Science.gov

Sample records for recycle bin tutvustab

  1. Effects of number and location of bins on plastic recycling at a university.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ryan T; Lerman, Dorothea C; Fritz, Jennifer N; Hodde, Henry B

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location without the use of posted signs. Manipulating the appearance or number of recycling bins in common areas did not increase recycling. Consumers recycled substantially more plastic bottles when the recycling bins were located in classrooms.

  2. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  3. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  4. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  5. Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    1988-10-01

    ;Contents: The Problem; What`s In Our Trash; Where Does Trash Go; Where Does Our Trash Go; The Solution; What Is Recycling; Why Should We Recycle; A National Goal of 25%; What Can We Recycle; What Do We Do With Our Recyclables.

  6. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (p<0.001), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy.

  7. PhyBin: binning trees by topology.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan R; Newton, Irene L G

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of many evolutionary analyses is to determine the true evolutionary history of an organism. Molecular methods that rely on the phylogenetic signal generated by a few to a handful of loci can be used to approximate the evolution of the entire organism but fall short of providing a global, genome-wide, perspective on evolutionary processes. Indeed, individual genes in a genome may have different evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is informative to analyze the number and kind of phylogenetic topologies found within an orthologous set of genes across a genome. Here we present PhyBin: a flexible program for clustering gene trees based on topological structure. PhyBin can generate bins of topologies corresponding to exactly identical trees or can utilize Robinson-Fould's distance matrices to generate clusters of similar trees, using a user-defined threshold. Additionally, PhyBin allows the user to adjust for potential noise in the dataset (as may be produced when comparing very closely related organisms) by pre-processing trees to collapse very short branches or those nodes not meeting a defined bootstrap threshold. As a test case, we generated individual trees based on an orthologous gene set from 10 Wolbachia species across four different supergroups (A-D) and utilized PhyBin to categorize the complete set of topologies produced from this dataset. Using this approach, we were able to show that although a single topology generally dominated the analysis, confirming the separation of the supergroups, many genes supported alternative evolutionary histories. Because PhyBin's output provides the user with lists of gene trees in each topological cluster, it can be used to explore potential reasons for discrepancies between phylogenies including homoplasies, long-branch attraction, or horizontal gene transfer events.

  8. Project Worm Bin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project centering around earthworm activity in a compost bin. Includes suggestions for exercises involving biological and conservation concepts, gardening skills, and dramatical presentations. (ML)

  9. Bin-scale tests dry test bin assembly [Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report consists of engineering drawings of the following areas of the WIPP facility: dry test bin assembly; internal bin manifold modified design; dry test bin details; humid bin RCB lid; SWB lid modification for RCB lid assembly and details; TRUPACT II standard waste box assembly; waste handling building 411 ground floor slab-sump plans and sections; and waste handling floor building 411 ground floor slab plan.

  10. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  11. Frequency-bin entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Olislager, L.; Emplit, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Massar, S.; Merolla, J.-M.; Huy, K. Phan

    2010-07-15

    A monochromatic laser pumping a parametric down-conversion crystal generates frequency-entangled photon pairs. We study this experimentally by addressing such frequency-entangled photons at telecommunication wavelengths (around 1550 nm) with fiber-optics components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. The theory underlying our approach uses the notion of frequency-bin entanglement. Our results show that the phase modulators address coherently up to eleven frequency bins, leading to an interference pattern which can violate by more than five standard deviations a Bell inequality adapted to our setup.

  12. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.

  13. Surge bin retorting solid feed material

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1984-11-06

    An improved surge bin for a Lurgi-Ruhrgas process has baffles which promote uniform flow of feed material through the surge bin. Improved retorting of kerogen from oil shale is obtained. Stripping gas such as steam, is supplied to the surge bin. A separator has a large disengaging volume to remove entrained solid particles and improve the quality of the hydrocarbon product.

  14. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  15. View looking northwest toward HIghGrade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northwest toward HIgh-Grade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. Time-bin quantum RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, E. S.; Moiseev, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have proposed a compact scheme of quantum random access memory (qRAM) based on the impedance matched multi-qubit photon echo quantum memory incorporated with the control four-level atom in two coupled QED cavities. A set of matching conditions for basic physical parameters of the qRAM scheme that provides an efficient quantum control of the fast single photon storage and readout has been found. In particular, it has been discovered that the efficient qRAM operations are determined by the specific properties of the excited photonic molecule coupling the two QED cavities. Herein, the maximal efficiency of the qRAM is realized when the cooperativity parameter of the photonic molecule equals to unity that can be experimentally achