic and precede sudden cardiac death. Efforts must therefore be made to distinguish post-exertional syncope from syncope during exercise, which can be an ominous sign of a possible underlying heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Prevention requires cooperation between physician and athlete, in order to identify individuals at risk and to protect them from sudden death. Solving this diagnostic dilemma may lead to recommendations for athletes to be cleared to play or disqualified from competitive sports, and presents challenging and controversial decisions to the health care provider that can prove difficult to implement. Although exercise contributes to physical and psychological well-being, there are insufficient data to indicate whether an athlete with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy diagnosed after a syncopal episode can safely resume competitive physical activity. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on syncope in young athletes and its relationship to individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in order to enable accurate assessment of prognosis and the possibility of resuming competitive sports. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [Neurohumoral mechanisms for vasovagal syncopes. Part II].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is defined as a reflex loss of consciousness related to reaction to various stimuli as orthostatic stress, pain or emotions connected with loss of muscle postural tone. In the second part of the paper the authors describe the possible role of the particular neurohumoral factors and autonomic nervous system in the development of vasovagal syncope. The studies on the involvement of neurohumoral factors in vasovagal syncope can play a key role in a more precise evaluation of affected patients, long term prophylaxis against syncopal events and may contribute to development of more reliable diagnostic tests.

  13. Heart rate variability during head-up tilt test in patients with syncope of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gielerak, Grzegorz; Makowski, Karol; Kramarz, Elzbieta; Cholewa, Marian; Dłuzniewska, Ewa; Roszczyk, Anna; Bogaj, Agnieszka

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for vaso-vagal reaction reveals a close relationship between neurocardiogenic syncope and the preceding abnormalities of autonomic nervous system (ANS). Therefore, the interest in the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) for detecting and establishing therapy in patients with syncope due to vaso-vagal mechanism is not surprising. To assess ANS changes during tilt testing in patients with syncope of unknown origin. Forty patients (18 males, mean age 34.8+/-15.8 years) with a history of at least two syncopal episodes during the last 6 months and 24 healthy controls underwent tilt testing. Spectral HRV analysis was performed from ECG recorded 5 min before tilting (period A), 5 min after tilting (period B), and 5 min before syncope (or 20-25 min of tilt test when syncope did not occur) (period C). Tilt test was positive in 23 (58%) patients; 12 (30%) had mixed response, 10 (25%) - vasodepressive, and 1 (3%) - cardioinhibitory reaction. The mean time from tilt to syncope was 22.3 minutes. One (4%) control subject developed syncope. In all groups a decrease of LF and HF power, as well as an increase in the LF/HF ratio in response to tilting were observed. The LF/HF values were significantly different between patients with mixed vaso-vagal reaction and controls (1.9 vs 4.2; p=0.04). In the C-B periods the highest decrease in the HF spectra was found in patients with mixed reaction and was significantly greater than in other patients or controls. Also, patients with mixed reaction had the highest increase in LF values which was significantly more pronounced than in patients with vasodepressive reaction (10139.3 vs 466.9; p=0.003). As a result, the change in LF/HF ratio was positive in patients with mixed reaction, controls and patients with negative result of tilt test, and negative - in patients with vaso-depressive syncope, reaching statistical significance between patients with mixed and vaso

  14. Community-acquired urinary tract infection in hospitalized children: etiology and antimicrobial resistance. A comparison between first episode and recurrent infection.

    PubMed

    Sakran, Waheeb; Smolkin, Vladislav; Odetalla, Ahmad; Halevy, Raphael; Koren, Ariel

    2015-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in infants and children, and Escherichia coli is the leading pathogen. The aims of this study were to compare first episode of UTI with recurrent infection, reveal organisms that cause UTI, uropathogen resistance, and presence of bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The first-UTI group included 456 children. E coli was the leading pathogen (80.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 1.5%. The uropathogens were resistant to gentamicin (3.41%) and cefuroxime (5.71%), and highly resistant to cefamezin (37.39%). The recurrent-infection group included 106 children. E coli was also the leading pathogen, but 7.5% of the isolates were P aeruginosa (P = .002 compared with first-episode group); 6.6% were ESBL-producing bacteria compared with 1.1% in the first-episode group (P = .002). E coli is the leading pathogen in both groups. P aeruginosa and ESBL-producing bacteria were more common in the recurrent infection group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Massive right atrial myxoma presenting with syncope.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dipin; Molina, Ezequiel; Palma, Jon; Macha, Mahender

    2006-07-01

    A 65-year-old man presented to the emergency room following an episode of syncope. His vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable. A chest X-ray and an ECG were also normal. He was admitted to the hospital for further work-up. A computed tomography scan of his brain did not reveal any evidence of stroke, hemorrhage, or mass effect. A transesophageal echocardiogram, however, revealed tricuspid regurgitation and a right atrial mass with finger-like projections, which appeared to originate from the tricuspid valve. Left heart catheterization was performed, showing a 99% proximal right coronary artery stenosis. The patient was scheduled to undergo atrial mass resection, tricuspid valve annuloplasty, and coronary bypass. During the procedure, a large myxoma was found to be adherent to the right side of the atrial septum, adjacent to the fossa ovalis. The mass was friable and was attached to the endocardium by a pedicle. Following resection of the atrial mass and tricuspid valve annuloplasty, a single saphenous vein graft bypass to the right coronary artery was performed. The patient's postoperative course was unremarkable and he was discharged home on postoperative day 6.

  16. Managing the military patient with syncope.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain T; Cox, A T; Mollan, I A; Boos, C J

    2015-09-01

    Syncope is a relatively common occurrence in military populations. It is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to global cerebral hypoperfusion, characterised by a rapid onset, short duration and a spontaneous and complete recovery. While the symptom of syncope is easily elicited, discovering the mechanism can be more problematic and may require a plethora of diagnostic tests. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence pertaining to the classification, investigation and management of syncope, from a military perspective. Emphasis is placed on assisting primary healthcare professionals in the assessment and management of syncope, in the UK and on operations, while providing explicit guidance on risk. The occupational limitations required in safely managing patients with syncope are stressed along with the potential long-term limitations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Predictors of Hospitalization in Patients with Syncope Assisted in Specialized Cardiology Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leonardo Marques; Dutra, João Pedro Passos; Mantovani, Augusto; de Lima, Gustavo Glotz; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    Background Risk stratification of a syncopal episode is necessary to better differentiate patients needing hospitalization of those who can be safely sent home from the emergency department. Currently there are no strict guidelines from our Brazilian medical societies to guide the cardiologist that evaluate patients in an emergency setting. Objectives To analyze the criteria adopted for defining the need for hospitalization and compare them with the predictors of high risk for adverse outcome defined by the OESIL score that is already validated in the medical literature for assessing syncope. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with syncope during emergency department evaluation at our institution in the year 2011. Results Of the 46,476 emergency visits made in that year, 216 were due to syncope. Of the 216 patients analyzed, 39% were hospitalized. The variables associated with the need of hospital admission were - having health care insurance, previous known cardiovascular disease, no history of prior stroke, previous syncope and abnormal electrocardiograms during the presentation. Patients classified in OESIL scores of 0-1 had a greater chance of emergency discharge; 2-3 scores showed greater association with the need of hospitalization. A score ≥ 2 OESIL provided an odds ratio 7.8 times higher for hospitalization compared to score 0 (p <0.001, 95% CI:4,03-15,11). In approximately 39% no etiological cause for syncope was found and in 18% cardiac cause was identified. Conclusions Factors such as cardiovascular disease, prior history of syncope, health insurance, no previous stroke and abnormal electrocardiograms, were the criteria used by doctors to indicate hospital admission. There was a good correlation between the clinical judgment and the OESIL criteria for high risk described in literature. PMID:24145390

  18. Fall about laughing: a case of laughter syncope.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    Laughter syncope is an unusual but recognized form of situational syncope likely to have a similar pathophysiological origin to tussive syncope. There are few case reports of this syndrome in the literature. Patients, as in this case, might present initially to the ED, and laughter should be considered among the numerous differentials for syncope.

  19. Understanding and Managing Neurally Mediated Syncope in the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Nancy L.

    2005-01-01

    Syncope and near-syncopal symptoms are common events in the adolescent population. Syncope is defined as the transient loss of postural tone and consciousness with spontaneous recovery. Although most syncopal events are benign, they can generate extreme anxiety in the adolescent and his or her family. The reoccurrence of these events can have a…

  20. Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jamjoom, A A B; Nikkar-Esfahani, A; Fitzgerald, J E F

    2009-03-10

    Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%). A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%), p < 0.05. Twenty-two percent of those affected were graduate entry medical course students with the remaining 78% undergraduate. Mean age was 23-years (range 20 - 45). Of the 77 reactors, 44 (57%) reported an intention to pursue a surgical career. Of this group, 7 (9%) reported being discouraged by syncopal episodes in the operating theatre. The most prevalent contributory factors were reported as hot temperature (n = 61, 79%), prolonged standing (n = 56, 73%), wearing a surgical mask (n = 36, 47%) and the smell of diathermy (n = 18, 23%). The most frequently reported measures that students found helpful in reducing the occurrence of syncopal episodes were eating and drinking prior to attending theatre (n = 47, 61%), and moving their legs whilst standing (n = 14, 18%). Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the detrimental effect of this on the career

  1. Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, AAB; Nikkar-Esfahani, A; Fitzgerald, JEF

    2009-01-01

    Background Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. Methods All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%). A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%), p < 0.05. Twenty-two percent of those affected were graduate entry medical course students with the remaining 78% undergraduate. Mean age was 23-years (range 20 – 45). Of the 77 reactors, 44 (57%) reported an intention to pursue a surgical career. Of this group, 7 (9%) reported being discouraged by syncopal episodes in the operating theatre. The most prevalent contributory factors were reported as hot temperature (n = 61, 79%), prolonged standing (n = 56, 73%), wearing a surgical mask (n = 36, 47%) and the smell of diathermy (n = 18, 23%). The most frequently reported measures that students found helpful in reducing the occurrence of syncopal episodes were eating and drinking prior to attending theatre (n = 47, 61%), and moving their legs whilst standing (n = 14, 18%). Conclusion Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the

  2. Impact of syncope on quality of life: validation of a measure in patients undergoing tilt testing.

    PubMed

    Nave-Leal, Elisabete; Oliveira, Mário; Pais-Ribeiro, José; Santos, Sofia; Oliveira, Eunice; Alves, Teresa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent syncope has a significant impact on quality of life. The development of measurement scales to assess this impact that are easy to use in clinical settings is crucial. The objective of the present study is a preliminary validation of the Impact of Syncope on Quality of Life questionnaire for the Portuguese population. The instrument underwent a process of translation, validation, analysis of cultural appropriateness and cognitive debriefing. A population of 39 patients with a history of recurrent syncope (>1 year) who underwent tilt testing, aged 52.1 ± 16.4 years (21-83), 43.5% male, most in active employment (n=18) or retired (n=13), constituted a convenience sample. The resulting Portuguese version is similar to the original, with 12 items in a single aggregate score, and underwent statistical validation, with assessment of reliability, validity and stability over time. With regard to reliability, the internal consistency of the scale is 0.9. Assessment of convergent and discriminant validity showed statistically significant results (p<0.01). Regarding stability over time, a test-retest of this instrument at six months after tilt testing with 22 patients of the sample who had not undergone any clinical intervention found no statistically significant changes in quality of life. The results indicate that this instrument is of value for assessing quality of life in patients with recurrent syncope in Portugal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Syncope among U.S. Air Force basic military trainees, August 2012-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Cropper, Thomas L; Federinko, Susan P

    2013-11-01

    Syncope is a common event with many possible etiologies, ranging from benign to severe. Syncopal episodes of any origin, however, may result in traumatic injury due to postural collapse. Based on the prevalence of internal and external stressors during training, basic military trainees may be at increased risk for syncope. Between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013, there were 112 unique individuals who experienced syncopal or pre-syncopal events among basic military trainees at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas, the only basic training site in the U.S. Air Force. The overall rate was 19.6 cases per 1,000 person-years (18.4 and 36.1 per 1,000 person-years in males and females, respectively). Based upon the findings of electronic chart review of the 112 cases, a majority of events occurred either during or immediately after exercise (n=38) or during a blood draw, immunization, or laceration repair (n=22). The most common etiologies were judged to be neurocardiogenic (n=54) and orthostatic hypotension (n=40), and two cases were attributed to cardiovascular disease. These findings support current preventive measures, including anemia screening during medical in-processing, an emphasis on hydration throughout training, and a padded floor in the trainee vaccination bay.

  4. Syncope

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  5. Syncope

    MedlinePlus

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  6. The Cost-Effective Evaluation of Syncope.

    PubMed

    Angus, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem that carries a high socioeconomic burden. A structured approach in the evaluation of syncope with special emphasis on a detailed history, comprehensive physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs, and an electrocardiogram, proves to be the most cost-effective approach. The need for additional testing and hospital admission should be based on the results of the initial evaluation and use of risk-stratification tools that help identify those syncope patients at highest risk for poor outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lower Choline-Containing Metabolites/Creatine (Cr) Rise and Failure to Sustain NAA/Cr Levels in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with Depressive Episode Recurrence under Maintenance Therapy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Henigsberg, Neven; Šarac, Helena; Radoš, Marko; Radoš, Milan; Ozretić, David; Foro, Tamara; Erdeljić Turk, Viktorija; Hrabač, Pero; Bajs Janović, Maja; Rak, Benedict; Kalember, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) parameters at the start of the index episode recovery phase and at recurrence in patients with recurrent depression who were treated with prolonged maintenance therapy. 1H-MRS parameters were analyzed in 48 patients with recurrent depression who required maintenance therapy with antidepressant medication prescribed by a psychiatrist and who continued with the same antidepressant during the maintenance phase, either to recurrence of depression, completion of the 10-year observation period, or the start of the withdrawal phase (tapering-off antidepressant). N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing metabolites (Cho), creatine (Cr), and glutamine/glutamate were measured at the start of the recovery phase and 6 months later. Recurrent depressive episodes occurred in 20 patients. These individuals had a smaller increase in Cho/Cr after the beginning of the recovery phase compared to the non-recurrent patient group and also exhibited a decreased NAA/Cr ratio. Sustainable NAA and increased Cho levels at the onset of the recovery phase of the index episode are early markers of antidepressant effectiveness associated with a lower risk of major depressive disorder recurrence. The NAA and Cho changes in the non-recurrent group may be attributable to increased brain resilience, contrary to the transient temporal effect observed in subjects who experienced a depressive episode.

  8. [Therapeutic approach to patients with neurocardiogenic syncope].

    PubMed

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Halawa, Bogumił

    2004-11-01

    Vasovagal syncopes are the most common cause of loss of consciousness and if they occur frequently they contribute to the marked decrease of the quality of life and need treatment. One of important problems is the possibility of injury during the syncope. In older patients it can lead to the fractures of extremities, complications of which could be life-threatening. Another problem is the reaction of the surrounding people trying to help the unconscious by keeping him in the vertical position. It promotes hypotonia and could cause damage of organs such as brain or heart. The authors review the current literature on the management of patients with vasovagal syncope. It seems that the conservative approaches preferring patient reassurance and training methods are successful in syncope prevention and help avoid the side effects and complications of pharmacological therapy or pacemaker implantation. These last two methods should be reserved for patients with the most severe symptoms of the disease.

  9. Syncope: risk stratification and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Suzanne Y G; Hoek, Amber E; Mollink, Susan M; Huff, J Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Syncope is a common occurrence in the emergency department, accounting for approximately 1% to 3% of presentations. Syncope is best defined as a brief loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous and complete recovery. The spectrum of etiologies ranges from benign to life threatening, and a structured approach to evaluating these patients is key to providing care that is thorough, yet cost-effective. This issue reviews the most relevant evidence for managing and risk stratifying the syncope patient, beginning with a focused history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and tailored diagnostic testing. Several risk stratification decision rules are compared for performance in various scenarios, including how age and associated comorbidities may predict short-term and long-term adverse events. An algorithm for structured, evidence-based care of the syncope patient is included to ensure that patients requiring hospitalization are managed appropriately and those with benign causes are discharged safely.

  10. A single-center randomized controlled trial observing the safety and efficacy of modified step-up graded Valsalva manoeuver in patients with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Wang, Lan; Li, Lun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yijun; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Li, Huanhuan; Gu, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies, especially the physical maneuvers, are viewed as important and promising strategies for reducing syncope recurrences in vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients. We observed the efficacy of a modified Valsalva maneuver (MVM) in VVS patients. 72 VVS patients with syncope history and positive head-up tilt table testing (HUTT) results were randomly divided into conventional treatment group (NVM group, n = 36) and conventional treatment plus standard MVM for 30 days group (MVM group, n = 36). Incidence of recurrent syncope after 12 months (6.5% vs. 41.2%, P<0.01) and rate of positive HUTT after 30 days (9.7% vs.79.4%, P<0.01) were significantly lower in MVM group than in NVM group. HRV results showed that low frequency (LF), LF/ high frequency (HF), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and standard deviation of all 5-min average NN intervals (SDANN) values were significantly lower in the NVM and MVM groups than in the control group at baseline. After 30 days treatment, LF, LF/HF, SDNN, SDANN values were significantly higher compared to baseline in MVM group. Results of Cox proportional hazard model showed that higher SDNN and SDANN values at 30 days after intervention were protective factors, while positive HUTT at 30 days after intervention was risk factor for recurrent syncope. Our results indicate that 30 days MVM intervention could effectively reduce the incidence of recurrent syncope up to 12 months in VVS patients, possibly through improving sympathetic function of VVS patients.

  11. Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3,188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association

  12. Pacing as a treatment for reflex-mediated (vasovagal, situational, or carotid sinus hypersensitivity) syncope: A systematic review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3,188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association

  13. Pacing as a Treatment for Reflex-Mediated (Vasovagal, Situational, or Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity) Syncope: A Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Patients With Syncope: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society.

    PubMed

    Varosy, Paul D; Chen, Lin Y; Miller, Amy L; Noseworthy, Peter A; Slotwiner, David J; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    To determine, using systematic review of the biomedical literature, whether pacing reduces risk of recurrent syncope and relevant clinical outcomes among adult patients with reflex-mediated syncope. MEDLINE (through PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (through October 7, 2015) were searched for randomized trials and observational studies examining pacing and syncope, and the bibliographies of known systematic reviews were also examined. Studies were rejected for poor-quality study methods and for the lack of the population, intervention, comparator, or outcome(s) of interest. Of 3188 citations reviewed, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, including a total of 676 patients. These included 9 randomized trials and 1 observational study. Of the 10 studies, 4 addressed patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and the remaining 6 addressed vasovagal syncope. Among the 6 open-label (unblinded) studies, we found that pacing was associated with a 70% reduction in recurrent syncope (relative risk [RR]: 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.60). When the 2 analyzable studies with double-blinded methodology were considered separately, there was no clear benefit (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.25-2.1), but confidence intervals were wide. The strongest evidence was from the randomized, double-blinded ISSUE-3 (Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology) trial, which demonstrated a benefit of pacing among patients with recurrent syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. There are limited data with substantive evidence of outcome ascertainment bias, and only 2 studies with a double-blinded study design have been conducted. The evidence does not support the use of pacing for reflex-mediated syncope beyond patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope and asystole documented by implantable loop recorder. © 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, the American Heart Association

  14. Distinct Facial Processing Related Negative Cognitive Bias in First-Episode and Recurrent Major Depression: Evidence from the N170 ERP Component

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xingqu; Wei, Dunhong; Liu, Guangxiong; Deng, Zihe; Yang, Laiqi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Background States of depression are associated with increased sensitivity to negative events. For this novel study, we have assessed the relationship between the number of depressive episodes and the dysfunctional processing of emotional facial expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information while event-related brain potentials were recorded in 45 patients with first episode major depression (F-MD), 40 patients with recurrent major depression (R-MD), and 46 healthy controls (HC). Compared with the HC group, F-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces; R-MD patients had lower N170 amplitudes when identifying happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes when identifying sad faces. F-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy, neutral, and sad faces relative to the HC group, and R-MD patients had longer N170 latencies when identifying happy and neutral faces, but shorter N170 latencies when identifying sad faces compared with F-MD patients. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the depressive severity score for identification of happy faces in R-MD patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the depressive severity score for identification of sad faces in F-MD and R-MD patients. Additionally, the deficits of N170 amplitude for sad faces positively correlated with the number of depressive episodes in R-MD patients. Conclusion/Significance These results provide new evidence that having more recurrent depressive episodes and serious depressive states are likely to aggravate the already abnormal processing of emotional facial expressions in patients with depression. Moreover, it further suggests that the impaired processing as indexed by N170 amplitude for positive face identification may be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting propagation of

  15. Water administration and the risk of syncope and pre-syncope during blood donation: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Karin; Lam, Jameson; Bruhn, Roberta; Custer, Brian; Murphy, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood centers rely heavily upon adolescent donors to meet blood demand, but pre-syncope and syncope are more frequent in younger donors. Studies have suggested administration of water prior to donation may reduce syncope and/or pre-syncope in this group. Study design and methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to establish the effect of pre-loading with 500ml of water on the rate of syncope and pre-syncope in adolescent donors. School collection sites in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were randomized to receive water or not. Incidence of syncope and pre-syncope was compared between randomization groups using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 2,464 study participants, 1,337 received water and 1,127 did not; groups differed slightly by gender and race. Syncope or pre-syncope was seen in 23 (1.7%) of the treatment and 18 (1.6%) of the control arm subjects. After adjusting for race, gender, age and donation history, there was no difference in outcome between the water versus no water arms (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 (95% CI 0.42–1.53). Black donors had 7-fold lower odds of syncope or pre-syncope than their white counterparts (adjusted OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04–0.47). Conclusion Preloading adolescent donors with 500ml of water did not have a major effect in reducing syncope and pre-syncope in South African adolescent donors. Our adolescent donors had a lower overall syncope and pre-syncope rate than similar populations in the USA, limiting the statistical power of the study. We confirmed much lower rates of syncope and pre-syncope among young Black donors. PMID:22486209

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: is DD genotype helpful in predicting syncope risk?

    PubMed

    Ozben, Beste; Altun, Ibrahim; Sabri Hancer, Veysel; Bilge, Ahmet Kaya; Tanrikulu, Azra Meryem; Diz-Kucukkaya, Reyhan; Fak, Ali Serdar; Yilmaz, Ercument; Adalet, Kamil

    2008-12-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heritable disorder characterised by fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocytes and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects myocardial ACE levels. DD genotype favours myocardial fibrosis and is associated with malignant ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to explore ACE gene polymorphism in ARVD patients. Twenty-nine patients with ARVD and 24 controls were included. All ARVD patients had documented sustained ventricular tachycardia. Thirteen patients had syncopal episodes. Six patients were resuscitated from sudden cardiac death. ACE gene polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction technique. There was no significant difference in DD genotype frequency between ARVD patients and controls (44.8% vs. 45.8%, p=0.94). However, DD genotype frequency was significantly higher in ARVD patients with syncopal episodes compared to those without syncope (69.2% vs. 25.0%, p=0.017, odds ratio:6.750, 95% confidence interval: 1.318-34.565). DD genotype was detected in higher frequency also in patients with a family history of sudden cardiac death (66.7% vs. 39.1%,p=0.36). High prevalence of DD genotype in ARVD patients with syncope suggests that ACE I/D polymorphism might be useful in identifying high-risk patients for syncope.

  17. "Cardio-Neuromodulation" With a Multielectrode Irrigated Catheter: A Potential New Approach for Patients With Cardio-Inhibitory Syncope.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Syncope is frequently neurally mediated and can seriously affect quality of life. Different ablation strategies have been successfully performed. These approaches have not gained wide acceptance and are quite extensive and complex, exposing patients to significant risks. This article reports the case of a 16-year-old girl who was severely affected by frequent and prolonged episodes of syncope and was treated by tailored ablation of the anterior right ganglionated plexus with a multielectrode irrigated catheter. She had fainted >30 times in the 5 years preceding treatment, experiencing approximately 10 severe episodes of syncope in the previous 12 months. After 3 minutes of ablation, the P-P interval was reduced by >400 milliseconds. Syncope disappeared and the patient has remained completely asymptomatic over a follow-up of 22 months. The "reset" basal P-P interval has remained unchanged (follow-up electrocardiogram at 16 months). At 6 months, there was no residual heart rate activity <50 bpm. On 24-hour rhythm registration, P-P intervals ≥1,000 milliseconds (corresponding to a heart rate of ≤60 bpm) were reduced by >16,000 beats. We believe that this case report is original for several reasons: the unusual clinical presentation; the unique structure targeted; the very limited ablation, implying much lower risks for the patient; the anatomical approach; and the different endpoint. This new "cardio-neuromodulation" approach could be useful for the treatment of patients with neurally mediated syncope. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Budget impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes who experience severe recurrent hypoglycemic episodes in Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marga; Elías, Isabel; Álvarez, María; Quirós, Carmen; Conget, Ignacio

    Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective. Budget impact was based on a retrospective, observational study evaluating the efficacy of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus conducted at Hospital Clínic i Universitari in Barcelona, where one of the main indications for switching to CSII were recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes. The mean number of annual episodes was 1.33 in the two years prior to CSII start and 0.08 in the last two years of follow up (p=0.003). Costs of treatment and major hypoglycemic events over a four-year period were considered. Costs were taken from different Spanish data sources and expressed in € of 2016. Treatment with CSII increased costs by €9,509 per patient as compared to multiple daily insulin injections (€11,902-€2,393). Cost associated to severe hypoglycemic events decreased by €19,330 per patient treated with CSIII (€1,371-€20,701). Results suggest mean total savings of €9,821 per patient during the four-year study period. The higher costs associated to CSII therapy may be totally offset by the severe hypoglycemic events prevented. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope.

    PubMed

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H; van Lieshout, J J

    2014-04-01

    This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2 the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established.

  20. Diagnosis of Epilepsy and Related Episodic Disorders.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    This review identifies the diverse and variable clinical presentations associated with epilepsy that may create challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy has recently been redefined as a disease characterized by one or more seizures with a relatively high recurrence risk (ie, 60% or greater likelihood). The implication of this definition for therapy is that antiepileptic drug therapy may be initiated following a first seizure in certain situations.EEG remains the most commonly used study in the evaluation of people with epilepsy. Routine EEG may assist in diagnosis, classification of seizure type(s), identification of treatment, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Video-EEG monitoring permits seizure classification, assessment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and evaluation of candidacy for epilepsy surgery. MRI is pivotal in elucidating the etiology of the seizure disorder and in suggesting the localization of seizure onset. This article reviews the new International League Against Epilepsy practical clinical definition for epilepsy and the differential diagnosis of other physiologic paroxysmal spells, including syncope, parasomnias, transient ischemic attacks, and migraine, as well as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. The initial investigational approaches to new-onset epilepsy are considered, including neuroimaging and neurophysiologic investigations with interictal and ictal video-EEG. Neurologists should maintain a high index of suspicion for epilepsy when children or adults present with a single paroxysmal spell or recurrent episodic events.

  1. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Adhin, Malti R; Jitan, Jeetendra Kumar; Bretas, Gustavo; Vreden, Stephen GS

    2018-01-01

    Background Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ). However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5%) were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5%) were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16). Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362), 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485), and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274–0.615) for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), and 0.138 (95% CI 0.054–0.327) for group 14D, respectively. When adjusted for possible confounders, differences in recurrent parasitemia remained significant between the two regimens in Cox regression analysis. Conclusion More than 30% of the patients receiving shorter treatment course had recurrent parasitemia, suggesting that the

  2. Carotid Space Mass Proximal to Vagus Nerve Causing Asystole and Syncope.

    PubMed

    Leviter, Julie; Wiznia, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of vagal nerve rootlets, whether surgical or through mass effect of a neoplasm, can result in asystole and hypotension, accompanied by ST depression and right bundle branch block. There are few case reports of a neoplasm causing these effects, and this case describes a patient with such a mass presenting with syncopal episodes. A 43-year-old man with a past medical history of HIV, bipolar disorder, and epilepsy was admitted to the neurology service for a video electroencephalogram (vEEG) to characterize syncopal episodes that were felt to be epileptic in origin. During the study, he experienced symptoms of his typical aura, which correlated with a transient symptomatic high degree AV block on telemetry, and an absence of epileptic findings on vEEG. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a mass in the left posterior carotid space at the skull base. The patient underwent permanent dual chamber MRI-compatible pacemaker placement for his heart block. His syncopal episodes resolved, but presyncopal symptoms persisted. We discuss the presentation and treatment of vagal neoplasms.

  3. [Clonazepam in therapy of neurogenic syncopal states].

    PubMed

    Musaeva, Z A

    2001-01-01

    27 patients with frequent neurogenic syncopes (NS) resistant to conventional therapy were treated with clonazepam. The average age of the patients was 29.8 +/- 11.6 years. There were 1-2 syncopes in a month. Both before and after the treatment an active orthostatic test was performed with ECG registration and following analysis of variability of the cardiac rhythm. Clonazepam was administered in a dose of 2-2.5 mg/day during 8-9 weeks. Clinical improvement in the form of a lack of syncopes was observed in 20 patients (74%); 3 patients (10%) had isolated lipothymic states; 2 patients discontinued the treatment because of side-effects (dizziness). The results of the examination of 23 patients 6 months after clonazepam therapy testified the stability of the therapeutic effect.

  4. Financial impact of adopting implantable loop recorder diagnostic for unexplained syncope compared with conventional diagnostic pathway in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Providência, Rui; Candeias, Rui; Morais, Carlos; Reis, Hipólito; Elvas, Luís; Sanfins, Vitor; Farinha, Sara; Eggington, Simon; Tsintzos, Stelios

    2014-05-06

    To estimate the short- and long-term financial impact of early referral for implantable loop recorder diagnostic (ILR) versus conventional diagnostic pathway (CDP) in the management of unexplained syncope (US) in the Portuguese National Health Service (PNHS). A Markov model was developed to estimate the expected number of hospital admissions due to US and its respective financial impact in patients implanted with ILR versus CDP. The average cost of a syncope episode admission was estimated based on Portuguese cost data and landmark papers. The financial impact of ILR adoption was estimated for a total of 197 patients with US, based on the number of syncope admissions per year in the PNHS. Sensitivity analysis was performed to take into account the effect of uncertainty in the input parameters (hazard ratio of death; number of syncope events per year; probabilities and unit costs of each diagnostic test; probability of trauma and yield of diagnosis) over three-year and lifetime horizons. The average cost of a syncope event was estimated to be between 1,760€ and 2,800€. Over a lifetime horizon, the total discounted costs of hospital admissions and syncope diagnosis for the entire cohort were 23% lower amongst patients in the ILR group compared with the CDP group (1,204,621€ for ILR, versus 1,571,332€ for CDP). The utilization of ILR leads to an earlier diagnosis and lower number of syncope hospital admissions and investigations, thus allowing significant cost offsets in the Portuguese setting. The result is robust to changes in the input parameter values, and cost savings become more pronounced over time.

  5. Does Deep Bradycardia Increase the Risk of Arrhythmias and Syncope in Endurance Athletes?

    PubMed

    Matelot, D; Schnell, F; Khodor, N; Endjah, N; Kervio, G; Carrault, G; Thillaye du Boullay, N; Carre, F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether endurance athletes who exhibit deep bradycardia are more prone to arrhythmias and reflex syncope than their non-bradycardic peers. 46 healthy men (ages 19-35) were divided into 3 groups based on whether they were sedentary (SED,<2 h/week) or endurance trained (ET,>6 h/week), and non-bradycardic (NB, resting heart rate (HR)≥60 bpm) or bradycardic (B, resting HR<50 bpm). Resting HR was lower in ETB vs. ETNB and SED (43.8±3.1, 61.3±3.3, 66.1±5.9 bpm, respectively; p<0.001). Thus, 16 SED, 13 ETNB and 17 ETB underwent resting echocardiography, maximal exercise test, tilt test (TT) and 24 h-Holter ECG. Subjects were followed-up during 4.7±1.1 years for training, syncope and cardiac events. Our results showed that incidence of arrhythmias and hypotensive susceptibility did not differ between groups. During follow-up, no episode of syncope or near-syncope was reported. However, cardio-inhibitory syncope occurrence tended to be higher in ETB. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter index was increased in ETB vs. ETNB and was correlated with resting HR (r=- 0.64; p<0.001). As a result, athletes with deep bradycardia do not present more arrhythmias and more hypotensive susceptibility than their non-bradycardic peers. Cardiac enlargement and autonomic alteration both seem to be involved in an athlete's bradycardia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Weaver, James C.; Bunch, Ted E.

    2017-01-01

    Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments. The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen “muck” deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada. In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls. In view of this new evidence, the mucks and their well-preserved but highly disrupted and damaged vertebrate and botanical remains are reinterpreted in part as blast deposits that resulted from several episodes of airbursts and ground/ice impacts within the northern hemisphere during Late Pleistocene time (~46–11 ka B.P.). Such a scenario might be explained by encounters with cometary debris in Earth-crossing orbits (Taurid Complex) that was generated by fragmentation of a large short-period comet within the inner Solar System.

  7. External prolonged electrocardiogram monitoring in unexplained syncope and palpitations: results of the SYNARR-Flash study.

    PubMed

    Locati, E T; Moya, A; Oliveira, M; Tanner, H; Willems, R; Lunati, M; Brignole, M

    2016-08-01

    SYNARR-Flash study (Monitoring of SYNcopes and/or sustained palpitations of suspected ARRhythmic origin) is an international, multicentre, observational, prospective trial designed to evaluate the role of external 4-week electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in clinical work-up of unexplained syncope and/or sustained palpitations of suspected arrhythmic origin. Consecutive patients were enrolled within 1 month after unexplained syncope or palpitations (index event) after being discharged from emergency room or hospitalization without a conclusive diagnosis. A 4-week ECG monitoring was obtained by external high-capacity loop recorder (SpiderFlash-T(®), Sorin) storing patient-activated and auto-triggered tracings. Diagnostic monitorings included (i) conclusive events with reoccurrence of syncope or palpitation with concomitant ECG recording (with/without arrhythmias) and (ii) events with asymptomatic predefined significant arrhythmias (sustained supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia, advanced atrio-ventricular block, sinus bradycardia <30 b.p.m., pauses >6 s). SYNARR-Flash study enrolled 395 patients (57.7% females, 56.9 ± 18.7 years, 28.1% with syncope, and 71.9% with palpitations) from 10 European centres. For syncope, the 4-week diagnostic yield was 24.5%, and predictors of diagnostic events were early start of recording (0-15 vs. >15 days after index event) (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.3-29.6, P = 0.021) and previous history of supraventricular arrhythmias (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.7, P = 0.018). For palpitations, the 4-week diagnostic yield was 71.6% and predictors of diagnostic events were history of recurrent palpitations (P < 0.001) and early start of recording (P = 0.001). The 4-week external ECG monitoring can be considered as first-line tool in the diagnostic work-up of syncope and palpitation. Early recorder use, history of supraventricular arrhythmia, and frequent previous events increased the likelihood of diagnostic events during the 4-week external ECG

  8. G-suited for prevention of syncope in patients with vasovagal syncope: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rasmeehirun, Prayuth; Krittayaphong, Rungroj

    2014-03-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) represents by far the most common cause of syncope as it is diagnosed in around 50% of all patients that come to an emergency department. Although VVS is not fatal, it can cause an injury. Even serious injuries are not common, but there are reports of serious injuries of up to 5%. There are no current studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of any treatment. Past studies found that an Anti-Gravity suit (G-suit) can increase blood pressure and has been reported to prevent orthostatic hypotension effectively in patients with diabetes. It is possible that the G-suit can prevent VVS. In the present study, the authors assessed the efficacy of G-suit for vasovagal syncope prevention. In this open-label, randomized controlled study, we used the Italian tilt protocol, namely 60 degree passive tilting followed by 0.4 mg nitroglycerin challenge when the passive phase fails to induce syncope. If test was positive, then patient was enrolled. Tilt table test was repeated to compare G-suited and no G-suited to assess efficacy of G-suit for vasovagal syncope prevention. 10 patients were enrolled. There is no difference between the control group and an experimental group. In this study there is no cardio-inhibition vasovagal syncope. Positive tilt table test occurred in 50% of the patients receiving G-suited and 100% in control group (p 0.133). G-suit is unable to prevent syncope in patients with positive tilt table test but the result is not statistically significant. However, the number of patients may be too small.

  9. Syncope Best Practices: A Syncope Clinical Practice Guideline to Improve Quality.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Heather M; Sachdeva, Ritu; Mahle, William T; McCracken, Courtney E; Kelleman, Michael; McConnell, Michael; Fischbach, Peter S; Cardis, Brian M; Campbell, Robert M; Oster, Matthew E

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether implementation of a standardized clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the evaluation of syncope would decrease practice variability and resource utilization. A retrospective review of medical records of patients presenting to our practice for outpatient evaluation of syncope before and after implementation of the CPG. The guideline included elements of history, physical exam, electrocardiogram, and "red flags" for further testing. Outpatient pediatric cardiology offices of a large pediatric cardiology practice. All new patients between 3 and 21 years old, who presented to cardiology clinic with a chief complaint of syncope. The CPG for the evaluation of pediatric syncope was presented to the providers. Resource utilization was determined by the tests ordered by individual physicians before and after initiation of the CPG. Patient final diagnoses were recorded and the medical records were subsequently reviewed to determine if any patients, who presented again to the system, were ultimately diagnosed with cardiac disease. Of the 1496 patients with an initial visit for syncope, there was no significant difference in the diagnosis of cardiac disease before or after initiation of the CPG: (0.6% vs. 0.4%, P = .55). Electrocardiography provides the highest yield in the evaluation of pediatric syncope. Despite high compliance (86.9%), there were no overall changes in costs ($346.31 vs. $348.53, P = .85) or in resource utilization. There was, however, a decrease in the variability of ordering of echocardiograms among physicians, particularly among those at the extremes of utilization. Although the CPG did not decrease already low costs, it did decrease the wide variability in echo utilization. Evaluation beyond detailed history, physical exam, and electrocardiography provides no additional benefit in the evaluations of pediatric patients presenting with syncope. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Case report of precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma presenting as syncope and cardiac mass in a nonimmunocompromised child.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Barry; Rao, Sudha; Shah, Binita

    2007-08-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy, 10-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with a syncopal episode. In the emergency department, the patient was diagnosed with a right atrial mass, later identified as a precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL). Most causes of syncope in children are not life threatening. In most cases, it indicates a predisposition to vasovagal episodes. Lymphomas account for approximately 7% of malignancies among children younger than 20 years, are more common in white males and immunocompromised patients, and are predominantly tumors of T-cell origin. Children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually present with extranodal disease, most frequently involving the abdomen (31%), mediastinum (26%), or head and neck (29%). Our patient was unique in that he was a nonimmunocompromised, black boy, presenting with syncope in the setting of a large atrial mass identified as a precursor B-cell LL. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of precursor B-cell LL presenting as syncope and a cardiac mass.

  11. Panic symptoms in transient loss of consciousness: Frequency and diagnostic value in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, epilepsy and syncope.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, G H; Jamnadas-Khoda, J; Broadhurst, M; Grünewald, R A; Howell, S J; Koepp, M; Parry, S W; Sisodiya, S M; Walker, M C; Reuber, M

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that ictal panic symptoms are common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This study investigates the frequency of panic symptoms in PNES and if panic symptoms, just before or during episodes, can help distinguish PNES from the other common causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), syncope and epilepsy. Patients with secure diagnoses of PNES (n=98), epilepsy (n=95) and syncope (n=100) were identified using clinical databases from three United Kingdom hospitals. Patients self-reported the frequency with which they experienced seven symptoms of panic disorder in association with their episodes. A composite panic symptom score was calculated on the basis of the frequency of symptoms. 8.2% of patients with PNES reported "never" experiencing any of the seven panic symptoms in their episodes of TLOC. Patients with PNES reported more frequent panic symptoms in their attacks than those with epilepsy (p<0.001) or syncope (p<0.001), however, patients with PNES were more likely "rarely" or "never" to report five of the seven-ictal panic symptoms than "frequently" or "always" (45-69% versus 13-29%). A receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the composite panic symptom score distinguished patients with PNES from the other groups (sensitivity 71.1%, specificity 71.2%), but not epilepsy from syncope. Patients with PNES report TLOC associated panic symptoms more commonly than those with epilepsy or syncope. Although panic symptoms are reported infrequently by most patients with PNES, a composite symptom score may contribute to the differentiation between PNES and the other two common causes of TLOC. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implantable loop recorders for assessment of syncope: increased diagnostic yield and less adverse outcomes with the latest generation devices.

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, A; Bocconcelli, P; De Santo, T; Ghidini Ottonelli, A; Giuli, S; Massa, R; Svetlich, C; Tarsi, G; Corbucci, G; Tronconi, F; Vitale, E

    2013-08-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic yield of implantable loop recorders (ILR) of two successive generations for the assessment of syncope. Data on patients who had undergone ILR implantation for unexplained syncope in four Italian public hospitals were retrospectively acquired from the Medtronic Clinical Service database. After implantation, routine follow-up examinations were performed every 90 days, while urgent examinations were carried out in the event of syncope recurrence. The following findings were regarded as diagnostic: ECG documentation of a syncope recurrence; documentation of any of the arrhythmias listed by the current guidelines as diagnostic findings even if asymptomatic. Between November 2002 and March 2010, 107 patients received an ILR (40 Medtronic Reveal® Plus; 67 Medtronic Reveal® DX/XT) and underwent at least one follow-up examination. Diagnoses were made in 7 (17.5%) and 24 (35.8%) (P=0.043) patients, with a median time of 228 and 65 days, respectively. Three (42.9%) and 21 (87.5%) (P=0.029) diagnoses were based on automatically detected events, while adverse outcomes occurred in 6 and in 1 (P=0.01) patients, respectively. Our results show that the new-generation device offer a higher diagnostic yield, mainly as a result of its improved automatic detection function, and is associated with fewer adverse outcomes.

  13. [Neurohumoral mechanisms for vasovagal syncopes. Part I].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is defined as a reflex loss of consciousness related to reaction to various stimuli as orthostatic stress, pain or emotions connected with loss of muscle postural tone. The aetiology of this disorder is still unknown. The imbalance between the parts of autonomic nervous system and other homeostasis-related systems as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, peptides as endothelin, neuropeptide Y, vasopressin, adrenomedullin and cAMP, adenosine and AMP can play an important role in the development of vasovagal syncope. In the first part of the paper the authors describe the mechanisms involved in the development of vasovagal reaction, pathophysiology of the head-up tilt test and the role of autonomic nervous system.

  14. [Sick or made sick? Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, colitis, arthralgia and hair loss... a systemic disease or iatrogenic?].

    PubMed

    Woitzek, Katja; Dusemund, Frank; Müller, Beat

    2010-12-01

    Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, especially in the oral cavity, represent a high psychological and painful burden for the patient. If there in addition are symptoms of arthralgia and/or colitis, an autoimmune disease with vasculitis, particularly a Morbus Behçet has to be considered as a possible differential diagnosis. The therapy therefore would be an immunosuppressive one. Also a wide immunologic diagnostic process has to be started. Furthermore, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease has to be excluded by colonoscopic biopsy. An infectious etiology of the symptoms (viral/bacterial/parasitic) should be investigated by microbiological and laboratory tests. A thrush or a herpes-infection caused by immunosuppression (toxic or due to illness) has to be considered as a further differential diagnosis. Also a precise medical and drug history is very important because of possible toxic adverse effects. Until confirmation of a final diagnosis, only a symptomatic analgetic or antifungal or antiviral therapy in case of a positive thrush or herpes culture respectively should be initiated with respect to the very different kinds of treatment of the diseases included in the differential diagnosis.

  15. [Recurrent retrieval of the core episode referred to as the onset of schizophrenia--psychopathological study on the autobiographical memory of the onset of the illness].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsue; Kato, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we explore the onset of psychotic episodes in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia have sometimes reported specific life-events at the period of onset. For example: "It started on my 22nd birthday. From that day onward, my life was colored with extremes of happiness and tragedies", or "It was when I was playing with a cat in the park of S temple that I realized suddenly that my 'I'-ness had completely changed." In each case, patients referred to a specific event as a critical moment when the meaning of selfness and the surrounding world had changed. Interestingly, these moments were reported repeatedly throughout the history of their illnesses. We termed these clinical phenomena "Recurrent retrieval of the core episode referred to as the onset of schizophrenia" and investigated their psychopathologic implication. The autobiographical memory of nine schizophrenic patients with "Recurrent retrieval of the core episode referred to as the onset of schizophrenia" was investigated. Four representative cases are described in detail. Samples of subjective statements were collected from medical records and analyzed. 1) Form and content of the statement: Patients clearly referred to a specific moment in their life. They usually reported that their image of self or the world had completely changed. The content of their reports were always about the same theme. 2) Chronological pattern of the repetition: Although the reported life event occurred just before onset, the reminiscence usually occurred not only at the beginning of the refractory period but also at the beginning of the recovery period. Patients did not report such events when they were stable. In the refractory period, distinct symptoms of schizophrenia were observed after the reminiscence. In the recovery period, the reminiscence was accompanied by minor physical symptoms, such as fever elevation or gastrointestinal dysfunction. 3) Subjective characteristics of repetitive reminiscence: In the

  16. Worsening of symptoms before presentation with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Robert S; Sheldon, Aaron G; Serletis, Anna; Connolly, Stuart J; Morillo, Carlos A; Klingenheben, Thomas; Krahn, Andrew D; Koshman, Mary-Lou; Ritchie, Debbie

    2007-09-01

    Much of the natural history of vasovagal syncope is unknown. We determined whether patients presenting for care have had a recently worsened syncope frequency. We compared 208 subjects in the referral-based Prevention of Syncope Trial (POST) and 122 subjects who fainted > or =1 in a community survey study. Their mean ages and gender proportions were similar. The POST population had a higher median lifetime syncope frequency (1.16 vs 0.12 spells/year, P < 0.0001) and more subjects began fainting at age > or =35 years (26% vs 6%, P < 0.0001). In POST, the median frequency of syncopal spells in the preceding year was higher than in all previous years (3 vs 0.57, P < 0.0001). POST subjects presented sooner after their first spell (median 11.0 vs 16.8 years, P = 0.0002), and after their last spell (median 0.3 vs 7.4 years, P < 0.0001). POST subjects > or =35 years old had a shorter history than similar community-survey subjects (2.8 vs 14.9 y, P < 0.0001) and presented earlier after their first syncopal spell than POST subjects with a younger onset of syncope (median 2.8 vs 14.7 y, P < 0.0001), despite having fewer faints (median 6 vs 10, P = 0.0002). Many syncope patients present for care after a recent worsening of their frequency of syncope.

  17. Syncope management unit: evolution of the concept and practice implementation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Win K; Traub, Stephen J; Decker, Wyatt W

    2013-01-01

    Syncope, a clinical syndrome, has many potential causes. The prognosis of a patient experiencing syncope varies from benign outcome to increased risk of mortality or sudden death, determined by the etiology of syncope and the presence of underlying disease. Because a definitive diagnosis often cannot be established immediately, hospital admission is frequently recommended as the "default" approach to ensure patient's safety and an expedited evaluation. Hospital care is costly while no studies have shown that clinical outcomes are improved by the in-patient practice approach. The syncope unit is an evolving practice model based on the hypothesis that a multidisciplinary team of physicians and allied staff with expertise in syncope management, working together and equipped with standard clinical tools could improve clinical outcomes. Preliminary data have demonstrated that a specialized syncope unit can improve diagnosis in a timely manner, reduce hospital admission and decrease the use of unnecessary diagnostic tests. In this review, models of syncope units in the emergency department, hospital and outpatient clinics from different practices in different countries are discussed. Similarities and differences of these syncope units are compared. Outcomes and endpoints from these studies are summarized. Developing a syncope unit with a standardized protocol applicable to most practice settings would be an ultimate goal for clinicians and investigators who have interest, expertise, and commitment to improve care for this large patient population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Integral Care Guide for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with a Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder: Part III: Treatment of Resistant Depression and Psychotic Depression, Occupational Therapy and Day Hospital Treatment].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia Bohórquez; Valencia, Jenny García; Guarín, Maritza Rodríguez; Ángel, Juliana Rodríguez; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Pedraza, Ricardo Sánchez; Díaz, Sergio Mario Castro; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María

    2012-12-01

    This article presents recommendations based on the evidence gathered to answer a series of clinical questions concerning the depressive episode and the recurrent depressive disorder. Emphasis was given to general treatment issues of resistant depression and psychotic depression, occupational therapy and day hospital treatment so as to grant diagnosed adult patients the health care parameters based on the best and more updated evidence available and achieve minimum quality standards. A practical clinical guide was elaborated according to standards of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection. Recommendation from NICE90 and CANMAT guides were adopted and updated so as to answer the questions posed while de novo questions were developed. Recommendations 23-25 corresponding to the management of depression are presented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. A single-center randomized controlled trial observing the safety and efficacy of modified step-up graded Valsalva manoeuver in patients with vasovagal syncope

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yijun; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Li, Huanhuan

    2018-01-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies, especially the physical maneuvers, are viewed as important and promising strategies for reducing syncope recurrences in vasovagal syncope (VVS) patients. We observed the efficacy of a modified Valsalva maneuver (MVM) in VVS patients. 72 VVS patients with syncope history and positive head-up tilt table testing (HUTT) results were randomly divided into conventional treatment group (NVM group, n = 36) and conventional treatment plus standard MVM for 30 days group (MVM group, n = 36). Incidence of recurrent syncope after 12 months (6.5% vs. 41.2%, P<0.01) and rate of positive HUTT after 30 days (9.7% vs.79.4%, P<0.01) were significantly lower in MVM group than in NVM group. HRV results showed that low frequency (LF), LF/ high frequency (HF), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and standard deviation of all 5-min average NN intervals (SDANN) values were significantly lower in the NVM and MVM groups than in the control group at baseline. After 30 days treatment, LF, LF/HF, SDNN, SDANN values were significantly higher compared to baseline in MVM group. Results of Cox proportional hazard model showed that higher SDNN and SDANN values at 30 days after intervention were protective factors, while positive HUTT at 30 days after intervention was risk factor for recurrent syncope. Our results indicate that 30 days MVM intervention could effectively reduce the incidence of recurrent syncope up to 12 months in VVS patients, possibly through improving sympathetic function of VVS patients. PMID:29381726

  20. What factors influence parents' perception of the quality of life of children and adolescents with neurocardiogenic syncope?

    PubMed

    Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; Fiorilli, Caterina; Placidi, Silvia; Vallone, Roberta; Drago, Fabrizio; Gentile, Simonetta

    2016-05-17

    Health-related quality of life, which can be investigated using self-reports or parental reports, could help healthcare providers understand the subjective perception of well-being of children suffering from recurrent syncopal episodes. Quality of life is not only a measure of health but is also a reflection of patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations of health. This study assessed: 1) the consistency and agreement between pediatric patients' self-reports and parents' proxy-reports of their child's quality of life; 2) whether this patient-parent agreement is dependent on additional demographic and clinical or distress factors; 3) whether the parents' psychological distress influences children's and parents' responses to questionnaires on quality of life. One hundred and twenty-five Italian children aged 6-18 years old (Mean age 12.75, SD 2.73, 48 % female) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory with self-reports and parent-proxy reports, the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18. Patients' and parents' scores on quality of life were analyzed via an intra-class correlation coefficient, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plot. Child-rated quality of life was lower than parent-rated quality of life. However, there were no statistically significant differences between pediatric patients' self-reports and their parents' proxy-reports of on quality of life. Clinically significant patient-parent variation in pediatric health-related quality of life was observed. Differences in patient-parent proxy Pediatric Quality of Life inventory Total Scale Score scores were significantly associated with patient age. Concerning parents' proxy-ratings of their children's quality of life on the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, parental stress was found to be negatively associated with their perceptions of their child's psychological quality

  1. Recurrent vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anna M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginitis (VV) is one of the most commonly encountered problems by a gynecologist. Many women frequently self-treat with over-the-counter medications, and may present to their health-care provider after a treatment failure. Vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis may occur as discreet or recurrent episodes, and have been associated with significant treatment cost and morbidity. We present an update on diagnostic capabilities and treatment modalities that address recurrent and refractory episodes of VV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rationale for the Assessment of Metoprolol in the Prevention of Vasovagal Syncope in Aging Subjects Trial (POST5).

    PubMed

    Raj, Satish R; Faris, Peter D; Semeniuk, Lisa; Manns, Braden; Krahn, Andrew D; Morillo, Carlos A; Benditt, David G; Sheldon, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a common problem associated with a poor quality of life, which improves when syncope frequency is reduced. Effective pharmacological therapies for VVS are lacking. Metoprolol is a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist that is ineffective in younger patients, but may benefit older (≥40 years) VVS patients. Given the limited therapeutic options, a placebo-controlled clinical trial of metoprolol for the prevention of VVS in older patients is needed. The POST5 is a multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled study of metoprolol in the prevention of VVS in patients ≥40 years old. The primary endpoint is the time to first recurrence of syncope. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive metoprolol 25 to 100 mg BID or matching placebo, and followed up for 1 year. Secondary end points include syncope frequency, presyncope, quality of life, and cost analysis. Primary analysis will be intention to treat, with a secondary on-treatment analysis. A sample size of 222, split equally between the groups achieves 85% power to detect a hazard rate of 0.3561 when the event rates are 50% and 30% in the placebo and metoprolol arms. Allowing for 10% dropout, we propose to enroll 248 patients. This study will be the first adequately powered trial to determine whether metoprolol is effective in preventing VVS in patients ≥40 years. If effective, metoprolol may become the first line pharmacological therapy for these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  4. Parent and Child Psychological Factors in Pediatric Syncope and Other Somatic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Morris, Julie A. B.; Cheng, Patricia S.; Campbell, Robert M.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined associations among parental and child adjustment, child syncope, somatic, and school problems. Participants were children (N = 56) ages 7-18 years with syncope. Measures included syncope severity, parental distress, and children's internalizing symptoms. For children diagnosed negative for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), their…

  5. Syncopation, body-movement and pleasure in groove music.

    PubMed

    Witek, Maria A G; Clarke, Eric F; Wallentin, Mikkel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

  6. Syncopation, Body-Movement and Pleasure in Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Witek, Maria A. G.; Clarke, Eric F.; Wallentin, Mikkel; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown. Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced. While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove. PMID:24740381

  7. The diagnostic value of EEGs in patients with syncope.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abuhuziefa; Wambacq, Ilse

    2005-05-01

    We retrospectively reviewed reports of all EEGs performed at the New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Hospital between January 1999 and December 2003. Of 9234 EEGs performed, 1094 were of patients with syncope. Among patients with syncope, 67.18% of the EEGs were normal and 28.15% showed diffuse and focal slowing. Only 1.46% of the EEGs showed epileptiform discharges (EDs). This is similar to the incidence of EDs in healthy adults. The presence of EDs did not change the management of these patients. Therefore, EEGs have very low yield and should not be routinely obtained in patients with syncope.

  8. [Integral Care Guide for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with a Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder: Part I: Risk Factors, Screening, Suicide Risk Diagnosis and Assessment in Patients with a Depression Diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia Bohórquez; Valencia, Jenny García; Guarín, Maritza Rodríguez; Narváez, Eliana Bravo; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Pedraza, Ricardo Sánchez; Díaz, Sergio Mario Castro

    2012-12-01

    Depression is an important cause of morbidity and disability in the world; however, it is under-diagnosed at all care levels. The purpose here is to present recommendations based on the evidence gathered to answer a series of clinical questions concerning risk factors, screening, suicide risk diagnosis and evaluation in patients undergoing a depressive episode and recurrent depressive disorder. Emphasis has been made upon the approach used at the primary care level so as to grant adult diagnosed patients the health care guidelines based on the best and more updated evidence available thus achieving minimum quality standards. A practical clinical guide was elaborated according to standards of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection. Recommendation from guides NICE90 and CANMAT were adopted and updated so as to answer the questions posed while de novo questions were developed. Recommendations 1-22 corresponding to screening, suicide risk and depression diagnosis were presented. The corresponding degree of recommendation is included. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum cardiac troponin I in canine syncope and seizures.

    PubMed

    Dutton, E; Dukes-McEwan, J; Cripps, P J

    2017-02-01

    To determine if serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration distinguishes between cardiogenic syncope and collapsing dogs presenting with either generalized epileptic seizures (both with and without cardiac disease) or vasovagal syncope. Seventy-nine prospectively recruited dogs, grouped according to aetiology of collapse: generalized epileptic seizures (group E), cardiogenic syncope (group C), dogs with both epileptic seizures and cardiac disease (group B), vasovagal syncope (group V) or unclassified (group U). Most patients had ECG (n = 78), echocardiography (n = 78) and BP measurement (n = 74) performed. Dogs with a history of intoxications, trauma, evidence of metabolic disorders or renal insufficiency (based on serum creatinine concentrations >150 μmol/L and urine specific gravity <1.030) were excluded. Serum cTnI concentrations were measured and compared between groups using non-parametric statistical methods. Multivariable regression analysis investigated factors associated with cTnI. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis examined whether cTnI could identify cardiogenic syncope. Median cTnI concentrations were higher in group C than E (cTnI: 0.165 [0.02-27.41] vs. 0.03 [0.01-1.92] ng/mL; p<0.05). Regression analysis found that serum cTnI concentrations decreased with increasing time from collapse (p=0.015) and increased with increasing creatinine concentration (p=0.028). Serum cTnI diagnosed cardiogenic syncope with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 80%. Serum cTnI concentrations were significantly different between groups C and E. However, due to the overlap in cTnI concentrations between groups cTnI, measurement in an individual is not optimally discriminatory to differentiate cardiogenic syncope from collapse with generalized epileptic seizures (both with and without cardiac disease) or vasovagal syncope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-09-07

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. A hairy fall: syncope resulting from topical application of minoxidil

    PubMed Central

    Dubrey, S W; VanGriethuysen, J; Edwards, C M B

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a young man who developed syncope after using a high strength formulation of topical minoxidil as a hair growth restorer. Other potential cardiovascular and endocrine causes were excluded, and his symptoms resolved on discontinuation of the product. While syncope is a recognised side effect of using this powerful systemic antihypertensive agent, few cases are documented in the literature, which we illustrate in our discussion. PMID:26347235

  12. Exercise-induced syncope in a 22-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Colin; Tan, Vern Hsen; Wong, Kelvin Ck

    2017-04-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred to us for syncope during a game of Captain's ball. There was no prodrome. His friends did not notice any ictal movements. He was otherwise well prior to passing out. He was not taking any medications or supplements. He was not usually physically active, but was otherwise well with no significant medical history. This is his first episode of syncope. There was no history of cardiac arrest or seizures. There is no family history of premature sudden cardiac death.Physical examination was normal. ECG at rest demonstrated sinus rhythm with corrected QT interval of 400 ms. Echocardiography revealed a structurally normal heart. Holter monitoring was normal. Treadmill exercise stress test demonstrated the following rhythm on figure 1 during stage 4 Bruce protocol. Stress test was terminated in view of sustained arrhythmia as illustrated. He felt light-headed during the period, but otherwise felt that he could carry on with the exercise. ECG during recovery was unremarkable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Recurrent Cellulitis: How Can I Prevent It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent recurrent cellulitis? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. To help prevent recurrent episodes of ... treatment to prevent recurrent infections. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Cellulitis. Merck Manual Professional Version. http:// ...

  14. Condom Use and the Risk of Recurrent Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Chronic Pelvic Pain, or Infertility Following an Episode of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Roberta B.; Randall, Hugh; Richter, Holly E.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.; Montagno, Andrea; Soper, David E.; Sweet, Richard L.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Schubeck, Diane; Hendrix, Susan L.; Bass, Debra C.; Kip, Kevin E.

    2004-01-01

    Among 684 sexually active women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) followed up for a mean of 35 months, we related contraceptive use to self-reported PID recurrence, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Persistent use of condoms during the study reduced the risk of recurrent PID, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Consistent condom use (about 60% of encounters) at baseline also reduced these risks, after adjustment for confounders, by 30% to 60%. Self-reported persistent and consistent condom use was associated with lower rates of PID sequelae. PMID:15284036

  15. Recurrent hamburger thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Malvinder S.; Sturge, Cecil

    2003-01-01

    RECURRENT EPISODES OF SPONTANEOUSLY RESOLVING HYPERTHYROIDISM may be caused by release of preformed hormone from the thyroid gland after it has been damaged by inflammation (recurrent silent thyroiditis) or by exogenous administration of thyroid hormone, which might be intentional or surreptitious (thyrotoxicosis factitia). Community-wide outbreaks of “hamburger thyrotoxicosis” resulting from inadvertent consumption of beef contaminated with bovine thyroid gland have been previously reported. Here we describe a single patient who experienced recurrent episodes of this phenomenon over an 11-year period and present an approach to systematically evaluating patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism. PMID:12952802

  16. Assessing Rates and Predictors of Tachyphylaxis During the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression With Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Anthony J.; Dunlop, Boadie W.; Dunner, David L.; Friedman, Edward S.; Gelenberg, Alan; Holland, Peter; Kocsis, James H.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Zajecka, John M.; Goldstein, Corey; Thase, Michael E.; Pedersen, Ron; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Antidepressant tachyphylaxis describes the return of apathetic depressive symptoms, such as fatigue and decreased motivation, despite continued use of a previously effective treatment. Methods Data were collected from a multiphase, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that assessed the efficacy of venlafaxine extended release (ER) during 2 sequential 1-year maintenance phases (A and B) in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). The primary outcome was the cumulative probability of tachyphylaxis in patients receiving venlafaxine ER, fluoxetine, or placebo. Tachyphylaxis was defined as Rothschild Scale for Antidepressant Tachyphylaxis (RSAT) scored ≥ 7 in patients with prior satisfactory therapeutic response. A Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative probability of not experiencing tachyphylaxis, and a 2-sided Fisher exact test was used to assess the relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence. Results The maintenance phase A population was comprised of 337 patients (venlafaxine ER [n = 129], fluoxetine [n = 79], placebo [n = 129]), whereas 128 patients (venlafaxine ER [n = 43], fluoxetine [n = 45], placebo [n = 40]) were treated during maintenance phase B. No difference in the probability of experiencing tachyphylaxis were observed between the active treatment groups during either maintenance phase; however, a significant difference between venlafaxine ER and placebo was observed at the completion of maintenance phase A. A significant relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence was observed. Limitations Despite demonstrating psychometric validity and reliability, the current definition of tachyphylaxis has not been widely studied Conclusions Although no significant differences were observed in the probability of tachyphylaxis among patients receiving active treatment, the relationship between tachyphylaxis and recurrence suggests that tachyphylaxis may be a predrome of recurrence. PMID:19752838

  17. Development of the Canadian Syncope Risk Score to predict serious adverse events after emergency department assessment of syncope.

    PubMed

    Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Kwong, Kenneth; Wells, George A; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Mukarram, Muhammad; Rowe, Brian H; Lang, Eddy; Perry, Jeffrey J; Sheldon, Robert; Stiell, Ian G; Taljaard, Monica

    2016-09-06

    Syncope can be caused by serious conditions not evident during initial evaluation, which can lead to serious adverse events, including death, after disposition from the emergency department. We sought to develop a clinical decision tool to identify adult patients with syncope who are at risk of a serious adverse event within 30 days after disposition from the emergency department. We prospectively enrolled adults (age ≥ 16 yr) with syncope who presented within 24 hours after the event to 1 of 6 large emergency departments from Sept. 29, 2010, to Feb. 27, 2014. We collected standardized variables at index presentation from clinical evaluation and investigations. Adjudicated serious adverse events included death, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, serious hemorrhage and procedural interventions within 30 days. We enrolled 4030 patients with syncope; the mean age was 53.6 years, 55.5% were women, and 9.5% were admitted to hospital. Serious adverse events occurred in 147 (3.6%) of the patients within 30 days after disposition from the emergency department. Of 43 candidate predictors examined, we included 9 in the final model: predisposition to vasovagal syncope, heart disease, any systolic pressure reading in the emergency department < 90 or > 180 mm Hg, troponin level above 99th percentile for the normal population, abnormal QRS axis (< -30° or > 100°), QRS duration longer than 130 ms, QTc interval longer than 480 ms, emergency department diagnosis of cardiac syncope and emergency department diagnosis of vasovagal syncope (C statistic 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.90; optimism 0.015; goodness-of-fit p = 0.11). The risk of a serious adverse event within 30 days ranged from 0.4% for a score of -3 to 83.6% for a score of 11. The sensitivity was 99.2% (95% CI 95.9%-100%) for a threshold score of -2 or higher and 97.7% (95% CI 93.5%-99.5%) for a threshold score of -1 or higher. The Canadian Syncope Risk Score

  18. Episodic memories.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A

    2009-09-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of episodic elements, summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a conceptual frame that provides a conceptual context. Episodic memories are embedded in a more complex conceptual system in which they can become the basis of autobiographical memories. However, the function of episodic memories is to keep a record of progress with short-term goals and access to most episodic memories is lost soon after their formation. Finally, it is suggested that developmentally episodic memories form the basis of the conceptual system and it is from sets of episodic memories that early non-verbal conceptual knowledge is abstracted.

  19. [Technical options of electrotherapy in patients with vasovagal syncope].

    PubMed

    Bałczewska, Daria; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Ptaszyński, Paweł; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2016-10-19

    Syncope is a symptom of the disease with diverse etiology and can be evidence of both benign and very serious life-threatening conditions. Vasovagal syncope(VVS), with prevalence about 35% of the general population, is most frequent causes of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). Most cases of vasovagal syncope requires conservative treatment. Although cardioinhibitory type of VVS characterized by a significant bradycardia or pause of the heart rate and can be treated with continuous electrotherapy. This article discuss cardiac pacing and technical solutions for the treatment of VVS. Available cardiac pacing methods used to detect and break VVS such as Rate Drop Response (RDR), Closed Loop Stimulation (CLS) and rate response driven by variations of myocardial contractility like Peak Endocardial Acceleration (PEA), has been presented.

  20. Clinical and electroencephalographic features of carotid sinus syncope induced by internal carotid artery angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Fernandez, E; García, F Boza; Gonzalez-Marcos, J R; Peralta, A Gil; Garcia, A Gonzalez; Deya, A Mayol

    2008-02-01

    Carotid sinus syncope may occur acutely during internal carotid artery angioplasty (CA). We performed this study to investigate the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and hemodynamic features of carotid sinus syncope induced by CA. Between 1992 and 2003, clinical, EEG, and cardiovascular monitoring was performed in 359 consecutive patients undergoing CA. Carotid sinus reaction (CSR) and syncope occurred in 62.7% and 18.6% of the procedures, respectively. CSR and syncopal spells were classified into cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed type. Syncope occurred more frequently in patients with cardioinhibitory CSR (P < .001). The odds ratios for the risk of syncope in patients with cardioinhibitory CSR and vasodepressor/mixed CSR were 6.9 and 1.4, respectively. Sixty-one patients had cardioinhibitory syncope; 7 had the vasodepressor/mixed type. Thirteen spells were not related to cardiovascular disturbances. This last syncope subtype was significantly associated with brain hemodynamic disturbances, including a decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity (P = .04) and the absence of function of both communicating arteries (P = .03). Convulsive movements resembling supplementary sensorimotor seizures occurred in 79% of patients who experienced syncopal spells. EEG changes were more prominent in patients with cardioinhibitory syncope. Syncope occurs frequently in patients undergoing CA and can be misdiagnosed as seizures. The most frequent mechanism was a cardioinhibitory response. Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of syncope with normal sinus rhythm and normotension. Moreover, direct depression of the CNS following carotid sinus distension is likely to be involved.

  1. A debate on the certainty of etiology in a case of syncope.

    PubMed

    Dan, Anca Rodica; Daha, Ioana; Buzea, C A; Dan, G A

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 47-year-old woman with reccurent syncope. The investigations for establishing the etiology of syncope were extended over 4 years and multiple possible mecahisms for the syncope were identified. Even if the guidelines mention a good diagnostic yield for history and initial evaluation, for some selected cases the initial diagnostic supposition should be revised.

  2. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  3. Validation of EGSYS Score in Prediction of Cardiogenic Syncope

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Hamid; Harati, Sepideh; Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Pishgahi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Evaluation of Guidelines in Syncope Study (EGSYS) is designed to differentiate between cardiac and noncardiac causes of syncope. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of this predictive model. Methods. In this prospective cross-sectional study, screening performance characteristics of EGSYS-U (univariate) and EGSYS-M (multivariate) in prediction of cardiac syncope were calculated for syncope patients who were referred to the emergency department (ED). Results. 198 patients with mean age of 59.26 ± 19.5 years were evaluated (62.3% male). 115 (58.4%) patients were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Area under the ROC curve was 0.818 (95% CI: 0.75–0.87) for EGSYS-U and 0.805 (CI 95%: 0.74–0.86) for EGSYS-M (p = 0.53). Best cut-off point for both models was ≥3. Sensitivity and specificity were 86.08% (95% CI: 78.09–91.59) and 68.29% (95% CI: 56.97–77.86) for EGSYS-U and 91.30% (95% CI: 84.20–95.52) and 57.32% (95% CI: 45.92–68.02) for EGSYS-M, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrated the acceptable accuracy of EGSYS score in predicting cardiogenic causes of syncope at the ≥3 cut-off point. It seems that using this model in daily practice can help physicians select at risk patients and properly triage them. PMID:26649200

  4. [Tips for taking the medical history in patients with syncope].

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W

    2018-06-01

    Transient loss of consciousness represents one of the most frequent reasons for patients to present in the emergency room. Already at the very beginning, the diagnostic work-up is faced with fundamental questions: (1) Was it really a loss of consciousness? (2) Which department (neurology, cardiology, or others) should check the patient? (3) Is an in-hospital diagnostic work-up required? These questions can be answered from a meticulous patient history which needs to be adjusted to the individual case but also has to systematically go through a list of questions. Patient history has to clarify whether syncope was present. Nonsyncopal events such as falls, transient global amnesia, epilepsy, psychogenic pseudosyncope, transient ischemic attack and drop attacks should be distinguished. In a second step, the four groups of causes of syncope can be assessed. Neurocardiogenic reflex syncope usually occurs with typical prodromes in typical situations in (younger) patients without heart disease. Orthostasis always occurs in upright position, typically associated with standing up and in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. Arrhythmogenic syncope frequently shows an abrupt onset without prodromes, associated with injury and with palpitations or fast heart beat before the attack, in older patients frequently associated with known heart disease, in young patients without heart disease frequently with a family history positive for arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. A positive history of structural cardiovascular disease should be considered as a cause of syncope, particularly if it occurs during exercise or in supine position, or is associated with chest pain or dyspnea. This review summarizes the most important questions that can elucidate the cause of syncope.

  5. Equine recurrent uveitis: treatment.

    PubMed

    Curling, Amanda

    2011-06-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis has traditionally been treated with medical management to reduce ocular inflammation and control pain during a single episode. Newer management methods include surgical options such as cyclosporine implantation and vitrectomy. These methods were developed not only to control inflammation but also to eliminate the underlying cause of uveitis in order to prevent recurrence.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rifaximin-α administration for the reduction of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy in recurrence compared with standard treatment in France.

    PubMed

    Kabeshova, Anastasiia; Ben Hariz, Soumaia; Tsakeu, Elyonore; Benamouzig, Robert; Launois, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs most often in a context of acute or chronic liver disease. Despite the seriousness of the pathology, only a few treatments have been developed for improving its management. Rifaximin-α is the first treatment that has been clinically developed for overt HE (OHE) episodes. Recent results of clinical studies demonstrated its significant improvement in the health-related quality of life. The objective of the current study was to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of rifaximin-α used in combination with lactulose compared with lactulose monotherapy in cirrhotic patients, who have experienced at least two prior OHE events. A Markov model was used to estimate rifaximin-α cost-effectiveness, evaluating it from the perspective of all contributors as recommended by French health technology assessment guidelines. Costs were based on current French treatment practices. The transition between health states was based on the reanalysis of the rifaximin-α pivotal clinical trials RFHE3001 and RFHE3002. The main outcome of the model was cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). The results indicate that rifaximin-α is a cost-effective treatment option with an incremental cost per QALY gained of €19,187 and €18,517 over two different time horizons (2 and 5 years). The robustness of the model was studied using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For the societal willingness to pay threshold of €27,000 per QALY gained, rifaximin-α in combination with lactulose is a cost-effective and affordable treatment for patients who have experienced at least two prior overt HE episodes.

  7. Brainstem dysfunction protects against syncope in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Habek, Mario; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Crnošija, Luka; Adamec, Ivan

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) and brainstem dysfunction evaluated with the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) score and conventional MRI. Forty-five patients with the diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS were enrolled. VEMP, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to the Valsalva maneuver, heart rate response to deep breathing, and pain provoked head-up tilt table test, as well as brain and spinal cord MRI were performed. There was no difference in the VEMP score between patients with and without signs of sympathetic or parasympathetic dysfunction. However, patients with syncope had significantly lower VEMP score compared to patients without syncope (p<0.01). Patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH) showed a trend of higher VEMP score compared to patients without OH (p=0.06). There was no difference in the presence of lesions in the brainstem or cervical spinal cord between patients with or without any of the studied autonomic parameters. The model consisting of a VEMP score of ≤5 and normal MRI of the midbrain and cervical spinal cord has sensitivity and specificity of 83% for the possibility that the patient with MS can develop syncope. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying functional and structural disorders of autonomic nervous system in MS differ significantly. While preserved brainstem function is needed for development of syncope, structural disorders like OH could be associated with brainstem dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Syncope paradox in the outcome of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism: short-term and midterm outcome.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Seyyed-reza; Jenab, Yaser; Tokaldany, Masoumeh Lotfi; Shirani, Shapoor; Sadeghian, Saeed; Jalali, Arash

    2016-01-01

    We compare the early and midterm outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with and without syncope in our single-center registry. Between December 2006 and May 2013, 351 consecutive patients (mean age = 60.21 ± 16.91 years, 55.3% male) with confirmed acute symptomatic PTE were divided in with and without syncope groups. Groups were compared in terms of the effect of syncope on 30-day mortality and adverse events, and mortality in a median follow-up time of 16.9 months. From 351 patients, 39 (11.1%) had syncope and 312 (88.9%) did not. Syncope group had less frequently chest pain (30.8% vs 51.4%; P value = 0.015). Also, the rates of 30-day adverse events and mortality were 12.8% and 5.1% for the group with syncope, and 14.4% and 10.3% for the group without syncope, respectively, with no significant difference. At follow up, 65 patients died and mortality was 18.5% for 351 patients (5.1% in the group with syncope and 20.2% for the other group). After adjustment for confounding factors, the effect of syncope on 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant and on the midterm mortality was significant, showing that the presence of syncope was associated with lower midterm mortality (P value = 0.038). Among PTE patients in our registry, 11.1% presented with syncope. Relationship between syncope and 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant after adjustments for other factors. However, in midterm follow up, patients with syncope were significantly at decreased risk of mortality compared to those without syncope. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Certain cardiovascular indices predict syncope in the postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandroni, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Benarroch, E. E.; Shen, W. K.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) represent a patient population with orthostatic intolerance; some are prone to syncope, others are not. The underlying neurocardiovascular mechanisms are not completely understood. The current study was undertaken to assess if certain cardiovascular indices are predictive of syncope in POTS. We compared the response to tilt-up and the Valsalva maneuver in four groups: POTS patients who fainted (POTS-f; n = 11;31 +/- 11 years): POTS patients who did not faint (POTS-nf; n = 9; 29 +/- 9 years); normal controls (NLS; n = 13; 39 +/- 11 years); patients with generalized autonomic failure with orthostatic hypotension and syncope (n = 10; 59 +/- 14 years). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were monitored using Finapres. Cardiac output, stroke volume (SV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and calculated total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded using thoracic electrical bioimpedance. An autonomic reflex screen which quantitates the distribution and severity of autonomic failure was also done. With the patient supine, all POTS patients (POTS-nf; POTS-f) had increased HR (p < 0.001) and reduced SV/EDV (p < 0.001) when compared with NLS. On tilt-up, POTS-f patients were significantly different from both NLS and POTS-nf patients; the most consistent alteration was a fall instead of an increase in TPR; other changes were a greater reduction in PP, a reduction (instead of an increment) in DAP, and a different pattern of changes during the Valsalva maneuver (excessive early phase II, attenuated or absent late phase II). Our results suggest alpha-adrenergic impairment with increased pooling or hypovolemia in POTS-f patients. We conclude that it is possible to identify the mechanism of syncope in POTS patients, and perhaps other patients with orthostatic intolerance and an excessive liability to syncope.

  10. Insertable cardiac monitors in the diagnosis of syncope and the detection of atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burkowitz, Jörg; Merzenich, Carina; Grassme, Kathrin; Brüggenjürgen, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    Insertable or implantable cardiac monitors (ICMs) continuously monitor the heart rhythm and record irregularities over 3 years, enabling the diagnosis of infrequent rhythm abnormalities associated with syncope and stroke. The enhanced recognition capabilities of recent ICM models are able to accurately detect atrial fibrillation (AF) and have led to new applications of ICMs for the detection and monitoring of AF. Based on a systematic literature search, two indications were identified for ICMs for which considerable evidence, including randomized studies, exists: diagnosing the underlying cardiac cause of unexplained recurrent syncope and detecting AF in patients after cryptogenic stroke (CS). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified that compared the effectiveness of ICMs in diagnosing patients with unexplained syncope (n = 556) to standard of care. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to generate an overall effect size and confidence interval of the diagnostic yield of ICMs versus conventional monitoring. In the indication CS, one RCT and five observational studies were included in order to assess the performance of ICMs in diagnosing patients with AF (n = 1129). Based on these studies, there is strong evidence that ICMs provide a higher diagnostic yield for detecting arrhythmias in patients with unexplained syncope and for detection of AF in patients after CS compared to conventional monitoring. Prolonged monitoring with ICMs is an effective tool for diagnosing the underlying cardiac cause of unexplained syncope and for detecting AF in patients with CS. In all RCTs, ICMs have a superior diagnostic yield compared to conventional monitoring. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  11. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity.

  12. Atrial electromechanical conduction delay in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope.

    PubMed

    Sucu, Murat; Ercan, Suleyman; Uku, Okkes; Davutoglu, Vedat; Altunbas, Gokhan

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the presence of atrial electromechanical conduction delay in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope, which was diagnosed with head-up tilt table test (HUTT). A total of 29 patients (mean age: 30.6 ± 15.9 years) with vasovagal syncope, as diagnosed by HUTT, and 23 healthy control subjects (mean age: 34.7 ± 16.3 years) with a negative HUTT were enrolled to the study. Atrial electromechanical conduction delay was defined as the time elapsed from the beginning of the P wave in the electrogardiogram to the beginning of the Am wave in tissue Doppler. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of interatrial conduction delay, whereas the difference was significant with regard to the right intraatrial electromechanical conduction delay (P < 0.01) and the left intraatrial electromechanical conduction delay (P < 0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the left intraatrial electromechanical conduction delay and the right intraatrial electromechanical conduction delay (r = -0.486, P = 0.001), whereas a positive correlation was present with the interatrial electromechanical conduction delay (r = 0.507, P = 0.001). In this study, the tissue Doppler method revealed that there is left and right intraatrial electromechanical conduction delay in patients with vasovagal syncope. The impact and role of atrial conduction delay as a pathophysiological determinant should be confirmed in further studies. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complexity Matching Effects in Bimanual and Interpersonal Syncopated Finger Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Coey, Charles A.; Washburn, Auriel; Hassebrock, Justin; Richardson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate complexity matching during syncopated behavioral coordination. Participants either tapped in (bimanual) syncopation using their two hands, or tapped in (interpersonal) syncopation with a partner, with each participant using one of their hands. The time series of inter-tap intervals (ITI) from each hand were submitted to fractal analysis, as well as to short-term and multi-timescale cross-correlation analyses. The results demonstrated that the fractal scaling of one hand’s ITI was strongly correlated to that of the other hand, and this complexity matching effect was stronger in the bimanual condition than in the interpersonal condition. Moreover, the degree of complexity matching was predicted by the strength of short-term cross-correlation and the stability of the asynchrony between the two tapping series. These results suggest that complexity matching is not specific to the inphase synchronization tasks used in past research, but is a general result of coordination between complex systems. PMID:26840612

  14. The risk for syncope and presyncope during surgery in surgeons and nurses.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Jerzy; Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Rosińczuk-Tonderys, Joanna; Zielińska, Dominika; Terpiłowski, Łukasz; Agrawal, Anil Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Surgeons and nurses are exposed to orthostatic stress. To assess the lifetime incidence of syncopal and presyncopal events during surgery in operation room staff and reveal the predicting factors. The study included 317 subjects (161 F, 156 M) aged 43.9 ± 9.6; 216 surgeons and 101 instrumenters. The study included filling of an anonymous questionnaire on the syncope and presyncope history. At least one syncopal event during operation was reported by 4.7% and presyncope by 14.8% of the studied population. All but one subject reported prodromal symptoms before syncope. In the medical history, syncope outside the operating room was reported by 11% of the studied group. Syncope and presyncope during operation was related to syncope in the medical history outside the operation room, respectively: odds ratio (OR) 20.2 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-70.5 and OR 10.8; CI: 5.0-23.4 and to presyncope in the medical history, respectively: OR 23.5; CI: 7.4-74.4 OR 8.9; CI: 3.6-11.2 (P < 0.001). (1) Syncope and presyncope may occur during surgery in the staff of the operating room. (2) Syncope in the operating room is usually preceded by prodromal symptoms and has vasovagal origin. (3) Both lower then expected occurrence of syncope in the operating room staff and absence of any difference between genders in this regard indicate preselection in the process of choosing profession and specialization. (4) Syncope and presyncope outside the operating room in medical history increases the risk of syncope and presyncope inside the operation room.

  15. A new hypothesis of cause of syncope: trigeminocardiac reflex during extraction of teeth.

    PubMed

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Arali, Veena

    2010-02-01

    Transient Loss Of Consciousness (TLOC) or vasovagal syncope is well known phenomenon in dental/maxillofacial surgery. Despite considerable study of vasovagal syncope, its pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated. After having encountered a case of trigeminocardiac reflex after extraction of maxillary first molar we observed and studied 400 extractions under local anesthesia to know the relation between trigeminocardiac reflex and syncope. We make hypothesis that trigeminocardiac reflex which is usually seen under general anesthesia when all sympathetic reflexes are blunted can also occur under local anesthesia during extractions of maxillary molars (dento-cardiac reflex) and mediate syncope.

  16. Effects of closed-loop stimulation vs. DDD pacing on haemodynamic variations and occurrence of syncope induced by head-up tilt test in older patients with refractory cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope: the Tilt test-Induced REsponse in Closed-loop Stimulation multicentre, prospective, single blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Pietro; Dell'Era, Gabriele; Russo, Vincenzo; Zaccaria, Maria; Mangia, Rolando; Bortnik, Miriam; De Vecchi, Federica; Giubertoni, Ailia; Patti, Fabiana; Magnani, Andrea; Nigro, Gerardo; Rago, Anna; Occhetta, Eraldo; Accogli, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Closed-loop stimulation (CLS) seemed promising in preventing the recurrence of vasovagal syncope (VVS) in patients with a cardioinhibitory response to head-up tilt test (HUTT) compared with conventional pacing. We hypothesized that the better results of this algorithm are due to its quick reaction in high-rate pacing delivered in the early phase of vasovagal reflex, which increase the cardiac output and the blood pressure preventing loss of consciousness. This prospective, randomized, single-blind, multicentre study was designed as an intra-patient comparison and enrolled 30 patients (age 62.2 ± 13.5 years, males 60.0%) with cardioinhibitory VVS, carrying a dual-chamber pacemaker incorporating CLS algorithm. Two HUTTs were performed one week apart: one during DDD-CLS 60-130/min pacing and the other during DDD 60/min pacing; patients were randomly and blindly assigned to two groups: in one the first HUTT was performed in DDD-CLS (n = 15), in the other in DDD (n = 15). Occurrence of syncope and haemodynamic variations induced by HUTT was recorded during the tests. Compared with DDD, DDD-CLS significantly reduced the occurrence of syncope induced by HUTT (30.0% vs. 76.7%; P < 0.001). In the patients who had syncope in both DDD and DDD-CLS mode, DDD-CLS significantly delayed the onset of syncope during HUTT (from 20.8 ± 3.9 to 24.8 ± 0.9 min; P = 0.032). The maximum fall in systolic blood pressure recorded during HUTT was significantly lower in DDD-CLS compared with DDD (43.2 ± 30.3 vs. 65.1 ± 25.8 mmHg; P = 0.004). In patients with cardioinhibitory VVS, CLS reduces the occurrence of syncope induced by HUTT, compared with DDD pacing. When CLS is not able to abort the vasovagal reflex, it seems to delay the onset of syncope.

  17. Electrocardiogram findings in emergency department patients with syncope.

    PubMed

    Quinn, James; McDermott, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the San Francisco Syncope Rule (SFSR) electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria for determining cardiac outcomes and to define the specific ECG findings that are the most important in patients with syncope. A consecutive cohort of emergency department (ED) patients with syncope or near syncope was considered. The treating emergency physicians assessed 50 predictor variables, including an ECG and rhythm assessment. For the ECG assessment, the physicians were asked to categorize the ECG as normal or abnormal based on any changes that were old or new. They also did a separate rhythm assessment and could use any of the ECGs or available monitoring strips, including prehospital strips, when making this assessment. All patients were followed up to determine a broad composite study outcome. The final ECG criterion for the SFSR was any nonsinus rhythm or new ECG changes. In this specific study, the initial assessments in the database were used to determine only cardiac-related outcomes (arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, structural, sudden death) based on set criteria, and the authors determined the sensitivity and specificity of the ECG criteria for cardiac outcomes only. All ECGs classified as "abnormal" by the study criteria were compared to the official cardiology reading to determine specific findings on the ECG. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine important specific ECG and rhythm findings. A total of 684 consecutive patients were considered, with 218 having positive ECG criteria and 42 (6%) having important cardiac outcomes. ECG criteria predicted 36 of 42 patients with cardiac outcomes, with a sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71% to 94%), a specificity of 70% (95% CI = 66% to 74%), and a negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI = 97% to 99%). Regarding specific ECG findings, any nonsinus rhythm from any source and any left bundle conduction problem (i.e., any left bundle branch block

  18. Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Related to Recurrent Thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Keval; Griffing, George T; Hauptman, Paul J; Stolker, Joshua M

    2016-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction caused by transient wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricular apex and mid ventricle in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Recurrent episodes are rare but have been reported, and several cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy have been described in the presence of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who had recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy, documented by repeat coronary angiography and evaluations of left ventricular function, in the presence of recurrent hyperthyroidism related to Graves disease. After both episodes, the patient's left ventricular function returned to normal when her thyroid function normalized. These findings suggest a possible role of thyroid-hormone excess in the pathophysiology of some patients who have takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  19. Is pacemaker therapy the right key to patients with vasovagal syncope?

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Nikola N; Kirćanski, Bratislav; Raspopović, Srdjan; Pavlović, Siniša U; Jovanović, Velibor; Milašinović, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Vasovagal syncope is the most common type of reflex syncope. Efficacy of cardiac pacing in this indication has not been the subject of many studies and pacemaker therapy in patients with vasovagal syncope is still controversial. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pacing therapy in treatment of patients with vasovagal syncope, to determine contribution of new therapeutic models in increasing its success, and to identify risk factors associated with a higher rate of symptoms after pacemaker implantation. A retrospective study included 30 patients with pacemaker implanted due to vasovagal syncope in the Pacemaker Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, between November 2003 and June 2014. Head-up tilt test was performed to diagnose vasovagal syncope. Patients with cardioinhibitory and mixed type of disease were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 48.1 ± 11.1 years and 18 (60%) patients were men. Mean follow-up period was 5.9 ± 3.0 years. Primarily, implantable loop recorder was implanted in 10 (33.3%) patients. Twenty (66.7%) patients presented cardioinhibitory and 10 (33.3%) mixed type of vasovagal syncope. After pacemaker implantation, 11 (36.7%) patients had syncope. In multiple logistic regression analysis we showed that syncope is statistically more likely to occur after pacemaker implantation in patients with mixed type of vasovagal syncope (p = 0.018). There were two (6.7%) perioperative surgical complications. Pacemaker therapy is a safe treatment for patients with vasovagal syncope, whose efficacy can be improved by strict selection of patients. We showed that symptoms occur statistically more often in patients with mixed type of disease after pacemaker implantation.

  20. [Vasovagal syncope as a cause of serious body injury - two case reports].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a reflex reaction, leading to marked hypotension and/or bradycardia with transient loss of consciousness and the postural muscle tone. The recovery is spontaneous and usually rapid. Serious body injuries caused by fainting are rare. We present two patients with vasovagal syncope which caused serious injury. Different therapeutic options, including pacemaker implantation, are discussed.

  1. The pattern of activation of the sympathetic nervous system during tilt-induced syncope.

    PubMed

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Sciborski, Ryszard; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2007-04-01

    A 49-year-old patient with a history of situational syncope and minimal electrocardiographic signs of accessory pathway is described. The evidence for pre-excitation was present only during the sympathetic activation caused by exercise testing and isoprenaline infusion. This phenomenon served as an indicator of significant adrenergic drive to the heart after the tilt-induced syncope. The meaning of the observed electrocardiographic changes in the course of neurocardiogenic reaction and its contribution to the understanding of the sympatho-vagal balance during vasovagal syncope is discussed. The lack of preexcitation signs during syncope and its appearance several seconds after the syncope-related sinus pause indicates sympathetic withdrawal before and shortly after the asystole. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-25

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  3. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  4. Vasovagal syncope in medical students and their first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Serletis, Anna; Rose, Sarah; Sheldon, Aaron G; Sheldon, Robert S

    2006-08-01

    To determine the effect of family history on the likelihood of vasovagal syncope. Sixty-two medical students and 228 first-degree relatives were studied. Vasovagal syncope was ascertained with the Calgary syncope symptom score. The effects of the sex of the subject and parental syncope history on the likelihood of offspring fainting were described using Kaplan-Meier estimates and analysed using proportional hazards regression. The prevalence of vasovagal syncope was 32% and the median age of first faint in those who fainted was 14 years. More females than males fainted [42 vs. 31%; P=0.02; hazard ratio (HR) 1.34 (95% CI 1.07-1.68)]. An individual with two fainting parents was more likely to faint than one with no fainting parents [P<0.0001; HR 3.4 (95% CI 1.7-7.03)]. In the proportional hazards model, offspring of either sex whose mother faints are more likely to faint than those whose mother does not faint [HR 2.86 (95% CI 1.54-5.31)]. Having a father who faints significantly increases the risk of syncope in sons [HR 4.12 (95%CI 1.39-12.31)], but not in daughters [HR 1.18 (95% CI 0.56-3.34)]. Family history and sex of subject are important predictors of vasovagal syncope in offspring.

  5. Mechanisms of lower body negative pressure-induced syncope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davrath, Linda Ruble

    Although extensively investigated, the mechanisms of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance have not been elucidated. The working hypothesis was that a markedly reduced left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) would be achieved during progressive, presyncopal-limited LBNP and would cause bradycardia and a fall in blood pressure, thus triggering syncope. Eight healthy men, age 25.1 ± 1.3 years, volunteered for the study. Subjects were exposed to graded levels of LBNP on two separate occasions. Changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume and LVESV were measured, using two-dimensional echocardiography, at each stage of LBNP from rest to presyncope. Plasma venous blood samples were withdrawn at the end of each stage of the LBNP protocol for the measurement of plasma venous catecholamines and plasma renin activity (PRA). Catecholamines were analyzed by HPLC with electro-chemical detection, and PRA was determined by radioimmunoassay. All subjects reached presyncope during the LBNP. LVESV decreased by 28% at presyncope with no evidence of ventricular cavity obliteration. Norepinephrine (NE) increased by 44% from rest to presyncope, but no epinephrine surge was detected (35% increase from rest to presyncope). These data indicate that it is possible to initiate syncope with only a 28% decrease in LVESV, and that sympatho-inhibition and bradycardia are not required elements for syncope to occur. To investigate the effect of moderate sodium restriction on cardiovascular hemodynamics and orthostatic tolerance, presyncopal LBNP testing was performed. Urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher on the normal-sodium diet when compared with the sodium-restricted diet, but urinary potassium was not different. Cumulative stress index (655 ± 460 on normal-sodium diet vs. 639 ± 388 on sodium-restricted diet) scores were not different. Cardiac volumes, blood pressure and total peripheral resistance were not different at any stage of the LBNP between the diets, nor

  6. Vestibular syncope: A disorder associated with drop attack in Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Zou, Jing; Levo, Hilla; Kentala, Erna

    2018-04-01

    Experiments in humans and animals indicate that vestibular influx through vestibular sympathetic reflex is an important and vital part of the regulatory system of circulation. The otolith organ adjusts the circulatory responses through the vestibular sympathetic reflex during an upright stance and may trigger a vasovagal attack of syncope. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and association of syncope attacks among patients with Ménière's disease (MD). Vestibular syncope was defined as a sudden and transient loss of consciousness, which subsides spontaneously in people with vestibular disorders and without localizing neurological deficit. During clinical interactions, we encountered 5 patients with syncope during a Tumarkin attack of MD. Thereafter we evaluated data from 952 patients collected with a questionnaire from the Finnish Ménière Association (FMA). The data contained case histories with special attention to Tumarkin attacks, participation restriction, migraines, and syncope attacks. The mean age of the subjects participating in the study was 60.6 years (range 25-75 years). The duration of the disease was on average 9.8 years (range 0.5-35 years). In the current study sample, attacks of syncope were reported by 38 patients (4%) in association with the vertigo attack. Syncope was associated with Tumarkin attacks (X 2 =16.7, p<0.001), migraine (X 2 =7.4, p<0.011), history of ischemic heart disease (X 2 =6.0, p<0.025), and history of cerebrovascular disease (X 2 =11.7, p<0.004). Duration of MD was correlated with syncope. Syncope was provoked by physical strain and environmental pressure, and was associated with impairment of the visual field (i.e., visual blurring). In logistic regression analysis, syncope was significantly associated with Tumarkin attacks (odds ratio 3.2), migraines (odds ratio 2.3) and nausea (odds ratio 1.3). The attack of syncope was experienced as frightening, and general health related quality of life (HRQo

  7. Self-induced stretch syncope of adolescence: a video-EEG documentation.

    PubMed

    Mazzuca, Michel; Thomas, Pierre

    2007-12-01

    We present the first video-EEG documentation, with ECG and EMG features, of stretch syncope of adolescence in a young, healthy 16-year-old boy. Stretch syncope of adolescence is a rarely reported, benign cause of fainting in young patients, which can be confused with epileptic seizures. In our patient, syncopes were self-induced to avoid school. Dynamic transcranial Doppler showed evidence of blood flow decrease in both posterior cerebral arteries mimicking effects of a Valsalva manoeuvre. Dynamic angiogram of the vertebral arteries was normal. Hypotheses concerning the physiopathology are discussed. [Published with video sequences].

  8. Recurrences of Bell's palsy

    PubMed Central

    Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, CM; Cirpaciu, MD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Bell’s palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell’s palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. Purpose. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. Methods & Materials. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. Results. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell’s palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients’ age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Conclusions. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which

  9. Recurrences of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, C M; Cirpaciu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell's palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell's palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients' age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which leads to the conclusion that we should have a follow up of patients

  10. The choice of surgical specialization by medical students and their syncopal history.

    PubMed

    Rudnicki, Jerzy; Zyśko, Dorota; Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Koźluk, Edward; Lelonek, Małgorzata; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Gajek, Jacek; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Agrawal, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether medical students' fainting outside the university or while witnessing surgical procedures and/or autopsies influenced their choice of a specialization. The study group consisted of 605 medical students (from fourth to sixth year of study) from five medical universities in Poland (325 women, 212 men and 8 responders of an unspecified gender). The median age of subjects studied was 23 years, and the interquartile range was 23-24 years. The students at each university were chosen randomly by the author who worked there and had contact with them. An anonymous questionnaire was developed to gather information regarding demographics, the specialization which each student wanted to choose, the syncope occurrence in the medical history, the syncope and presyncope occurrence during surgery and autopsy as well as the syncopal events' characteristics. The group of 15% of women and 30% of men declared to have pursued the surgical specialization (P<0.001), 29% of women and 56% of men declared the intention to pursue an invasive specialization (P<0.001). As many as 36.0% of women studied and 13.1% of men studied reported syncopal spells outside university (P<0.001). Only 41 students (6.8%) reported that syncope or presyncope in any studied circumstances had an impact on their specialization choice. The multivariate analysis showed that the choice of surgical specialization is related to the male gender and the absence of syncopal spells outside the university. Syncopal and presyncopal spells may affect the professional choices of the medical students. The male gender and a lack of syncope occurrence outside operating room are related to the choice of surgical specialization.

  11. The Choice of Surgical Specialization by Medical Students and Their Syncopal History

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicki, Jerzy; Zyśko, Dorota; Kozłowski, Dariusz; Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Koźluk, Edward; Lelonek, Małgorzata; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Gajek, Jacek; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Agrawal, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess whether medical students’ fainting outside the university or while witnessing surgical procedures and/or autopsies influenced their choice of a specialization. Materials and Methods The study group consisted of 605 medical students (from fourth to sixth year of study) from five medical universities in Poland (325 women, 212 men and 8 responders of an unspecified gender). The median age of subjects studied was 23 years, and the interquartile range was 23–24 years. The students at each university were chosen randomly by the author who worked there and had contact with them. An anonymous questionnaire was developed to gather information regarding demographics, the specialization which each student wanted to choose, the syncope occurrence in the medical history, the syncope and presyncope occurrence during surgery and autopsy as well as the syncopal events’ characteristics. Results The group of 15% of women and 30% of men declared to have pursued the surgical specialization (P<0.001), 29% of women and 56% of men declared the intention to pursue an invasive specialization (P<0.001). As many as 36.0% of women studied and 13.1% of men studied reported syncopal spells outside university (P<0.001). Only 41 students (6.8%) reported that syncope or presyncope in any studied circumstances had an impact on their specialization choice. The multivariate analysis showed that the choice of surgical specialization is related to the male gender and the absence of syncopal spells outside the university. Conclusions Syncopal and presyncopal spells may affect the professional choices of the medical students. The male gender and a lack of syncope occurrence outside operating room are related to the choice of surgical specialization. PMID:23383122

  12. Role of echocardiography in the evaluation of syncope: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sarasin, F P; Junod, A-F; Carballo, D; Slama, S; Unger, P-F; Louis-Simonet, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of echocardiography in the stepwise evaluation of syncope. Design: A prospective observational study with an 18 month follow up. Setting: University teaching hospital providing primary and tertiary care. Subjects: 650 consecutive patients with syncope and clinical suspicion of an obstructive valvar lesion, or with syncope not explained by history, physical examination, or a 12 lead ECG, who underwent bidimensional Doppler transthoracic echocardiography. Main outcome measures: The causes of syncope were assigned using published diagnostic criteria. Echocardiography was considered diagnostic when confirming a suspected diagnosis, or when revealing occult cardiac disease explaining the syncope. Results: A systolic murmur was identified in 61 of the 650 patients (9%). Severe aortic stenosis was suspected in 20 of these and was confirmed by echocardiography in eight. Follow up excluded further cases of aortic stenosis. In patients with unexplained syncope (n = 155), routine echocardiography showed no abnormalities that established the cause of the syncope. Echocardiography was normal or non-relevant in all patients with a negative cardiac history and a normal ECG (n = 67). In patients with a positive cardiac history or an abnormal ECG (n = 88), echocardiography showed systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%) in 24 (27%) and minor non-relevant findings in the remaining 64. Arrhythmias were diagnosed in 12 of the 24 patients with systolic dysfunction (50%), and in 12 of the 64 remaining patients (19%) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Echocardiography was most useful for assessing the severity of the underlying cardiac disease and for risk stratification in patients with unexplained syncope but with a positive cardiac history or an abnormal ECG. PMID:12231593

  13. Permanent pacemaker implantation in octogenarians with unexplained syncope and positive electrophysiologic testing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Kossyvakis, Charalampos; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Doudoumis, Konstantinos; Mavri, Maria; Vrachatis, Dimitrios; Letsas, Konstantinos; Efremidis, Michael; Katsivas, Apostolos; Lekakis, John; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2017-05-01

    Syncope is a common problem in the elderly, and a permanent pacemaker is a therapeutic option when a bradycardic etiology is revealed. However, the benefit of pacing when no association of symptoms to bradycardia has been shown is not clear, especially in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pacing on syncope-free mortality in patients aged 80 years or older with unexplained syncope and "positive" invasive electrophysiologic testing (EPT). This was an observational study. A positive EPT for the purposes of this study was defined by at least 1 of the following: a corrected sinus node recovery time of >525 ms, a basic HV interval of >55 ms, detection of infra-Hisian block, or appearance of second-degree atrioventricular block on atrial decremental pacing at a paced cycle length of >400 ms. Among the 2435 screened patients, 228 eligible patients were identified, 145 of whom were implanted with a pacemaker. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined that time to event (syncope or death) was 50.1 months (95% confidence interval 45.4-54.8 months) with a pacemaker vs 37.8 months (95% confidence interval 31.3-44.4 months) without a pacemaker (log-rank test, P = .001). The 4-year time-dependent estimate of the rate of syncope was 12% vs 44% (P < .001) and that of any-cause death was 41% vs 56% (P = .023), respectively. The multivariable odds ratio was 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.40) after adjustment for potential confounders. In patients with unexplained syncope and signs of sinus node dysfunction or impaired atrioventricular conduction on invasive EPT, pacemaker implantation was independently associated with longer syncope-free survival. Significant differences were also shown in the individual components of the primary outcome measure (syncope and death from any cause). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurrent confusion and hypopituitarism.

    PubMed Central

    Gutowski, N. J.; Heron, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Three women in late middle age had recurrent episodes of confusion which could not be explained solely on the basis of an associated infection. All three patients had latent hypopituitarism diagnosed on final presentation. Each patient had a previous history of a severe postpartum haemorrhage followed by two further pregnancies. Experienced clinicians had not made a diagnosis of confusional episodes due to hypopituitary encephalopathy because the history was not immediately available in the confused patient, and the significance of deficient axillary and pubic hair was not given due emphasis. PMID:8346137

  15. Costs of unstructured investigation of unexplained syncope: insights from a micro-costing analysis of the observational PICTURE registry.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Nils; Wolff, Claudia; Tsintzos, Stelios; Rieger, Guido; Linker, Nicholas J

    2015-07-01

    The observational PICTURE (Place of Reveal In the Care pathway and Treatment of patients with Unexplained Recurrent Syncope) registry enrolled 570 patients with unexplained syncope, documented their care pathway and the various tests they underwent before the insertion of an implantable loop recorder (ILR). The aims were to describe the extent and cost of diagnostic tests performed before the implant. Actual costs of 17 predefined diagnostic tests were characterized based on a combination of data from PICTURE and a micro-costing study performed at a medium-sized UK university hospital in the UK. The median cost of diagnostic tests per patient was £1114 (95% CI £995-£1233). As many patients received more than the median number of tests, the mean expenditure per patient was higher with £1613 (95% CI £1494-£1732), and for 10% of the patients the cost exceeded £3539. Tests were frequently repeated, and early use of specific and expensive tests was common. In the 12% of patients with types of tests entirely within the recommendations for an initial evaluation before ILR implant, the mean cost was £710. Important opportunities to reduce test-related costs before an ILR implant were identified, e.g. by more appropriate use of tests recommended in the initial evaluation, by decreasing repetition of tests, and by avoiding early use of specialized and expensive tests. A structured multidisciplinary approach would be the best model to achieve an optimal outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Costs of unstructured investigation of unexplained syncope: insights from a micro-costing analysis of the observational PICTURE registry

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Nils; Wolff, Claudia; Tsintzos, Stelios; Rieger, Guido; Linker, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The observational PICTURE (Place of Reveal In the Care pathway and Treatment of patients with Unexplained Recurrent Syncope) registry enrolled 570 patients with unexplained syncope, documented their care pathway and the various tests they underwent before the insertion of an implantable loop recorder (ILR). The aims were to describe the extent and cost of diagnostic tests performed before the implant. Methods and results Actual costs of 17 predefined diagnostic tests were characterized based on a combination of data from PICTURE and a micro-costing study performed at a medium-sized UK university hospital in the UK. The median cost of diagnostic tests per patient was £1114 (95% CI £995–£1233). As many patients received more than the median number of tests, the mean expenditure per patient was higher with £1613 (95% CI £1494–£1732), and for 10% of the patients the cost exceeded £3539. Tests were frequently repeated, and early use of specific and expensive tests was common. In the 12% of patients with types of tests entirely within the recommendations for an initial evaluation before ILR implant, the mean cost was £710. Conclusion Important opportunities to reduce test-related costs before an ILR implant were identified, e.g. by more appropriate use of tests recommended in the initial evaluation, by decreasing repetition of tests, and by avoiding early use of specialized and expensive tests. A structured multidisciplinary approach would be the best model to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:25759408

  17. [Syncope and work: role of the occupational physician and global risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Barbic, F; Angaroni, L; Orlandi, M; Costantino, G; Dipaola, E; Borleri, D; Borchini, R; D'Adda, F; Perego, F; Borella, M; Galli, A; Solbiati, M; Scanella, E; Casazza, G; Seghizzi, P; Furlan, R

    2011-01-01

    Safety risk for subjects suffering from syncope while working has not been as yet addressed by occupational medicine. The present study was aimed at evaluating a new developed methodology for job tasks risk stratification in patients with syncope. During a work-shop on syncope and occupational risk, 149 occupational physicians (OP) with about 10 years of clinical experience were asked to fulfil a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning the doctor's estimated potential damage (D) to the worker and the probability of a damage to occur (P) should syncope take place during the job task. Five job tasks characterized by different risk for safety (1, driving; 2, toxic products handling; 3, job performed closed to hot surfaces o free flames; 4, surgical activity; 5, office job) were identified. OP correctly stratified the risk associated to the different job tasks in patients with syncope. Unexpectedly, task #3 was given a risk similar to that obtained in drivers. This might be of paramount clinical and social importance when patients with syncope have to return to their job tasks.

  18. Genetic mutations of young patients admitted to an emergency department for syncope during sport practice.

    PubMed

    Gómez Alcaraz, Jorge; Bustamante, José; Corral, Ervigio; Casado Florez, Maria Isabel; Vivas, David; Cañadas-Godoy, Victoria; González Del Castillo, Juan; González Armengol, Juan Jorge; López-Farré, Antonio; Martín Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-25

    To study the frequency of genetic mutations related to genetic heart disease among young patients admitted for syncope during sport practice. A case series study that included patients≤45 years admitted for syncope during sport practice during 2010-2011. We collected demographic and clinical variables, genetic tests mutations and final clinical diagnosis. A genetic test was performed in 46 (76.7%) of 60 patients evaluated. The genetic test was positive in 12 (26%; 95% CI 15.6-40.3) patients; 10 (21.7%) had PKP2 mutation related to arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia mutation, one (2.2%) KCNQ1 mutation and one (2.2%) SCN5A mutation related to channelopathies. The genetic test was positive in 11 (35.5%) cases of undetermined syncope and one (50%) case of cardiac syncope, being negative in all cases with neuromediated syncopes (P=.037). Gene mutations are common in young patients suffering from syncope during sports, especially in those with cardiac or undetermined aetiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. An 88-year-old man with syncope and an alternating axis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Huang, Yen Shu; Yi, Zhong

    2016-05-15

    An 88-year-old man, admitted to the emergency room (ER) after three episodes of syncope within 1 day, reported a precursory of syndrome of light-headedness with rapid palpitations that led to an abrupt loss of consciousness. After undergoing percutaneous and surgical revascularisation, he started complaining of chest and back discomfort for the past 20 years and searching for help from Chinese medicine, Fuzi. He had history of chronic renal failure and heart failure, but denied neither taking digitalis nor having family history related to sudden death.On arrival, heart rate was 150 bpm and blood pressure (BP) by cuff was 91/81 mm Hg (non-invasive BP could not be accurately obtained during tachycardia) plus oedema on both lower extremities. There were diffuse crackles and indistinct heart sounds on auscultation.The admission ECG was performed in the ER (figure 1). His serum creatinine was 139.7 mmol/L, serum K(+) was 4.7 mmol/L, N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide was highly elevated (12 000 pg/mL) and troponin I was negative. What is the most likely diagnosis suggested based on the patient's ECG and history? Aconite poisoningDigitalis toxicityCatecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Acute and Recurrent Pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Acute and recurrent pericarditis is the most common pericardial syndrome encountered in clinical practice either as an isolated process or as part of a systemic disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography. The empiric therapy is based on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs plus colchicine as first choice, resorting to corticosteroids for specific indications (eg, systemic inflammatory disease on corticosteroids, pregnancy, renal failure, concomitant oral anticoagulants), for contraindications or failure of the first-line therapy. The most common complication is recurrence, occurring in up to 30% of cases after a first episode of pericarditis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Journal Club: Head CT scans in the emergency department for syncope and dizziness.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, Myles M; Yoon, Hyo-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the yield of acutely abnormal findings on head CT scans in patients presenting to the emergency department with dizziness, near-syncope, or syncope and to determine the clinical factors that potentially predicted acutely abnormal head CT findings and hospital admission. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients presenting to an HMO emergency department between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, who underwent head CT for a primary complaint of dizziness, syncope, or near-syncope. The primary outcomes were head CT scans with acutely abnormal findings and hospital admission. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between clinical variables and acute head CT findings and between clinical variables and hospital admission. Of the 253 patients who presented with dizziness, 7.1% had head CT scans with acutely abnormal findings, and 18.6% were admitted. Of the 236 patients who presented with syncope or near-syncope, 6.4% had head CT scans with acutely abnormal findings, and 39.8% were admitted. The following three clinical factors were found to be significantly correlated with acutely abnormal head CT findings: a focal neurologic deficit (p = 0.003), age greater than 60 years (p = 0.011), and acute head trauma (p = 0.026). Our results suggest that most patients presenting with syncope or dizziness to the emergency department may not benefit from head CT unless they are older, have a focal neurologic deficit, or have a history of recent head trauma.

  2. Sweat patterns differ between tilt-induced reflex syncope and tilt-induced anxiety among youth.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Geoffrey L; Harvey, Rebecca A; Islam, Monica P

    2016-08-01

    Profound sweating can occur with reflex-syncope and with emotional distress, but little is known about the similarities and differences between these sweat responses when they occur during orthostatic challenge. We sought to characterize and compare the sweat patterns related to tilt-induced syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal tilt testing. In a prospective observational study, quantitative sweat rate was measured from the abdomen, forearm, ankle, and thigh during head-upright tilt. Sweat characteristics were compared across tilt diagnoses of syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal testing. When anxiety and syncope/presyncope occurred during the same study (separated by ≥6 min), both were diagnosed. Our cohort comprised150 patients (15.1 ± 2.3 years; 82.9 % female) with 156 diagnoses: 76 with reflex-syncope, 31 with presyncope, 23 with anxiety, and 26 with normal results. All syncope/presyncope patients and 20 (87 %) of the anxiety patients had corresponding sweat responses. Minimal or negligible sweating occurred among patients with normal tests. Neither basal sweat (19.4 ± 4.7 versus 18.3 ± 3.7 versus 18.5 ± 3.7 nL/min/cm(2)) nor peak sweat (171 ± 47.4 versus 149.4 ± 64.4 versus 154.4 ± 59.2 nL/min/cm(2)) differed between patients with syncope, presyncope, or anxiety, p = .32 and p = .12, respectively. However, the qualitative sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope (diffuse, smoothly contoured, symmetrical, single peaks) differed considerably from the sweat patterns related to anxiety (heterogeneous, asymmetrical, roughly contoured single-peak, multi-peak, or progressive sweat changes). The sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope are distinguishable from the sweat patterns related to anxiety. Recognition of the different sweat patterns can inform how signs and symptoms are interpreted during clinical orthostatic challenge.

  3. [Controversies in the conduction and evaluation of clinical trials results for the treatment in vasovagal syncope].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-05-01

    The vasovagal syncope is a reflex reaction to various stimuli leading to the marked hypotension with or without bradycardia with loss of consciousness and fall of postural muscle tone. The vast majority of the patients recover spontaneously but if the syncope occurs frequently and causes injury of the patients body it worsens the quality of life and needs appropriate treatment. The injuries requiring hospitalization occur approximately in 10% of the patients with vasovagal syncope. The aim of the therapy of affected patients is to diminish the syncope prevalence, to brake the neurocardiogenic reaction on an early stage or to prolong the duration of the presyncope phase to enable the patient prevention of the injury. The lack of clear diagnostic criteria and difficulties with estimation the efficacy of any particular therapeutic intervention in many clinical studies of different authors, inclusion to the studies patients with different clinical presentation stages of the disease contribute to different conclusions, which automatic use in the clinical practice is inappropriate. There is an urgent need to clear the methodological discrepancies and to conduct good planed, large, randomized, multicentre studies to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic methods in the treatment of vasovagal syncope.

  4. [The usefullness of implantable loop recorders for evaluation of unexplained syncope and palpitations].

    PubMed

    Kristjánsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Reimarsdóttir, Guđrun; Arnar, Davíđ O

    2012-09-01

    Syncope is a common complaint and determining the underlying cause can be difficult despite extensive evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an implantable loop recorder for patients with unexplained syncope and palpitations. This was a retrospective analysis of 18 patients, five of whom still have the device implanted. All patients had undergone extensive evaluation for their symptoms before getting the loop recorder implanted and this was therefore a highly select group. Of the thirteen patients where use of the device was completed, the mean age was 65±20 years. The loop recorder was in use for a mean time of 20±13 months. Unexplained syncope, eleven of thirteen, was the most common indication. The other two received the loop recorder for unexplained palpitations. Four patients had sick sinus syndrome during monitoring, three had supraventricular tachycardia and one had ventricular tachycardia. Further three had typical symptoms but no arrhythmia was recorded and excluding that as a cause. Two patients had no symptoms the entire time they had the loop recorder. Of the five patients still with the device three had syncope as the indication for monitoring and two have the device as a means of evaluating the results of treatment for arrhythmia. This study on our initial experience with implantable loop recorders shows that these devices can be useful in the investigation of the causes of syncope and palpitations.

  5. [Features of daily rhythm of arterial pressure in patients with primary arterial hypertension and neurogenic syncope conditions].

    PubMed

    Musaeva, Z A; Oknin, V Iu; Khapaev, B A; Fedotova, A V; Veĭn, A M

    2002-01-01

    A comparative analysis of parameters of systemic BP in patients with primary arterial hypotension (PAH) and in patients with neurogenic syncopes (NS) in the cycle sleep-awake. Blood pressure was investigated in 20 patients with PAH aged 16-44 years and 18 patients with NS aged 16-49 years. 24-h ambulatory monitoring of BP was made on the monitor ABPM-02/M (Meditech, Hungary). Rhythm indices of BP in NS patients corresponded to age normal criteria. 24-h arrhythmia of BP in PAH patients manifests with excessive drop of diastolic BP in sleep (55% patients were overdippers). PAH and NS patients differ maximally by hypotonic load in sleep: 1.0 +/- 0.7% in NS vs 15.4 +/- 3.2% in PAH. Hypotonia episodes in awake PAH patients were registered at each 4th-5th measurement of BP, in NS patients--at each 11th-13th. Heart rate in awake PAH patients is higher than in healthy subjects. Hypotonic load in sleep carries the highest differentially-diagnostic importance. This makes more perspective examinations of such patients in the cycle sleep-awake. The changes observed in PAH patients evidence for activation of cerebral sympathico-adrenal systems participating in baroreflex regulation.

  6. Systematic review on the recurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after a first episode in the recovery room – implications for the treatment of PONV and related clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Leopold HJ; Frank, Silke; Lange, Henning; Morin, Astrid M; Scherag, André; Wulf, Hinnerk; Kranke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of a plethora of publications on the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) only little is known how to treat established symptoms. Besides the high effort of performing these efficacy trials (much more patients must give their consent than are actually included in a study) and ethical concerns, little is known about the rate of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo. As a consequence investigators will have difficulties defining a clinically relevant effect for the new treatment which is crucial for any planning. A quantitative systematic review was performed in order to provide more reliable estimates of the incidence of re-occurring PONV/vomiting after placebo and to help investigators defining a clinically relevant treatment effect. Methods A systematic search of the literature was performed using an extended search strategy of a previous review. Data on the recurrence of PONV (any nausea or emetic symptom) and vomiting (retching or vomiting) was extracted from published reports treating PONV with placebo and unpublished results from two observational trials where no treatment was given. A nonlinear random effects model was used to calculate estimates of the recurrence of symptoms and their 95%-confidence intervals (95%-CI). Results A total of 29 trials (including the unpublished data) were eligible for the calculations. Depending on the length of observation after administering placebo or no treatment the recurrence rate of PONV was between 65% (95%-CI: 53%...75%) and 84% (95%-CI: 73%...91%) and that of vomiting was between 65% (95%-CI: 44%...81%) and 78% (95%-CI: 59%...90%). Conclusion Almost all trials showed a considerable and consistently high rate of recurrence of emetic symptoms after placebo highlighting the need for a consequent antiemetic treatment. Future (placebo) controlled efficacy trials may use the presented empirical estimates for defining clinically relevant effects and for statistical power

  7. Clinical presentation of postnatal and non-postnatal depressive episodes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Carly; Jones, Lisa; Dunn, Emma; Forty, Liz; Haque, Sayeed; Oyebode, Femi; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Ian

    2007-09-01

    The relationship of postnatal (postpartum) depression (PND) to episodes of depression occurring at other times is not well understood. Despite a number of studies of clinical presentation, there is little consistency in the literature. We have undertaken within- and between-individual comparisons of the clinical presentation of postnatal (PN) and non-postnatal (NPN) depressive episodes in women with recurrent depression. In a sample of well-characterized, parous women meeting DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for recurrent major depressive disorder, the clinical presentation of episodes of major depression with onset within 4 weeks of giving birth (PND group, n=50) were compared with (i) the non-postnatal episodes of women with PND, and (ii) episodes of major depression in parous women who had not experienced episodes of mood disorder in relation to childbirth (NPND group, n=132). In addition, the non-postnatal episodes of the PND group of women were compared with the depressive episodes of the NPND group. The small number of differences found between PN and NPN depressive episodes, such as reduced early morning wakening in postnatal episodes, are likely to be explicable by the context of having a new baby rather than by any difference in the nature of the underlying depression. The results do not point to substantial differences in clinical presentation between episodes of major depression occurring in relation to childbirth and at other times. Other avenues of research are therefore required to demonstrate a specific relationship between childbirth and depression.

  8. Is ambulatory monitoring for "community-acquired" syncope economically attractive? A cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized trial of external loop recorders versus Holter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Marie Antoinette; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Klein, George J; Yee, Raymond; Skanes, Allan C; Gula, Lorne J; Krahn, Andrew D

    2005-11-01

    Out patient ambulatory monitoring is often performed in patients with syncope that present in the primary care setting to include or exclude an arrhythmia. The cost-effectiveness of 2 monitoring strategies was assessed in a prospective randomized trial. One hundred patients referred for ambulatory monitoring with syncope or presyncope were randomized to a 1-month external loop recorder (n = 49) or 48-hour Holter monitor (n = 51). Patients were offered crossover if there was failed activation or no symptom recurrence. The primary end point was symptom-rhythm correlation during monitoring. Direct costs were calculated based on the 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan fee schedule, combined with calculation of labor, materials, service, and overhead for diagnostic testing and related equipment. Before enrollment, the cost of all previous health care resource use was USD 472 +/- USD 397 (range USD 21-USD 1965). In the loop recorder group, 63% of patients had symptom recurrence and successful activation, compared with 24% in the Holter group (P < .0001). The cost per Holter was USD 177.64, and per loop recorder, USD 533.56, with a similar cost per diagnosis with the 2 techniques. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the loop recorder was USD 901.74 per extra successful diagnosis. A strategy of Holter followed by offered loop recorder trended toward lower cost than initial loop recorder followed by Holter (USD 481 +/- USD 267 vs USD 551 +/- USD 83, P = .08), but was associated with a lower overall diagnostic yield (49% vs 63%) and a resultant higher cost per diagnosis (USD 982 vs USD 871, P = .08). Bootstrapping suggested that 90% of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were less than USD 1250. Despite the increased upfront cost of external loop recorders, the marked improvement in diagnostic yield offsets the cost. External loop recorders are an economically attractive alternative. First-line use of external loop recorders in patients with "community

  9. A new, treatable source of recurrent meningitis: basioccipital meningocele.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, M; Freeman, J M; Martinez, C R; Nager, G T; Long, D M; Crumrine, P

    1982-12-01

    A 19-month-old boy suffered eight episodes of bacterial meningitis. During the ninth episode a meningocele of the basioccipital clivus communicating with the nasopharynx was discovered. Identification of the organism causing the episodes of meningitis was not helpful in pointing to the site of this congenital anatomic defect. Surgical closure of the defect has prevented further recurrences.

  10. Reflex syncope, anxiety level, and family history of cardiovascular disease in young women: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zyśko, D; Szewczuk-Bogusławska, M; Kaczmarek, M; Agrawal, A K; Rudnicki, J; Gajek, J; Melander, O; Sutton, R; Fedorowski, A

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is an emotion, which stimulates sympathetic nervous outflow potentially facilitating vasovagal reflex syncope (VVS) but reports on anxiety levels in patients with VVS are sparse. We studied anxiety levels in young women (21-40 years) referred for unexplained transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), and age-matched female controls with or without past history of TLOC (≈probable VVS). Referred patients underwent head-up tilt (HUT) according to current ESC Guidelines. State and Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire evaluated anxiety levels plus a questionnaire explored risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sixty-five of 91 women were diagnosed with VVS on HUT. Among 549 controls, 223 (40.6%) reported at least one episode of TLOC. State-anxiety level in patients with VVS undergoing HUT (42.4 ± 9.3) was higher compared with both controls with (38.3 ± 10.2; P < 0.01) and without past TLOC history (35.9 ± 9.8; P < 0.001). Trait anxiety in patients with VVS (42.7 ± 8.4), and controls with TLOC history (42.4 ± 8.4) was higher compared with controls without TLOC history (39.7 ± 8.5; P < 0.01). In the logistic regression using controls without TLOC as reference, both VVS diagnosis and past history of TLOC were associated with family history of CVD [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-4.4; P = 0.007, and 2.3, 1.4-3.6; P = 0.001, respectively], and this association was independent of anxiety level. Trait anxiety and family history of CVD are increased in both young women with VVS and controls with history of TLOC. However, the height of anxiety level does not explain CVD heredity and other mechanisms may link syncope with CVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Trial Protocol: A randomised controlled trial of extended anticoagulation treatment versus routine anticoagulation treatment for the prevention of recurrent VTE and post thrombotic syndrome in patients being treated for a first episode of unprovoked VTE (The ExACT Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism comprising pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis is a common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 per 1,000 per annum causing both mortality and serious morbidity. The principal aim of treatment of a venous thromboembolism with heparin and warfarin is to prevent extension or recurrence of clot. However, the recurrence rate following a deep vein thrombosis remains approximately 10% per annum following treatment cessation irrespective of the duration of anticoagulation therapy. Patients with raised D-dimer levels after discontinuing oral anticoagulation treatment have also been shown to be at high risk of recurrence. Post thrombotic syndrome is a complication of a deep vein thrombosis which can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and ulceration. It has a cumulative incidence after 2 years of around 25% and it has been suggested that extended oral anticoagulation should be investigated as a possible preventative measure. Methods/design Patients with a first idiopathic venous thromboembolism will be recruited through anticoagulation clinics and randomly allocated to either continuing or discontinuing warfarin treatment for a further 2 years and followed up on a six monthly basis. At each visit D-dimer levels will be measured using a Roche Cobas h 232 POC device. In addition a venous sample will be taken for laboratory D-dimer analysis at the end of the study. Patients will be examined for signs and symptoms of PTS using the Villalta scale and complete VEINES and EQ5D quality of life questionnaires. Discussion The primary aim of the study is to investigate whether extending oral anticoagulation treatment (prior to discontinuing treatment) beyond 3–6 months for patients with a first unprovoked proximal deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism prevents recurrence. The study will also determine the role of extending anticoagulation for patients with elevated D-dimer levels prior to discontinuing treatment and

  12. Recurrence risk of ictal asystole in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Kevin G; Thijs, Roland D; Elger, Christian E; Surges, Rainer

    2017-08-22

    To determine the recurrence risk of ictal asystole (IA) and its determining factors in people with epilepsy. We performed a systematic review of published cases with IA in 3 databases and additionally searched our local database for patients with multiple seizures simultaneously recorded with ECG and EEG and at least one IA. IA recurrence risk was estimated by including all seizures without knowledge of the chronological order. Various clinical features were assessed by an individual patient data meta-analysis. A random mixed effect logistic regression model was applied to estimate the average recurrence risk of IA. Plausibility of the calculated IA recurrence risk was checked by analyzing the local dataset with available information in chronological order. Eighty patients with 182 IA in 537 seizures were included. Recurrence risk of IA amounted to 40% (95% confidence interval [CI] 32%-50%). None of the clinical factors (age, sex, type and duration of epilepsy, hemispheric lateralization, duration of IA per patient) appeared to have a significant effect on the short-term recurrence risk of IA. When considering the local dataset only, IA recurrence risk was estimated to 30% (95% CI 14%-53%). Information whether IA coincided with symptoms (i.e., syncope) or not was given in 60 patients: 100 out of 142 IAs were symptomatic. Our data suggest that in case of clinically suspected IA, the recording of 1 or 2 seizures is not sufficient to rule out IA. Furthermore, the high short-term recurrence risk favors aggressive treatment, including pacemaker implantation if seizure freedom cannot be achieved. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Recurrent Kawasaki disease, United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Ryan A.; Holman, Robert C.; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S.; Guest, Jodie L.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Methods Data from the United States and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance (1984–2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001–2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared to non-recurrent KD patients. Results Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984–2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared to non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients experiencing a recurrent KD episode were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite IVIG treatment. Conclusions Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. PMID:26096590

  14. [Bipolar disorder: inter-episode symptoms].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J-M

    2012-12-01

    The importance of inter-episode symptoms in bipolar disorder can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century, at a time when the two fathers of the concept in France, Falret and Baillarger were opposed on the issue as to whether the presence of free intervals between the episodes had to be part or not of the disease's definition. Modern studies have reported rates between 50 and 68% for those symptoms which refer to subsyndromal manifestations present between affective episodes but that do not meet the required criteria for episodes definition. These manifestations comprise residual symptoms, prodromes, axis I comorbid psychiatric disorders, side effects of treatment, temperamental features, and comorbidity with personality disorders. Inter- episodes symptoms represent a risk factor for the occurrence of relapses and recurrences and are usually associated with impairments in functioning in almost all domains of psychosocial and family life. As they are easy to miss, it is important in clinical practice, to draw the attention of clinicians, patients and relatives to the role they have in the course of the illness. As far as their management, it may be crucial to achieve a full remission of the episodes, using adequate dosages of psychotropic drugs. Residual symptoms, prodromes as well as other inter-episode symptoms may respond to strategies based on cognitive-behaviour therapy, and/or psychoeducation. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Bedside heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP): Is an early predictive marker of cardiac syncope.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Ozturk, Derya; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Altinbilek, Ertugrul; Kavalci, Cemil; Durdu, Tamer; Hakbilir, Oktay; Turhan, Turan; Ongar, Murat

    2015-11-01

    To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope. The prospective study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between September 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, and comprised patients aged over 18 years who presented with syncope or presyncope. Patients presenting to emergency department within 4 hours of syncope or presyncope underwent a bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein test measurement. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 100 patients evaluated, 22(22%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Of them, 13(59.1%) patients had a positive and 9(40.9%) had a negative heart-type fatty acid binding protein result. Consequently, the test result was 12.64 times more positive in patients with cardiac syncope compared to those without. Bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein, particularly at early phase of myocardial injury, reduces diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainity of cardiac origin in syncope patients.

  16. Role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in risk stratification of adult syncope

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew J; Newby, David E; Coull, Andrew J; Jacques, Keith G; Prescott, Robin J; Gray, Alasdair J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To assess the value of a near‐patient brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test to predict medium term (3 month) serious outcome for adult syncope patients presenting to a UK emergency department (ED). Methods This was a prospective cohort pilot study. Consecutive patients aged ⩾16 years presenting with syncope over a 3 month period were eligible for prospective enrolment. All patients who were medium or high risk according to our ED's existing syncope guidelines underwent near‐patient BNP testing using the Triage point of care machine. Results 99 patients were recruited. 72 of 82 high and medium risk patients underwent BNP measurement. 11 patients had a serious outcome, 9 of whom had BNP measured. In 25 (35%) patients, BNP was ⩾100 pg/ml, and in 3 of these it was >1000 pg/ml. 6 of the 25 patients (24%) with a BNP >100 pg/ml, and all 3 patients with a BNP >1000 pg/ml, were in the serious outcome group. BNP was raised over 100 pg/ml in 6 of the 9 serious outcome patients having a BNP measured (66%), and over 1000 pg/ml in 3 (33%). Conclusions This early work suggests that BNP may have a role in the risk assessment of syncope patients in the ED. Further work is required to see how BNP interacts with other clinical variables. Near‐patient BNP testing may be shown to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome either alone or incorporated into existing syncope clinical decision rules and scores in order to improve their sensitivity and specificity. Further studies are required to evaluate this. PMID:17954830

  17. Recurrent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J., Ed.

    The volume presents 24 papers deriving from the March 1973, Georgetown University Conference of Recurrent Education, the first major meeting on recurrent education to be held in the United States. The conference findings underscore the many problems and issues favoring greater flexibility in the timing of education and educational systems that…

  18. Recurrent Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jon; Galen, Benjamin T

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent meningitis is a rare clinical scenario that can be self-limiting or life threatening depending on the underlying etiology. This review describes the causes, risk factors, treatment, and prognosis for recurrent meningitis. As a general overview of a broad topic, the aim of this review is to provide clinicians with a comprehensive differential diagnosis to aide in the evaluation and management of a patient with recurrent meningitis. New developments related to understanding the pathophysiology of recurrent meningitis are as scarce as studies evaluating the treatment and prevention of this rare disorder. A trial evaluating oral valacyclovir suppression after HSV-2 meningitis did not demonstrate a benefit in preventing recurrences. The data on prophylactic antibiotics after basilar skull fractures do not support their use. Intrathecal trastuzumab has shown promise in treating leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from HER-2 positive breast cancer. Monoclonal antibodies used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases are new potential causes of drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Despite their potential for causing recurrent meningitis, the clinical entities reviewed herein are not frequently discussed together given that they are a heterogeneous collection of unrelated, rare diseases. Epidemiologic data on recurrent meningitis are lacking. The syndrome of recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis described by Mollaret in 1944 was later found to be closely related to HSV-2 reactivation, but HSV-2 is by no means the only etiology of recurrent aseptic meningitis. While the mainstay of treatment for recurrent meningitis is supportive care, it is paramount to ensure that reversible and treatable causes have been addressed for further prevention.

  19. [Syncope, transient ischemic attacks, transient global amnesia and migraine].

    PubMed

    Hartl, E

    2017-10-01

    Epileptic seizures can manifest with a variety of clinical symptoms. Depending on the dominant symptom, several differential diagnoses have to be considered. Their differentiation can be challenging, especially after the first episode. The review article summarizes the most common differential diagnoses as well as their characteristics compared to epileptic seizures, aiming at providing guidelines for their clinical differentiation. Whenever a clear diagnosis is not possible based on the patient history and clinical signs, diagnostic evaluation with, e. g. an electroencephalogram (EEG) and finally EEG video monitoring can be helpful.

  20. Neuronal Antibody Biomarkers for Sydenham’s Chorea Identify a New Group of Children with Chronic Recurrent Episodic Acute Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms Following a Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Harvey S.; Mascaro-Blanco, Adda; Alvarez, Kathy; Morris-Berry, Christina; Kawikova, Ivana; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Thompson, Carol B.; Ali, Syed F.; Kaplan, Edward L.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    2015-01-01

    Several autoantibodies (anti-dopamine 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R) receptors, anti-tubulin, anti-lysoganglioside-GM1) and antibody-mediated activation of calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling activity are elevated in children with Sydenham’s chorea (SC). Recognizing proposed clinical and autoimmune similarities between SC and PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with a streptococcal infection), we sought to identify serial biomarker changes in a slightly different population. Antineuronal antibodies were measured in eight children (mean 11.3 years) with chronic, dramatic, recurrent tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) associated with a group A β-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) respiratory tract infection, but differing because they lacked choreiform movements. Longitudinal serum samples in most subjects included two pre-exacerbation samples, Exac), one midst Exac (abrupt recurrence of tic/OCD; temporally association with a GABHS infection in six of eight subjects), and two post-Exac. Controls included four groups of unaffected children (n = 70; mean 10.8 years) obtained at four different institutions and published controls. Clinical exacerbations were not associated with a significant rise in antineuronal antibody titers. CaMKII activation was increased at the GABHS exacerbation point in 5/6 subjects, exceeded combined and published control’s 95th percentile at least once in 7/8 subjects, and median values were elevated at each time point. Anti-tubulin and anti-D2R titers did not differ from published or combined control group’s 95th percentile or median values. Differences in anti-lysoganglioside-GM1 and anti-D1R titers were dependent on the selected control. Variances in antibody titers and CaMKII activation were identified among the institutional control groups. Based on comparisons to published studies, results identify two groups of PANDAS: 1) a cohort, represented by this study, which lacks

  1. Risk of Recurrence of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tatiane; Mills, Kathryn; Brown, Benjamin T; Herbert, Robert D; Maher, Christopher G; Hancock, Mark J

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background While most people with acute low back pain (LBP) recover quickly, recurrences are believed to be common. To our knowledge, no published high-quality systematic review has assessed the risk of recurrent LBP or the factors that would predict LBP recurrence. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of, and prognostic factors for, a recurrence of LBP in patients who have recovered from a previous episode of LBP within the last year. Methods Systematic searches were conducted in the MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases. We included longitudinal studies of adults who had recovered from a previous episode of LBP within 12 months. The primary outcome was a new episode of LBP. Secondary outcomes were other types of recurrence (eg, episodes causing care seeking). Results Eight studies were included in the review: 7 observational studies and 1 randomized trial (2 publications). Six studies reported recurrence proportions for the primary outcome of an episode of LBP. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the low quality and heterogeneity of studies. Only 1 study was considered an inception cohort study; it reported a 1-year recurrence proportion of 33%. A history of previous episodes of LBP prior to the most recent episode was the only factor that consistently predicted recurrence of LBP. Conclusion The available research does not provide robust estimates of the risk of LBP recurrence and provides little information about factors that predict recurrence in people recently recovered from an episode of LBP. Level of Evidence Prognosis, 1a-. Prospectively registered in PROSPERO on February 9, 2016 (CRD42016030220). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(5):305-313. Epub 29 Mar 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7415.

  2. Interventions for recurrent corneal erosions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stephanie L; Lee, Ming-Han H; Barker, Nigel H

    2012-09-12

    Recurrent corneal erosion is a common cause of disabling ocular symptoms and predisposes the cornea to infection. It may follow corneal trauma. Measures to prevent the development of recurrent corneal erosion following corneal trauma have not been firmly established. Once recurrent corneal erosion develops simple medical therapy (standard treatment) may lead to resolution of the episode. However, some patients continue to suffer when such therapy fails and once resolved further episodes of recurrent erosion may occur. A number of treatment and prophylactic options are then available but there is no agreement as to the best option. To assess the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic and treatment regimens for recurrent corneal erosion. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 June 2012. We also contacted researchers in the field. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared a prophylactic or treatment regimen with another prophylaxis/treatment or no prophylaxis/treatment for patients with recurrent corneal erosion. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Seven randomised and one quasi-randomised controlled trial were included in the review. The trials were heterogenous and of poor quality. Safety data presented were incomplete. For the treatment of recurrent

  3. Soluble donor HLA class I and beta 2m-free heavy chain in serum of lung transplant recipients: steady-state levels and increases in patients with recurrent CMV infection, acute rejection episodes, and poor outcome.

    PubMed

    DeVito-Haynes, L D; Jankowska-Gan, E; Meyer, K C; Cornwell, R D; Zeevi, A; Griffith, B; Dauber, J; Iacono, A; Burlingham, W J; Love, R B

    2000-12-01

    We determined the concentration of donor sHLA/beta(2)m and total beta(2)m-free heavy chain (HC) in the serum of lung transplant recipients with ELISA assays. While we were unable to detect specific donor beta(2)m-free HCs due to a lack of available antibodies, we could determine if events that led to an increase in the release of beta(2)m-free HC also led to an increase in the release of donor sHLA/beta(2)m, particularly the 36 kDa, proteolytically cleaved form. We found that lung transplants constituitively release donor sHLA/beta(2)m at ng/ml levels. The levels (both of donor sHLA/beta(2)m and total beta(2)m-free HC) were significantly increased in CMV-sero-negative recipients (but not in CMV-sero-positive recipients) at the onset of post-transplant CMV disease. Acute rejection episodes were also associated with an increased release of donor sHLA/beta(2)m, but not of beta(2)m-free HC. However, in patients with particularly poor outcome (i.e., graft loss within 1 year) there was a significant release of beta(2)m-free HC. Analysis of one such patient showed a predominance of 36 kDa forms of donor-sHLA/beta(2)m. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the metalloproteinase that cleaves beta(2)m-free HC is active during uncontrolled CMV infection and acute rejection. However, recall responses to CMV and controlled immune responses to donor may result in little or no activation of sHLA class I release.

  4. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  5. Comparison of different risk stratification systems in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Motamedi, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining etiologic causes and prognosis can significantly improve management of syncope patients. The present study aimed to compare the values of San Francisco, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL), Boston, and Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department (ROSE) score clinical decision rules in predicting the short-term serious outcome of syncope patients. Materials and Methods: The present diagnostic accuracy study with 1-week follow-up was designed to evaluate the predictive values of the four mentioned clinical decision rules. Screening performance characteristics of each model in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) were calculated and compared. To evaluate the value of each aforementioned model in predicting the outcome, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated and receiver-operating curve (ROC) curve analysis was done. Results: A total of 187 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 17.2 years) were enrolled in the study. Mortality, MI, and CVA were seen in 19 (10.2%), 12 (6.4%), and 36 (19.2%) patients, respectively. Area under the ROC curve for OESIL, San Francisco, Boston, and ROSE models in prediction the risk of 1-week mortality, MI, and CVA was in the 30–70% range, with no significant difference among models (P > 0.05). The pooled model did not show higher accuracy in prediction of mortality, MI, and CVA compared to others (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed the weakness of all four evaluated models in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients referred to the emergency department without any significant advantage for one among others. PMID:27904602

  6. Comparison of different risk stratification systems in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients.

    PubMed

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Motamedi, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    Determining etiologic causes and prognosis can significantly improve management of syncope patients. The present study aimed to compare the values of San Francisco, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL), Boston, and Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department (ROSE) score clinical decision rules in predicting the short-term serious outcome of syncope patients. The present diagnostic accuracy study with 1-week follow-up was designed to evaluate the predictive values of the four mentioned clinical decision rules. Screening performance characteristics of each model in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) were calculated and compared. To evaluate the value of each aforementioned model in predicting the outcome, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated and receiver-operating curve (ROC) curve analysis was done. A total of 187 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 17.2 years) were enrolled in the study. Mortality, MI, and CVA were seen in 19 (10.2%), 12 (6.4%), and 36 (19.2%) patients, respectively. Area under the ROC curve for OESIL, San Francisco, Boston, and ROSE models in prediction the risk of 1-week mortality, MI, and CVA was in the 30-70% range, with no significant difference among models ( P > 0.05). The pooled model did not show higher accuracy in prediction of mortality, MI, and CVA compared to others ( P > 0.05). This study revealed the weakness of all four evaluated models in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients referred to the emergency department without any significant advantage for one among others.

  7. The durations of past sickness absences predict future absence episodes.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; He, Liang; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether preceding absence episodes increase the risk of future sickness absence, we examined recurrence of short (1 to 3 days), intermediate (4 to 14 days), and long (>2 weeks) sickness-absence episodes. Data from 6934 municipal employees of the City of Helsinki were analyzed using proportional hazards models. Preceding sickness absence increased the risk of new sickness-absence episodes. The association was stronger for longer sickness absence spells and for men. Shorter absence spells also predicted longer absence spells. Working conditions and health behaviors did not modify the associations. The risk of recurrent sickness absences is higher for longer sickness-absence spells, which are often recurrent in nature. In addition, short absence spells predict future longer spells, suggesting that short absences are not trivial for health.

  8. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Natalie; Shields, Robert W.; Cremer, Paul; Rodriguez, L. Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS. PMID:29850268

  9. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope: A Hidden Case of Obstructive Cardiomyopathy without Severe Septal Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mayuga, Kenneth A; Ho, Natalie; Shields, Robert W; Cremer, Paul; Rodriguez, L Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    A 36-year-old female with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and syncope was diagnosed with vasovagal syncope on a tilt table test and with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after a repeat tilt table test. However, an echocardiogram at our institution revealed obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy, with a striking increase in left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 7 mmHg at rest to 75 mmHg during Valsalva, with a septal thickness of only 1.3 cm. Cardiac MRI showed an apically displaced multiheaded posteromedial papillary muscle with suggestion of aberrant chordal attachments to the anterior mitral leaflet contributing to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. She underwent surgery with reorientation of the posterior medial papillary muscle head, resection of the tethering secondary chordae to the A1 segment of the mitral valve, chordal shortening and tacking of the chordae to the A1 and A2 segments of the mitral valve, and gentle septal myectomy. After surgery, she had significant improvement in her prior symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of obstructive cardiomyopathy without severe septal hypertrophy with abnormalities in papillary muscle and chordal attachment, in a patient diagnosed with vasovagal syncope and POTS.

  10. Head up tilt test in the diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Udani, Vrajesh; Bavdekar, Manisha; Karia, Samir

    2004-06-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common paroxysmal disorder that is often misdiagnosed as a seizure disorder. Head up tilt test (HUTT) has been used to confirm this diagnosis. There is no data available of its use in children / adolescents from India. To study the usefulness of the HUTT in children and adolescents with suspected NCS. This was a part retrospective and later prospective study set in a tertiary child neurology outpatient department (OPD). Patients with a strong clinical suspicion of syncope were recruited for the study. Clinical and treatment details were either retrieved from the chart or prospectively recorded in later patients. The HUTT was then carried out at baseline and after provocation and the results correlated with the clinical diagnosis. Eighteen children with a mean age of 10.8 years were studied. Eight had precipitating factors. Thirteen had premonitory symptoms. Pallor, temperature change, diaphoresis, headache, tonic / clonic movements, post-ictal confusion and peri-ictal headache were symptoms noticed. Sixteen had a positive HUTT. Seven were on long-term anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Two had epileptiform abnormalities on their electroencephalogram (EEG). The diagnosis of syncope is often confused with epilepsy. Head up tilt test has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of NCS in children / adolescents. It is fairly safe and easy to perform.

  11. Standardized reporting guidelines for emergency department syncope risk-stratification research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Benjamin C; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Cruz, Jeffrey Dela

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing research interest in the risk stratification of emergency department (ED) syncope patients. A major barrier to comparing and synthesizing existing research is wide variation in the conduct and reporting of studies. The authors wanted to create standardized reporting guidelines for ED syncope risk-stratification research using an expert consensus process. In that pursuit, a panel of syncope researchers was convened and a literature review was performed to identify candidate reporting guideline elements. Candidate elements were grouped into four sections: eligibility criteria, outcomes, electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, and predictors. A two-round, modified Delphi consensus process was conducted using an Internet-based survey application. In the first round, candidate elements were rated on a five-point Likert scale. In the second round, panelists rerated items after receiving information about group ratings from the first round. Items that were rated by >80% of the panelists at the two highest levels of the Likert scale were included in the final guidelines. There were 24 panelists from eight countries who represented five clinical specialties. The panel identified an initial set of 183 candidate elements. After two survey rounds, the final reporting guidelines included 92 items that achieved >80% consensus. These included 10 items for study eligibility, 23 items for outcomes, nine items for ECG abnormalities, and 50 items for candidate predictors. Adherence to these guidelines should facilitate comparison of future research in this area. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpartum thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis could occur closely to each other; however, the link between these disorders is not well established. This report is to remind physicians of the possibility of recurrent silent thyroiditis in women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis. PMID:24987536

  13. Children's episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Lee, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Episodic memory develops during childhood and adolescence. This trajectory depends on several underlying processes. In this article, we first discuss the development of the basic binding processes (e.g., the processes by which elements are bound together to form a memory episode) and control processes (e.g., reasoning and metamemory processes) involved in episodic remembering. Then, we discuss the role of these processes in false-memory formation. In the subsequent sections, we examine the neural substrates of the development of episodic memory. Finally, we discuss atypical development of episodic memory. As we proceed through the article, we suggest potential avenues for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 365-373 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.114 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Population-Based Cohort Study Evaluating Outcomes and Costs for Syncope Presentations to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Roopinder K; Tran, Dat T; Sheldon, Robert S; Kaul, Padma

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to examine outcomes and costs of patients with syncope admitted and discharged from the emergency department (ED). ED visits for syncope are common, yet the impact on health care utilization is relatively unknown. A total of 51,831 consecutive patients presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of syncope (International Classification of Diseases-9 code 780.2 and International Classification of Diseases-10 code R55) in Alberta, Canada from 2006 to 2014. Outcomes included 30-day syncope ED and hospital readmissions; 30-day and 1-year mortality; and annual inpatient, outpatient, physician, and drug costs, cumulative. Of adults presenting to the ED, 6.6% were hospitalized and discharged with a primary diagnosis of syncope (Cohort 1), 8.7% were hospitalized and discharged with a primary diagnosis other than syncope (Cohort 2), and 84.7% were discharged home with a syncope diagnosis (Cohort 3). The 30-day ED revisits for syncope varied from 1.2% (Cohort 2) to 2.4% (Cohort 1) (p < 0.001), and readmission rates were <1% among cohorts. Short- and long-term mortality rates were highest for Cohort 2 and lowest for Cohort 3 (30-day mortality: Cohort 1 of 1.2%, Cohort 2 of 5.2%, Cohort 3 of 0.4%; p < 0.001) (1-year mortality: Cohort 1 of 9.2%, Cohort 2 of 17.7%, Cohort 3 of 3.0%; p < 0.001). Total cost of syncope presentations was $530.6 million (Cohort 1: $75.3 million; $29,519/patient, Cohort 2: $138.1 million; $42,042/patient, Cohort 3: $317.3 million; $9,963/patient; p<0.001). Most patients with syncope presenting to the ED were discharged and had a favorable prognosis but overall costs were high compared with patients hospitalized. Further research is needed for cost-saving strategies across all cohorts. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrent Bleeding After Perimesencephalic Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-12-01

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only 1 well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. We describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. To validate the radiologic findings, we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and 2 neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had 2 episodes after the onset headache with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CT scans of 8 patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have 2 episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on 2 subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, the prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recurrent novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent novae seem to be a rather inhomogeneous group: T CrB is a binary with a M III companion; U Sco probably has a late dwarf as companion. Three are fast novae; two are slow novae. Some of them appear to have normal chemical composition; others may present He and CNO excess. Some present a mass-loss that is lower by two orders of magnitude than classical novae. However, our sample is too small for saying whether there are several classes of recurrent novae, which may be related to the various classes of classical novae, or whether the low mass-loss is a general property of the class or just a peculiarity of one member of the larger class of classical novae and recurrent novae.

  17. Recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, M; Battaglia, A; Gaido, L; Gaita, F

    2017-05-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is the most troublesome complication of pericarditis occurring in 15 to 30% of cases. The pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated although a specific rheumatologic diagnosis is commonly difficult to find. The clinical diagnosis is based on recurrent pericarditis chest pain and additional objective evidence of disease activity (e.g. pericardial rub, ECG changes, pericardial effusion, elevation of markers of inflammation, and/or imaging evidence of pericardial inflammation by CT or cardiac MR). The mainstay of medical therapy for recurrent pericarditis is aspirin or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) plus colchicine. Second-line therapy is considered after failure of such treatments and it is generally based on low to moderate doses of corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg/day or equivalent) plus colchicine. More difficult cases are treated with combination of aspirin or NSAID, colchicine and corticosteroids. Refractory cases are managed by alternative medical options, including azathioprine, or intravenous human immunoglobulins or biological agents (e.g. anakinra). When all medical therapies fail, the last option may be surgical by pericardiectomy to be recommended in well-experienced centres. Despite a significant impairment of the quality of life, the most common forms of recurrent pericarditis (usually named as "idiopathic recurrent pericarditis" since without a well-defined etiological diagnosis) have good long-term outcomes with a negligible risk of developing constriction and rarely cardiac tamponade during follow-up. The present article reviews current knowledge on the definition, diagnosis, aetiology, therapy and prognosis of recurrent pericarditis with a focus on the more recent available literature. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Recurrent Kawasaki disease: USA and Japan.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Ryan A; Holman, Robert C; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S; Guest, Jodie L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Data from the USA and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance(1984-2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001-2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared with non-recurrent KD patients. Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984-2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared with non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients [with recurrent KD] were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite i.v. immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    Around 40-50% of women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime and 20-30% of these have a recurrence within 3-4 months of the initial infection.¹ Recurrent UTI (usually defined as three episodes in the last 12 months or two episodes in the last 6 months) can have a considerable impact on a woman's quality of life. Each episode of acute UTI in young women is typically associated with about 6 days of symptoms, 2.4 days of restricted activities and 0.4 days of bed rest.¹ Antibacterial prophylaxis is effective in preventing recurrent episodes, but at the expense of unwanted effects and a risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Here we assess the efficacy of different antibacterial regimens and non-antibacterial alternatives (cranberry, probiotics, oestrogens, immunostimulation, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin, acupuncture and herbs) in the prevention of recurrent uncomplicated UTIs in women.

  20. Measuring quality of care in syncope: case definition affects reported electrocardiogram use but does not bias reporting.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Jeremiah D; Justice, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to calculate agreement between syncope as a reason for visiting (RFV) an emergency department (ED) and as a discharge diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9]), to determine whether syncope case definition biases reported electrocardiogram (ECG) usage, a national quality measure. The authors analyzed the ED portion of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), 1993-2004, for patients age >or=18 years. A visit was defined as being for syncope if it received one of three RFV or ICD-9 codes. Agreement between RFV and ICD-9 codes was calculated, and the percentages of syncope patients (RFV vs. ICD-9) who had an ECG were compared using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression. Raw agreement between syncope as an RFV and as an ICD-9 diagnosis code was 30.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 32.6% to 35.5%), representing only moderate agreement beyond chance (kappa = 0.50). ECG utilization was lower among visits defined by RFV (64.1%; 95% CI = 62.0% to 66.3%) than for ICD-9 diagnosis (73.6%; 95% CI = 71.4% to 75.8%). There was no meaningful variation in adjusted ECG use by patient, visit, or hospital characteristics between case definitions. Adjusted ECG use was lower under both case definitions among female patients and discharged patients and increased with age (p < 0.05). Despite only moderate agreement, syncope case definition should not bias reported ECG rate by patient, visit, or hospital characteristics. Among ED patients with syncope, ECG is performed less frequently in women, a potentially important disparity.

  1. Blood pressure regulation X: what happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope.

    PubMed

    Halliwill, John R; Sieck, Dylan C; Romero, Steven A; Buck, Tahisha M; Ely, Matthew R

    2014-03-01

    Syncope which occurs suddenly in the setting of recovery from exercise, known as post-exercise syncope, represents a failure of integrative physiology during recovery from exercise. We estimate that between 50 and 80% of healthy individuals will develop pre-syncopal signs and symptoms if subjected to a 15-min head-up tilt following exercise. Post-exercise syncope is most often neurally mediated syncope during recovery from exercise, with a combination of factors associated with post-exercise hypotension and loss of the muscle pump contributing to the onset of the event. One can consider the initiating reduction in blood pressure as the tip of the proverbial iceberg. What is needed is a clear model of what lies under the surface; a model that puts the observational variations in context and provides a rational framework for developing strategic physical or pharmacological countermeasures to ultimately protect cerebral perfusion and avert loss of consciousness. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of post-exercise syncope and attempts to categorize the variation of the physiological processes that arise in multiple exercise settings. Newer investigations into the basic integrative physiology of recovery from exercise provide insight into the mechanisms and potential interventions that could be developed as countermeasures against post-exercise syncope. While physical counter maneuvers designed to engage the muscle pump and augment venous return are often found to be beneficial in preventing a significant drop in blood pressure after exercise, countermeasures that target the respiratory pump and pharmacological countermeasures based on the involvement of histamine receptors show promise.

  2. Alterations of brain network hubs in reflex syncope: Evidence from a graph theoretical analysis based on DTI.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Jin-Han; Kim, Il Hwan; Park, Si Hyung; Lee, Ho-Joon; Park, Kang Min

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated global topology and organization of regional hubs in the brain networks and microstructural abnormalities in the white matter of patients with reflex syncope. Twenty patients with reflex syncope and thirty healthy subjects were recruited, and they underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. Graph theory was applied to obtain network measures based on extracted DTI data, using DSI Studio. We then investigated differences in the network measures between the patients with reflex syncope and the healthy subjects. We also analyzed microstructural abnormalities of white matter using tract-based spatial statistics analysis (TBSS). Measures of global topology were not different between patients with reflex syncope and healthy subjects. However, in reflex syncope patients, the strength measures of the right angular, left inferior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, left superior medial frontal, and left middle temporal gyrus were lower than in healthy subjects. The betweenness centrality measures of the left middle orbitofrontal, left fusiform, and left lingual gyrus in patients were lower than those in healthy subjects. The PageRank centrality measures of the right angular, left middle orbitofrontal, and left superior medial frontal gyrus in patients were lower than those in healthy subjects. Regarding the analysis of the white matter microstructure, there were no differences in the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values between the two groups. We have identified a reorganization of network hubs in the brain network of patients with reflex syncope. These alterations in brain network may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying reflex syncope. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Blood pressure regulation X: What happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope

    PubMed Central

    Halliwill, John R.; Sieck, Dylan C.; Romero, Steven A.; Buck, Tahisha M.; Ely, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Syncope which occurs suddenly in the setting of recovery from exercise, known as post-exercise syncope, represents a failure of integrative physiology during recovery from exercise. We estimate that between 50 and 80% of healthy individuals will develop pre-syncopal signs and symptoms if subjected to a 15-min head-up tilt following exercise. Post-exercise syncope is most often neurally mediated syncope during recovery from exercise, with a combination of factors associated with post-exercise hypotension and loss of the muscle pump contributing to the onset of the event. One can consider the initiating reduction in blood pressure as the tip of the proverbial iceberg. What is needed is a clear model of what lies under the surface; a model that puts the observational variations in context and provides a rational framework for developing strategic physical or pharmacological countermeasures to ultimately protect cerebral perfusion and avert loss of consciousness. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of post-exercise syncope and attempts to categorize the variation of the physiological processes that arise in multiple exercise settings. Newer investigations into the basic integrative physiology of recovery from exercise provide insight into the mechanisms and potential interventions that could be developed as countermeasures against post-exercise syncope. While physical counter maneuvers designed to engage the muscle pump and augment venous return are often found to be beneficial in preventing a significant drop in blood pressure after exercise, countermeasures that target the respiratory pump and pharmacological countermeasures based on the involvement of histamine receptors show promise. PMID:24197081

  4. Regional Implementation of a Pediatric Cardiology Syncope Algorithm Using Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPS) Methodology.

    PubMed

    Paris, Yvonne; Toro-Salazar, Olga H; Gauthier, Naomi S; Rotondo, Kathleen M; Arnold, Lucy; Hamershock, Rose; Saudek, David E; Fulton, David R; Renaud, Ashley; Alexander, Mark E

    2016-02-19

    Pediatric syncope is common. Cardiac causes are rarely found. We describe and assess a pragmatic approach to these patients first seen by a pediatric cardiologist in the New England region, using Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). Ambulatory patients aged 7 to 21 years initially seen for syncope at participating New England Congenital Cardiology Association practices over a 2.5-year period were evaluated using a SCAMP. Findings were iteratively analyzed and the care pathway was revised. The vast majority (85%) of the 1254 patients had typical syncope. A minority had exercise-related or more problematic symptoms. Guideline-defined testing identified one patient with cardiac syncope. Syncope Severity Scores correlated well between physician and patient perceived symptoms. Orthostatic vital signs were of limited use. Largely incidental findings were seen in 10% of ECGs and 11% of echocardiograms. The 10% returning for follow-up, by design, reported more significant symptoms, but did not have newly recognized cardiac disease. Iterative analysis helped refine the approach. SCAMP methodology confirmed that the vast majority of children referred to the outpatient pediatric cardiology setting had typical low-severity neurally mediated syncope that could be effectively evaluated in a single visit using minimal resources. A simple scoring system can help triage patients into treatment categories. Prespecified criteria permitted the effective diagnosis of the single patient with a clear cardiac etiology. Patients with higher syncope scores still have a very low risk of cardiac disease, but may warrant attention. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Dementia Medications and Risk of Falls, Syncope, and Related Adverse Events Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Brown, Rebecca T.; Ding, Eric L.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Berry, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists on whether cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine increase the risk of falls, syncope, and related events, defined as fracture and accidental injury. Objectives To evaluate the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine on the risk of falls, syncope, and related events Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention Meta-analysis of 54 placebo-controlled randomized trials and extension studies of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine that reported falls, syncope, and related events in cognitively impaired older adults. Trials were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (no language restriction, through July 2009), and manual search. Measurements Falls, syncope, fracture, and accidental injury Results Compared to placebo, cholinesterase inhibitor use was associated with an increased risk of syncope (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.53 [1.02-2.30]), but not with other events (falls: 0.88 [0.74-1.04]; fracture: 1.39 [0.75-2.56]; accidental injury: 1.13 [0.87-1.45]). Memantine use was associated with fewer fractures (0.21 [0.05-0.85]), but not with other events (fall: 0.92 [0.72-1.18]; syncope: 1.04 [0.35-3.04]; accidental injury: 0.80 [0.56-1.12]). There was no differential effect by type and severity of cognitive impairment, residential status, nor length of follow-up. However, due to underreporting and small number of events, a potential benefit or risk cannot be excluded. Conclusion Cholinesterase inhibitors may increase the risk of syncope, with no effects on falls, fracture, and accidental injury in cognitively impaired older adults. Memantine may have a favorable effect on fracture, with no effects on other events. More research is needed to confirm the reduction in fractures observed for memantine. PMID:21649634

  6. Attributable inpatient costs of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Dubberke, Erik R; Schaefer, Eric; Reske, Kimberly A; Zilberberg, Marya; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Olsen, Margaret A

    2014-11-01

    To determine the attributable inpatient costs of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Retrospective cohort study. Academic, urban, tertiary care hospital. A total of 3,958 patients aged 18 years or more who developed an initial CDI episode from 2003 through 2009. Data were collected electronically from hospital administrative databases and were supplemented with chart review. Patients with an index CDI episode during the study period were followed up for 180 days from the end of their index hospitalization or the end of their index CDI antibiotic treatment (whichever occurred later). Total hospital costs during the outcome period for patients with recurrent versus a single episode of CDI were analyzed using zero-inflated lognormal models. There were 421 persons with recurrent CDI (recurrence rate, 10.6%). Recurrent CDI case patients were significantly more likely than persons without recurrence to have any hospital costs during the outcome period (P < .001). The estimated attributable cost of recurrent CDI was $11,631 (95% confidence interval, $8,937-$14,588). The attributable costs of recurrent CDI are considerable. Patients with recurrent CDI are significantly more likely to have inpatient hospital costs than patients who do not develop recurrences. Better strategies to predict and prevent CDI recurrences are needed.

  7. Recurrent Pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Gribaudo, Elena; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    Recurrent pericarditis is the most common and troublesome complication of pericarditis affecting 20% to 50% of patients. Its pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated, but additional investigations are needed to clarify the pathogenesis in order to develop etiology-oriented therapies. Imaging with computed tomography and especially cardiac magnetic resonance holds promise to help in the identification of more difficult cases and improve their management. Refractory recurrent pericarditis with corticosteroid dependence and colchicine resistance remain still an unsolved issue in search of new therapies, although old drugs such as azathioprine, intravenous immunoglobulins, and biological agents seem promising, but new randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm their role. Despite compromising the quality of life, idiopathic recurrent pericarditis has an overall good long-term outcome without mortality and significant risk of constrictive pericarditis evolution. The risk of constriction, the most feared complication, is related to the etiology and not the number of recurrences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of cardiac disease and observations on lack of potential predictors by clinical history among children presenting for cardiac evaluation of mid-exertional syncope.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Christina Y; Motonaga, Kara S; Fischer-Colbrie, Megan E; Chen, Liyuan; Hanisch, Debra G; Balise, Raymond R; Kim, Jeffrey J; Dubin, Anne M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes. Study design We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded. A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis. Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.

  9. RECURRENCE RATES OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Braakenburg, Arthur M.D.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Holland, Gary N.; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16–42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incident rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk of recurrence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. Youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. Incident rate ratios for pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under two different approaches, but ratios were not significantly different from the null value (p-values of 0.16 and 0.55). Conclusions Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are likely not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. PMID:24412127

  10. Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Braakenburg, Arthur M D; Crespi, Catherine M; Holland, Gary N; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy in women of childbearing age. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16-42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incidence rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus nonpregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk for recurrence. Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. The youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; the oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. The incidence-rate ratios for pregnant versus nonpregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under 2 different approaches, but the ratios were not significantly different from the null value (P values of 0.16 and 0.55). Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are probably not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Identifying clinical risk factors in recurrent idiopathic deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos

    2016-03-18

    Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (P<.20) and an analysis of Kaplan-Meier to establish mean recurrence-free survival. We identified 91 episodes of residual vein thrombosis on follow-up of the patients (37.5% men and 20.3% women) (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.25-2.71). In the Cox regression analysis stratified by gender, variables showed significant presence of hyperechoic thrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Case report of vasovagal syncope associated with single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation in a healthy adult participant.

    PubMed

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Rich, Tonya; Chen, Mo; Meekins, Gregg D

    2015-12-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation-related seizures or syncopal events are rare. However, we report on a syncopal event in a healthy female during a transcranial magnetic stimulation single-pulse testing session. A 47-year-old healthy female presented for a transcranial magnetic stimulation session involving single-pulse assessment of cortical excitability. During the session, the participant appeared to have a brief event involving fainting and myoclonic jerks of the upper extremities. Orthostatic assessment was performed after the event and physician evaluation determined that this was a vasovagal syncopal event. The ethical aspects of this neurophysiology testing protocol were reviewed by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board (IRB), and formal IRB approval was deemed unnecessary for single-pulse assessment of healthy control participants not directly involved in a research study. Informed consent was obtained by the participant, including review of potential adverse events. Although rare and rarely reported, vasovagal syncopal events surrounding non-invasive brain stimulation do occur. Thorough pre-screening should incorporate assessment of history of syncope and a plan for risk mitigation if such an event should occur. A complete assessment of the impact of stimulation on the autonomic nervous system is unknown. As such studies expand into patients with myriad neurologic diagnoses, further studies on this effect, in both healthy control and patient populations, are warranted. Such knowledge could contribute to identification of the optimal study participant, and improvements in techniques of stimulation administration.

  13. Time patterns of recurrences and factors predisposing for a higher risk of recurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael; Ruppenstein, Mira; Becker, Matthias D; Mackensen, Friederike

    2015-04-01

    To ascertain time patterns of recurrences and factors predisposing for a higher risk of recurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis. Retrospective observational case series with follow-up examination. Database of 4,381 patients with uveitis was used. Data of 84 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (sample group) could be included. Two hundred and eighty active lesions in the first affected eye were detected. The mean number of recurrences per year was 0.29 (standard deviation, 0.24). Median recurrence-free survival time was 2.52 years (95% confidence interval, 2.03-3.02 years). Risk of recurrence was highest in the first year after the most recent episode (26%) implying a decrease with increasing recurrence-free interval. The risk of recurrence decreased with the duration of disease (P < 0.001). Treatment of the first active lesion influenced the risk of recurrence (P = 0.048). Furthermore, the risk of recurrence was influenced by patient age at the time of the first active lesion (P = 0.021) and the most recent episode (P = 0.002). A secondary antibiotic prophylaxis could be discussed 1) during the first year after an active lesion has occurred, especially in case of the first active lesion of ocular toxoplasmosis, and 2) in older patients, especially if primarily infected with Toxoplasma gondii at an older age.

  14. Complex partial status epilepticus: a recurrent problem.

    PubMed Central

    Cockerell, O C; Walker, M C; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with complex partial status epilepticus were identified retrospectively from a specialist neurology hospital. Seventeen patients experienced recurrent episodes of complex partial status epilepticus, often occurring at regular intervals, usually over many years, and while being treated with effective anti-epileptic drugs. No unifying cause for the recurrences, and no common epilepsy aetiologies, were identified. In spite of the frequency of recurrence and length of history, none of the patients showed any marked evidence of cognitive or neurological deterioration. Complex partial status epilepticus is more common than is generally recognised, should be differentiated from other forms of non-convulsive status, and is often difficult to treat. PMID:8021671

  15. Recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, Kirsten; Qureshi, Aysha

    2008-04-14

    Recurrent miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies with the same biological father in the first trimester, and affects 1-2% of women, half of whom have no identifiable cause. Overall, 75% of affected women will have a successful subsequent pregnancy, but this rate falls for older mothers and with increasing number of miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, with anticardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies, is present in 15% of women with recurrent first and second trimester miscarriage. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for unexplained recurrent miscarriage? What are the effects of treatments for recurrent miscarriage caused by antiphospholipid syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aspirin (low dose), bed rest, corticosteroids, early scanning in subsequent pregnancies, heparin plus low-dose aspirin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, lifestyle adaptation, oestrogen, paternal white cell immunisation, progesterone, trophoblastic membrane infusion, and vitamin supplementation.

  16. Recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, Kirsten; Qureshi, Aysha

    2011-02-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies with the same biological father in the first trimester, and affects 1% to 2% of women, half of whom have no identifiable cause. Overall, 75% of affected women will have a successful subsequent pregnancy, but this rate falls for older mothers and with increasing number of miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, with anticardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies, is present in 15% of women with recurrent first and second trimester miscarriage. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for unexplained recurrent miscarriage? What are the effects of treatments for recurrent miscarriage caused by antiphospholipid syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aspirin (low dose), bed-rest, corticosteroids, early scanning in subsequent pregnancies, heparin plus low-dose aspirin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, lifestyle adaptation, oestrogen, paternal white cell immunisation, progesterone, trophoblastic membrane infusion, and vitamin supplementation.

  17. Emergency department management of syncope: need for standardization and improved risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Murray, Heather; Vaidyanathan, Aparna; Rowe, Brian H; Calder, Lisa A; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew; Sheldon, Robert; Wells, George A

    2015-08-01

    Variations in emergency department (ED) syncope management have not been well studied. The goals of this study were to assess variations in management, and emergency physicians' risk perception and disposition decision making. We conducted a prospective study of adults with syncope in six EDs in four cities over 32 months. We collected patient characteristics, ED management, disposition, physicians' prediction probabilities at index presentation and followed patients for 30 days for serious outcomes: death, myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage, or procedural interventions. We used descriptive statistics, ROC curves, and regression analyses. We enrolled 3662 patients: mean age 54.3 years, and 12.9 % were hospitalized. Follow-up data were available for 3365 patients (91.9 %) and 345 patients (10.3 %) suffered serious outcomes: 120 (3.6 %) after ED disposition including 48 patients outside the hospital. After accounting for differences in patient case mix, the rates of ED investigations and disposition were significantly different (p < 0.0001) across the four study cities; as were the rates of 30-day serious outcomes (p < 0.0001) and serious outcomes after ED disposition (p = 0.0227). There was poor agreement between physician risk perception and both observed event rates and referral patterns (p < 0.0001). Only 76.7 % (95 % CI 68.1-83.6) of patients with serious outcomes were appropriately referred. There are large and unexplained differences in ED syncope management. Moreover, there is poor agreement between physician risk perception, disposition decision making, and serious outcomes after ED disposition. A valid risk-stratification tool might help standardize ED management and improve disposition decision making.

  18. Bimanual tapping of a syncopated rhythm reveals hemispheric preferences for relative movement frequencies.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Anja; Gompf, Florian; Kell, Christian Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In bimanual multifrequency tapping, right-handers commonly use the right hand to tap the relatively higher rate and the left hand to tap the relatively lower rate. This could be due to hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative frequencies. An extension of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory to motor control proposes a left hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively high and a right hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively low tapping rates. We investigated timing variability and rhythmic accentuation in right handers tapping mono- and multifrequent bimanual rhythms to test the predictions of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory. Yet, hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative tapping rates could be masked by a left hemispheric dominance for the control of known sequences. Tapping was thus either performed in an overlearned quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the first auditory beat) or in a syncopated quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the fourth auditory beat). Independent of syncopation, the right hand outperformed the left hand in timing accuracy for fast tapping. A left hand timing benefit for slow tapping rates as predicted by the double-filtering-by-frequency theory was only found in the syncopated tapping group. This suggests a right hemisphere preference for the control of slow tapping rates when rhythms are not overlearned. Error rates indicate that overlearned rhythms represent hierarchically structured meters that are controlled by a single timer that could potentially reside in the left hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  20. [Role of the sympathetic nervous system in vasovagal syncope and rationale for beta-blockers and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F; Gómez-Flores, Jorge Rafael; González-Hermosillo, Jesús A; Ruíz-Siller, Teresita de Jesús; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2016-12-29

    Vasovagal or neurocardiogenic syncope is a common clinical situation and, as with other entities associated with orthostatic intolerance, the underlying condition is a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This article reviews various aspects of vasovagal syncope, including its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and the role of the autonomic nervous system in it. A brief history of the problem is given, as well as a description of how the names and associated concepts have evolved. The response of the sympathetic system to orthostatic stress, the physiology of the baroreflex system and the neurohumoral changes that occur with standing are analyzed. Evidence is presented of the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, including studies of heart rate variability, microneurography, cardiac innervation, and molecular genetic studies. Finally, we describe different studies on the use of beta-blockers and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors (sibutramine, reboxetine) and the rationality of their use to prevent this type of syncope. Creative Commons

  1. Comparison of corrected QT interval as measured on electroencephalography versus 12-lead electrocardiography in children with a history of syncope.

    PubMed

    Massey, Shavonne L; Wise, Marshall S; Madan, Nandini; Carvalho, Karen; Khurana, Divya; Legido, Agustin; Valencia, Ignacio

    2011-11-01

    Long QT syndrome can present with neurological manifestations, including syncope and seizure-like activity. These patients often receive an initial neurologic evaluation, including electroencephalography (EEG). Our previous retrospective study suggested an increased prevalence of prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) measured during the EEG of patients with syncope. The aim of the current study is to assess the accuracy of the EEG QTc reading compared with the nonsimultaneous 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) in children with syncope. Abnormal QTc was defined as ≥450 ms in boys, ≥460 ms in girls. Forty-two children were included. There was no significant correlation between QTc readings in the EEG and ECG. EEG failed to identify 2 children with prolonged QTc in the ECG and overestimated the QTc in 3 children with normal QTc in the ECG. This study suggests that interpretation of the QTc segment during an EEG is limited. Further studies with simultaneous EEG and 12-lead ECG are warranted.

  2. Recurrent Otitis Media and Attachment Security: A Path Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Michelle S.; McKim, Margaret K.

    1999-01-01

    Used regular telephone interviews over six months to examine processes through which recurrent episodes of otitis media influence children's attachment security. Found that recurrent otitis media negatively affected attachment security by increasing mothers' perceptions of their children as behaving more negatively. Parenting stress was not…

  3. [Chronic recurrent parotitis].

    PubMed

    Zenk, J; Koch, M; Klintworth, N; Iro, H

    2010-03-01

    Chronic recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive disease with episodes of mostly painful swelling of the gland. It is categorized into a juvenile and an adult form, even without clear information on its actual origin. As to the etiology of the juvenile form, genetic factors and duct malformations as well as bacterial infections are discussed. Very rarely a complete lymphatic transformation of the gland might take place. Juvenile chronic recurrent parotitis is self-limiting in about 90% of all cases, as patients grow up. The diagnosis is based on patient history and clinical findings. Sonography is the imaging method of choice. Sialendoscopy shows a typical whitish pattern of the ducts in juvenile disease. Strictures or stenoses are typical for the adult form. The therapy of choice is gland massage and sialagogues, in addition to the administration of antibiotics. In more severe cases sialendoscopy together with rinsing of the ducts and instillation of cortisone are indicated. Total parotidectomy remains the last choice and is rarely necessary.

  4. Modern management of juvenile recurrent parotitis.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, P; Sigismund, P E; Luca, N; Marchisio, P; Pignataro, L

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate modern diagnostic and therapeutic management of juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to show the benefits of operative sialoendoscopy on the basis of our experience in 14 patients and the results of others. Ultrasonography is sensitive in detecting the pathological features of juvenile recurrent parotitis. Interventional sialoendoscopy is a safe and effective method of treating the disease. In our case series, after a mean follow-up time of 30 months only 5 patients experienced recurrence of symptoms, with a mean symptom-free period of 20 months. The use of modern, minimally invasive diagnostic tools such as colour Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy represents a new frontier in the management of juvenile recurrent parotitis. Operative sialoendoscopy also has the important therapeutic benefit of reducing the number of recurrences of acute episodes of parotitis, thus giving patients a better quality of life until puberty.

  5. Diagnostic utility of carotid artery duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of syncope: a good test ordered for the wrong reason.

    PubMed

    Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; Papolos, Alexander; Olin, Jeffrey W

    2015-06-01

    Syncope refers to a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion. Guidelines recommend against neurovascular testing in cases of syncope without neurologic symptoms; however, many pursue carotid artery duplex ultrasonography (CUS) due to the prognostic implications of identified cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic utility of CUS in the evaluation of syncope and the identification of new or severe atherosclerosis with the potential to change patient management. We reviewed records of 569 patients with CUS ordered for the primary indication of syncope through an accredited vascular laboratory at an academic, urban medical centre. Findings on CUS, patient demographic, clinical and laboratory information, and medications within 6 months of the CUS exam were reviewed. Bivariate relationships between key medical history characteristics and atherosclerosis status (known vs. new disease) were examined. Among 495 patients with complete information, cerebrovascular findings could potentially explain syncope in 2% (10 patients). Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors would benefit patients with known (56.6%) and new atherosclerosis (33.5%) with suboptimal lipid control, (LDL > 70 in 42.2 and 34.9% respectively; LDL > 100 in 15.7 and 20.4%), and those not on high-intensity statin therapy (80 and 87.5%) or antiplatelet medications (13.2 and 50.6%). CUS is a low-yield diagnostic test in the evaluation of syncope, but it is useful in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and identification of subjects who would benefit from optimal medical therapy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reliability of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy by ECG Criteria in Children with Syncope: Do the Criteria Need to be Revised?

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Maalika M; Ramesh Iyer, V; Nandi, Deipanjan; Vetter, Victoria L; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-04-01

    In the outpatient setting, children who present with syncope routinely undergo electrocardiograms (ECG). Because of concerns for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, children with syncope meeting ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) will frequently undergo an echocardiogram. Our objectives were to determine whether Davignon criteria for ECG waves overestimate LVH in children presenting with syncope, and to study the usefulness of echocardiography in these children. We hypothesize that the Davignon criteria presently used for interpretation of ECGs overestimate LVH, resulting in unnecessary echocardiography in this clinical setting. The clinical database of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was evaluated from 2002 to 2012 to identify children between 9 and 16 years of age, who presented with non-exercise-induced, isolated syncope. From this group of patients, only those with clear-cut evidence of LVH (by Davignon criteria), who also underwent an echocardiogram, were selected. A total of 136 children with syncope were identified as having LVH by Davignon ECG criteria. None of these patients manifested any evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with normal ventricular septum (average Z-score -0.68 ± 0.84), LV posterior wall (average Z-score -0.66 ± 1.18) and LV mass (average Z-score 0.52 ± 1.29). No significant correlation was found between summed RV6 plus SV1 and LV mass. Correlations between additional ECG parameters and measures of LVH by echocardiography were similarly poor. In children presenting with syncope and LVH by ECG, there was no evidence of true LVH by echocardiography. We propose that the Davignon ECG criteria for interpreting LVH in children overestimate the degree of hypertrophy in these children and the yield of echocardiography is extremely low.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance and the Risk of Recurrent Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Woudt, Sjoukje H S; de Greeff, Sabine C; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Vlek, Anne L M; Bonten, Marc J M

    2018-05-17

    Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with resistance. We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4-30 days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single nonsusceptible, or co-nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins without or with carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime without or with carbapenems (Pseudomonas species), aminopenicillins without or with vancomycin (Enterococcus species), or as methicillin-sensitive/-resistant S. aureus (MSSA/MRSA). We calculated risks of recurrent bacteremia after nonsusceptible vs susceptible first bacteremia, estimated the crude population attributable effect of resistance for the Netherlands, and calculated risks of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode. Risk ratios for recurrent bacteremia after a single- and co-nonsusceptible first episode, respectively, vs susceptible first episode, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.0) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.1-12.4) for Enterobacteriaceae, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.5-3.1) and 5.0 (95% CI, 2.9-8.5) for Pseudomonas species, 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2-1.7) and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6-4.2) for Enterococcus species, and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.4) for MRSA vs MSSA. The estimated population annual number of recurrent bacteremias associated with nonsusceptibility was 40. The risk of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode was at most 0.4% (Pseudomonas species). Although antibiotic nonsusceptibility was consistently associated with higher risks of recurrent bacteremia, the estimated annual number of additional recurrent episodes in the Netherlands (40) was rather limited.

  8. [Adrenomedullin--the link between the sympathetic nervous system activation and peripheral vasodilatation in some patients with vasovagal syncope].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2004-09-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a potent vasodilator playing role in regulation of central hemodynamic. The concentration of plasma ADM in healthy people increases under the influence of orthostatic stress. In patients with vasovagal syncope (VS) the changes in ADM concentration could be responsible either for syncope provocation or prevention. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of phase of the head-up tilt test (HUTT) in which the syncope occurred on the plasma concentration of ADM. The study was performed in 25 patients (pts) (18 women and 7 men), mean age 45.0+/-16.1 years with cardiodepressive reactions during HUTT according to the Italian protocol with nitroglycerine (NTG) provocation if necessary: Syncope was caused in 23 pts due to vasovagal reaction: in 17 pts syncope occurred after NTG provocation (group 1), and in 6 pts occurred in the passive phase of tilt (group 2a), in 2 pts due to dysautonomic reactions (group 2b). The head-up tilt test was performed according to ESC guidelines. The blood for ADM concentration was drawn after 30 min supine rest (ADM 1) and immediately after syncope (ADM 2). ADM level was measured using radioimmunological method. The results. In group 1 plasma level of ADM significantly decreased after the HUTT (3.2+/-3.4 vs 1.7+/-1,4 pg/0.1 ml; p<0.05) and in group 2a increased significantly (1.3+/-0.8 vs 2.7+/-1.3 pg/0.1 ml; p<0.05) comparing to baseline values. The ADM concentration did not differ between the groups in baseline conditions and was significantly higher after the syncope in group 2a (p<0.05). Conclusions. The excessive increase of ADM concentration during the passive phase of HUTT could play the causative role in pathogenesis of VS occurring early during the HUTT. In patients with VS after NTG provocation the decrease of ADM concentration can be the result of hemodynamic changes in the presence of vasodilating drug and may be the mechanism that could prevent the syncope.

  9. EVOLUTION AND EPISODIC MEMORY: AN ANALYSIS AND DEMONSTRATION OF A SOCIAL FUNCTION OF EPISODIC RECOLLECTION

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Stanley B.; Cosmides, Leda; Gangi, Cynthia E.; Jackson, Betsy; Tooby, John; Costabile, Kristi A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, an abundance of evidence has shown that individuals typically rely on semantic summary knowledge when making trait judgments about self and others (for reviews, see Klein, 2004; Klein, Robertson, Gangi, & Loftus, 2008). But why form trait summaries if one can consult the original episodes on which the summary was based? Conversely, why retain episodes after having abstracted a summary representation from them? Are there functional reasons to have trait information represented in two different, independently retrievable databases? Evolution does not produce new phenotypic systems that are complex and functionally organized by chance. Such systems acquire their functional organization because they solved some evolutionarily recurrent problems for the organism. In this article we explore some of the functional properties of episodic memory. Specifically, in a series of studies we demonstrate that maintaining a database of episodic memories enables its owner to reevaluate an individual’s past behavior in light of new information, sometimes drastically changing one’s impression in the process. We conclude that some of the most important functions of episodic memory have to do with its role in human social interaction. PMID:23378680

  10. Recurrent patterns of atrial depolarization during atrial fibrillation assessed by recurrence plot quantification.

    PubMed

    Censi, F; Barbaro, V; Bartolini, P; Calcagnini, G; Michelucci, A; Gensini, G F; Cerutti, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of organization of atrial activation processes during atrial fibrillation (AF) by assessing whether the activation sequences are wholly random or are governed by deterministic mechanisms. We performed both linear and nonlinear analyses based on the cross correlation function (CCF) and recurrence plot quantification (RPQ), respectively. Recurrence plots were quantified by three variables: percent recurrence (PR), percent determinism (PD), and entropy of recurrences (ER). We recorded bipolar intra-atrial electrograms in two atrial sites during chronic AF in 19 informed subjects, following two protocols. In one, both recording sites were in the right atrium; in the other protocol, one site was in the right atrium, the other one in the left atrium. We extracted 19 episodes of type I AF (Wells' classification). RPQ detected transient recurrent patterns in all the episodes, while CCF was significant only in ten episodes. Surrogate data analysis, based on a cross-phase randomization procedure, decreased PR, PD, and ER values. The detection of spatiotemporal recurrent patterns together with the surrogate data results indicate that during AF a certain degree of local organization exists, likely caused by deterministic mechanisms of activation.

  11. Current and Emerging Uses of Insertable Cardiac Monitors: Evaluation of Syncope and Monitoring for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Tomson, Todd T; Passman, Rod

    Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) have provided clinicians with a superb tool for assessing infrequent or potentially asymptomatic arrhythmias. ICMs have shown their usefulness in the evaluation of unexplained syncope, providing high diagnostic yields in a cost-effective manner. While unexplained syncope continues to be the most common reason for their use, ICMs are increasingly being used for the monitoring of atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent trials have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of patients with cryptogenic stroke have AF detected only by the prolonged monitoring provided by ICMs. A particularly promising and emerging use for ICMs is in the management of anticoagulation in patients with known paroxysmal AF. The introduction in recent years of ICMs with automatic AF detection algorithms and continuous remote monitoring in combination with novel oral anticoagulants have opened the door for targeted anticoagulation guided by remote monitoring, a strategy that has recently shown promise in pilot studies of this technique. While further research is needed before official recommendations can be given, this use of ICMs opens exciting new possibilities for personalized medicine that could potentially reduce bleeding risk and improve quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  12. Influence of tilt training on activation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2006-04-01

    Tilt training is a new treatment for vasovagal syncope. Its therapeutic efficacy is thought to be the result of the desensitization of cardiopulmonary receptors, but it could be the influence of the tilt training on the activation of the autonomic nervous system as well. The study group consisted of 24 vasovagal patients (17 women and 7 men) aged 32.5 +/- 11.8 years. The diagnostic head-up tilt test was performed according to the Italian protocol with nitroglycerin if necessary. The monitoring head-up tilt test was performed according to the Westminster protocol without provocation, after 1 to 3 months of tilt training. Holter ECG recordings for HRV parameters (time and frequency domain) were obtained from selected 2-min intervals before, during and after the diagnostic and monitoring tilt test. The diagnostic test was positive in the passive phase in 6 and after provocation in 18 patients. During the training period no syncope occurred. Analysing the HRV parameters we demonstrated the following findings: I. mRR decreases immediately after assumption of a vertical position in both tests (diagnostic and monitoring) but in the diagnostic test its further decrease occurs earlier than in the monitoring test; 2. the absolute power of the HF component is greater in the early phase of tilt after tilt training than in the corresponding period in the diagnostic test. After a longer period of tilt training the activation of the sympathetic nervous system in response to the erect position is diminished.

  13. Delta space plot analysis of cardiovascular coupling in vasovagal syncope during orthostatic challenge.

    PubMed

    Reulecke, S; Charleston-Villalobos, S; Voss, A; Gonzalez-Camarena, R; Gaitan-Gonzalez, M; Gonzalez-Hermosillo, J; Hernandez-Pacheco, G; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a graphical method to study cardiovascular coupling, called delta space plot analysis (DSPA), was introduced. The graphical representation is susceptible to be parameterized in shape and orientation. The usefulness of this technique was studied on cardiovascular data from patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS) and from controls. The study included 15 female patients diagnosed with VVS and 11 age-matched healthy female subjects. All subjects were enrolled in a head-up tilt (HUT) test, breathing normally, including 5 minutes of supine position (baseline) and 18 minutes of 70° orthostatic phase. The DSPA parameters were obtained at different times during the HUT test, i.e., at baseline, early (first 5 min) and late (10-15 min) orthostatic phases. In baseline there were no considerable differences between female controls and female patients. During the late orthostatic phase, parameters from DSPA showed highly significantly (p=0.000003) reduced cardiovascular coupling in patients. Findings indicated a loss of control on cardiovascular coupling in female patients susceptible to vasovagal syncope during orthostatic challenge. In addition, this study provided promising results for a new graphical method to investigate cardiovascular coupling.

  14. Alteration of gene expression profiling including GPR174 and GNG2 is associated with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Zai-wei; Xu, Miao; Ma, Qing-wen; Yan, Jing-bin; Wang, Jian-yi; Zhang, Quo-qin; Huang, Min; Bao, Liming

    2015-03-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) causes accidental harm for susceptible patients. However, pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown. In an effort to understanding of molecular mechanism for VVS, genome-wide gene expression profiling analyses were performed on VVS patients at syncope state. A total of 66 Type 1 VVS child patients and the same number healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood RNAs were isolated from all subjects, of which 10 RNA samples were randomly selected from each groups for gene expression profile analysis using Gene ST 1.0 arrays (Affymetrix). The results revealed that 103 genes were differently expressed between the patients and controls. Significantly, two G-proteins related genes, GPR174 and GNG2 that have not been related to VVS were among the differently expressed genes. The microarray results were confirmed by qRT-PCR in all the tested individuals. Ingenuity pathway analysis and gene ontology annotation study showed that the differently expressed genes are associated with stress response and apoptosis, suggesting that the alteration of some gene expression including G-proteins related genes is associated with VVS. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of VVS and would be helpful to further identify new molecular biomarkers for the disease.

  15. Recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Davis, Larry E; Guerre, Jenny; Gerstein, Wendy H

    2010-06-01

    To review the ages of patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis. Case report and literature review back to 1970. Referral Veterans Affairs hospital. Our patient developed his first episode of recurrent HSV-2 meningitis at 78 years of age, 57 years after his only episode of genital herpes simplex infection. Of 223 patients in the literature with recurrent HSV-2 meningitis, 5% occurred in patients older than 60 years and 19% in patients older than 50 years. Although recurrent meningitis due to HSV is primarily seen in young, sexually active adults, a surprising number of episodes of HSV meningitis can develop in older age. Meningitis due to HSV-2 should be in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis in older patients.

  16. Childhood recurrent pneumonia caused by endobronchial sutures: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zan, Yiheng; Liu, Hanmin; Zhong, Lin; Qiu, Li; Tao, Qingfen; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent pneumonia is defined as more than two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three or more episodes anytime in life. Common clinical scenarios leading to recurrent pneumonia include anatomical abnormalities of respiratory tract, immunodeficiency, congenital heart diseases, primary ciliary dyskinesia, etc. A school-aged girl suffered from 1-2 episodes of pneumonia each year after trachea connection and lung repair operation resulted from an accident of car crash. Bronchoscopy revealed the sutures twisted with granulation in the left main bronchus and the patient's symptoms relieved after removal of the sutures. Here we report for the first time that surgical suture was the cause of recurrent pneumonia. This case indicates that children with late and recurrent onset of pneumonia should undergo detailed evaluation including bronchoscopy.

  17. Determining the cause of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection using whole genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sim, James Heng Chiak; Truong, Cynthia; Minot, Samuel S; Greenfield, Nick; Budvytiene, Indre; Lohith, Akshar; Anikst, Victoria; Pourmand, Nader; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of relapse and reinfection to recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has implications for therapy and infection prevention, respectively. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the relation of C. difficile strains isolated from patients with recurrent CDI at an academic medical center in the United States. Thirty-five toxigenic C. difficile isolates from 16 patients with 19 recurrent CDI episodes with median time of 53.5days (range, 13-362) between episodes were whole genome sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In 84% (16) of recurrences, the cause of recurrence was relapse with prior strain of C. difficile. In 16% (3) of recurrent episodes, reinfection with a new strain of C. difficile was the cause. In conclusion, the majority of CDI recurrences at our institution were due to infection with the same strain rather than infection with a new strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Syncope or seizure? The diagnostic value of the EEG and hyperventilation test in transient loss of consciousness.

    PubMed Central

    Hoefnagels, W A; Padberg, G W; Overweg, J; Roos, R A; van Dijk, J G; Kamphuisen, H A

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study of consecutive patients (age 15 or over) with transient loss of consciousness 45 patients had a history of seizure and 74 patients had a history of syncope. All patients had an EEG, ECG, laboratory tests and a hyperventilation test and were followed for an average of 14.5 months. Epileptiform activity in the interictal EEG had a sensitivity of 0.40 and a specificity of 0.95 for the diagnosis of a seizure. Epileptiform activity nearly doubled the probability of a seizure in doubtful cases. If no epileptiform activity was found, this probability remained substantially the same. The hyperventilation test had a sensitivity of 0.57 and a specificity of 0.84 for the diagnosis of syncope. A positive test increased the probability of syncope half as much in doubtful cases. A negative test did not exclude syncope. Laboratory tests were not helpful except for an ECG which was helpful in elderly patients. PMID:1800665

  19. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  20. Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754

  1. [Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity during head-up tilt testing in patients with vasovagal syncope].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2005-08-01

    The stimulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system during tilt table test is caused by sympathetic nervous system activation by orthostatic stress and a serotonin release as well. In healthy individuals increase of plasma renin activity during test with maximal values on the peak of the test was described. The aim of the study was to assess the activation of RAAS in patients with neurally mediated syncope during the tilt table test by means of plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone levels. The study was carried out in 31 patients aged 39.4 +/- 15.0 years (18 women and 13 men) with neurally mediated syncope during tilt test. Plasma renin activity was assessed in the baseline conditions, immediately after the test and 10 minutes after the test using radioenzymatic assay. Aldosterone concentrations were measured radioimmunologically, twice: after 30 minutes supine rest and after the syncope. Plasma renin activity during supine rest was 2.2 +/- 2.4 ng/ml/h, rose after the syncope 2.5-fold to 5.2 +/- 4.5 ng/ml/h (p < 0.001 comparing to baseline) stayed on similar level approximately for the next 10 minutes--4.9 +/- 5.5 ng/ml/h (p = n.s.). In 11 patients (35%) 10 minutes after the test even further increase of PRA was observed. Serum aldosterone level increased significantly immediately after tilt test (90.0 +/- 72.9 vs 178.8 +/- 150.1 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Authors showed, that in patients with NMS plasma renin activity increases and this increase lasts for 10 minutes after the syncope and the concentration of aldosterone increases immediately after tilt test.

  2. Knowledge translation of the American College of Emergency Physicians' clinical policy on syncope using computerized clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Edward R; Genes, Nicholas G; Chawla, Neal K; Akerman, Meredith; Baumlin, Kevin M; Jagoda, Andy

    2010-06-01

    To influence physician practice behavior after implementation of a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) based upon the recommendations from the 2007 ACEP Clinical Policy on Syncope. This was a pre-post intervention with a prospective cohort and retrospective controls. We conducted a medical chart review of consecutive adult patients with syncope. A computerized CDSS prompting physicians to explain their decision-making regarding imaging and admission in syncope patients based upon ACEP Clinical Policy recommendations was embedded into the emergency department information system (EDIS). The medical records of 410 consecutive adult patients presenting with syncope were reviewed prior to implementation, and 301 records were reviewed after implementation. Primary outcomes were physician practice behavior demonstrated by admission rate and rate of head computed tomography (CT) imaging before and after implementation. There was a significant difference in admission rate pre- and post-intervention (68.1% vs. 60.5% respectively, p = 0.036). There was no significant difference in the head CT imaging rate pre- and post-intervention (39.8% vs. 43.2%, p = 0.358). There were seven physicians who saw ten or more patients during the pre- and post-intervention. Subset analysis of these seven physicians' practice behavior revealed a slight significant difference in the admission rate pre- and post-intervention (74.3% vs. 63.9%, p = 0.0495) and no significant difference in the head CT scan rate pre- and post-intervention (42.9% vs. 45.4%, p = 0.660). The introduction of an evidence-based CDSS based upon ACEP Clinical Policy recommendations on syncope correlated with a change in physician practice behavior in an urban academic emergency department. This change suggests emergency medicine clinical practice guideline recommendations can be incorporated into the physician workflow of an EDIS to enhance the quality of practice.

  3. Outreach syncope clinic managed by a nurse practitioner: Outcome and cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Mohamed H; Walsh, Kathleen E; Brignole, Michele; Key, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and financial outcomes of a novel outreach syncope clinic. Methods We compared the clinical outcome of the Faint and Fall Clinic at the American Center (January-June 2016) with that of the University of Wisconsin Health and Clinics Faint and Fall Clinic (January 2013-December 2014). The American Center-Faint and Fall Clinic is run solely by a nurse practitioner, assisted by online faint-decision software and consultancy of a faint specialist through video-conferencing. Results Five hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients were seen at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics-Faint and Fall Clinic and 68 patients at the American Center-Faint and Fall Clinic. The patients' clinical characteristics were similar except for a lower age in the American Center patients (45 ± 18 vs 51 ± 22, p = 0.03). Overall, a diagnosis was made within 45 days in 70% (95% confidence interval 66-74%) of the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics patients and 69% (95% confidence interval 58-80%) of the American Center patients, ( p = 0.9). A mean of 3.0 ± 1.6 tests per patient was used in the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics group compared to 1.5 ± 0.8 tests per patient in the American Center group, p = 0.001. Over the six-month study period, the total revenue at the American Center was US$152,597 (contribution margin of US$122,393 plus professional revenue of US$30,204). The total cost of the nurse practitioner including benefits was US$66,662 ((US$98,466 salary/year + 35.4% benefits)/2). Total revenue minus expenses resulted in a net profit of US$85,935. Discussion A nurse practitioner-run outreach syncope-clinic equipped with online faint-decision software and consultancy of a faint specialist through vedio-conferencing is feasible and financially self-sustainable. It allows the dissemination of standardized high-quality syncope care to patients who have

  4. The influence of comorbid disorders on the episodicity of bipolar disorder in youth.

    PubMed

    Yen, S; Stout, R; Hower, H; Killam, M A; Weinstock, L M; Topor, D R; Dickstein, D P; Hunt, J I; Gill, M K; Goldstein, T R; Goldstein, B I; Ryan, N D; Strober, M; Sala, R; Axelson, D A; Birmaher, B; Keller, M B

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BP) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. We examine whether course of anxiety disorders (ANX), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and substance use disorders (SUD) influence likelihood of recovery and recurrence of depression and mania in BP youth. Weekly ratings of psychiatric disorder intensity were obtained from 413 participants of the Course and Outcome of BP Youth project, followed for an average of 7.75 years. Multiple-event Cox proportional hazards regression analyses examined worsening of comorbid disorders as predictors of mood episode recovery and recurrence. Increased severity in ANX and SUD predicted longer time to recovery and less time to next depressive episode, and less time to next manic episode. Multivariate models with ANX and SUD found that significant effects of ANX remained, but SUD only predicted longer time to depression recovery. Increased severity of ADHD and DBD predicted shorter time to recurrence for depressive and manic episodes. There are significant time-varying relationships between the course of comorbid disorders and episodicity of depression and mania in BP youth. Worsening of comorbid conditions may present as a precursor to mood episode recurrence or warn of mood episode protraction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Influence of Comorbid Disorders on the Episodicity of Bipolar Disorder in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert; Hower, Heather; Killam, Matthew A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Topor, David R.; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ryan, Neal D.; Strober, Michael; Sala, Regina; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bipolar Disorder (BP) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. We examine whether course of anxiety disorders (ANX), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and substance use disorders (SUD) influence likelihood of recovery and recurrence of depression and mania in BP youth. Method Weekly ratings of psychiatric disorder intensity were obtained from 413 participants of the Course and Outcome of BP Youth project, followed for an average of 7.75 years. Multiple-event Cox proportional hazards regression analyses examined worsening of comorbid disorders as predictors of mood episode recovery and recurrence. Results Increased severity in ANX and SUD predicted longer time to recovery and less time to next depressive episode, and less time to next manic episode. Multivariate models with ANX and SUD found that significant effects of ANX remained, but SUD only predicted longer time to depression recovery. Increased severity of ADHD and DBD predicted shorter time to recurrence for depressive and manic episodes. Conclusion There are significant time-varying relationships between the course of comorbid disorders and episodicity of depression and mania in BP youth. Worsening of comorbid conditions may present as a precursor to mood episode recurrence or warn of mood episode protraction. PMID:26475572

  6. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  7. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  8. Syncope During Competitive Events: Interrogating Heart Rate Monitor Watches May Be Useful!

    PubMed

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Bostanci, Kevin; Bouvier, Francois; Dumitrescu, Nicolae; Stéfuriac, Maria; Paule, Philippe; Roche, Nicolas-Charles

    2017-12-01

    This is a case report of a 45-year-old man who reported complete amnesia during the very first kilometer of a 10-km run. He was wearing a heart rate monitor (HRM). The interrogation of his HRM watch showed 200 bpm tachycardia beginning in the first kilometer and increasing up to 220 bpm during the last kilometer. The patient was asked to wear a Holter-monitor (Holter Research Laboratory; Helena, Montana USA) electrocardiogram (ECG) while practicing a training session. This examination allowed for the diagnosis of an adrenergic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with an impressive auriculo-ventricular conduction over 260 bpm. This case highlights that non-medical devices, such as connected watches, can be helpful to diagnose arrhythmias. Thabouillot O , Bostanci K , Bouvier F , Dumitrescu N , Stéfuriac M , Paule P , Roche NC . Syncope during competitive events: interrogating heart rate monitor watches may be useful! Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):691-693.

  9. [Variability of heart rhythm in dynamic study of the psychovegetative relationship in neurogenic syncope].

    PubMed

    Musaeva, Z A; Khaspekova, N B; Veĭn, A M

    2001-01-01

    Physiological changes accompanying syncopes of neural origin (SNO) in patients with psychovegetative syndrome are still insufficiently studied. The data concerning the role of the autonomic nervous system are discrepant. Heart rate variability was analyzed in 68 patients with SNO in a supine position and during the active 20-min orthostatic test taking into account the heart rate components of very low frequency (VLF, an index of cerebral sympathetic activity) and high frequency (HF, a marker of vagal modulation). Steady growth of the VLF and progressive decrease in the LF within 15-20 min of the orthostasis were observed in all the patients (n = 33), who fainted after this period. The predominance of the VLF in the heart rate power spectra was correlated with a high level of anxiety. It is suggested that this fact indicates the stable cerebral sympathetic activation resulting in a baroreceptor dysfunction, i.e., a failure of vasomotor regulation in patients with SNO.

  10. Predicting Vasovagal Syncope from Heart Rate and Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study in 140 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Virag, Nathalie; Erickson, Mark; Taraborrelli, Patricia; Vetter, Rolf; Lim, Phang Boon; Sutton, Richard

    2018-04-28

    We developed a vasovagal syncope (VVS) prediction algorithm for use during head-up tilt with simultaneous analysis of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). We previously tested this algorithm retrospectively in 1155 subjects, showing sensitivity 95%, specificity 93% and median prediction time of 59s. This study was prospective, single center, on 140 subjects to evaluate this VVS prediction algorithm and assess if retrospective results were reproduced and clinically relevant. Primary endpoint was VVS prediction: sensitivity and specificity >80%. In subjects, referred for 60° head-up tilt (Italian protocol), non-invasive HR and SBP were supplied to the VVS prediction algorithm: simultaneous analysis of RR intervals, SBP trends and their variability represented by low-frequency power generated cumulative risk which was compared with a predetermined VVS risk threshold. When cumulative risk exceeded threshold, an alert was generated. Prediction time was duration between first alert and syncope. Of 140 subjects enrolled, data was usable for 134. Of 83 tilt+ve (61.9%), 81 VVS events were correctly predicted and of 51 tilt-ve subjects (38.1%), 45 were correctly identified as negative by the algorithm. Resulting algorithm performance was sensitivity 97.6%, specificity 88.2%, meeting primary endpoint. Mean VVS prediction time was 2min 26s±3min16s with median 1min 25s. Using only HR and HR variability (without SBP) the mean prediction time reduced to 1min34s±1min45s with median 1min13s. The VVS prediction algorithm, is clinically-relevant tool and could offer applications including providing a patient alarm, shortening tilt-test time, or triggering pacing intervention in implantable devices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Feasibility of a pilot intervention to reduce pain and syncope during adolescent vaccination.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Michelle L; Kuntz, Jennifer L; Firemark, Alison J; Varga, Alexandra M; Bok, Karin; Naleway, Allison L

    2018-05-24

    Vaccines recommended for adolescents are considered safe and effective, however administration may occasionally result in acute pain at the injection site or syncope (fainting). These adverse effects pose a risk to patient safety and are potential barriers to adherence to future vaccinations. We assessed a novel intervention designed to help prevent acute pain and syncope associated with adolescent vaccinations. We conducted a 3-month pilot study to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a vaccination comfort menu within two Kaiser Permanente Northwest pediatric clinics. The menu offered a variety of comfort items (e.g., cold packs, squeeze balls) that children could select prior to their vaccination. We surveyed parents of recently vaccinated adolescents and interviewed providers to assess the implementation and effectiveness of the intervention. Response rate for the parent survey was 33% (378/1136). Only 20% of the parents reported that their provider offered the comfort menu during the vaccination visit. Approximately 50% of the adolescents who were offered the menu selected a comfort item and most of these participants reported that the item was very (35%) or somewhat (38%) helpful in improving their vaccination experience. Per provider interviews, common barriers to implementing the intervention included lack of time and convenience, and the brevity of the pilot period. The comfort menu may improve the vaccination experience of youth and increase the likelihood of adherence with future vaccinations. However, only 20% of the parents reported that their provider offered the menu during the vaccination visit. Additional research is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing this intervention on a larger scale, as well as assessing whether the intervention has a significant impact on reducing adverse events. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Recurrent acute mastoiditis - a retrospective national study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anita; Enoksson, Frida; Stalfors, Joacim; Stenfeldt, Karin; Hultcrantz, Malou; Hermansson, Ann

    2012-12-01

    Recurrences were seen in 5% of all patients with acute mastoiditis (AM). Mastoidectomy had been performed in the majority of the patients with recurrences at their first episode of AM. Compared with the group with a single episode of AM, the recurrent group exhibited more subperiosteal and ear canal abscesses, although they were not more severely ill. It appears from this study that previous mastoidectomy itself could predispose patients to recurrent AM (rAM), perhaps due to easier access to the mastoid cavity and/or due to a reduction in mucosal lining. To retrospectively study the incidence and characteristics of rAM in Sweden. Data from patients with rAM were reviewed and compared with data from patients with a single episode of AM during 1993-2007 in 33 ear, nose and throat departments in Sweden. Of 798 cases fulfilling the criteria for AM, 36 patients (5%) had experienced one or more recurrences, of which 4 patients (11%) had concurrent cholesteatoma. More than 50% of the patients had their first episode of AM before the age of 2 years. There was a highly significant difference between the two groups concerning the frequency of mastoidectomies and subperiosteal/retroauricular abscesses. However, other clinical characteristics, including severe complications, did not differ significantly. The majority of recurrences were treated conservatively with myringotomy and intravenous antibiotics, and also with aspiration/incision if a subperiosteal/retroauricular abscess was present.

  13. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Abdullatif; Ahmed, Kamran; Zaman, Iftikhar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2015-06-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more common in women and are frequently defined as ≥2 episodes in the last 6 months or ≥3 episodes in the last 12 months. In a primary care setting, 53 % of women above the age of 55 years and 36 % of younger women report a recurrence within 1 year. Thus, management and prevention of recurrent UTI is of utmost significance. This review aims to highlight the latest research in prevention strategies and suggest a management pathway. A search was conducted on MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases for the latest systematic reviews and high-quality randomized controlled trials. Special emphasis was placed on the remit "recurrent" and strongly adhered to. Furthermore, a Google search was conducted for current guidelines on the management of UTIs. Current prevention strategies include eliminating risk factors that increase the risk of acquiring recurrent UTI and continuous, post-coital and self-initiated antimicrobial prophylaxis. Other prospective preventative strategies, currently under trial, include use of vaccinations, D-mannose and lactobacillus (probiotics). Although risk factors should be identified and addressed accordingly, individualized antibiotic prophylaxis remains the most effective method of management. Non-antibiotic prevention strategies such as cranberry, vitamin C and methenamine salts lack strong evidence to be introduced as routine management options and as alternatives to antibiotics. Based on current evidence and guidelines, a management pathway is recommended. Emerging therapies require further evaluation before they can be recommended.

  14. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Blostein, Freida; Levin-Sparenberg, Elizabeth; Wagner, Julian; Foxman, Betsy

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), multiple episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; vaginal yeast infection) within a 12-month period, adversely affects quality of life, mental health, and sexual activity. Diagnosis is not straightforward, as VVC is defined by the combination of often nonspecific vaginal symptoms and the presence of yeast-which is a common vaginal commensal. Estimating the incidence and prevalence is challenging: most VVC is diagnosed and treated empirically, the availability for purchase of effective therapies over the counter enables self-diagnosis and treatment, and the duration of the relatively benign VVC symptoms is short, introducing errors into any estimates relying on medical records or patient recall. We evaluate current estimates of VVC and RVVC and provide new prevalence estimates using data from a 2011 seven-country (n = 7345) internet panel survey on VVC conducted by Ipsos Health (https://www.ipsos.com/en). We also evaluate information on VVC-associated visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The estimated probability of VVC by age 50 varied widely by country (from 23% to 49%, mean 39%), as did the estimated probability of RVVC after VVC (from 14% to 28%, mean 23%). However estimated, the probability of RVVC was high suggesting RVVC is a common condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Kyol Goeu (‘Wind Overload’) Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2009-01-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, ‘wind overload’) is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios. PMID:20808711

  16. Kyol Goeu ('Wind Overload') Part II: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Mechanisms of Kyol Goeu and Near-Kyol Goeu Episodes of Khmer Patients Attending a Psychiatric Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon; Um, Khin; Ba, Phalnarith

    2001-12-01

    Kyol goeu (literally, 'wind overload') is an orthostatically triggered syncopal syndrome often found among Khmer refugees in the US. In the present study, 36 of 100 (36%) Khmer patients attending a psychiatric clinic were found to have suffered a kyol goeu episode in the past, whereas 60 of 100 (60%) patients had experienced a near-kyol goeu event in the last six months. Following a survey-based characterization of kyol goeu, as well as the presentation of case vignettes, the article discusses six mechanisms resulting in the high prevalence of the syndrome. The article concludes by comparing kyol goeu and ataque de nervios.

  17. The use of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate testing in the diagnosis, risk stratification and management of patients with syncope: current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fragakis, Nikolaos; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Saviano, Massimo; Vassilikos, Vassilios; Pappone, Carlo

    2015-03-15

    Syncope is a significant source of cardiovascular-related morbidity yet the etiology is frequently obscure and the identification of patients at highest risk is challenging. Adenosine (AD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) administrations have been suggested as potentially useful non-invasive tools in the diagnostic workup of patients with neurally-mediated or bradycardia-related syncope. It has been postulated that both compounds by modulating the autonomic innervation in the heart and exerting negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects in the conduction system, may unmask the mechanism of syncope. However, the clinical implications derived from the efficacy of both tests in the investigation of syncope remain unclear mainly due to inconclusive and occasionally contradictory results of published studies. This review article summarizes recent and past information in the use of ATP and AD in the investigation of syncope with emphasis on clinical trials. We present the current level of evidence for the use of these agents in clinical practice, identify areas where further research is warranted and highlight the future perspectives of these agents as complements to an accurate risk-stratification of patients with syncope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multifocal recurrent periostitis responsive to colchicine.

    PubMed

    Festen, J J; Kuipers, F C; Schaars, A H

    1985-01-01

    A brother and sister with multifocal recurrent periostitis are presented. Their disease started at an early age and manifested itself as an episodic migrating arthropathy. At roentgenography, reversible solid periosteal reactions were visible along large tubular bones. Scintigraphic and histological investigations revealed a sterile osteitis and thickened periosteum, but there was no indication of a viral infection. The girl experienced spontaneous amelioration after puberty; the boy improved markedly on colchicine.

  19. Episodicity of Orogeny Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, K. C.; Aster, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Although it is well established that orogeny is episodic, the duration, correlation and geographic distribution of orogenic episodes is not well constrained. Using large numbers of concordant U/Pb zircon ages from subduction-related granitoids (> 7000), it is now possible to better constrain these variables. Monte Carlo simulation probabilistic histograms of zircon age spectra remove questionable and spurious age peaks, yet allow resolution of peaks with >10 My duration with the data sets. Orogenic episodes with durations < 20 My, herein called pulses, are generally of regional geographic extent, whereas long-lived events (100-250 My), herein called periods, may be of regional or global extent. Orogenic periods comprise several to many pulses. Most orogenic pulses reflect geographic variations in intensity of subduction or/and plate collisions as for instance recorded around the perimeter of the Pacific basin in the last 100 My. Neither of the widely recognized pulses at 2.7 nor 1.9 Ga is global in extent. Orogenic pulses at 2700 and 2680 Ma occur on four continents each (2700: Superior, Hearne-Rae, Nain, North China; 2680: Yilgarn, Africa, Slave, Wyoming). Likewise, an orogenic pulse at 1880 is found on four continents (Laurentia, Baltica, East Asia, South America), and another pulse at 1860 Ma occurs on three continents (Africa, Siberia, Australia). Some orogenic pulses track lateral continental growth, such as 2730, 2715, and 2700 Ma pulses in the Abitibi greenstone belt, and 850, 800 and 750 Ma pulses in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Major orogenic periods are recognized at 2750-2650, 1900-1650, and 1250-1000 Ma and each of these is associated with supercontinent formation. Orogenic periods at 2600-2500 (China and India) and 2150-2050 Ma (West Africa, Amazonia, Rio de la Plata) may be associated with the formation of small supercontinents. Our results suggest that orogenic periods with intervening gaps may not require sudden and short-lived changes in mantle

  20. Use of an intravitreal sustained-release cyclosporine delivery device for treatment of equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C; Wilkie, D A; Davidson, M G; Allen, J B

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the use of an intravitreal sustained-release cyclosporine (CsA) delivery device for treatment of horses with naturally occurring recurrent uveitis. 16 horses with recurrent uveitis. Horses with frequent recurrent episodes of uveitis or with disease that was progressing despite appropriate medication were selected for this study. Additional inclusion criteria included adequate retinal function as determined by use of electroretinography, lack of severe cataract formation, and no vision-threatening ocular complications (eg, retinal detachment, severe retinal degeneration, and posterior synechia). Sustained-release CsA delivery devices (4 microg of CsA/d) were implanted into the vitreous through a sclerotomy at the pars plana. Reexaminations were performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, then continued annually. Ophthalmic changes, number of recurrent episodes of uveitis, and vision were recorded. The rate of recurrent episodes after device implantation (0.36 episodes/y) was less than prior to surgery (75 episodes/y). In addition, only 3 horses developed episodes of recurrent uveitis after surgery. Vision was detected in 14 of 16 affected eyes at a mean follow-up time of 13.8 months (range, 6 to 24 months). This intravitreal sustained-release CsA delivery device may be a safe and important tool for long-term treatment of horses with chronic recurrent uveitis.

  1. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chiari type I malformation, syncope, headache, hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis in an 8-year old girl: a causal association?

    PubMed Central

    Tarani, Luigi; Del Balzo, Francesca; Costantino, Francesco; Properzi, Enrico; D’Eufemia, Patrizia; Liberati, Natascia; Spalice, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Chiari type I malformation (CMI) is a congenital hindbrain anomaly characterized by downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Chiari type I malformation often presents with a complex clinical picture and can be sporadic or linked to a variety of genetic conditions. We report on a girl in whom Chiari type I malformation was associated with hypoglycemia, headache, vertigo, syncope and hepatic steatosis. We hypothesize that these symptoms are primarily a consequence of Chiari type I malformation. PMID:21589844

  3. The evolution of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  4. Recurrence and virulence of colonic diverticulitis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Sebastiano; Borao, Jaime Lopez; Kreisler, Esther; Golda, Thomas; Millan, Monica; Frago, Ricardo; Fraccalvieri, Domenico; Guardiola, Jordi; Jaurrieta, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the probability of recurrence and the virulence of colonic diverticulitis correlated with immunocompromised status. Nine hundred thirty-one patients admitted in a single tertiary referral university hospital over a 14-year period were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1, 166 immunosuppressed patients, and group 2, 765 nonimmunosuppressed patients. The variables studied were sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologist status, reasons of immunosuppression (eg, chronic use of corticosteroids, transplant recipients, and diseases affecting the immune system), severity of the diverticulitis episode, recurrence, emergency and elective surgery, and morbidity and mortality rates. Two hundred thirteen patients underwent an emergency operation during the first hospitalization and 26 patients in further episodes. One hundred thirty-six patients developed 1 or more recurrent episodes of diverticulitis. The overall recurrence rate was similar in both groups. Patients in group 1 with a severe first episode presented significantly higher rates of recurrence and severity without needing more emergency surgery. Mortality after emergency surgery was 33.3% in group 1 and 15.9% in group 2 (P = .004). After successful medical treatment of acute diverticulitis, patients with immunosuppression need not be advised to have an elective sigmoidectomy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  6. Chronic and Episodic Stress in Children of Depressed Mothers.

    PubMed

    Feurer, Cope; Hammen, Constance L; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine chronic and episodic stress in children of mothers with and without a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the children's lives. Participants were 255 mothers selected according to their history of MDD (present vs. absent during child's life) and their children (age 8-14; 53% girls, 81% Caucasian). Mothers' and children's histories of MDD were assessed using diagnostic interviews, and their depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report measures. Children's levels of chronic and episodic stress were assessed using a semistructured contextual threat interview. Children of mothers with a history of recurrent MDD, compared to single MDD or no depression, experienced more chronic stress within several domains including peers, mother-child relations, and other family member relations as well as greater episodic dependent interpersonal stress. Each of these group differences was maintained after excluding children with a history of MDD themselves and controlling for their current depressive symptoms. However, only the group difference in chronic peer stress was maintained when controlling for mothers' current depression. The results suggest that children exposed to recurrent maternal MDD experience higher levels of both chronic and episodic stress, at least some of which they contribute to themselves (dependent interpersonal stress) and which is at least partially independent of the effects of children's depression. In addition, much of this stress is associated primarily with current depression in the mother, though it appears that chronic peer stress may remain elevated even after the remission of maternal depression.

  7. Transvenous demand Pacemaker Treatment for intermittent complete Heart Block in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Forterre, S; Nürnberg, J H; Forterre, F; Skrodzki, M; Lange, P E

    2001-11-01

    A 13-year-old male neutered domestic shorthaired cat had repeated syncopal episodes over a 6 month period, which had variable duration and continued to increase in frequency. Intermittent ventricular asystole, due to complete heart block, and hyperthyroidism were documented. As the syncopal episodes did not respond to a 4-week medical treatment and symptoms became severe, a transvenous ventricular demand pacemaker system (VVIM) was implanted via the external jugular vein. The unipolar lead was tunneled subcutaneously and connected with the generator in a preformed ventral abdominal muscle pocket. During follow up of 18-months there were no recurrences of the syncopal episodes.

  8. Recurrent pericarditis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Katinaitė, Justina; Petrauskienė, Birutė

    2017-01-01

    Background. Recurrence affects about 30% (20% to 50%) of patients within 18 months after the initial episode of acute pericarditis resulting in subsequent rehospitalizations. Bearing in mind high treatment costs of patients admitted to hospital with acute and recurrent pericarditis, there is a need to optimize the treatment of both of these conditions. Materials and methods. We present a case of recurrent pericarditis. The first episode of pericarditis was diagnosed in 2006. Three months later the patient was hospitalized due to clinical symptoms suggesting recurrence of a past condition. Ten years after the initial episode of acute pericarditis the patient was hospitalized for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis. The search for etiology of the disease was unsuccessful, the patient received treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; empiric antimicrobial therapy was also administered. Results and conclusions. Acute pericarditis is the most common disease of the pericardium encountered in clinical practice. Colchicine has been demonstrated as a first-line drug to be added to conventional anti-inflammatory therapies in patients with a first episode of pericarditis or its recurrences in order to improve the response to therapy and reduce recurrences. Despite a large amount of new data, there are still several issues that require additional research and clarification, including the search for new individualized therapies, the best duration of treatment for patients with pericardial diseases, and optimization of patient follow-up in order to collect data on long-term outcomes that would allow shortening the duration of in-patient treatment and reduction of recurrences. PMID:29217970

  9. Penicillin to prevent recurrent leg cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kim S; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Foster, Katharine A; Mason, James M; Chalmers, Joanne R; Nasr, Ibrahim S; Brindle, Richard J; English, John; Meredith, Sarah K; Reynolds, Nicholas J; de Berker, David; Mortimer, Peter S; Williams, Hywel C

    2013-05-02

    Cellulitis of the leg is a common bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We compared prophylactic low-dose penicillin with placebo for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with two or more episodes of cellulitis of the leg who were recruited in 28 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Randomization was performed according to a computer-generated code, and study medications (penicillin [250 mg twice a day] or placebo for 12 months) were dispensed by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome was the time to a first recurrence. Participants were followed for up to 3 years. Because the risk of recurrence was not constant over the 3-year period, the primary hypothesis was tested during prophylaxis only. A total of 274 patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The median time to a first recurrence of cellulitis was 626 days in the penicillin group and 532 days in the placebo group. During the prophylaxis phase, 30 of 136 participants in the penicillin group (22%) had a recurrence, as compared with 51 of 138 participants in the placebo group (37%) (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.86; P=0.01), yielding a number needed to treat to prevent one recurrent cellulitis episode of 5 (95% CI, 4 to 9). During the no-intervention follow-up period, there was no difference between groups in the rate of a first recurrence (27% in both groups). Overall, participants in the penicillin group had fewer repeat episodes than those in the placebo group (119 vs. 164, P=0.02 for trend). There was no significant between-group difference in the number of participants with adverse events (37 in the penicillin group and 48 in the placebo group, P=0.50). In patients with recurrent cellulitis of the leg, penicillin was effective in preventing subsequent attacks during prophylaxis, but the protective effect diminished progressively once

  10. Developmental roots of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Two arguments imply that Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) functional theory is insufficient as an explanation of episodic memory: (1) The developmental course supports a different social cultural division of episodic and semantic memory, and (2) the existence of long-term autobiographical memory is not explained in the functional theory but can be seen in a broader cultural framework.

  11. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  12. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    PubMed Central

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This paper presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic Simultaneous Type/ Serial Token model or eSTST; Wyble et al 2009a). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods of suppressed attention, better known as the attentional blink (Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell 1992). We test predictions from this model and demonstrate that subjects are able to report more letters from a sequence of four targets presented in a dense temporal cluster, than from a sequence of four targets that are interleaved with non-targets. However, this superior report accuracy comes at a cost in impaired temporal order perception. Further experiments explore the dynamics of multiple episodes, and the boundary conditions that trigger episodic breaks. Finally, we contrast the importance of attentional control, limited resources and memory capacity constructs in the model. PMID:21604913

  13. Recurrent wound botulism among injection drug users in California.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jean; Inami, Gregory; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Vugia, Duc J

    2011-04-01

    Botulism is an acute neurologic illness characterized by cranial nerve palsies and descending flaccid paralysis. Botulism is a rare disease and recurrent botulism even more rare. We review cases of recurrent wound botulism (WB) among injection drug users (IDUs) in California from 1993 through 2006 and describe 2 case patients. From botulism surveillance data for 1993-2006, we identified patients with >1 episode of clinical WB, defined as acute descending paralysis with a visible wound or recent history of injection drug use. For each patient, ≥1 of their WB episodes was laboratory confirmed. We extracted demographic, clinical, and laboratory information from case and laboratory reports and compared clinical characteristic frequency of initial and second WB episodes. During 1993-2006, 17 IDUs had recurrent WB, 14 with 1 recurrence and 3 with 2 recurrences. Of 25 laboratory-confirmed episodes, 22 were confirmed through serum testing and 3 through wound testing. Patients were 32-61 years old, and 94% were male. All patients reported heroin injections; 88% specified black tar heroin use and 76% reported subcutaneous injection. The most common presentations were having a visible wound, speech difficulty, double vision, respiratory difficulty, and trouble swallowing. There were no significant differences in clinical presentation between initial and second episodes. As the California epidemic of WB among IDUs continues, WB episodes are recurring. Both clinicians and IDUs should be aware of the potential for WB to recur among IDUs to enable timely diagnosis and early botulinum antitoxin administration and supportive care. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Jensen, Hans Mørch; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with bipolar depression and patients with recurrent depressive disorder present with different subtypes of depressive episode as according to ICD-10. All patients who got a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, current episode of depression, or a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment or at the first discharge from psychiatric hospitalization in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. Totally, 389 patients got a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, and 5.391 patients got a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, at first contact. Compared with patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, patients with bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, were significantly less often outpatients (49.4 vs. 68.0%), significantly more often got a diagnosis of severe depression (42.7 vs. 23.3%) or a diagnosis of depression with psychotic symptoms (14.9 vs. 7.2%). The rate of subsequent hospitalization was increased for patients with bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, compared with patients with a current depression as part of a recurrent depressive disorder (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.20-1.86). The results consistently indicate that a depressive episode is severer and/or more often associated with psychotic symptoms when it occurs as part of a bipolar disorder than as part of a recurrent depressive disorder.

  15. Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A W; Nifong, T P

    1993-01-01

    There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurrent uveitis. The pineal gland of this horse had significant inflammatory infiltration consisting mainly of lymphocytes with some eosinophils. This observation of pinealitis accompanying equine uveitis supports the animal models of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with associated pinealitis and suggests that the pineal gland may be involved in some human uveitides. Images PMID:8435400

  16. Laboratory constraints on models of earthquake recurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, Nicholas M.; Tullis, Terry; Junger, Jenni; Kilgore, Brian D.; Goldsby, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, rock friction ‘stick-slip’ experiments are used to develop constraints on models of earthquake recurrence. Constant-rate loading of bare rock surfaces in high quality experiments produces stick-slip recurrence that is periodic at least to second order. When the loading rate is varied, recurrence is approximately inversely proportional to loading rate. These laboratory events initiate due to a slip rate-dependent process that also determines the size of the stress drop [Dieterich, 1979; Ruina, 1983] and as a consequence, stress drop varies weakly but systematically with loading rate [e.g., Gu and Wong, 1991; Karner and Marone, 2000; McLaskey et al., 2012]. This is especially evident in experiments where the loading rate is changed by orders of magnitude, as is thought to be the loading condition of naturally occurring, small repeating earthquakes driven by afterslip, or low-frequency earthquakes loaded by episodic slip. As follows from the previous studies referred to above, experimentally observed stress drops are well described by a logarithmic dependence on recurrence interval that can be cast as a non-linear slip-predictable model. The fault’s rate dependence of strength is the key physical parameter. Additionally, even at constant loading rate the most reproducible laboratory recurrence is not exactly periodic, unlike existing friction recurrence models. We present example laboratory catalogs that document the variance and show that in large catalogs, even at constant loading rate, stress drop and recurrence co-vary systematically. The origin of this covariance is largely consistent with variability of the dependence of fault strength on slip rate. Laboratory catalogs show aspects of both slip and time predictability and successive stress drops are strongly correlated indicating a ‘memory’ of prior slip history that extends over at least one recurrence cycle.

  17. Laboratory constraints on models of earthquake recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, N. M.; Tullis, Terry; Junger, Jenni; Kilgore, Brian; Goldsby, David

    2014-12-01

    In this study, rock friction "stick-slip" experiments are used to develop constraints on models of earthquake recurrence. Constant rate loading of bare rock surfaces in high-quality experiments produces stick-slip recurrence that is periodic at least to second order. When the loading rate is varied, recurrence is approximately inversely proportional to loading rate. These laboratory events initiate due to a slip-rate-dependent process that also determines the size of the stress drop and, as a consequence, stress drop varies weakly but systematically with loading rate. This is especially evident in experiments where the loading rate is changed by orders of magnitude, as is thought to be the loading condition of naturally occurring, small repeating earthquakes driven by afterslip, or low-frequency earthquakes loaded by episodic slip. The experimentally observed stress drops are well described by a logarithmic dependence on recurrence interval that can be cast as a nonlinear slip predictable model. The fault's rate dependence of strength is the key physical parameter. Additionally, even at constant loading rate the most reproducible laboratory recurrence is not exactly periodic, unlike existing friction recurrence models. We present example laboratory catalogs that document the variance and show that in large catalogs, even at constant loading rate, stress drop and recurrence covary systematically. The origin of this covariance is largely consistent with variability of the dependence of fault strength on slip rate. Laboratory catalogs show aspects of both slip and time predictability, and successive stress drops are strongly correlated indicating a "memory" of prior slip history that extends over at least one recurrence cycle.

  18. Fuzzy recurrence plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence plots display binary texture of time series from dynamical systems with single dots and line structures. Using fuzzy recurrence plots, recurrences of the phase-space states can be visualized as grayscale texture, which is more informative for pattern analysis. The proposed method replaces the crucial similarity threshold required by symmetrical recurrence plots with the number of cluster centers, where the estimate of the latter parameter is less critical than the estimate of the former.

  19. Recurrent Education in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soljan, Niksa Nikola, Ed.

    These seven papers offer an insight into the different aspects of recurrent education in Yugoslavia. "Recurrent Education and Educational Changes" considers these three processes: the "de-etatization," the democratization, and the de-schooling of education. "The Unity of Education and Work and Recurrent Education"…

  20. Clinically oriented device programming in bradycardia patients: part 2 (atrioventricular blocks and neurally mediated syncope). Proposals from AIAC (Italian Association of Arrhythmology and Cardiac Pacing).

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Pietro; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Ricci, Renato P; Landolina, Maurizio; Zoni-Berisso, Massimo; Occhetta, Eraldo; Maglia, Giampiero; Botto, Gianluca; Padeletti, Luigi; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    : The purpose of this two-part consensus document is to provide specific suggestions (based on an extensive literature review) on appropriate pacemaker setting in relation to patients' clinical features. In part 2, criteria for pacemaker choice and programming in atrioventricular blocks and neurally mediate syncope are proposed. The atrioventricular blocks can be paroxysmal or persistent, isolated or associated with sinus node disease. Neurally mediated syncope can be related to carotid sinus syndrome or cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope. In sinus rhythm, with persistent atrioventricular block, we considered appropriate the activation of mode-switch algorithms, and algorithms for auto-adaptive management of the ventricular pacing output. If the atrioventricular block is paroxysmal, in addition to algorithms mentioned above, algorithms to maximize intrinsic atrioventricular conduction should be activated. When sinus node disease is associated with atrioventricular block, the activation of rate-responsive function in patients with chronotropic incompetence is appropriate. In permanent atrial fibrillation with atrioventricular block, algorithms for auto-adaptive management of the ventricular pacing output should be activated. If the atrioventricular block is persistent, the activation of rate-responsive function is appropriate. In carotid sinus syndrome, adequate rate hysteresis should be programmed. In vasovagal syncope, specialized sensing and pacing algorithms designed for reflex syncope prevention should be activated.

  1. Recurrent parotitis as a first manifestation in a child with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, H; Orbak, Z; Erdogan, T; Karabag, K; Gursan, N

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is an acute, severe inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands in young children. We report the case of a seven-year old boy with Primary Sjogrens syndrome (PSS) who presented with 15 episodes of painful recurrent bilateral swellings of the parotid glands over a four-year period.

  2. [Clinical Characteristics and Evolution of Recurrent Infectious Endocarditis in non Drug Addicts].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Anguita, M; Castillo, J M; Torres, F; Siles, J R; Mesa, D; Franco, M; García-Alegría, J; Concha, M; Vallés, F

    2001-09-01

    Recurrence of infection is observed in a high proportion of patients who have had infective endocarditis in the past. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible differences between the first and the recurrent episodes of endocarditis, as well as to assess the outcome and prognosis of patients with recurrent endocarditis. We reviewed a series of 13 episodes of recurrent endocarditis from among 196 cases of infective endocarditis involving non-drug-addict patients in two hospitals from 1987 to 2000. There were no differences between recurrent and first episodes of endocarditis according to age, sex, heart valve involved or causal microorganisms. Prosthetic valve endocarditis was more common in patients with recurrent endocarditis (86% versus 27%; p < 0.001). Although there were no differences in the rate of complications or early surgery, overall mortality was significantly higher in patients with recurrent endocarditis (53% versus 27%: p < 0.05). When early and late mortality were analysed separately, the differences did not achieve significance. Recurrent endocarditis was frequent in our series (7% of all cases). The features were similar to those of the first episode except for a higher rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis and a higher overall mortality.

  3. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    PubMed

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recurrent pericarditis: new and emerging therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Lazaros, George; Brucato, Antonio; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is one of the most common and troublesome complications after an episode of pericarditis, and affects 20-50% of patients treated for pericarditis. In most of these patients, the pericarditis remains idiopathic, although an immune-mediated (either autoimmune or autoinflammatory) pathogenesis is often presumed. The mainstay of therapy for recurrences is aspirin or NSAIDs, with the adjunct of colchicine. Corticosteroids are a second-line option to be considered for specific indications, such as connective tissue disease or pregnancy; contraindications or intolerance to aspirin, NSAIDs, and/or colchicine; or insufficient response to these medications. Furthermore, corticosteroids can be added to NSAIDs and colchicine in patients with persistent symptoms. In patients who do not respond adequately to any of these conventional therapies, alternative treatment options include azathioprine, intravenous human immunoglobulins, and anakinra. An improved understanding of how recurrent pericarditis develops after an initiating event is critical to prevent this complication, and further research is needed into the pathogenesis of recurrences. We discuss the aetiology and diagnosis of recurrent pericarditis, and extensively review the treatment options for this condition.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: episodic ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision, slurred speech, and ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Seizures, muscle weakness, and paralysis affecting one side ... autosomal dominant disorder with episodic ataxia, vertigo, and tinnitus. Neurology. 2001 Oct 23;57(8):1499-502. ...

  6. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard J.; Di Fiore, Juliann M.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control appears to be the major contributor, typically superimposed upon abnormal respiratory function. As a result, relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and accompanying bradycardia. As this population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension, it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction may also play a role in hypoxic episodes. The natural history of intermittent hypoxic episodes has been well characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD. However, the consequences of these episodes are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. PMID:26593081

  7. Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Ertl, A. C.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension. There is a predilection for younger rather than older adults and for women more than men. Its cause is unknown; partial sympathetic denervation or hypovolemia has been proposed. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma renin activity, perhaps from defects in sympathetic innervation of the kidney, could underlie a hypovolemia, giving rise to these clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients (14 female, 2 male) ranging in age from 16 to 44 years were studied. Patients were enrolled in the study if they had orthostatic intolerance, together with a raised upright plasma norepinephrine (> or = 600 pg/mL). Patients underwent a battery of autonomic tests and biochemical determinations. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the blood volume and plasma renin activity (r = 0.84, P = 0.001). The tachycardic response to upright posture correlated with the severity of the hypovolemia. There was also a correlation between the plasma renin activity measured in these patients and their concomitant plasma aldosterone level. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia occurs commonly in orthostatic intolerance. It is accompanied by an inappropriately low level of plasma renin activity. The degree of abnormality of blood volume correlates closely with the degree of abnormality in plasma renin activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that reduced plasma renin activity may be an important pathophysiologic component of the syndrome of orthostatic intolerance.

  8. Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Janković, Slobodan; Bojović, Dragica; Vukadinović, Dubravka; Daglar, Elmedina; Janković, Marija; Laudanović, Dragomir; Lukić, Vladan; Misković, Vesna; Potpara, Zorica; Projović, Ivana; Cokanović, Vesna; Petrović, Nadezda; Folić, Marko; Savić, Viktorija

    2010-10-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is relatively frequent condition, and may have serious health consequences, like chronic vulvovaginal pain syndrome. The aim of our study was to determine possible risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant females within the reproductive age. The design of our study was of a case-control type. Case and control patients were selected from the gynecological patients at six primary care facilities in Serbia and in Montenegro. The data on the patients' health condition, concomitant therapy and diseases were taken from their records, and the data on habits were obtained by unstructured interview. For potential risk factors crude odds ratios were calculated, and then adjusted by logistic regression. A total of fifty-one patients had four or more episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis during the last year (cases), and 132 patients with one to three episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled as controls, matched by age. The only two significant associations were found between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and continual wearing of panty liners during the last year (Odds ratio - OR adjusted: 3.97; confidence interval--CI: 1.57-10.02;p = 0.004), and between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and predominant use of vaginal tampons during menstruation in the last year (OR adjusted: 4.25; CI: 1.11-16.27;p = 0.035). The synergistic effect was observed for the concurrent continual wearing of panty liners during the last year and self-medication with antimycotics. Local factors, like wearing of panty liners or use of tampons during menstruation, may promote recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, especially in patients who practice self-medication with antimycotics.

  9. [Chronic recurrent annular neutrophilic dermatosis].

    PubMed

    Croci-Torti, A; Guillot, B; Rigau, V; Bessis, D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic recurrent annular neutrophilic dermatosis (CRAND) is a rare form of neutrophilic dermatosis characterised by chronic annular progression, histological impairment similar to that seen in Sweet's syndrome and the absence of association with generalised signs, abnormal laboratory values or underlying systemic disease. Herein we report two new cases. Case n o  1. A 41-year-old woman had presented with four annular lesions on the forearms and neckline which she had had for one year. Examination revealed a 5-cm annular lesion on the right forearm and four similar adjacent lesions. The condition spontaneously resolved after 4 weeks. Treatment with hydroxychloroquine 400mg per day for three months proved ineffective in preventing a further episode. However, following treatment with colchicine at a daily dose of 1mg for two months, no further relapses in the rash occurred over a 10-year observation period. Case n o  2. A 38-year-old woman consulted for recurrent annular erythema confined to the legs. Examination showed the presence of a red papular annular lesion on the right leg, encircling a yellowish macule with a central ring of fine scale; the lesion had been present for three weeks. Treatment with colchicine was initiated but the patient was lost to follow-up. In both cases, histological examination was evocative of Sweet's syndrome but no inflammatory or neutrophilic syndrome and no underlying systemic disease were demonstrated. CRAND presents as a stereotypical and benign form of neutrophilic dermatosis. A diagnosis of chronic recurrent annular dermatosis with gyrate progression should be considered in the absence of general signs, neutrophilia or underlying systemic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness of antiplatelet resistance in patient with repeated episodes of thrombotic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, N. N.; Hamonangan, R.; Antono, D.; Prasetya, I.; Rusdi, L.

    2018-03-01

    Antiplatelet has been the cornerstones management of acute coronary syndrome. However, numbers of patients on these agents had episodes of adverse cardiovascular events. A 65-year-old woman post cardiac coronary bypass surgery on dual antiplatelet therapy, Aspirin, and Clopidogrel underwent several episodes of thrombotic events despite good adhered to thedailyantiplatelet regimen.These recurrent events had led to clinical suspicious of antiplatelet resistance. Platelet function test was performed which indicates a poor platelet response to Clopidogrel. Clopidogrelwas discontinued and Ticagrelor was prescribed together with Aspirin. During two months of follow up, there is no episode of chest discomfort.

  11. How Does Cholecystectomy Influence Recurrence of Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Claire L; Abbas, Saleh M; Watters, David A K

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic acute pancreatitis is diagnosed in approximately 10-30 % of cases of acute pancreatitis. While there is evidence to suggest that the cause in many of these patients is microlithiasis, this fact has not been translated into a resource efficient treatment strategy that is proven to reduce recurrence rates. The aim of this study was to examine the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy following an episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with no history of alcohol abuse and no stones found on ultrasound. This was a retrospective study of 2236 patients who presented to a regional Australian hospital. Patients were included when diagnosed with acute pancreatitis with no confirmed cause. Recurrence of acute pancreatitis was compared between those that did and did not undergo cholecystectomy. One hundred ninety-five consecutive patients met the study definition of "idiopathic" acute pancreatitis. 33.8 % (66/195) underwent cholecystectomy. The patients who had cholecystectomy had a recurrence rate of 19.7 % (13/66) whereas, of those managed expectantly, 42.8 % (68/159) had at least one recurrence of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.001). Following an episode of acute pancreatitis with no identifiable cause, in patients fit for surgery, cholecystectomy should be considered to reduce the risk of recurrent episodes of pancreatitis.

  12. School Nurses on the Front Lines of Medicine: The Approach to a Student After a Syncopal Event: Don't "PASS OUT".

    PubMed

    Hackett, Gretchen; Brady, Jodi; Olympia, Robert P

    2018-03-01

    Students presenting with syncope and/or seizure occur occasionally in the school setting. Several studies have shown that seizures as well as respiratory distress are the most common medical emergencies that prompt school nurses and staff to contact emergency medical services (EMS) to transport students to the closest emergency department (Knight 1999, Olympia 2005). It is important to develop a differential diagnosis for syncope, to initiate stabilization of the student with life-threatening symptoms, and to triage these students to an appropriate level of care (back to the classroom, home with their guardian with follow-up at their primary health care provider's office, or directly to the closest emergency department via EMS). This article describes the initial assessment and management of two students presenting after syncopal events.

  13. Working out the interstitial and syncopic nature of the human psyche: on the analysis of verbal data.

    PubMed

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-09-01

    Psychology studies the human mind and its development. Although it is often recognized that the human mind needs to be understood as a temporal (developmental) phenomenon between past and future and at the interstices between the idealities of pure Self and Other, the analytic methods interpretive researchers use tend to reify ahistorical and solipsist conceptions of the human being. In this article, I provide examples of an approach to the analysis of verbal data that immediately gets us to the interstitial and syncopic nature of the human psyche.

  14. Frequency of Herpes Zoster Recurrence in Central District of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Yong; Her, Young; Kim, Chul Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a dermatome. A global recurrence rate as low as 0.5%∼6.2% has been reported for herpes zoster. The recurrence of herpes zoster is higher in immunocompromised patients and older patients. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of herpes zoster recurrence and factors that can influence its recurrence. Methods From January 2005 to December 2015, 14,343 patients with herpes zoster were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed at Hallym University Medical Centers and Kangwon National University Hospital in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. Herpes zoster recurrence and patient characteristics were surveyed by medical record review and a telephonic survey. Results The overall frequency of herpes zoster recurrence was 1.18%. The frequency of recurrence was higher in women than in men. It was also higher in patients aged 50∼70 years than in patients who were younger or older than this. Additionally, we assessed that the frequency of recurrence was statistically higher in patients with a compromised immune system and in patients who experienced longer lasting pain during their first episode. Conclusion The frequency of herpes zoster recurrence is more common in women, older age, patient with longer pain duration and immunocompromised patients. PMID:28966517

  15. Frequency of Herpes Zoster Recurrence in Central District of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae Won; Lee, Jin Yong; Her, Young; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2017-10-01

    Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a dermatome. A global recurrence rate as low as 0.5%∼6.2% has been reported for herpes zoster. The recurrence of herpes zoster is higher in immunocompromised patients and older patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency of herpes zoster recurrence and factors that can influence its recurrence. From January 2005 to December 2015, 14,343 patients with herpes zoster were enrolled in this study. The patients were diagnosed at Hallym University Medical Centers and Kangwon National University Hospital in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon. Herpes zoster recurrence and patient characteristics were surveyed by medical record review and a telephonic survey. The overall frequency of herpes zoster recurrence was 1.18%. The frequency of recurrence was higher in women than in men. It was also higher in patients aged 50∼70 years than in patients who were younger or older than this. Additionally, we assessed that the frequency of recurrence was statistically higher in patients with a compromised immune system and in patients who experienced longer lasting pain during their first episode. The frequency of herpes zoster recurrence is more common in women, older age, patient with longer pain duration and immunocompromised patients.

  16. Clinical and immunologic features of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Miyagawa, Fumi; Okazaki, Aiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) is thought to be rare, but there have been few large-scale studies of recurrent HZ. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to characterize recurrent HZ. We examined 12,522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County and followed them up for 3 years. We compared the incidence of HZ and postherpetic neuralgia, severity of skin lesions and acute pain, cell-mediated immunity, and varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody titer between primary and recurrent HZ. A total of 401 participants developed HZ: 341 with primary HZ and 60 with recurrent HZ. Skin lesions and acute pain were significantly milder and the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Varicella-zoster virus skin test induced a stronger reaction in patients aged 50 to 79 years with recurrent HZ than in those with primary HZ. Information on previous HZ episodes was self-reported by participants, so it could not be confirmed that they actually had a history of HZ. Recurrent HZ was associated with milder clinical symptoms than primary HZ, probably because of stronger varicella-zoster virus-specific cell-mediated immunity in the patients with recurrence. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurobiological correlates of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Fleming, Jaclyn; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2012-05-01

    Some clinical aspects of affective illness progression, such as episode-, stress-, and substance-induced sensitization, have been well documented in the literature, but others have received less attention. These include cognitive deficits, treatment-refractoriness, and neurobiological correlates of illness progression, which are the primary focus of this paper. We review the evidence that cognitive dysfunction, treatment resistance, medical comorbidities, and neurobiological abnormalities increase as a function of the number of prior episodes or duration of illness in the recurrent unipolar and bipolar disorders. Substantial evidence supports the view that cognitive dysfunction and vulnerability to a diagnosis of dementia in old age increases as a function of number of prior mood episodes as does non-response to many therapeutic interventions as well as naturalistic treatment. Neurobiological abnormalities that correlate with the number of mood episodes or duration of illness include: anatomical, functional, and biochemical deficits in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as amygdala hyperactivity and cortisol hyper-secretion. Some neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may also change with greater illness burden. Causality cannot be inferred from these correlative relationships. Nonetheless, given the potentially grave consequences of episode recurrence and progression for morbidity and treatment non-responsiveness, it is clinically wise to assume episodes are causing some of the progressive cognitive and neurobiological abnormalities. As such, earlier and more sustained long-term prophylaxis to attempt to reduce these adverse outcomes is indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    PubMed

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Episodes of clinical mastitis and its relationship with duration of treatment and seasonality in crossbred cows maintained in organized dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Sreela, L.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Tiwari, Shiwani; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Present study aimed to evaluate the different episodes of clinical mastitis (CM) and influence of duration of treatment and seasonality on the occurrence of different episodes of CM in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 1194 lactation data of crossbred CM cows were collected from mastitis treatment record from 2002 to 2012. Data of CM cows were classified into types of episodes (pattern of repeated or multiple episodes occurrence) and number of episodes (magnitude of multiple cases). Types of episodes were divided as single (clinical cure by a single episode of treatment), relapse (retreatment of the same cow within 21 days), recurrence (new CM at least 21 days after treatment), and both (relapse and recurrence). The season was classified as winter (December to March), summer (April to June), rainy (July to September), and autumn (October to November). The difference between incidences of different types of CM episodes and the association between number or type of CM episodes with duration of treatment and seasons of CM occurrence were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Among 1194 animals suffered with CM, 53, 16, and 18% had the single episode, relapse, and recurrence, respectively; while 13% suffered by both relapse and recurrence. We estimated the duration of treatment and found 80% of the cows treated 1-8 days, in which 65% treated for 1-4 days, while 35% cows were treated for 5-8 days. Further, 12% cows treated for 9-15 days and 7.5% cows treated >15 days. The relationship between duration of treatment and different episodes of CM revealed that 1-8 days treated cows were mostly cured by the single episode with less relapse and recurrence. In contrast, the incidences of recurrence and relapse episodes were higher in cows treated for more than 9 days. The highest incidence of relapse was noticed in winter (36%) than other seasons (10-28%), while the recurrence was less during autumn (9%) compared to other seasons (20-40%). Conclusion: Cows

  20. Episodes of clinical mastitis and its relationship with duration of treatment and seasonality in crossbred cows maintained in organized dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Manimaran, A; Kumaresan, A; Sreela, L; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Tiwari, Shiwani; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Present study aimed to evaluate the different episodes of clinical mastitis (CM) and influence of duration of treatment and seasonality on the occurrence of different episodes of CM in crossbred cows. A total of 1194 lactation data of crossbred CM cows were collected from mastitis treatment record from 2002 to 2012. Data of CM cows were classified into types of episodes (pattern of repeated or multiple episodes occurrence) and number of episodes (magnitude of multiple cases). Types of episodes were divided as single (clinical cure by a single episode of treatment), relapse (retreatment of the same cow within 21 days), recurrence (new CM at least 21 days after treatment), and both (relapse and recurrence). The season was classified as winter (December to March), summer (April to June), rainy (July to September), and autumn (October to November). The difference between incidences of different types of CM episodes and the association between number or type of CM episodes with duration of treatment and seasons of CM occurrence were analyzed by Chi-square test. Among 1194 animals suffered with CM, 53, 16, and 18% had the single episode, relapse, and recurrence, respectively; while 13% suffered by both relapse and recurrence. We estimated the duration of treatment and found 80% of the cows treated 1-8 days, in which 65% treated for 1-4 days, while 35% cows were treated for 5-8 days. Further, 12% cows treated for 9-15 days and 7.5% cows treated >15 days. The relationship between duration of treatment and different episodes of CM revealed that 1-8 days treated cows were mostly cured by the single episode with less relapse and recurrence. In contrast, the incidences of recurrence and relapse episodes were higher in cows treated for more than 9 days. The highest incidence of relapse was noticed in winter (36%) than other seasons (10-28%), while the recurrence was less during autumn (9%) compared to other seasons (20-40%). Cows those suffered by both relapse and recurrence

  1. Episodic payments (bundling): PART I.

    PubMed

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-10-01

    Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Lymphoedema in Hereditary Recurrent Cholestasis from Birth

    PubMed Central

    Aagenaes, Øystein; Sigstad, Helge; Bjørn-Hansen, Ragnar

    1970-01-01

    An inherited disorder characterized by a combination of lymphoedema and intrahepatic cholestasis is described in a Norwegian kindred. The jaundice is evident soon after birth, and recurrent episodes occur throughout life. The oedema starts at about school age and subsequently progresses; it is due to hypoplasia of the lymph vessels of the lower extremities. The cause of the cholestasis has not been established, but a structural intrahepatic developmental defect is suggested. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5477684

  4. [Comparison of curative effect and serum electrolytes between different oral rehydration salts in treatment of neurally mediated syncope children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Zou, Runmei; Xu, Yi; Wang, Cheng

    2018-05-28

    To compare the curative effect and the changes of serum electrolytes between oral rehydration salts (ORS) I and ORS III treatment in neurally mediated syncope children.
 Methods: The children with the symptom of unexplained syncope and pre-syncope were collected in Second Xiangya Hospital from May 2014 to May 2017. After head-up tilt test (HUTT), their serum electrolytes levels were examined. Children who were positive in the HUTT received ORS (ORS I or ORS III) and health education. Subjects were randomly divided into an ORS I group (n=27) and an ORS III group (n=49).
 Results: There was no statistical significance in sex, age, height, body mass, initial diagnosis and re-diagnosis interval between the 2 groups (P>0.05); the total efficiency after ORS III and ORS I 
treatment were 79.59% and 62.96%, respectively, with no statistical significance (χ2=2.483, P>0.05); the HUTT negative conversion rate after ORS III and ORS I treatment were 51.02% and 48.16%, respectively, with no statistical significance (χ2=0.058, P>0.05); before treatment, the serum sodium [(140.20±2.26) mmol/L vs (138.39±2.72) mmol/L; t=2.856, P<0.05] in the ORS III group was higher than that in the ORS I group, the serum phosphorus [(1.46±0.19) mmol/L 
vs (1.65±0.29) mmol/L; t=3.146, P<0.05] in the ORS III group was lower than that in the ORS I 
group; after treatment, the serum sodium [(140.31±2.01) mmol/L vs (138.88±2.08) mmol/L; 
t=2.692, P<0.05] and serum calcium [(2.31±0.09) mmol/L vs (2.24±0.11) mmol/L; t=2.696, P<0.05] in the ORS III group were higher than those in the ORS I group, the serum phosphorus [(1.45±0.16) mmol/L vs (1.61±0.25) mmol/L; t=3.128, P<0.05] in the ORS III group was lower than that in the ORS I group; after ORS III treatment, there was no statistical significance in serum electrolytes between HUTT positive group and HUTT negative group (P>0.05); after ORS I treatment, the serum calcium [(2.29±0.10) mmol/L vs (2.19±0.10) mmol/L; t=2.501, P<0

  5. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  6. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Episodic Memory: Manipulation and Replay of Episodic Memories by Rats.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A

    2018-06-04

    Rats exposed to variable-length, unique-odor lists were tested in distinctive contexts for odors second or forth from list-end. Accurate ability to recall odors backwards from the end of lists points to their ability to manipulate and replay odor-list episodic memories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The CRISP theory of hippocampal function in episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Sen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past four decades, a “standard framework” has emerged to explain the neural mechanisms of episodic memory storage. This framework has been instrumental in driving hippocampal research forward and now dominates the design and interpretation of experimental and theoretical studies. It postulates that cortical inputs drive plasticity in the recurrent cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) synapses to rapidly imprint memories as attractor states in CA3. Here we review a range of experimental studies and argue that the evidence against the standard framework is mounting, notwithstanding the considerable evidence in its support. We propose CRISP as an alternative theory to the standard framework. CRISP is based on Context Reset by dentate gyrus (DG), Intrinsic Sequences in CA3, and Pattern completion in cornu ammonis 1 (CA1). Compared to previous models, CRISP uses a radically different mechanism for storing episodic memories in the hippocampus. Neural sequences are intrinsic to CA3, and inputs are mapped onto these intrinsic sequences through synaptic plasticity in the feedforward projections of the hippocampus. Hence, CRISP does not require plasticity in the recurrent CA3 synapses during the storage process. Like in other theories DG and CA1 play supporting roles, however, their function in CRISP have distinct implications. For instance, CA1 performs pattern completion in the absence of CA3 and DG contributes to episodic memory retrieval, increasing the speed, precision, and robustness of retrieval. We propose the conceptual theory, discuss its implications for experimental results and suggest testable predictions. It appears that CRISP not only accounts for those experimental results that are consistent with the standard framework, but also for results that are at odds with the standard framework. We therefore suggest that CRISP is a viable, and perhaps superior, theory for the hippocampal function in episodic memory. PMID:23653597

  9. Clinical study of 200 patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Raissouni, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) affects approximately 20% of the general population. Its etiology is still unknown. To analyze this entity's clinical features. Data such as age, gender, family history of RAS, age at first episode onset, prodromal symptoms, number, size, morphology and localization of lesions, RAS clinical form, annual rate of recurrence, predisposing factors, symptoms and time for symptoms and lesions disappearance were assessed in 200 patients with RAS. Patients had RAS minor forms. Main clinical characteristics were family history of RAS (89%), first episode at ≥ 10 years of age (69%), prodromal symptoms (66%), one lesion per episode (63%), < 0.5 cm lesions (64%), rounded morphology (55%), localization at the tongue (27%), 3 recurrent episodes per year (36%), stress as predisposing factor (34%), symptom disappearance in 2 days (54%) and healing of lesions in 8 days (40%). Even when RAS is a common disorder of the oral mucosa, there is no curative treatment available. Therapeutic measures seek to reduce the pain and size of lesions, accelerate the time of recovery and decrease the rate of relapses. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  10. Familiality and SNP heritability of age at onset and episodicity in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferentinos, P; Koukounari, A; Power, R; Rivera, M; Uher, R; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; Korszun, A; Jones, L; Jones, I; Gill, M; Rice, J P; Ising, M; Maier, W; Mors, O; Rietschel, M; Preisig, M; Binder, E B; Aitchison, K J; Mendlewicz, J; Souery, D; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N; Breen, G; Craig, I W; Farmer, A E; Müller-Myhsok, B; McGuffin, P; Lewis, C M

    2015-07-01

    Strategies to dissect phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) have mainly relied on subphenotypes, such as age at onset (AAO) and recurrence/episodicity. Yet, evidence on whether these subphenotypes are familial or heritable is scarce. The aims of this study are to investigate the familiality of AAO and episode frequency in MDD and to assess the proportion of their variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP heritability). For investigating familiality, we used 691 families with 2-5 full siblings with recurrent MDD from the DeNt study. We fitted (square root) AAO and episode count in a linear and a negative binomial mixed model, respectively, with family as random effect and adjusting for sex, age and center. The strength of familiality was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). For estimating SNP heritabilities, we used 3468 unrelated MDD cases from the RADIANT and GSK Munich studies. After similarly adjusting for covariates, derived residuals were used with the GREML method in GCTA (genome-wide complex trait analysis) software. Significant familial clustering was found for both AAO (ICC = 0.28) and episodicity (ICC = 0.07). We calculated from respective ICC estimates the maximal additive heritability of AAO (0.56) and episodicity (0.15). SNP heritability of AAO was 0.17 (p = 0.04); analysis was underpowered for calculating SNP heritability of episodicity. AAO and episodicity aggregate in families to a moderate and small degree, respectively. AAO is under stronger additive genetic control than episodicity. Larger samples are needed to calculate the SNP heritability of episodicity. The described statistical framework could be useful in future analyses.

  11. Assessment of the QT interval in the electroencephalography (EEG) of children with syncope, epilepsy, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Jha, Om P; Khurana, Divya S; Carvalho, Karen S; Melvin, Joseph J; Legido, Agustin; O'Riordan, Anna C; Valencia, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    The interpretation of QT interval is often neglected during electroencephalography (EEG) reading. We compared the incidence of prolonged QT interval, as seen in the electrocardiography (ECG) recording lead of the EEG, in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Abnormal QT was defined as >460 ms. The incidence of prolonged QT in the seizure, syncope, and ADHD groups was 1/50 (2%), 7/50 (14%), and 2/50 (4%), respectively (P = .036, chi-square). The mean +/- SD of QT were 405 +/- 34, 424 +/- 39, and 414 +/- 36, respectively (P = .035, analysis of variance [ANOVA], syncope group, compared with seizure group). The incidence of prolonged QT as measured in the EEG was unexpectedly high in children presenting with seizure, syncope, or ADHD. These data support the concept that QT evaluation should be emphasized during routine EEG reading, as it may aid in identifying cases of undiagnosed cardiac conduction abnormalities. Prospective studies comparing EEG-ECG tracings with 12-lead ECG are warranted.

  12. Investigating the genetic variation underlying episodicity in major depressive disorder: suggestive evidence for a bipolar contribution.

    PubMed

    Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Rivera, Margarita; Ising, Marcus; Spain, Sarah L; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Butler, Amy W; Craddock, Nicholas; Owen, Michael J; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gill, Michael; Rice, John P; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Rietschel, Marcella; Lucae, Susanne; Binder, Elisabeth B; Preisig, Martin; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Breen, Gerome; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2014-02-01

    Highly recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) has reportedly increased risk of shifting to bipolar disorder; high recurrence frequency has, therefore, featured as evidence of 'soft bipolarity'. We aimed to investigate the genetic underpinnings of total depressive episode count in recurrent MDD. Our primary sample included 1966 MDD cases with negative family history of bipolar disorder from the RADIANT studies. Total episode count was adjusted for gender, age, MDD duration, study and center before being tested for association with genotype in two separate genome-wide analyses (GWAS), in the full set and in a subset of 1364 cases with positive family history of MDD (FH+). We also calculated polygenic scores from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD and bipolar disorder studies. Episodicity (especially intermediate episode counts) was an independent index of MDD familial aggregation, replicating previous reports. The GWAS produced no genome-wide significant findings. The strongest signals were detected in the full set at MAGI1 (p=5.1×10(-7)), previously associated with bipolar disorder, and in the FH+ subset at STIM1 (p=3.9×10(-6) after imputation), a calcium channel signaling gene. However, these findings failed to replicate in an independent Munich cohort. In the full set polygenic profile analyses, MDD polygenes predicted episodicity better than bipolar polygenes; however, in the FH+ subset, both polygenic scores performed similarly. Episode count was self-reported and, therefore, subject to recall bias. Our findings lend preliminary support to the hypothesis that highly recurrent MDD with FH+ is part of a 'soft bipolar spectrum' but await replication in larger cohorts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Risk of recurrence of idiopathic calcium kidney stones: analysis of data from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition. While it is generally accepted that such condition carries a risk of recurrence over time, the exact risk and its predictors have been rarely quantitated. We aimed to estimate recurrence of kidney stones, overall and in specific subgroups, from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of calcium stone formers. Systematic review of RCTs of adult patients with idiopathic calcium kidney stones. Recurrence rates analyzed in subgroups based on type of intervention and other characteristics, using Poisson regression models. The analysis included 21 RCTs with 2168 participants over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (range 0.5-9.7). The median recurrence of kidney stones was 15 per 100 person-years (range 0-110). Recurrence was higher in those with two or more previous stone episodes compared to those with a single episode at enrolment (16 vs. 6 per 100 person-years, p < 0.001) and in those untreated or treated with dietary changes compared to those treated with drugs (26 vs. 23 vs. 9 per 100 person-years, p < 0.001). The effect of drugs on recurrence seemed to be beneficial only among those with two or more previous stone episodes. The overall recurrence rate of stones depends on factors such as previous stone history and type of treatment. Dietary approaches seem to be more effective among single stone formers, whereas drugs seem to be more effective among recurrent stone formers.

  14. RAGG - R EPISODIC AGGREGATION PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The RAGG package is an R implementation of the CMAQ episodic model aggregation method developed by Constella Group and the Environmental Protection Agency. RAGG is a tool to provide climatological seasonal and annual deposition of sulphur and nitrogen for multimedia management. ...

  15. Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junko; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Kawamoto, Michi; Yoshimura, Hajime; Kusunoki, Susumu; Kohara, Nobuo

    2016-05-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) are usually monophasic, but some patients experience recurrences after long asymptomatic intervals. We aimed to investigate clinical features of recurrent GBS, MFS, and BBE at a single hospital. Records from 97 consecutive patients with GBS, MFS or BBE who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between 2001 and 2013 were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with recurrent GBS, MFS, or BBE were investigated. Patients included 55 (32 males) with GBS, 34 (22 males) with MFS, and 8 (6 males) with BBE. Recurrent cases occurred in 2 (4%) of the 55 patients with GBS, 4 (12%) of the 34 patients with MFS, and 2 (25%) of the 8 patients with BBE. Patients with recurrent MFS had a tendency to be younger at the first episode than patients with non-recurrent MFS (median, 22 versus 37years old). Symptoms and signs were less severe during relapses than during the initial episode in recurrent patients. Recurrences occurred more frequently in patients with MFS or BBE compared with those with GBS. Patients with recurrent MFS might be younger than those with non-recurrent MFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis Recurrence After Amiodarone Reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Maqdasy, Salwan; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Auclair, Candy; Desbiez, Françoise; Citron, Bernard; Thieblot, Philippe; Roche, Béatrice; Lusson, Jean René; Tauveron, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Reintroduction of amiodarone in patients with a history of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is rarely used. To date, the risk of AIT recurrence after amiodarone reintroduction is unpredicted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of AIT recurrence. Retrospectively, from 2000 to 2011, all euthyroid patients with a history of AIT with amiodarone reintroduction were included. Type and severity of the first AIT, amiodarone chronology, and thyroid function evolution after reintroduction of amiodarone were investigated: 46 of 172 patients with AIT history needed amiodarone reintroduction. At first AIT episode, the mean age was 62.2 ± 16 years with male gender predominance; 65% of patients were classified as type 1 AIT. AIT recurred in 14 patients (30%), 12 patients developed hypothyroidism (26%), and 20 patients remained euthyroid (44%). Characteristics of type 1 AIT during the first episode, namely briefer exposure period to amiodarone and longer duration of treatment to normalize thyroid hormones, were predictive of AIT recurrence; 73% of patients (8 of 11) with previous episode of type 1 AIT, who did not receive a preventive thioamide treatment, developed a second episode of AIT. Thioamide preventive treatment could be useful to prevent type 1 AIT recurrence. In conclusion, AIT recurrence after amiodarone reintroduction is 4 times more frequent in patients with type 1 AIT history. Thyroid ablation before amiodarone reintroduction in patients with a history of type 1 AIT is preferred. Preventive thioamide treatment could be suggested in patients with type 1 AIT history pending for surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].

    PubMed

    Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.

  18. Predictors of recurrent ingestion of gastrointestinal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Ian C; Spier, Bret J; Swize, Lisa R; Lindstrom, Mary J; Pfau, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients. To identify and define patients at high risk for recurrent foreign body ingestion. A retrospective chart review of foreign body ingestion was conducted at a tertiary care medical centre over an 11-year period. Variables analyzed included age, sex, incarceration status, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV diagnosis, success of endoscopy, type of sedation used, method of extraction, complications, presence of gastrointestinal pathology, and incidence of recurrent food impaction or foreign body. A total of 159 patients with a foreign body ingestion were identified. One hundred fourteen (77%) experienced a single episode of ingestion and 45 (23%) experienced multiple ingestions. Of the patients with multiple ingestions, 27 (60%) had recurrent food impactions while 18 (40%) ingested foreign objects. In the recurrent ingestor group, a psychiatric disorder had been diagnosed in 16 patients (35.6%) and there were 13 incarcerated individuals (28.9%). The average number of recurrences was 2.6 per patient (117 total recurrences). Individuals with a psychiatric disorder experienced 3.9 recurrences per patient, while prisoners averaged 4.1 recurrences per patient. The combination of a psychiatric disorder and being incarcerated was associated with the highest recurrence rate (4.33 per patient). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that male sex (OR 2.9; P=0.022), being incarcerated (OR 3.0; P=0.024) and the presence of a psychiatric disorder (OR 2.5; P=0.03) were risk factors for recurrent ingestion. Risk factors for recurrent ingestion of foreign bodies were male sex, being incarcerated and the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  19. Predictors of recurrent ingestion of gastrointestinal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Ian C; Spier, Bret J; Swize, Lisa R; Lindstrom, Mary J; Pfau, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal foreign bodies are commonly encountered; however, little knowledge exists as to the causes of foreign body ingestions and why they occur repeatedly in some patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify and define patients at high risk for recurrent foreign body ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of foreign body ingestion was conducted at a tertiary care medical centre over an 11-year period. Variables analyzed included age, sex, incarceration status, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV diagnosis, success of endoscopy, type of sedation used, method of extraction, complications, presence of gastrointestinal pathology, and incidence of recurrent food impaction or foreign body. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients with a foreign body ingestion were identified. One hundred fourteen (77%) experienced a single episode of ingestion and 45 (23%) experienced multiple ingestions. Of the patients with multiple ingestions, 27 (60%) had recurrent food impactions while 18 (40%) ingested foreign objects. In the recurrent ingestor group, a psychiatric disorder had been diagnosed in 16 patients (35.6%) and there were 13 incarcerated individuals (28.9%). The average number of recurrences was 2.6 per patient (117 total recurrences). Individuals with a psychiatric disorder experienced 3.9 recurrences per patient, while prisoners averaged 4.1 recurrences per patient. The combination of a psychiatric disorder and being incarcerated was associated with the highest recurrence rate (4.33 per patient). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that male sex (OR 2.9; P=0.022), being incarcerated (OR 3.0; P=0.024) and the presence of a psychiatric disorder (OR 2.5; P=0.03) were risk factors for recurrent ingestion. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for recurrent ingestion of foreign bodies were male sex, being incarcerated and the presence of a psychiatric disorder. PMID:23378983

  20. National epidemiology of initial and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in the Veterans Health Administration from 2003 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Reveles, Kelly R; Lawson, Kenneth A; Mortensen, Eric M; Pugh, Mary Jo V; Koeller, Jim M; Argamany, Jacqueline R; Frei, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrated marked increases in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the United States (U.S.) in recent years. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of initial and recurrent CDI in a national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) cohort over a 12-year period. This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI (ICD-9-CM code 008.45) plus a positive CDI stool test between October 1, 2002 and September 30, 2014. Data were obtained from the VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure. Recurrence was defined as a second ICD-9-CM code plus a new course of CDI therapy following a minimum three-day gap after the initial therapy was completed. CDI incidence and outcomes were presented descriptively and longitudinally. Overall, 30,326 patients met study inclusion criteria. CDI incidence increased from FY 2003 (1.6 per 10,000) to FY 2013 (5.1 per 10,000). Thereafter, CDI incidence decreased through FY 2014 (4.6 per 10,000). A total of 5,011 patients (17%) experienced a first recurrence and, of those, 1,713 (34%) experienced a second recurrence. Recurrence incidence increased 10-fold over the study period, from (0.1 per 10,000) in FY 2003, to (1.0 per 10,000) in FY 2014. Overall, 30-day mortality and median hospital length of stay (LOS) decreased among initial episodes over the study period. Mortality was higher for initial episodes (21%) compared to first recurrences (11%) and second recurrences (7%). Median hospital LOS was longer for first episodes (13 days) compared to first (9 days) and second recurrences (8 days). Initial and recurrent CDI episodes increased among veterans over a 12-year period. Outcomes, such as mortality and hospital LOS improved in recent years; both of these outcomes are worse for initial CDI episodes than recurrent episodes.

  1. Ansa pancreatica as a predisposing factor for recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takana Yamakawa; Gonoi, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-10-28

    To determine the non-biased prevalence and clinical significance of ansa pancreatica in patients with acute pancreatitis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our institutional review board approved this cross-sectional study, which consisted of a community-based cohort of 587 consecutive participants in a whole-body health-check program, and 73 subjects with episode of acute pancreatitis (55 patients with a single episode of acute pancreatitis, and 18 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis). All of the subjects underwent abdominal MRI including magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, medical examinations, and blood tests. Two board-certified, diagnostic, abdominal radiologists evaluated the images, and ansa pancreatica was diagnosed based on its characteristic anatomy on MRI. Compared with the community group [5/587 (0.85%)], patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis had a significantly higher frequency of ansa pancreatica [2/18 (11.1%)] ( P = 0.016; OR = 14.3; 95%CI: 1.27-96.1), but not compared with patients with single-episode acute pancreatitis [1/55 (1.8%)] ( P = 0.42; OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 0.44-19.7). Multiple logistic regression analysis using age, alcohol intake, presence of ansa pancreatica, and presence of autoimmune disease as independent covariates, revealed a significant relationship between the presence of ansa pancreatica and recurrent acute pancreatitis. The presence of autoimmune disease was also significantly associated with the onset of recurrent acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, neither age nor alcohol intake were significantly related to the onset of recurrent acute pancreatitis. The present study is the first to provide robust evidence that the presence of ansa pancreatica is significantly associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis.

  2. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of recurrences].

    PubMed

    Salvi, Virginio; Cat Berro, Alberto; Bechon, Elisa; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    A mood stabilizer is an agent effective in treating both poles of the illness and at the same time being able to prevent both manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. According to a broader definition, a mood stabilizer should be effective in decreasing the frequency or severity of any type of episode in bipolar disorder, without worsening the frequency or severity of episodes of opposite polarity. According to this, anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics can be considered as mood stabilizers. In this paper we review the use of lithium and other anticonvulsants that have proved effective in randomized controlled trials of the treatment of manic episodes and prevention of recurrences of bipolar disorder. Lithium and valproate are considered as first-line treatment options for acute mania while evidence regarding carbamazepine is insufficient to consider it as a first-line agent. Patients who fail to respond to first-line treatments may benefit from the adjunct of an atypical antipsychotic such as olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or aripiprazole. Lithium retains the strongest evidence of efficacy in the prophylaxis of manic episodes, lamotrigine in the prevention of depressive episodes. Valproate and carbamazepine have no indication for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. Lithium can still be considered a gold standard in the treatment of manic episodes as well as in the prophylaxis of recurrences. Other anticonvulsants should be employed in particular situations, such as valproic acid in the treatment of mania and lamotrigine in the prevention of depressive recurrences.

  3. The problem of dizziness and syncope in old age: transient ischemic attacks versus hypersensitive carotid sinus reflex.

    PubMed

    Uesu, C T; Eisenman, J I; Stemmer, E A

    1976-03-01

    In the elderly, a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and a hypersensitive carotid sinus reflex (HCSR) often co-exist and can pose a diagnostic challenge. Seven cases are presented. HCSR is a relative condition; besides increased irritability of the receptor or target organs, susceptibility of the nerve center to ischemia probably is induced by a slow heart rate or low blood pressure in any patient with pre-existing occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Dizziness and syncope of this type represent hemodynamic TIA in contrast to thromboembolic TIA. The carotid sinus massage test is recommended for differentiating the two types of TIA; the treatments differ. At present there is no uniform management that can be applied to either TIA or HCSR routinely. Therefore, treatment should be approached on an individual basis, keeping in mind the different pathophysiologic factors operating in the specific patient.

  4. Residual memory dysfunction in recurrent major depressive disorder--a longitudinal study from Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2012-12-20

    Depression may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Large cohort studies have shown that recurrent depression is associated with a risk of developing dementia. Other studies have documented smaller hippocampal volume in patients with recurrent depression. It is speculative that a greater risk of developing dementia may result from a higher number of previous depressive episodes. This study compared patients with recurrent and single-episode depression in the remitted stage, and healthy controls to elucidate the impact of the number of depressive episodes on memory. Logical memory and visual reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were given to 68 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (30 patients with a single episode and residual 38 patients with recurrent multiple episodes) and 57 healthy controls. The patients with MDD received memory assessment at the time of initial remission and at the follow-up period 3 years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores of both logical memory and visual reproduction subtests were significantly lower in both patient groups compared with healthy controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction of the single-episode group disappeared, whereas scores in the recurrent group remained significantly lower than those of the single-episode group and controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Patients with recurrent MDD with multiple depressive episodes showed residual memory dysfunction even after 3 years of remission. Persistence of memory deficits in the recurrent depression may be a risk factor for developing dementia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of psychiatric, cardiometabolic, and musculoskeletal comorbidity in the recurrence of depression-related work disability.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivekäs, Teija; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, chronic hypertension, diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in depression. However, the extent to which these conditions affect the recurrence of depression-related work disability is unknown. The specific aims of the study were to investigate the extent to which comorbid other psychiatric disorders, cardiometabolic, and musculoskeletal conditions were associated with the recurrence of depression-related work disability among employees who had returned to work after a depression-related disability episode. A cohort study of Finnish public sector employees with at least one depression-related disability episode during 2005-2011 after which the employee had returned to work (14,172 depression-related work disability episodes derived from national health and disability registers for 9,946 individuals). We used Cox proportional hazard models for recurrent events. Depression-related work disability recurred in 35% of the episodes that had ended in return to work from a previous episode, totaling 4,927 recurrent episodes among 3,095 (31%) employees. After adjustment for sex, age, socioeconomic status, and type of employment contract, comorbid psychiatric disorder (hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% CI 1.68-1.97), cardiovascular disease (1.39, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), diabetes (1.43, 95% CI 1.11-1.85), chronic hypertension (1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.58), and musculoskeletal disorder (1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28) were associated with an increased risk of a recurrent episode compared to those without these comorbid conditions. Recurrence of depression-related work disability is common. Employees with comorbid psychiatric, cardiometabolic, or musculoskeletal conditions are at an increased risk of recurrent depression-related work disability episodes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Management of acute, recurrent, and chronic meningitides in adults.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tracey A; Venna, Nagagopal

    2010-11-01

    Meningitis (inflammation of the pia, arachnoid, and sometimes dura) has diverse causes and presentations. Although viruses are the most common cause of acute meningitis, bacterial meningitides are more severe and important to exclude because morbidity and mortality are high. Chronic meningitis has a broader range of causes, including atypical bacteria, fungi, and noninfectious causes. Presentation is more insidious but, if untreated, significant damage or death may ensue. Recurrent meningitis has many of the same causes as chronic meningitis, but manifestations occur in discrete episodes. Distinguishing between acute, chronic, and recurrent meningitis is essential for proper diagnostic testing and treatment approaches. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventral incisional hernia recurrence.

    PubMed

    Clark, J L

    2001-07-01

    During the period October 1993 to December 1996, 31 patients were operated on by the author for primary or recurrent ventral incisional hernia (VIH). Three patients were excluded from analysis because their records were unavailable for review. The median age of the 28 remaining patients at their initial procedure was 57.5 years (range, 37-78 years). The repair was performed with interrupted O-Ethibond sutures in all but 3 cases where Prolene suture was used secondary to noniatrogenic contamination or recurrent hernia. There were no unplanned enterotomies in the entire series and prophylactic intravenous antibiotics were used in all cases. The only significant complications were skin hyperemia after five repairs in 3 patients who were treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics, and 1 patient who had an antibiotic-associated rash. There were no 30-day mortalities. Prolene mesh was used exclusively in all repairs performed with mesh. Seven of these repairs (25%) were for recurrent VIH. Three of these seven patients had previous mesh repairs. Six of these seven patients who presented with recurrent VIH had a mesh repair and four developed a recurrence. Five of seven were active smokers, with one having severe obstructive lung disease. Four of seven related significant occupational lifting. Of the 21 patients having initial repair of VIH, mesh was used in 8 (38%). After a median follow-up of 13 months, there were 2 recurrent hernias (25%). The remaining 13 patients had primary closure of their hernias. After median follow-up of 25 months, there were 5 recurrences (38%). A total of 34 VIH repairs were performed on these 28 patients, of which 13 were for recurrent hernias. Five of thirteen (38%) of the mesh repairs for recurrent VIH failed. The median body mass index (BMI) for the 13 patients having primary repair was 26.4, and that for all 21 cases having mesh repair was 28.8. Patients with recurrent VIH frequently recur despite use of mesh, avoidance of

  8. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary.

  9. Obesity and episodic memory function.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-04-17

    Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship. A review approach was employed, using PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sports Discus databases. Fourteen studies met our criteria. Among these 14 reviewed studies, eight were cross-sectional, four were prospective, and two employed a randomized controlled experimental design. Twelve of the 14 studies did not take into consideration dietary behavior in their analysis, and similarly, nine of the 14 studies did not take into consideration participant physical activity behavior. Among the 14 studies, ten found an inverse association of weight status on memory function, but for one of these studies, this association was attenuated after controlling for physical activity. Among the 14 evaluated studies, four did not find a direct effect of weight status on memory. Among the four null studies, one, however, found an indirect effect of BMI on episodic memory and another found a moderation effect of BMI and age on memory function. It appears that obesity may be associated with worse memory function, with the underlying mechanisms discussed herein. At this point, it is uncertain whether adiposity, itself, is influencing memory changes, or rather, whether adiposity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity and diet) are driving the obesity-memory relationship.

  10. Late onset hereditary episodic ataxia.

    PubMed

    Damak, M; Riant, F; Boukobza, M; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Bousser, M-G; Vahedi, K

    2009-05-01

    Episodic ataxias (EA) are hereditary paroxysmal neurological diseases with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. So far seven loci have been reported and four different genes have been identified. Analysis of additional sporadic or familial cases is needed to better delineate the clinical and genetic spectrum of EA. A two generation French family with late onset episodic ataxia was examined. All consenting family members had a brain MRI with volumetric analysis of the cerebellum. Haplotype analysis was performed for the EA2 locus (19p13), the EA5 locus (2q22), the EA6 locus (5p13) and the EA7 locus (19q13). Mutation screening was performed for all exons of CACNA1A (EA2), EAAT1 (EA6) and the coding sequence of KCNA1 (EA1). Four family members had episodic ataxia with onset between 48 and 56 years of age but with heterogeneity in the severity and duration of symptoms. The two most severely affected had daily attacks of EA with a slowly progressive and disabling permanent cerebellar ataxia and a poor response to acetazolamide. Brain MRI showed in three affected members a decrease in the ratio of cerebellar volume:total intracranial volume, indicating cerebellar atrophy. No deleterious mutation was found in CACNA1A, SCA6, EAAT1 or KCNA1. In addition, the EA5 locus was excluded. A new phenotype of episodic ataxia has been described, characterised clinically by a late onset and progressive permanent cerebellar signs, and genetically by exclusion of the genes so far identified in EA.

  11. Replay of Episodic Memories in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Iyer, Vishakh; Carey, Lawrence M; Sluka, Christina M; Rajic, Gabriela; Kestenman, Jesse; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Somekh, Isaac; Corbin, Hannah E; Tucker, Kjersten G; Almeida, Bianca; Hex, Severine B; Garcia, Krysten D; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2018-05-21

    Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of multiple unique events in sequential order [1-3]. The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memories in both people and rodents [2, 4-6]. Although rats remember multiple unique episodes [7, 8], it is currently unknown if animals "replay" episodic memories. Therefore, we developed an animal model of episodic memory replay. Here, we show that rats can remember a trial-unique stream of multiple episodes and the order in which these events occurred by engaging hippocampal-dependent episodic memory replay. We document that rats rely on episodic memory replay to remember the order of events rather than relying on non-episodic memories. Replay of episodic memories survives a long retention-interval challenge and interference from the memory of other events, which documents that replay is part of long-term episodic memory. The chemogenetic activating drug clozapine N-oxide (CNO), but not vehicle, reversibly impairs episodic memory replay in rats previously injected bilaterally in the hippocampus with a recombinant viral vector containing an inhibitory designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD; AAV8-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherry). By contrast, two non-episodic memory assessments are unaffected by CNO, showing selectivity of this hippocampal-dependent impairment. Our approach provides an animal model of episodic memory replay, a process by which the rat searches its representations in episodic memory in sequential order to find information. Our findings using rats suggest that the ability to replay a stream of episodic memories is quite old in the evolutionary timescale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  13. Oral antivirals for the acute treatment of recurrent herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lori A; Hoehns, James D; Squires, Cindy L

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the use and benefit of oral antivirals in the acute treatment of episodic, recurrent herpes labialis. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) using acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir, cold sores, herpes labialis, and HSV-1 as search terms. We reviewed 5 placebo-controlled and 2 comparative studies evaluating oral antivirals for acute treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. No studies directly compared different antivirals. Studies discussing the efficacy of antivirals for chronic suppression of herpes simplex virus-1 infection were not included. Treatment with oral antivirals decreases the duration of lesion episodes and pain by approximately one day; however, the antivirals do not abort lesions from developing. Clinical implications of these results appear relatively modest.

  14. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  15. Clinical utility of serum lactate levels for differential diagnosis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures from psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and syncope.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ebru Apaydın; Ünal, Ali; Ünal, Aslıhan; Erdoğan, Çağla

    2017-10-01

    The differential diagnosis of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), and syncope constitutes a major challenge. Misdiagnosis rates up to 20 to 30% are reported in the literature. To assess the clinical utility of serum lactate levels for differentiation of GTCS, PNES, and syncope based on gender differences. Data from 270 patients were evaluated retrospectively. Only patients ≥18 years old with the final diagnosis of GTCS, PNES, or syncope in their chart were recruited. Serum lactate levels were measured in the first 2h of the index event. Serum lactate levels in patients with GTCS (n=157) were significantly higher than in the patients with PNES (n=25) (p<0.001) and syncope (n=88) (p<0.001). When compared with the females, serum lactate levels in patients with GTCS were significantly higher in the male subgroup (p=0.004). In male patients the ROC analysis yielded a serum lactate value of 2.43mmol/l with a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.88 as the optimal cut-off value to distinguish GTCS from other events. The ROC analysis for the AUC yielded a high estimate of 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.98). When a cut-off value of 2.43mmol/l was chosen for the females, which was an optimal value for male patients, the specificity was 0.85, however, the sensitivity was 0.64. We propose that serum lactate level when measured in the first 2h after the index event has a high clinical utility in the differential diagnosis of GTCS, PNES, and syncope. With concomitant clinical signs and physical examination findings besides neuroimaging and EEG, elevated levels of lactate should be taken into account when evaluating a patient with impaired consciousness. On the other hand, the suggested cut-off value 2.43mmol/l might not have a discriminative effect between GTCS, PNES, and syncope in female patients. This finding should be verified in a prospectively designed study with a larger patient population. Copyright © 2017

  16. Risk Factors for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Pediatric Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Elyse M; Wilkes, Jacob; Korgenski, Kent; Hersh, Adam L; Pavia, Andrew T; Stevens, Vanessa W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors during the incident Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) episode, associated with developing recurrent CDI within 60 days, among hospitalized children that may be amenable to intervention. This was a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients hospitalized at a freestanding children's hospital from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010. Patients were eligible if they were <18 years of age at admission and had a new diagnosis of CDI. Patients <1 year of age and those with a history of CDI in the previous 60 days were excluded. Age, gender, race, complex chronic conditions, and other information were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of recurrent CDI. During the study period, there were 612 unique patients with an incident CDI episode; 65 (10.6%) experienced at least 1 recurrence. Patients with any complex chronic condition were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-13.9) times more likely to experience recurrence. Patients with a malignancy and those who received non-CDI antibiotics at any time during CDI treatment were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.2-6.9) times more likely to experience recurrence, respectively. The presence of underlying comorbidities, malignancies, and treatment with non-CDI antibiotics during CDI treatment were the most important risk factors for recurrence. Efforts to reduce unnecessary courses of non-CDI antibiotics could lower the risk of CDI recurrence. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. [Chicken pox recurrence revealing a renal adenocarcinoma in an adult].

    PubMed

    Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H

    2000-09-01

    A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.

  18. [Tuberculosis recurrence and its risk factors].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, H B; Moreira Filho, D de C

    2000-04-01

    The persistence of tuberculosis bacilli in patients who are cured, thus causing recurrence, is an important issue. This case-control study investigated individual and institutional risk factors for relapse by analyzing independent variables related to the patient, the use of antituberculosis drugs, and the service delivered at health care institutions; 56 cases and 105 controls were interviewed. Recurrence was defined as a new tuberculosis episode after the patient had been successfully treated. Controls were selected from among patients who were treated and cured of pulmonary tuberculosis and who did not experience a relapse. Regression models were proposed to control confounding factors or effect modifiers. The variables identified as risk factors for relapse were those related to erratic patient behavior (missing medical appointments and therefore not picking up the medication, not taking the medication, taking the wrong dosage), age, and stress from life events; adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs; and problems in the organization of health care services that resulted in patients receiving insufficient dosages or amounts of antituberculosis drugs. Receiving information regarding treatment duration provided protection against recurrence. The knowledge regarding these risk factors should result in more intensive follow-up and in more use of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in order to prevent relapse.

  19. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis: focus on the vulva.

    PubMed

    Beikert, Florian C; Le, Minh T; Koeninger, Angela; Technau, Kristin; Clad, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis is a frequent disease with a serious impact on women's quality of life. Mostly, recurrences are caused by identical Candida strains suggesting C. albicans persistence in the female anogenital area. Objectives of the presented work were to identify the site of C. albicans persistence, to determine clinical symptoms and signs related to C. albicans positive vulvar cultures and to introduce a new therapeutic approach in women with RVVC. Women with an acute, culture-confirmed episode of RVVC at time of visit were included in this prospective case series. Swabs were obtained from both vagina and inter-labial sulcus. Women received a combined 20-day regimen of 100 mg oral fluconazole and ciclopiroxolamin cream topically. Follow-up visits were at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Of 139 women, 105 (76%) had at least one C. albicans positive culture from the external vulva. Vulvar positive cultures correlated with pruritus (OR 5.4; P < 0.001), vulvar edema (OR 3.8; P = 0.03) and fissures (OR 2.4; P = 0.03). Recurrence rates were 27%, 33% and 34% (at 6, 9, 12 months, respectively). The external vulva appears to represent a site of C. albicans persistence and source of endogenous re-infection in patients with RVVC. The combined treatment compared favorably with published fluconazole maintenance regimens. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Recurrent acute transverse myelopathy: association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaharao, Vijaya; Bartakke, Sandip; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Manisha S; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Udani, Vrajesh P

    2004-06-01

    A seven-year-old boy presented with a second episode of acute transverse myelopathy. The first episode had responded dramatically to methylprednisolone. The manifestations of the second episode did not respond to methylprednisolone or IVIG. He showed persistently raised levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in the serum. Primary conditions like collagen vascular diseases, malignancy, exposure to drugs and HIV infection, which are known to be associated with the raised titers of these antibodies were ruled out clinically and by investigations. Recurrent transverse myelopathy is a rare event in childhood and reports of its association with Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APLAS) are scanty. The etiological role for these antibodies remains to be established. However, once the diagnosis is established, it may be prudent to treat the condition with agents and procedures to bring about a decrease in their titers. Long-term therapy to prevent thromboembolic complications of APLAS may also be instituted.

  1. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  2. Recurrent urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Epp, Annette; Larochelle, Annick

    2010-11-01

    to provide an update of the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation, treatment, and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute self-treatment are all efficient alternatives to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Vaginal estrogen and cranberry juice can also be effective prophylaxis alternatives. a search of PubMed and The Cochrane Library for articles published in English identified the most relevant literature. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions. this update is the consensus of the Sub-Committee on Urogynaecology of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). recurrent urinary tract infections need careful investigation and can be efficiently treated and prevented. Different prophylaxis options can be selected according to each patient's characteristics.

  3. [Indices of 24-hour monitoring of arterial blood pressure in patients with neurogenic syncope and patients with chronic constitution- dependent hypotension].

    PubMed

    Musaeva, Z A; Khapaev, B A; Fedotova, A V; Oknin, V Iu

    1999-01-01

    Clinical-psychologic study, spectral analysis of heart rate variability, 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (AP) were performed in 20 patients with chronic constitutional arterial hypotension and in 18 patients with neurogenic syncopal states. Both groups were characterised by considerable manifestations of the syndrome of autonomic dystonia, by emotional-personal disorders that correlated with elevated level of slow-waves of the second order in heart rhythms' spectrum. That testified activation of supersegmental sympathetic-adrenal systems. Disorders in sympathetic-parasympathetic correlations were specific in each group. In patients with arterial hypotension disorder of circadian rhythm was observed in the form of superfluous decrease of diastolic AP during sleep. Circadian rhythms in patients with neurogenic syncopes have parameters characteristic for normals showing a preverved chronobiologic AP regulation. A role of the alterations revealed in pathogenesis of arterial hypotensionis discussed.

  4. Recurrent atrial myxoma.

    PubMed

    Macarie, C; Stoica, E; Chioncel, O; Carp, A; Gherghiceanu, D; Stiru, O; Zarma, L; Herlea, V

    2004-01-01

    We have chosen this case of sporadic atrial myxoma for our presentation because it had a particular evolution, with recurrence at 8 years after surgical excision (echocardiography was performed every year) and a particular diagnostic means - at echocardiographic follow-up, the patient being asymptomatic. This presentation, together with a review of literature included in the article, emphasizes the importance of a careful postoperative follow-up of the patients and the existence of some particular aspects of the evolution and symptomatology of recurrent atrial myxoma.

  5. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland G.; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. PMID:24373942

  6. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions.

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trazodone and Omeprazole Interaction causing Frequent Second-Degree Mobitz Type 1 Atrioventricular (AV) Block (Wenckebach Phenomenon) and Syncope: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinseye, Oluwaseun A.; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Radparvar, Farshid; Bakshi, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Trazodone and omeprazole interaction causing second-degree Mobitz type 1 AV block and syncope Symptoms: Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Trazodone and omeprazole withheld Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: This case report highlights serious cardiovascular adverse effects with a conventional dose of trazodone as a result of its potential interaction with omeprazole. Case Report: A 54-year-old man who was a former smoker, with dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and anxiety disorder developed lightheadedness and syncope the morning of admission. He was taking trazodone 50 mg daily, omeprazole 20 mg daily, and simvastatin 20 mg at bedtime. He doubled the dose of trazodone 50 mg on the night prior to presentation to calm his anxiety. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm at 60 beats per minute and second-degree Mobitz type 1 atrioventricular (AV) block with 5:4 AV conduction. Results of basic metabolic panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and chest radiograph were normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed aortic valve sclerosis. We tested for Lyme disease given his history of hunting in the woods 8 months prior to presentation, but the titer was negative. Trazodone and omeprazole were discontinued. By the 3rd day of medication discontinuation, all symptoms had resolved and the frequency of second-degree AV Mobitz type 1 AV block had decreased to once per hour. Conclusions: Due diligence and meticulous attention to detail needs to be exercised to uncover drug interactions as potential causes of lethal and nonlethal patient symptomatology, as in this case of syncope caused by concomitant use of trazodone and a widely prescribed medication, omeprazole. PMID:26017199

  8. [Usefulness of a protocol for carotid sinus massage in supine and erect postures in patients with syncope without other cardiovascular or neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Bocchiardo, M; Alciati, M; Buscemi, A; Cravetto, A; Richiardi, E; Gaita, F

    1995-05-01

    Carotid sinus massage is a first level test when investigating the cause of syncope. It is normally performed in the supine and erect positions. However, there is no standard complete protocol. So we have devised a new protocol to evaluate the utility of carotid sinus massage in different postures and the influence of patients age on the response. Two groups of subjects were selected: a group of 167 patients (mean age 50 ys +/- 18, 105 males, 62 females) with a history of syncope without cardiovascular and neurological disease and 20 asymptomatic control subjects (mean age 52 ys +/- 13, 11 males, 9 females). Carotid sinus massage was performed supine, just after passive tilt, after 5 minutes of tilt and just after passive return to supine. If a pause > 3" was detected, the protocol was repeated after atropine i.v. injection. Borderline vasodepressor: blood pressure reduction > 30 but < 50 mm Hg without symptoms; vasodepressor: blood pressure reduction > 50 mm Hg or > 30 mm Hg with symptoms like dizziness, vertigo or syncope; cardioinhibitory: pause > 3"; mixed: cardioinhibitory with blood pressure reduction > 30 mm Hg after atropine. Carotid sinus massage gave all informations in the supine position in 14 (12%) patients, after passive tilt in 67 (57%), after 5 minutes of tilt in 30 (26%), and after return to supine in 6 (5%). The responses were: 13 (8%) borderline vasodepressor, 32 (19%) vasodepressor, 2 (1%) cardioinhibitory, 70 (42%) mixed, 50 (30%) negative. Positive responses were more frequent in patients over 45 years (90% versus 43%). In the control group only 3 (15%) positive responses were elicited (2 borderline vasodepressor, and 1 vasodepressor, all in subjects over 45). This protocol for carotid sinus massage evidenced positive responses in 70% of patients with syncope without cardiovascular and neurological disease; cardioinhibitory responses are rare (2%); positive responses are more frequent in patients over 45 years; the protocol specificity was 85%.

  9. Risk factors for child maltreatment recurrence: An updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    White, Oliver G; Hindley, Nick; Jones, David P H

    2015-10-01

    Children who have been maltreated are at increased risk of further maltreatment. Identification of those at highest risk of further maltreatment is a priority for professionals working in child protection services. The current study is intended to consolidate and expand on previous work on recurrence of child maltreatment. It has sought to identify risk factors for maltreatment recurrence in the recent literature in the expectation that this may help in the practical identification of children at risk. We conducted a systematic review of cohort studies published between 2003 and 2009, identifying factors associated with maltreatment recurrence in children. Studies included demonstrated differing levels of substantiation of maltreatment. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria but showed significant heterogeneity, varying in setting, recruitment of subjects, types of maltreatment considered and length of follow-up. Previous findings were replicated and expanded in the current study in relation to a range of factors, including rates of maltreatment recurrence, maltreatment types, frequency of previous episodes of maltreatment, child and family considerations, home environment and service provision. Factors were identified irrespective of level of maltreatment substantiation. This study provides further systematic evidence of the existence of a number of factors associated with child maltreatment recurrence. It points to the possibility of practical application of its findings within the wider context of decision making in child protection services, with the ultimate aim of reducing recurrence of maltreatment in individual cases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The computed tomography appearance of recurrent and chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A; McCabe, C J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine computed tomography (CT) appearance of recurrent and chronic appendicitis. In 100 consecutive appendiceal CT examinations of proven appendicitis, 18 patients met criteria for recurrent (multiple discrete episodes) or chronic (continuous symptoms > 3 weeks, pathological findings) appendicitis. CT findings were reviewed. Ten patients had recurrent appendicitis, 3 had chronic appendicitis, 3 had both, and 2 had pathological chronic appendicitis. CT findings in 18 recurrent/chronic cases were identical to 82 acute appendicitis cases, including pericecal stranding (both 100%), dilated (> 6 mm) appendix (88.9% versus 93.9%), apical thickening (66.7% versus 69.5%), adenopathy (66.7% versus 61.0%), appendolith(s) (50% versus 42.7%), arrowhead (27.8% versus 22.0%), abscess (11.1% versus 11.0%), phlegmon (11.1% versus 6.1%), and fluid (5.6% versus 19.5%). CT findings in recurrent and chronic appendicitis are the same as those in acute appendicitis. Appendiceal CT can be beneficial for evaluating patients with suspected recurrent or chronic appendicitis.

  11. Recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vinaixa, Carmen; Rubín, Angel; Aguilera, Victoria; Berenguer, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection following liver transplantation is a major source of morbidity and mortality. The natural history of hepatitis C in the transplant setting is shortened. Overall, one third of HCV-infected recipients have developed allograft cirrhosis due to HCV recurrence by the 5th-7th year post-transplantation. The most significant variables which determine disease progression are the use of organs from old donors, the use of an inadequate immunosuppression (too low, inducing treatment rejection episodes, too potent or too rapidly changing), and the presence of comorbid conditions that also impact the quality of the graft (biliary complications, metabolic syndrome). The only factor consistently shown to modify the natural history of recurrent disease is antiviral therapy. A sustained viral response, achieved by one third of those treated with dual therapy, is associated with improved histology, reduced liver-related complications and increased survival. Variables associated with enhanced viral response with dual therapy include an adequate genetic background (IL28B C/C of both donor and recipient), good treatment adherence (full doses of ribavirin, treatment duration), lack of graft cirrhosis at baseline, and viral genotype non-1. Data with triple therapy are encouraging. Response rates of about 60% at end-of-therapy have been described. Drug-drug interactions with calcineurin inhibitors are present but easily manageable with strict trough levels monitoring. Side effects are frequent and severe, particularly anemia, infections and acute renal insufficiency. In the future new oral antivirals will likely prevent viral reinfection. In this review, we will cover the most significant but also controversial aspects regarding recurrent HCV infection, including the natural history, retransplantation, antiviral therapy, and outcome in HIV-HCV patients. PMID:24714603

  12. A Novel Approach to Proactive Primary Care-Based Case Finding and Multidisciplinary Management of Falls, Syncope, and Dizziness in a One-Stop Service: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Parry, Steve W; Hill, Harry; Lawson, Joanna; Lawson, Nick; Green, David; Trundle, Heidi; McNaught, Judith; Strassheim, Victoria; Caldwell, Alma; Mayland, Richard; Earley, Phillip; McMeekin, Peter

    2016-11-01

    National and international evidence and guidelines on falls prevention and management in community-dwelling elderly adults recommend that falls services should be multifactorial and their interventions multicomponent. The way that individuals are identified as having had or being at risk of falls in order to take advantage of such services is far less clear. A novel multidisciplinary, multifactorial falls, syncope, and dizziness service model was designed with enhanced case ascertainment through proactive, primary care-based screening (of individual case notes of individuals aged ≥60) for individual fall risk factors. The service model identified 4,039 individuals, of whom 2,232 had significant gait and balance abnormalities according to senior physiotherapist assessment. Significant numbers of individuals with new diagnoses ranging from cognitive impairment to Parkinson's disease to urgent indications for a pacemaker were discovered. More than 600 individuals were found who were at high risk of osteoporosis according to World Health Association Fracture Risk Assessment Tool score, 179 with benign positional paroxysmal vertigo and 50 with atrial fibrillation. Through such screening and this approach, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Plus (Plus falls, syncope and dizziness expertise), unmet need was targeted on a scale far outside the numbers seen in clinical trials. Further work is needed to determine whether this approach translates into fewer falls and decreases in syncope and dizziness. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Cognitive reactivity, self-depressed associations, and the recurrence of depression.

    PubMed

    Elgersma, Hermien J; de Jong, Peter J; van Rijsbergen, Gerard D; Kok, Gemma D; Burger, Huibert; van der Does, Willem; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bockting, Claudi L H

    2015-09-01

    Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of cognitive reactivity (CR; cognitive responsivity to a negative mood) as a risk factor for recurrences of depression. One explanation for the mixed evidence may lie in the number of previous depressive episodes. Heightened CR may be especially relevant as a risk factor for the development of multiple depressive episodes and less so for a single depressive episode. In addition, it is theoretically plausible but not yet tested that the relationship between CR and number of episodes is moderated by the strength of automatic depression-related self-associations. To investigate (i) the strength of CR in remitted depressed individuals with a history of a single vs. multiple episodes, and (ii) the potentially moderating role of automatic negative self-associations in the relationship between the number of episodes and CR. Cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in a cohort study (Study 1) and during baseline assessments in two clinical trials (Study 2). Study 1 used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and compared never-depressed participants (n=901) with remitted participants with either a single (n=336) or at least 2 previous episodes (n=273). Study 2 included only remitted participants with at least two previous episodes (n=273). The Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity Revised (LEIDS-R) was used to index CR and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit self-associations. In Study 1, remitted depressed participants with multiple episodes had significantly higher CR than those with a single or no previous episode. The remitted individuals with multiple episodes of Study 2 had even higher CR scores than those of Study 1. Within the group of individuals with multiple episodes, CR was not heightened as a function of the number of episodes, even if individual differences in automatic negative self-associations were taken into account. The study employed a cross-sectional design, which

  14. [Recurrent urinary tract infections: prevention of recurrence with intravesical instillations of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Tornero Ruiz, Jesús Ignacio; Martínez Gómez, Gloria; Escudero Bregante, José Félix; Gómez Gómez, Guillermo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study is to demonstrate that intravesical administration of the association chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), according to our treatment schedule, is a benefit for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI), not only from a clinical point of view, but also reducing recurrences. This is a study of 28 women diagnosed with RUTI, with a positive culture, and compatible symptoms;frethey underwent treatment according to the protocol of intravesical instillations of the combination CS 2%-1 gr + HA 1.6%-800 mg. To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, symptoms improvement, reduction of the number of episodes of urinary tract infection and quality of life were considered. In our series, we can observe an improvement of the quality of life assessed by PG-I, 66% after 12 months. It was seen that 55.6% of the patient's urine cultures became negative, while 44.4% had episodes of urinary infection, but with lower baseline symptoms intensity. Patients included in the protocol of instillation improved significantly their quality of life; in addition, to a considerable extent new urinary infections were not presented, being milder when they presented.

  15. Recurrent Gliosarcoma in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gülşen, İsmail; Ak, Hakan; Yilmaz, Tevfik; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alkış, İsmet; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    Gliosarcoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system and it constitutes about 1 to 8% of all malignant gliomas. In this report we are presenting a recurrent gliosarcoma case during a pregnancy in a 30-year-old woman. This is the first report presenting gliosarcoma in the pregnancy. PMID:24900931

  16. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  17. [Equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Spiess, B M

    1997-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is an important ocular disease and the most common cause for blindness in horses and mules worldwide. The anatomy, physiology, immunology and inflammatory reactions of the uveal tract are discussed. Possible etiologies and the clinical signs are described. A detailed description of possible therapies is given and the prognosis is discussed.

  18. Recurrent Tricuspid Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Ibrahim; Koksal, Cengiz; Cakalagaoglu, Canturk; Sahin, Muslum; Yanartas, Mehmet; Ay, Yasin; Demir, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the medium-term results of De Vega, modified De Vega, and ring annuloplasty techniques for the correction of tricuspid insufficiency and investigates the risk factors for recurrent grades 3 and 4 tricuspid insufficiency after repair. In our clinic, 93 patients with functional tricuspid insufficiency underwent surgical tricuspid repair from May 2007 through October 2010. The study was retrospective, and all the data pertaining to the patients were retrieved from hospital records. Functional capacity, recurrent tricuspid insufficiency, and risk factors aggravating the insufficiency were analyzed for each patient. In the medium term (25.4 ± 10.3 mo), the rates of grades 3 and 4 tricuspid insufficiency in the De Vega, modified De Vega, and ring annuloplasty groups were 31%, 23.1%, and 6.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction, < 0.50), pulmonary artery pressure ≥60 mmHg, and the De Vega annuloplasty technique were risk factors for medium-term recurrent grades 3 and 4 tricuspid insufficiency. Medium-term survival was 90.6% for the De Vega group, 96.3% for the modified De Vega group, and 97.1% for the ring annuloplasty group. Ring annuloplasty provided the best relief from recurrent tricuspid insufficiency when compared with DeVega annuloplasty. Modified De Vega annuloplasty might be a suitable alternative to ring annuloplasty when rings are not available. PMID:23466680

  19. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  20. Clinical Perineal Streptococcal Infection in Children: Epidemiologic Features, Low Symptomatic Recurrence Rate after Treatment, and Risk Factors for Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Herbert William; Giftos, Peter Michael; Anderson, William Edward; Kaplan, Edward Lawrence; Johnson, Dwight Richard

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of perineal streptococcal infection and recurrence rates following amoxicillin treatment. We used laboratory logs in a single pediatric practice to identify patients 0-18 years of age with perineal cultures positive for group A Streptococcus (GAS) and reviewed their medical charts. We described epidemiologic features, determined recurrence rates following antibiotic treatment, and performed a case-control study to identify possible risk factors for recurrence in patients treated with amoxicillin. We found a perineal streptococcal infection rate of 4.6 per 10,000 patient encounters and a recurrence rate in 157 patients with perineal streptococcal infection of 12.4% after amoxicillin. In male patients, the predominant site of involvement was the perianal region (86%), and for female patients, the perivaginal area (62%). Nearly 80% of patients were 2-7 years of age (range 18 days-12.5 years). Perineal streptococcal infection and GAS pharyngitis followed a similar seasonal pattern of occurrence with 65% of perineal streptococcal infection occurring October through March. In patients with perineal streptococcal infection, 95% had a concomitant pharyngeal culture positive for GAS. Best predictive factors for recurrence after amoxicillin were longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis and having a sibling with perineal streptococcal infection at some time before or after the initial episode. Following treatment with amoxicillin, we found a low recurrence rate of 12.4%. Amoxicillin can be expected to be reliable first-line therapy for perineal streptococcal infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Episodic and Semantic Memory Contribute to Familiar and Novel Episodic Future Thinking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Yue, Tong; Huang, Xi Ting

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory's contribution to EFT.

  2. Episodic Future Thinking: Mechanisms and Functions.

    PubMed

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; Szpunar, Karl K

    2017-10-01

    Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support. Studies concerned with functions have identified several domains in which episodic future thinking produces performance benefits, including decision making, emotion regulation, prospective memory, and spatial navigation.

  3. [Recurrent wheezing: prevalence and associated factors in infants from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Szulman, Gabriela Aída; Freilij, Héctor; Behrends, Ilse; Gentile, Ángela; Mallol, Javier

    The episodes of bronchial obstruction at early age constitute a frequent problem in Pediatrics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants in Buenos Aires City, as well as to identify any associated factors. Cross-sectional study performed from 2011 to 2012 in the Children Hospital Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires City, as part of the International Study of Wheezing in Infants. A validated questionnaire was applied to parents of infants aged between 12 and 15 months. The prevalence of wheezing, mostly the recurrent episodes (three or more), and their probable associated factors were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed with χ 2 , Fisher's test, binary and logistics multiple regression analysis. The significance level was 0.05. Over 1063 infants, 58.9% (confidence interval (CI) 95% 55.9-61.9) presented at least one episode of wheezing and 26.3% (CI95% 23.8-29.9) three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Risk factors associated to wheezing were male gender (p=0.001), six or more episodes of cold during the first year of life (p <0.0001), age at first cold <4 months (p <0.0001); pneumonia (p <0.0001) and smoking during pregnancy (tobacco) (p=0.01). For recurrent wheezing, risk factors we considered as six or more episodes of cold during the first year of life (p <0.0001), early (< 4 month of age) onset wheezing (p <0.0001) and nocturnal wheezing (p <0.0001). The prevalence of recurrent wheezing among infants in Buenos Aires Ciy was high (26.3%). Some identified associated factors can be preventable. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Recurrent unilateral headache associated with SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Jun; Ouma, Shinji; Fukae, Jiro; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted with recurrent episodes of right frontal headache. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive thickening and enhancement of the right frontal dura, muscle and fascia, as well as abnormal signal intensity and enhancement of bone marrow at the lesions. Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome was diagnosed based on the patient's 8-year history of treatment of palmoplantar pustulosis and abnormal accumulations in the right temporal, sternum, and left medial clavicula on bone scintigraphy. SAPHO syndrome may be associated with skull lesions, which can contribute to the onset of repeated headache or dural thickening, thus these symptoms should be recognized as manifestations of this syndrome.

  5. Clinical and Healthcare Burden of Multiple Recurrences of Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Sheitoyan-Pesant, Caroline; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Pépin, Jacques; Marcil-Héguy, Anaïs; Nault, Vincent; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is associated with a high risk of recurrence (rCDI). Few studies have focused on multiple recurrences. To evaluate the potential of novel treatments targeting recurrence, we assessed the burden and severity of rCDI. This was a retrospective cohort of adults diagnosed with CDI in a hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada (1998-2013). An rCDI episode was defined by the reappearance of diarrhea leading to a treatment, with or without a positive toxin assay, within 14-60 days after the previous episode. We included 1527 patients. The probability of developing a first rCDI was 25% (354/1418); a second, 38% (128/334); a third, 29% (35/121); and a fourth or more, 27% (9/33). Two or more rCDIs were observed in 9% (128/1389) of patients. The risk of a first recurrence fluctuated over time, but there was no such variation for second or further recurrences. The proportion of severe cases decreased (47% for initial episodes, 31% for first recurrences, 25% for second, 17% for third), as did the risk of complicated CDI (5.8% to 2.8%). The severity and risk of complications of first recurrences decreased over time, while oral vancomycin was used more systemically. A hospital admission was needed for 34% (148/434) of recurrences. This study documented the clinical and healthcare burden of rCDI: 34% of patients with rCDI needed admission, 28% developed severe CDI, and 4% developed a complication. Secular changes in the severity of recurrences could reflect variations in the predominant strain, or better management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Recurrence of CMV Infection and the Effect of Prolonged Antivirals in Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yoichiro; Humar, Atul; Husain, Shahid; Rotstein, Coleman; Renner, Eberhard; Singer, Lianne; Kim, S Joseph; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-06-01

    Although initial therapy for cytomegalovirus (CMV) is usually successful, a significant subset of patients may have recurrent viremia. However, the epidemiology and risk factors for recurrence have not been fully defined, as well as the utility of prolonged antivirals after initial clearance. Solid organ transplant patients with first episode of CMV disease or asymptomatic viremia (≥1000 IU/mL) requiring treatment were identified by chart review. Clinical and virologic data were collected. The primary outcome was recurrence of CMV viremia or disease within 6 months of treatment discontinuation. The first episode of CMV viremia requiring antiviral therapy was assessed in 282 patients (147 CMV disease and 135 asymptomatic viremia). Cytomegalovirus occurred at 5.6 (0.63-27.7) months posttransplant. Recurrent CMV occurred in 30.5% patients at a median of 51 (0-160) days after discontinuation of therapy. Factors predictive of recurrence were treatment phase viral kinetics (P = 0.005), lung transplant (P = 0.002), CMV donor (D)+/recipient (R)- serostatus(P = 0.04) and recent acute rejection(P = 0.02). Prolonged antiviral therapy was given to 226 (80.1%) of 282 patients. Recurrence occurred in 73 (32.3%) of 226 patients that received prolonged antivirals versus 13 (23.2%) of 56 in those with no prolonged antivirals (P = 0.19). Recurrent CMV occurs in a significant percentage of patients after treatment of the first episode of CMV viremia/disease. CMV D+/R- serostatus, lung transplant, and treatment phase viral kinetics were significant predictors of recurrence. Continuation of prolonged antivirals beyond initial clearance was not associated with a reduced risk of recurrence.

  7. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  8. Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Menstruating Women Has High Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Christopher K; Stanifer, Bryan P; Fore-Kosterski, Susan; Gillespie, Colin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Meyerson, Shari; Odell, David D; DeCamp, Malcolm M; Bharat, Ankit

    2016-10-01

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is treated on the basis of studies that have predominantly consisted of tall male subjects. Here, we determined recurrence of PSP in average-statured menstruating women and studied prevalence of catamenial pneumothorax (CP) in this population. Men and menstruating women, aged 18 to 55 years, without underlying lung disease or substance abuse were retrospectively studied between 2009 and 2015. A chest pathologist reviewed all specimens for thoracic endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to determine recurrence. The median age of women (n = 33) and men (n = 183) was 33.4 and 31.6 years, respectively. In women, 9 (27%) had left-sided and 24 (73%) had right-sided PSP, treated with tube thoracostomy. Recurrence occurred in 21 women (64%) with median follow-up of 14 months, and they were treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. Right PSP had higher recurrence (70%) than left PSP (56%, p = 0.02). Four women (12%) presented with recurrent tension pneumothorax within 6 months. Eight patients (24%) had PSP within 72 hours of menses, meeting clinical criteria of CP. All these were placed on hormonal suppression after initial episode but went on to experience recurrence that was treated with pleurodesis. Classical endometrial glands were not found in any biopsy specimens obtained during the thoracoscopy. In contrast to female subjects, only 8 average-statured men (4.4%) had recurrence (p < 0.001) with a median follow-up of 16 months. PSP in healthy average-statured menstruating women has high recurrence compared with male counterparts. CP is a clinical diagnosis and often recurs despite hormonal suppression therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax in menstruating females has high recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Christopher K.; Stanifer, Bryan P.; Fore-Kosterski, Susan; Gillespie, Colin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Meyerson, Shari; Odell, David D.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Bharat, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is treated based on studies that have predominantly consisted of tall male subjects. Here we determined recurrence of PSP in average-statured menstruating women and studied prevalence of catamenial pneumothorax (CP) in this population. Methods Males and menstruating females, aged 18-55 years, without underlying lung disease or substance abuse were retrospectively studied between 2009-2015. A chest pathologist reviewed all specimens for thoracic endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to determine recurrence. Results The median age of females (n=33) and males (n=183) was 33.4 and 31.6 years, respectively. In females, nine (27%) had left-sided and 24 (73%) had right-sided PSP, treated with tube thoracostomy. Recurrence occurred in 21 (64%) females with median follow up of 14 months and was treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. Right PSP had higher recurrence (70%) compared to left (56%, p=0.02). Four females (12%) presented with recurrent tension pneumothorax within six months. Eight (24%) patients had PSP within 72 hours of menses, meeting clinical criteria of CP. All these were placed on hormonal suppression after initial episode but went on to develop recurrence that was treated with pleurodesis. However, classic endometrial glands were not found in any biopsy specimens obtained during the thoracoscopy. In contrast to female subjects, only 8 (4.4%) average-statured males had recurrence (p<0.001) with a median follow up of 16 months. Conclusions PSP in healthy average-statured menstruating women has high recurrence compared to male counterparts. CP is a clinical diagnosis and often recurs despite hormonal suppression therapy. PMID:27345097

  10. Impact of episodic thinking on altruism

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Richard; Pickover, Alison; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M.; Baker, Sydney; Landes, Reid D.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other’s scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed. Using an independent-measures design in study 2, the effect of episodic thinking about others was replicated. Study 3 addressed a limitation of studies 1 and 2, the possibility that simply thinking about others decreased social discounting. Capitalizing on Construal Level Theory, which specifies that social distance and time in the future are both dimensions of a common psychological distance, we hypothesized that episodic future thinking should also decrease social discounting. Participants engaged in episodic future thinking or episodic present thinking, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. The pattern of results was similar to study 1, providing support for the notion that episodic thinking about psychologically distant outcomes (for others or in the future) reduces social discounting. Application of similar episodic thinking approaches may enhance altruism. PMID:27821875

  11. Near-infrared diffuse optical monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation for the prediction of vasovagal syncope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ran; Shang, Yu; Wang, Siqi; Evans, Joyce M.; Rayapati, Abner; Randall, David C.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Significant drops in arterial blood pressure and cerebral hemodynamics have been previously observed during vasovagal syncope (VVS). Continuous and simultaneous monitoring of these physiological variables during VVS is rare, but critical for determining which variable is the most sensitive parameter to predict VVS. The present study used a novel custom-designed diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter and a finger plethysmograph to simultaneously monitor relative changes of cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral oxygenation (i.e., oxygenated/deoxygenated/total hemoglobin concentration: r[HbO2]/r[Hb]/rTHC), and mean arterial pressure (rMAP) during 70 deg head-up tilt (HUT) in 14 healthy adults. Six subjects developed presyncope during HUT. Two-stage physiological responses during HUT were observed in the presyncopal group: slow and small changes in measured variables (i.e., Stage I), followed by rapid and dramatic decreases in rMAP, rCBF, r[HbO2], and rTHC (i.e., Stage II). Compared to other physiological variables, rCBF reached its breakpoint between the two stages earliest and had the largest decrease (76±8%) during presyncope. Our results suggest that rCBF has the best sensitivity for the assessment of VVS. Most importantly, a threshold of ˜50% rCBF decline completely separated the subjects from those without presyncope, suggesting its potential for predicting VVS.

  12. Recurrent FUO due to intermittent Enterobacter cloacae bacteremias from an infected pacemaker lead diagnosed by gallium scan.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Jimada, Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) refers to fevers of ≥101° F that persist for ≥3 weeks and remain undiagnosed after a focused inpatient or outpatient workup. FUO may be due to infectious, malignant/neoplastic, rheumatic/inflammatory, or miscellaneous disorders. Recurrent FUOs are due to the same causes of classical FUOs. Recurrent FUOs may have continuous or intermittent fevers and are particularly difficult to diagnose. With intermittent fever, recurrent FUO diagnostic tests are best obtained during fever episodes. With recurrent FUOs, the periodicity of febrile episodes is unpredictable. We present a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with recurrent FUO. Multiple extensive FUO workups failed to determine the source of his fever. During his last two episodes of fever/chills, blood cultures were positive for Enterobacter cloacae. Episodic E. cloacae bacteremias suggested a device-related infection, and the patient had a penile implant and permanent pacemaker (PPM). Following febrile episodes, he was treated with multiple courses of appropriate antibiotics, but subsequently fever/chills recurred. Since a device-associated infection was suspected, indium and PET scans were done, but were negative. The source of his intermittent E. cloacae bacteremias was finally demonstrated by gallium scan showing enhanced uptake on a cardiac lead, but not the penile implant or PPM. Gallium scanning remains useful in workup of FUOs, particularly when false-negative indium or PET scans are suspected. The involved pacemaker lead was explanted, grew E. cloacae and the patient has since remained fever free.

  13. Recurrent Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy after Radiation of a Mesencephalic Metastasis. Case Report and Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Grabau, Olga; Leonhardi, Jochen; Reimers, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent oculomotor nerve palsies are extremely rare clinical conditions. Case report: Here, we report on a unique case of a short-lasting recurrent unilateral incomplete external and complete internal oculomotor nerve palsy. The episodic palsies were probably caused by an ipsilateral mesencephalic metastasis of a breast carcinoma and occurred after successful brain radiation therapy. Discussion: While the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear, the recurrent sudden onset and disappearance of the palsies and their decreasing frequency after antiepileptic treatment suggest the occurrence of epilepsy-like brainstem seizures. A review of case reports of spontaneous reversible oculomotor nerve palsies is presented. PMID:25104947

  14. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: a clinical study of 12 episodes in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H; Sandoval, L; Wainstein, A; Ribalta, J; Donoso, S; Smok, G; Rosenberg, H; Meneses, M

    1994-01-01

    Twelve episodes of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) were diagnosed in 11 patients during the past 18 years in a general hospital in Santiago, Chile, with a prevalence of 1 per 15,900 deliveries. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy started between the 31st and 38th weeks of pregnancy, with malaise, vomiting, jaundice, and lethargy as the main clinical manifestations. Polydipsia (in nine episodes) and skin pruritus (in seven episodes) were unusual clinical findings. In two patients, pruritus started two and four weeks before AFLP, suggesting that an intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy preceded AFLP in those patients. Considering the current prevalence of both diseases in Chile, their association should be considered fortuitous. In another patient, two consecutive pregnancies were affected by AFLP, raising to three the number of reported patients with recurrent AFLP. In 11 episodes, liver biopsies supported the diagnosis of AFLP by showing small and midsized vacuolar cytoplasmic transformation as the most prominent histopathological feature. Positive intracellular fat staining was found in the four samples analysed. Studies by electron microscopy showed megamitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions in four samples. All the mothers survived, but fetal mortality was 58.3%. Several extrahepatic complications delayed maternal recovery for up to four weeks after delivery. This study confirms an improvement in maternal prognosis in AFLP, discusses the possibility of an epidemiological association with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and increases the number of patients reported with recurrent AFLP. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8307428

  15. Determinants of persistence of major depressive episodes in the general population. Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    PubMed

    Spijker, Jan; de Graaf, Ron; Bijl, Rob V; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A

    2004-09-01

    Data on determinants of persistence of major depressive episodes (MDE) are inconsistent due to methodological shortcomings of the studies involved. To examine determinants of persistence of MDE in subjects from the general population (N=250) with new episodes of DSM-III-R major depression. The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study is a prospective epidemiologic survey in the adult population (N=7076), using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A broad range of potential determinants was assessed. Determinants of persistence were severity of the index episode, longer duration of previous episodes, (chronic) physical illness and lack of social support. A recurrent episode predicted shorter duration. Follow-up was only 2 years and duration of episode was retrospectively assessed. Just as in clinical populations, illness-related factors seem to be the strongest predictors of persistence of MDE. A thorough assessment of each depressed patient on the predictors of persistence is advisable.

  16. Recurrent epileptic Wernicke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sahaya, Kinshuk; Dhand, Upinder K; Goyal, Munish K; Soni, Chetan R; Sahota, Pradeep K

    2010-04-15

    We report a patient with recurrent epileptic Wernicke aphasia who prior to this presentation, had been misdiagnosed as transient ischemic attacks for several years. This case report emphasizes the consideration of epileptic nature of aphasia when a clear alternate etiology is unavailable, even when EEG fails to show a clear ictal pattern. We also present a brief discussion of previously reported ictal aphasias. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perinatal psychiatric episodes: a population-based study on treatment incidence and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Munk-Olsen, T; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M; Liu, X; Howard, L M; di Florio, A; Bergink, V; Meltzer-Brody, S

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed to do in the present study. We designed a descriptive prospective study and included information from Danish population registers to study first-time ever and recurrent psychiatric episodes during the perinatal period, including treatment at psychiatric facilities and general practitioners (GPs). This was done for all women who had records of one or more singleton births from 1998 until 2012. In total, we had information on 822 439 children born to 491 242 unique mothers. Results showed first-time psychiatric episodes treated at inpatient facilities were rare during pregnancy, but increased significantly shortly following childbirth (0.02 vs 0.25 per 1000 births). In comparison, first-time psychiatric episodes treated at outpatient facilities were more common, and showed little variation across pregnancy and postpartum. For every single birth resulting in postpartum episodes treated at inpatient psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods across moderate and severe perinatal psychiatric episodes. PMID:27754485

  18. [Recurrent cortical blindness after LSD-intake].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, M K; Ulrich, K

    2009-02-01

    Recurrent disturbances of vision associated with headaches are typical signs of a migraine. A 15-year-old girl suffered from common migraine. The patient had a headache and nausea five days after a first and proved intake of LSD. Shortly later, a complete blindness of both eyes developed within seconds. These symptoms continued for 48 hours. As the pupillar reactions were intact the findings were consistent with cortical blindness. MRI and MR-angiography of the brain, analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and blood investigations for thrombophilia were normal. The EEG showed a bilateral symmetrical delta wave slowing over the occipital areas. Within the following three months the girl had three more episodes with complete blindness over a period of 12-36 hours. There have never been any visual disturbances in between the episodes and afterwards. Extended diagnosis with long term blood pressure measurement, Doppler sonography and visual evoked potentials were normal. The occipital slowing in the EEG persisted for 18 months. As the symptoms were unusually long and severe for a complicated migraine it is possible that the temporary blindness was the correlate of flash backs caused by the LSD. LSD intake could trigger additional, local cortical dysfunction (e. g. in the occipital areas) in preexisting migraine.

  19. Multiplex Recurrence Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Marwan, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of a variety of phenomena in physical, biological, or earth sciences is driven by a large number of degrees of freedom which are strongly interconnected. Although the evolution of such systems is described by multivariate time series (MTS), so far research mostly focuses on analyzing these components one by one. Recurrence based analyses are powerful methods to understand the underlying dynamics of a dynamical system and have been used for many successful applications including examples from earth science, economics, or chemical reactions. The backbone of these techniques is creating the phase space of the system. However, increasing the dimension of a system requires increasing the length of the time series in order get significant and reliable results. This requirement is one of the challenges in many disciplines, in particular in palaeoclimate, thus, it is not easy to create a phase space from measured MTS due to the limited number of available obervations (samples). To overcome this problem, we suggest to create recurrence networks from each component of the system and combine them into a multiplex network structure, the multiplex recurrence network (MRN). We test the MRN by using prototypical mathematical models and demonstrate its use by studying high-dimensional palaeoclimate dynamics derived from pollen data from the Bear Lake (Utah, US). By using the MRN, we can distinguish typical climate transition events, e.g., such between Marine Isotope Stages.

  20. Herpes zoster vaccine and the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster in an immunocompetent elderly population.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Chi, Margaret; Smith, Ning; Marcy, Stephen M; Sy, Lina S; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2012-07-15

    The benefit of vaccinating immunocompetent patients who have had shingles has not been examined. The study assessed the association between vaccination and the incidence of herpes zoster recurrence among persons with a recent episode of clinically diagnosed herpes zoster. This is a matched cohort study in Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Study populations were immunocompetent elderly individuals ≥ 60 years old with a recent episode of herpes zoster. Incidence of recurrent herpes zoster was compared between the vaccinated and the unvaccinated matched cohorts. A total of 1036 vaccinated and 5180 unvaccinated members were included. On the basis of clinically confirmed cases, the incidence of recurrent herpes zoster among persons aged <70 years was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], .02-5.54) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.10-3.93) cases per 1000 person-years in the vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.39 (95% CI, .05-4.45) among persons aged <70 years and 1.05 (95% CI, .30-3.69) among persons aged ≥ 70 years. The risk of herpes zoster recurrence following a recent initial episode is fairly low among immunocompetent adults, regardless of vaccination status. Such a low risk suggests that one should evaluate the necessity of immediately vaccinating immunocompetent patients who had a recent herpes zoster episode.

  1. A Transactional Approach to Transfer Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jornet, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Krange, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an analytical framework for approaching transfer episodes--episodes in which participants declare or can be declared to bring prior experience to bear on the current task organization. We build on Dewey's writings about the continuity of experience, Vygotsky's ideas of unit analysis, as well as more recent developments…

  2. Comparative Cognition: Action Imitation Using Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-12-05

    Humans encounter a myriad of actions or events and later recall some of these events using episodic memory. New research suggests that dogs can imitate recently encountered actions using episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracking the Construction of Episodic Future Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Mathy, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The ability to mentally simulate possible futures ("episodic future thinking") is of fundamental importance for various aspects of human cognition and behavior, but precisely how humans construct mental representations of future events is still essentially unknown. We suggest that episodic future thoughts consist of transitory patterns…

  4. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  5. Intrusions in Episodic Memory: Reconsolidation or Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…

  6. Episodic memory and the witness trump card.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl

    2018-01-01

    We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.

  7. Mathematics as Reasoning--Episodes from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo

    1997-01-01

    Describes three episodes in Sendai, Japan: (1) reasoning with number patterns (grade one); (2) engaging in logical analysis (grade five); and (3) a reason to reason (grade five). Observation of these episodes reinforces importance of the teacher's patience in guiding the lesson and encouraging several alternative solutions from students. Lessons…

  8. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  9. Predictors of recurrence in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Press, Danielle; Akyuz, Muhammet; Dural, Cem; Aliyev, Shamil; Monteiro, Rosebel; Mino, Jeff; Mitchell, Jamie; Hamrahian, Amir; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2014-12-01

    The recurrence rate of pheochromocytoma after adrenalectomy is 6.5-16.5%. This study aims to identify predictors of recurrence and optimal biochemical testing and imaging for detecting the recurrence of pheochromocytoma. In this retrospective study we reviewed all patients who underwent adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma during a 14-year period at a single institution. One hundred thirty-five patients had adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Eight patients (6%) developed recurrent disease. The median time from initial operation to diagnosis of recurrence was 35 months. On multivariate analysis, tumor size >5 cm was an independent predictor of recurrence. One patient with recurrence died, 4 had stable disease, 2 had progression of disease, and 1 was cured. Recurrence was diagnosed by increases in plasma and/or urinary metanephrines and positive imaging in 6 patients (75%), and by positive imaging and normal biochemical levels in 2 patients (25%). Patients with large tumors (>5 cm) should be followed vigilantly for recurrence. Because 25% of patients with recurrence had normal biochemical levels, we recommend routine imaging and testing of plasma or urinary metanephrines for prompt diagnosis of recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First and recurrent pediatric urinary tract infections: do they have different antibiotic susceptibilities?

    PubMed

    Narchi, H; Al-Hamdani, M

    2008-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility studies in children rarely differentiate between first and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), although the latter, frequently associated with underlying urinary tract anomalies and antibiotic prophylaxis, are more likely to be associated with higher antibiotic resistance of uropathogens as a result. We investigated whether antibiotic resistance was different between first and recurrent UTIs in 250 episodes (145 first and 105 recurrent) in 154 children (2 months to 12 years of age) with culture proven UTI. According to univariate analysis, resistance to cefuroxime and gentamicin was significantly lower in recurrences. This association remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis, with adjusted odds ratio OR of 0.8 for cefuroxime (p=0.04) and for gentamicin (p=0.003) after adjusting for the role of confounding factors. The risk of resistance to other antibiotics was otherwise similar for first and recurrent UTIs.

  11. Divergent Thinking and Constructing Episodic Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternate Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking. PMID:25483132

  12. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    PubMed

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  13. Recurrent tuberculosis in an urban area in China: Relapse or exogenous reinfection?

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Yang, Chongguang; Wu, Jie; Lin, Senlin; Gao, Xu; Wu, Zheyuan; Tian, Jiyun; Gan, Mingyu; Luo, Tao; Wang, Lili; Yu, Chenlei; Mei, Jian; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Yuan, ZhengAn; Gao, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent tuberculosis is an important indicator of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control and can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on all bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis cases that were successfully treated between 2000 and 2012 in Shanghai, an urban area with a high number but a low prevalence rate of tuberculosis cases and a low prevalence of HIV infection. Genotyping the Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates was used to distinguish between relapse and reinfection. In total, 5.3% (710/13,417) of successfully treated cases had a recurrence, a rate of 7.55 (95% CI 7.01-8.13) episodes per 1000 person-years, more than 18 times the rate of tuberculosis in the general population. Patients who were male, age 30-59, retreatment cases, had cavitation, diabetes, drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in their initial episode of tuberculosis, were at high risk for a recurrence. Among 141 recurrent cases that had paired isolates, 59 (41.8%) had different genotypes, indicating reinfection with a different strain. Patients who completed treatment were still at high risk of another episode of tuberculosis and exogenous reinfection contributed a significant proportion of the recurrent tuberculosis cases. Targeted control strategies are needed to prevent new tuberculosis infections in this setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recurrent tuberculosis in an urban area in China: relapse or exogenous reinfection?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin; Yang, Chongguang; Wu, Jie; Lin, Senlin; Gao, Xu; Wu, Zheyuan; Tian, Jiyun; Gan, Mingyu; Luo, Tao; Wang, Lili; Yu, Chenlei; Mei, Jian; Pan, Qichao; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Yuan, ZhengAn; Gao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent tuberculosis is an important indicator of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control and can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on all bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis cases that were successfully treated between 2000 and 2012 in Shanghai, an urban area with a high number but a low prevalence rate of tuberculosis cases and a low prevalence of HIV infection. Genotyping the Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates was used to distinguish between relapse and reinfection. In total, 5.3% (710/13,417) of successfully treated cases had a recurrence, a rate of 7.55 (95% CI 7.01–8.13) episodes per 1000 person-years, more than 18 times the rate of tuberculosis in the general population. Patients who were male, age 30–59, retreatment cases, had cavitation, diabetes, drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in their initial episode of tuberculosis, were at high risk for a recurrence. Among 141 recurrent cases that had paired isolates, 59 (41.8%) had different genotypes, indicating reinfection with a different strain. Patients who completed treatment were still at high risk of another episode of tuberculosis and exogenous reinfection contributed a significant proportion of the recurrent tuberculosis cases. Targeted control strategies are needed to prevent new tuberculosis infections in this setting. PMID:28237039

  15. Inter- and intramolecular epitope spreading in equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Amann, Barbara; Raith, Albert J; Kaspers, Bernd

    2006-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that inter- and intramolecular spreading to S-antigen (S-Ag) and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP)-derived epitopes occurs in a spontaneous model of recurrent uveitis in the horse. The immune response of eight horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) was compared with that of five control horses with healthy eyes. Lymphocytes derived from peripheral blood (PBLs) were tested every 8 weeks for their reactivity against S-Ag and various S-Ag and IRBP-derived peptides for 12 to 39 months (median, 22 months). During uveitic episodes, additional blood samples were analyzed. Intermolecular epitope spreading was detectable in all ERU cases during the study. Intramolecular spreading occurred in seven (of eight) horses with ERU. Fourteen relapses were analyzed during the observation period. Ten uveitic episodes were accompanied by neoreactivity to S-Ag or IRBP-derived peptides during the relapse. Shifts in the immune response profile were also detectable without any clinical signs of inflammation. Eye-healthy control horses were negative at all time points in the in vitro proliferation assays. Inter- and intramolecular spreading was detectable in a spontaneous model of recurrent uveitis. The shifts in immunoreactivity could account for the remitting-relapsing character of the disease.

  16. Electrophysiologically dissociating episodic preretrieval processing.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Contrasts between ERPs elicited by new items from tests with distinct episodic retrieval requirements index preretrieval processing. Preretrieval operations are thought to facilitate the recovery of task-relevant information because they have been shown to correlate with response accuracy in tasks in which prioritizing the retrieval of this information could be a useful strategy. This claim was tested here by contrasting new item ERPs from two retrieval tasks, each designed to explicitly require the recovery of a different kind of mnemonic information. New item ERPs differed from 400 msec poststimulus, but the distribution of these effects varied markedly, depending upon participants' response accuracy: A protracted posteriorly located effect was present for higher performing participants, whereas an anteriorly distributed effect occurred for lower performing participants. The magnitude of the posterior effect from 400 to 800 msec correlated with response accuracy, supporting the claim that preretrieval processes facilitate the recovery of task-relevant information. Additional contrasts between ERPs from these tasks and an old/new recognition task operating as a relative baseline revealed task-specific effects with nonoverlapping scalp topographies, in line with the assumption that these new item ERP effects reflect qualitatively distinct retrieval operations. Similarities in these effects were also used to reason about preretrieval processes related to the general requirement to recover contextual details. These insights, alongside the distinct pattern of effects for the two accuracy groups, reveal the multifarious nature of preretrieval processing while indicating that only some of these classes of operation are systematically related to response accuracy in recognition memory tasks.

  17. Stress and recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Craig, M

    2001-09-01

    Our current understanding into the role of stress in unexplained recurrent miscarriages comes from two different research strategies. The majority of research has examined the role of psychological support within this patient population. This support has been provided in a number of ways ranging from weekly interviews with a psychiatrist or gynaecologist and or visual re-assurance in the form of ultrasound scans. A comparison of psychological support with an absence of such intervention has found differences in successful pregnancy outcome varying from as great as 84 versus 26%, respectively. It has been assumed that psychological support reduces the miscarriage rate by reducing “stress”within this patient population. In addition it provides indirect support for a role of stress in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Other studies have attempted to directly assess the effect of personality characteristics on miscarriage rate; these studies have yielded conflicting results.The mechanism by which stress may be causal in the aetiology of unexplained recurrent miscarriage has not been examined in humans. Animal studies, however, have found that psychological distress can alter immune parameters that may be intricately involved with implantation. These parameters include an elevation of the “abortive” cytokine TNF-a and a reduction in the “anti-abortive” cytokine TGF-P2. Cells that are involved in the release of TNF-a at the feto-maternal interface include T cells, macrophages and mast cells.Mechanisms through which stress may act on these cells are explored and an integrated model is postulated.

  18. Multiscale recurrence quantification analysis of order recurrence plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of multiscale recurrence quantification analysis (MSRQA) to analyze the structure of order recurrence plots. The MSRQA is based on order patterns over a range of time scales. Compared with conventional recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), the MSRQA can show richer and more recognizable information on the local characteristics of diverse systems which successfully describes their recurrence properties. Both synthetic series and stock market indexes exhibit their properties of recurrence at large time scales that quite differ from those at a single time scale. Some systems present more accurate recurrence patterns under large time scales. It demonstrates that the new approach is effective for distinguishing three similar stock market systems and showing some inherent differences.

  19. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after preconception Whipple for pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Dray, Danielle; Dahlke, Joshua D; Rouse, Dwight J

    2014-08-01

    Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor is a rare tumor affecting young women. Case reports have presented pregnancy outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) in pregnancy for this neoplasm. We report a case of a woman who underwent a preconception Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor who experienced recurrent pancreatitis confined to pregnancy. A 28-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a history of a Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor 2 years prior had three episodes of severe pancreatitis in pregnancy. She was managed conservatively with each episode. She delivered at term and did not have a recurrence in the 8 months since her delivery. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after a preconception Whipple procedure can be managed conservatively without surgical intervention.

  20. Healthcare resource utilization for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in a large university hospital in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Samuel L; Joseph, Tiby B; Shah, Dhara N; Lasco, Todd M; Palmer, Hannah R; DuPont, Herbert L; Xie, Yang; Garey, Kevin W

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data examining healthcare resource utilization in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Patients with CDI at a tertiary-care hospital in Houston, TX, were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study. Recurrence was assessed via follow-up phone calls. Patients with one or more recurrence were included in this study. The location at which healthcare was obtained by patients with recurrent CDI was identified along with hospital length of stay. CDI-attributable readmissions, defined as a positive toxin test within 48 hours of admission and a primary CDI diagnosis, were also assessed. 372 primary cases of CDI were identified of whom 64 (17.2%) experienced at least one CDI recurrence. Twelve of 64 patients experienced 18 further episodes of CDI recurrence. Of these 64 patients, 33 (50.8%) patients with recurrent CDI were readmitted of which 6 (18.2%) required ICU care, 29 (45.3%) had outpatient care only, and 2 (3.1%) had an ED visit. Nineteen (55.9%) readmissions were defined as CDI-attributable. For patients with CDI-attributable readmission, the average length of stay was 6 ± 6 days. Recurrent CDI leads to significant healthcare resource utilization. Methods of reducing the burden of recurrent CDI should be further studied.

  1. The influence of a tilt training programme on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity in patients with vasovagal syncope.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Krzemińska, Sylwia; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2009-08-01

    We assessed the influence of short-term and long-term tilt training on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in vasovagal patients. Thirty-nine patients (28 F, 11 M) aged 39.7 +/- 11.2 years with a history of vasovagal syncope and a positive head-up tilt test (HUT) were studied. Blood samples for plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone (ALDO) concentration were drawn at the baseline, immediately after HUT and 10 min after HUT, during the diagnostic, the negative short-term (2-5 days) follow-up HUT and long-term (1-3 months) follow-up HUT. Tilt training was started after diagnostic HUT. In diagnostic HUT, PRA increased significantly immediately after HUT comparing to the baseline, during recovery the values did not change. ALDO concentration increased after HUT comparing to baseline and further increased during recovery. After short-term tilt training, PRA and ALDO concentrations did not significantly change compared to their corresponding values in diagnostic HUT. After long-term tilt training, PRA did not significantly change compared to the values in the diagnostic and short-term follow-up HUT. ALDO concentration also did not change significantly at the baseline and immediately after HUT, and 10 min after HUT ALDO concentration was significantly lower than after diagnostic HUT. Tilt training changes the response of RAAS to the prolonged orthostasis in vasovagal patients. The coupling between PRA and ALDO after diagnostic HUT has been found to be altered and the physiological relationship was restored after long-term tilt training. The beneficial effect of tilt training depends partially on changed RAAS activation.

  2. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M; Caza, Julian S

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.

  3. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690

  4. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; de Paula, Carmen Déa Ribeiro; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment. PMID:23793208

  5. Recurrent Bilateral Focal Myositis.

    PubMed

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Nakano, Hiromasa; Ooka, Seido; Takakuwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Hidehiro; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Shimojo, Sadatomo; Ozaki, Shoichi

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent bilateral focal myositis and its successful treatment via methotrexate. A 38-year-old man presented myalgia of the right gastrocnemius in May 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging showed very high signal intensity in the right gastrocnemius on short-tau inversion recovery images. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory CD4+ cell-dominant myogenic change. Focal myositis was diagnosed. The first steroid treatment was effective. Tapering of prednisolone, however, repeatedly induced myositis relapse, which progressed to multiple muscle lesions of both lower limbs. Initiation of methotrexate finally allowed successful tapering of prednisolone, with no relapse in the past 4 years.

  6. Recurrent Bilateral Focal Myositis

    PubMed Central

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Nakano, Hiromasa; Ooka, Seido; Takakuwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Hidehiro; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Shimojo, Sadatomo; Ozaki, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent bilateral focal myositis and its successful treatment via methotrexate. A 38-year-old man presented myalgia of the right gastrocnemius in May 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging showed very high signal intensity in the right gastrocnemius on short-tau inversion recovery images. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory CD4+ cell-dominant myogenic change. Focal myositis was diagnosed. The first steroid treatment was effective. Tapering of prednisolone, however, repeatedly induced myositis relapse, which progressed to multiple muscle lesions of both lower limbs. Initiation of methotrexate finally allowed successful tapering of prednisolone, with no relapse in the past 4 years. PMID:27853086

  7. [Determination of prognostic value of the OESIL risk score at 6 months in a Colombian cohort with syncope evaluated in the emergency department; first Latin American experience].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Tribaldos, Diana Carolina; Mora, Guillermo; Olaya, Alejandro; Marín, Jorge; Sierra Matamoros, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    To establish the prognostic value, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the OESIL syncope risk score to predict the presentation of severe outcomes (death, invasive interventions, and readmission) after 6 months of observation in adults who consulted the emergency department due to syncope. Observational, prospective, and multicentre study with enrolment of subjects older than 18 years, who consulted in the emergency department due to syncope. A record was mad of the demographic and clinical information of all patients. The OESIL risk score was calculated, and severe patient outcomes were followed up during a 6 month period using telephone contact. A total of 161 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed up for 6 months. A score above or equal to 2 in the risk score, classified as high risk, was present in 72% of the patients. The characteristics of the risk score to predict the combined outcome of mortality, invasive interventions, and readmission for a score above or equal to 2 were 75.7, 30.5, 43.1, and 64.4% for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value, respectively. A score above or equal to 2 in the OESIL risk score applied in Colombian population was of limited use to predict the studied severe outcomes. This score will be unable to discriminate between patients that benefit of early admission and further clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: ionic controls of episodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigington, P.J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we intensively monitored discharge and stream chemistry of 13 streams located in the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York from fall 1988 to spring 1990. The ERP clearly documented the occurrence of acidic episodes with minimum episodic pH ??? 5 and inorganic monomeric Al (Alim) concentrations >150 ??g/L in at least two study streams in each region. Several streams consistently experienced episodes with maximum Alim concentrations >350 ??g/L. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) depressions resulted from complex interactions of multiple ions. Base cation decreases often made the most important contributions to ANC depressions during episodes. Organic acid pulses were also important contributors to ANC depressions in the Adirondack streams, and to a lesser extent, in the Catskill and Pennsylvania streams. Nitrate concentrations were low in the Pennsylvania streams, whereas the Catskill and Adirondack study streams had high NO3- concentrations and large episodic pulses (???54 ??eq/L). Most of the Pennsylvania study streams also frequently experienced episodic pulses of SO42- (???78 ??eq/L), whereas the Adirondack and Catskill streams did not. High baseline concentrations of SO42- (all three study areas) and NO3- (Adirondacks and Catskills) reduced episodic minimum ANC, even when these ions did not change during episodes. The ion changes that controlled the most severe episodes (lowest minimum episodic ANC) differed from the ion changes most important to smaller, more frequent episodes. Pulses of NO3- (Catskills and Adirondacks), SO42- (Pennsylvania), or organic acids became more important during major episodes. Overall, the behavior of streamwater SO42- and NO4- is an indicator that acidic deposition has contributed to the severity of episodes in the study streams.

  9. 42 CFR § 512.100 - EPM episodes being tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2017-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND MODEL PROGRAMS EPISODE PAYMENT MODEL Episode Payment Model Participants § 512.100 EPM episodes being tested. (a) Initiation of an episode. An episode is... under an EPM anchor MS-DRG and, in the case of the AMI model, with an AMI ICD-10-CM diagnosis code if...

  10. Electroencephalographic slow waves prior to sleepwalking episodes.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the onset of sleepwalking episodes may be preceded by fluctuations in slow-wave sleep electroencephalographic characteristics. However, whether or not such fluctuations are specific to sleepwalking episodes or generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers remains unknown. The goal of this study was to compare spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) as well as slow oscillation density before the onset of somnambulistic episodes versus non-behavioral awakenings recorded from the same group of sleepwalkers. A secondary aim was to describe the time course of observed changes in slow-wave activity and slow oscillations during the 3 min immediately preceding the occurrence of somnambulistic episodes. Twelve adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically during the course of one night. Slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density were significantly greater prior to patients' somnambulistic episodes as compared with non-behavioral awakenings. However, there was no evidence for a gradual increase over the 3 min preceding the episodes. Increased slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density appear to be specific to sleepwalking episodes rather than generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrence of major depressive disorder and its predictors in the general population: results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS).

    PubMed

    Hardeveld, F; Spijker, J; De Graaf, R; Nolen, W A; Beekman, A T F

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the risk of recurrence after recovery from major depressive disorder (MDD) in the general population is scarce. Data were derived from 687 subjects in the general population with a lifetime DSM-III-R diagnosis of MDD but without a current major depressive episode (MDE) or dysthymia. Participants had to be at least 6 months in remission, and were recruited from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Recency and severity of the last MDE were assessed retrospectively at baseline. Recurrence of MDD was measured prospectively during the 3-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to measure time to recurrence. Determinants of time to recurrence were analyzed using proportional hazard models. The estimated cumulative recurrence of MDD was 13.2% at 5 years, 23.2% at 10 years and 42.0% at 20 years. In bivariate analysis, the following variables predicted a shorter time to recurrence: younger age, younger age of onset, higher number of previous episodes, a severe last depressive episode, negative youth experiences, ongoing difficulties before recurrence and high neuroticism. Multivariably, younger age, a higher number of previous episodes, a severe last depressive episode, negative youth experiences and ongoing difficulties remained significant. In this community sample, the long-term risk of recurrence was high, but lower than that found in clinical samples. Subjects who had had an MDE had a long-term vulnerability for recurrence. Factors predicting recurrence included illness- and stress-related factors.

  12. Aging, Estrogens, and Episodic Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the relation in midlife and beyond between estrogen exposures and episodic memory in women. Background Episodic memory performance declines with usual aging, and impairments in episodic memory often portend the development of Alzheimer's disease. In the laboratory, estradiol influences hippocampal function and animal learning. However, it is controversial whether estrogens affect memory after a woman's reproductive years. Method Focused literature review, including a summary of a systematic search of clinical trials of estrogens in which outcomes included an objective measure of episodic memory. Results The natural menopause transition is not associated with objective changes in episodic memory. Strong clinical trial evidence indicates that initiating estrogen-containing hormone therapy after about age 60 years does not benefit episodic memory. Clinical trial findings in middle-age women before age 60 are limited by smaller sample sizes and shorter treatment durations, but these also do not indicate substantial memory effects. Limited short-term evidence, however, suggests that estrogens may improve verbal memory after surgical menopause. Although hormone therapy initiation in old age increases dementia risk, observational studies raise the question of an early critical window during which midlife estrogen therapy reduces late-life Alzheimer's disease. However, almost no data address whether midlife estrogen therapy affects episodic memory in old age. Conclusions Episodic memory is not substantially impacted by the natural menopause transition or improved by use of estrogen-containing hormone therapy after age 60. Further research is needed to determine whether outcomes differ after surgical menopause or whether episodic memory later in life is modified by midlife estrogenic exposures. PMID:19996872

  13. Epigenetic basis of sensitization to stress, affective episodes, and stimulants: implications for illness progression and prevention.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    The process of sensitization (increased responsivity) to the recurrence of stressors, affective episodes, and bouts of substance abuse that can drive illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders requires a memory of and increased reactivity to the prior exposures. A wealth of studies now supports the postulate that epigenetic mechanisms underlie both normal and pathological memory processes. We selectively reviewed the literature pertinent to the role of epigenetics in behavioral sensitization phenomena and discuss its clinical implications. Epigenetics means above genetics and refers to environmental effects on the chemistry of DNA, histones (around which DNA is wound), and microRNA that change how easily genes are turned on and off. The evidence supports that sensitization to repeated stressor, affective episodes, and substance is likely based on epigenetic mechanisms and that these environmentally based processes can then become targets for prevention, early intervention, and ongoing treatment. Sensitization processes are remediable or preventable risk factors for a poor illness outcome and deserve increased clinical, public health, and research attention in the hopes of making the recurrent unipolar and bipolar affective disorders less impairing, disabling, and lethal by suicide and increased medical mortality. The findings that epigenetic chemical marks, which change in the most fundamental way how genes are regulated, mediate the long-term increased responsivity to recurrent stressors, mood episodes, and bouts of substance abuse should help change how the affective disorders are conceptualized and move treatment toward earlier, more comprehensive, and sustained pharmacoprophylaxis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of stressful life events on the onset and duration of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Huling, Laura B; Baccaglini, Lorena; Choquette, Linda; Feinn, Richard S; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2012-02-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common and painful oral mucosal disease. Possible etiologies include genetics, vitamin deficiencies, trauma, immune dysfunction, and stress. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the occurrence, type, and magnitude of stressful events and the onset and duration of RAS episodes. One hundred and sixty subjects with a history of RAS completed a weekly phone survey for up to 1 year, providing data on the occurrence of RAS episodes and details of any stressful events they experienced during the previous week. During RAS episodes, subjects also completed daily paper diaries that recorded incidence and duration of the RAS episode. Stressful events were quantified using the validated Recent Life Changes Questionnaire (RLCQ) and were classified as mental or physical stressors. Stressful life events were significantly associated with the onset of RAS episodes (P < 0.001), however, not with the duration of the RAS episodes. Experiencing a stressful life event increased the odds of an RAS episode by almost three times (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 2.04-3.62). When controlled for each other, mental stressors had a larger effect (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 2.54-4.72) than physical stressors (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.04-1.99) on the occurrence of RAS episodes. RAS episodes did not occur more frequently or last longer with increasing stress severity. In patients with a history of RAS, stressful events may mediate changes involved in the initiation of new RAS episodes. Mental stressors are more strongly associated with RAS episodes than physical stressors. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Additional diagnostic value of implantable loop recorder in patients with initial diagnosis of real or apparent transient loss of consciousness of uncertain origin.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Roberto; Roberto, Maggi; Rafanelli, Martina; Martina, Rafanelli; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Alice, Ceccofiglio; Solari, Diana; Diana, Solari; Brignole, Michele; Michele, Brignole; Ungar, Andrea; Andrea, Ungar

    2014-08-01

    Non-syncopal transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) encompasses disorders that sometimes resemble syncope, and the differential diagnosis with true syncope may be challenging. The implantable loop recorder (ILR) is potentially useful, but has never been systematically assessed. The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of ILR in distinguishing syncope from non-syncopal forms of T-LOC. We implanted an ILR in 58 patients (mean age 71 ± 17 years, 25 males) who had had 4.6 ± 2.3 episodes of real or apparent T-LOC, in order to distinguishing epilepsy from syncope (#28), unexplained fall from syncope (#29), or functional pseudo-syncope from syncope (#1). During 20 ± 13 months of follow-up, 33 patients (57%) had a spontaneous event documented by ILR. A diagnosis of syncope was established by ILR documentation of an arrhythmia in 15 (26%) patients: an asystole of 6 s (IQR 4-10 s) duration was documented at the time of the spontaneous event in seven patients with initial suspicion of epilepsy and in five patients with unexplained fall; atrial tachyarrhythmia was documented at the time of the spontaneous event in 1 and 1 patient, respectively, and ventricular tachycardia in 1 patient with unexplained fall. Conversely, in another 18 patients, ILR monitoring documented no significant rhythm abnormalities at the time of T-LOC recurrence, thus excluding an arrhythmic syncope. Finally, ILR was unable to document any syncopal episode in 25 (43%) patients. Among the 15 patients with an established diagnosis of arrhythmic syncope, syncope recurred during follow-up in 2 of 11 patients who were on pacemaker therapy and in 3 of 4 patients who were on other therapies. Implantable loop recorder monitoring provides additional diagnostic value in 'difficult' patients with an initial diagnosis of non-syncopal real or apparent T-LOC. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

    PubMed

    Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value < 0.05) with increased probability of experiencing two or more lifetime episodes of UGIB in our study. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.

  17. Recurrence theorems: A unified account

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, David, E-mail: david.wallace@balliol.ox.ac.uk

    I discuss classical and quantum recurrence theorems in a unified manner, treating both as generalisations of the fact that a system with a finite state space only has so many places to go. Along the way, I prove versions of the recurrence theorem applicable to dynamics on linear and metric spaces and make some comments about applications of the classical recurrence theorem in the foundations of statistical mechanics.

  18. Sialoendoscopy for treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis: The Brescia experience.

    PubMed

    Berlucchi, Marco; Rampinelli, Vittorio; Ferrari, Marco; Grazioli, Paola; Redaelli De Zinis, Luca O

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the role of sialoendoscopy associated with steroid irrigation for juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) at a tertiary referral hospital. Clinical records of patients affected by JRP and treated with operative sialoendoscopy between June 2011 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographics, number of acute episodes per year before and after surgery, characteristics of the surgical procedure, hospitalization time, and rate of complications were collected. The outcome of the procedure was measured by comparing the number of episodes of parotid swelling before and after salivary endoscopic treatment. Twenty-three patients for a total of 34 operative sialoendoscopies were included in the study. Before the surgical endoscopic procedure, the mean number of parotid swelling was 10 episodes per year. At sialoendoscopy, typical endoscopic findings such as mucous plugs, stenosis of the duct, intraductal debris, and pale ductal appearance were evident. All patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. A significant decrease in the number of swelling episodes per year was observed compared to the preoperative rate (p = .0004). Complete resolution of the disorder was obtained in 35% of patients. Operative sialoendoscopy with steroid irrigation can be considered a valid therapeutic treatment for JRP. The technique is conservative, effective, safe, and, potentially repeatable. Short hospitalization time, rapid recovery, absence of peri-operative complications, and a high rate of good outcomes are the main advantages of this treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recall of remote episodic memory in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Zola-Morgan, S; Cohen, N J; Squire, L R

    1983-01-01

    Recall of remote episodic memory was assessed in three types of amnesic patient whose remote semantic memory had been evaluated previously. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, case N.A. and patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy all succeeded in recalling specific autobiographical episodes in response to single-word cues, and in many conditions performed as well as control subjects. Their pattern of performance generally paralleled that obtained in previous tests of remote semantic memory. These results argue against a view that amnesia reflects a selective deficit of episodic memory and suggest that the semantic-episodic distinction cannot illuminate the fundamental deficit in amnesia. Nor can the facts of amnesia confirm or deny the validity of this distinction in normal memory.

  20. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  1. Recurrent Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax is Common Following Chest Tube and Conservative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Winnie Hedevang; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Katballe, Niels; Sindby, Jesper Eske; Titlestad, Ingrid Louise; Andersen, Poul Erik; Licht, Peter Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies on primary spontaneous pneumothorax reported variable recurrence rates, but they were based on heterogeneous patient populations including secondary pneumothorax. We investigated young patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax exclusively and used a national registry to track readmissions and calculate independent predictors of recurrence. A prospective cohort study of consecutive young patients who were admitted over a 5-year period with their first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and treated conservatively with a chest tube. Baseline characteristics were obtained from questionnaires presented on admittance. All patients were discharged with fully expanded lungs on chest radiography. Patient charts were identified in the national electronic patient registry for detailed information on readmissions due to recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. We included 234 patients. Male/female = ratio 5/1. After a median observation period of 3.6 years (range 1-6 years), recurrent pneumothorax was observed in 54 %. Ipsilateral recurrence was the most common (79 %) but 30 % also experienced contralateral pneumothorax during the study period. Females had a significantly higher age at debut (p < 0.01) and experienced significantly more recurrences over time (p < 0.01). Low body weight (<60 kg) was an independent predictor of recurrence and patients with repeated recurrences were significantly younger at debut (p = 0.01). Primary spontaneous pneumothorax in younger patients with their first episode had a much higher recurrence rate than previously reported. Every doctor who treats patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax should be aware and patients informed.

  2. Treatment of recurrent complicated urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Hua; Huang, Fang-Liang; Fu, Lin-Shien; Chou, Chia-Man; Chien, Ya-Li; Huang, Chung-Ming; Lin, Chin-Fu; Chen, Po-Yen

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are often caused by uropathogens with a high rate of drug resistance and are associated with a high rate of recurrence with a single pathogen. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of recurrent UTI and the drug resistance pattern of Escherichia coli in children with VUR. We also evaluated whether combination therapy comprising fosomycin plus one other antimicrobial agent is effective for treatment of recurrent UTIs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children with VUR who developed at least one episode of UTI during the period January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013 at a single medical center. The effectiveness of fosfomycin plus amikicin for Enterobacteriaceae or ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was prospectively studied in six children with recurrent relapsing UTIs. The study population comprised 129 children (age range, from 1month to 15 years; mean ± standard deviation, 2.37 ± 2.91 years) with VUR who developed at least one UTI during the 10-year study period; 68 (52.7%) had recurrent UTIs. The presence of an underlying urinary tract anomaly was predictive of recurrence (p = 0.028). The rates of susceptibility of E. coli to cefazolin (p < 0.001) and cefotaxime (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in patients with recurrent UTIs. Combination therapy with fosfomycin plus amikacin or ceftazidime was shown to be an effective therapeutic option for recurrent UTIs due to a single uropathogen. The rates of susceptibility of E. coli to commonly used antimicrobials were significantly lower in children who developed more than one episode of UTI. The empiric choice of cefazolin or cefotaxime was usually ineffective. Administration of fosfomycin plus amikacin or ceftazidime was an effective therapeutic and preventive strategy in children with VUR and recurrent relapsing UTI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Aberrant topology of striatum's connectivity is associated with the number of episodes in depression.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun; Brandl, Felix; Tahmasian, Masoud; Shao, Junming; Manoliu, Andrei; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    In major depressive disorder, depressive episodes reoccur in ∼60% of cases; however, neural mechanisms of depressive relapse are poorly understood. Depressive episodes are characterized by aberrant topology of the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity network, and the number of episodes is one of the most important predictors for depressive relapse. In this study we hypothesized that specific changes of the topology of intrinsic connectivity interact with the course of episodes in recurrent depressive disorder. To address this hypothesis, we investigated which changes of connectivity topology are associated with the number of episodes in patients, independently of current symptoms and disease duration. Fifty subjects were recruited including 25 depressive patients (two to 10 episodes) and 25 gender- and age-matched control subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, Harvard-Oxford brain atlas, wavelet-transformation of atlas-shaped regional time-series, and their pairwise Pearson's correlation were used to define individual connectivity matrices. Matrices were analysed by graph-based methods, resulting in outcome measures that were used as surrogates of intrinsic network topology. Topological scores were subsequently compared across groups, and, for patients only, related with the number of depressive episodes and current symptoms by partial correlation analysis. Concerning the whole brain connectivity network of patients, small-world topology was preserved but global efficiency was reduced and global betweenness-centrality increased. Aberrant nodal efficiency and centrality of regional connectivity was found in the dorsal striatum, inferior frontal and orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the occipital and somatosensory cortex. Inferior frontal changes were associated with current symptoms, whereas aberrant right putamen network topology was associated with the number of episodes. Results were controlled for effects of total grey matter

  4. Abemaciclib in Children With DIPG or Recurrent/Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-14

    Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Solid Tumor, Recurrent; Neuroblastoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Ewing Sarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Osteosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdoid Tumor, Recurrent, Refractory

  5. OSA Is a Risk Factor for Recurrent VTE.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Fernández, Alberto; Suquia, Angela García; de la Peña, Mónica; Casitas, Raquel; Pierola, Javier; Barceló, Antonia; Soriano, Joan B; Fernández-Capitán, Carmen; Martinez-Ceron, Elizabet; Carrera, Miguel; García-Río, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    OSA is a risk factor for a first episode of pulmonary embolism (PE), although its impact on the risk of thromboembolism recurring is uncertain. Our objective was to explore the prognostic value of OSA after the discontinuation of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with a first episode of PE. In 120 consecutive patients who had stopped OAC for a first episode of PE, we performed home respiratory polygraphy and recorded sleep characteristics, classic risk factors for PE, blood pressure measurements, spirometric parameters, physical activity, and levels of D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2). Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years, and the main end point was PE recurrence. Restarting OAC for any thromboembolic event was evaluated as a secondary end point. During the follow-up period, 19 patients had a PE recurrence, and 16 of them had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 h -1 . In a multivariate Cox regression model, an AHI ≥ 10 h -1 (hazard ratio [HR], 20.73; 95% CI, 1.71-251.28), mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (nSao 2 ) (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.20-0.78), time with Sao 2  < 90% (CT90%) (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98), and D-dimer level (HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 1.00-1.002) were identified as independent risk factors for recurrent PE. Twenty-four patients resumed OAC, and AHI ≥ 10 h -1 (HR, 20.66; 95% CI, 2.27-188.35), mean nSao 2 (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.32-0.94), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.97) were retained as independent risk factors for the resumption of OAC. After a first episode of PE, OSA is an independent risk factor for PE recurrence or restarting OAC for a new thromboembolic event. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome associated with recurrent vitreous hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Juárez, A; Vital-Berral, C; Sánchez-Vicente, J L; Alfaro-Juárez, A; Muñoz-Morales, A

    2015-08-01

    A 61-year-old pseudophakic male with recurrent blurred vision episodes associated with uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage. Iris transillumination defects and apposition of the optic and iris were found. The patient was diagnosed with Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphema (UGH) Syndrome. Mechanical irritation of the iris is a consequence of intraocular lens malposition and causes UGH Syndrome. Occasionally it is associated with vitreous hemorrhage. Lens malposition is detected by optical coherence tomography and/or ultrasound biomicroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Quek, S H

    2015-03-01

    The term 'recurrent abdominal pain', or RAP, refers mainly to the duration of painful period and frequency of pain. The commonly accepted duration is at least three months in the preceding period, and over this three-month period, there are at least three episodes of pain that are severe enough to affect the daily activities of the affected patients. Over the years, with advances in medical technology and better understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain, more and more organic causes have been identified. However, the most common cause of RAP in children is still functional in origin.

  8. Recurrent angioedema associated with pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2017-01-10

    Angioedema (AE) of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to increased use of medications inhibiting the degradation of vasoactive peptides. Acquired angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI-AAE) is well known, but other pharmaceutical agents also affect the degradation of bradykinin and substance P. We present a middle-aged man with recurrent episodes of severe AE of the oral cavity, hypopharynx and larynx due to pharmacological inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Low-dose aspirin for preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Timothy A; Eikelboom, John W; Mann, Kristy; Mister, Rebecca; Gallus, Alexander; Ockelford, Paul; Gibbs, Harry; Hague, Wendy; Xavier, Denis; Diaz, Rafael; Kirby, Adrienne; Simes, John

    2012-11-22

    Patients who have had a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism have a high risk of recurrence after anticoagulants are discontinued. Aspirin may be effective in preventing a recurrence of venous thromboembolism. We randomly assigned 822 patients who had completed initial anticoagulant therapy after a first episode of unprovoked venous thromboembolism to receive aspirin, at a dose of 100 mg daily, or placebo for up to 4 years. The primary outcome was a recurrence of venous thromboembolism. During a median follow-up period of 37.2 months, venous thromboembolism recurred in 73 of 411 patients assigned to placebo and in 57 of 411 assigned to aspirin (a rate of 6.5% per year vs. 4.8% per year; hazard ratio with aspirin, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 1.05; P=0.09). Aspirin reduced the rate of the two prespecified secondary composite outcomes: the rate of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death was reduced by 34% (a rate of 8.0% per year with placebo vs. 5.2% per year with aspirin; hazard ratio with aspirin, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.92; P=0.01), and the rate of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding, or death from any cause was reduced by 33% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.91; P=0.01). There was no significant between-group difference in the rates of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding episodes (rate of 0.6% per year with placebo vs. 1.1% per year with aspirin, P=0.22) or serious adverse events. In this study, aspirin, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the rat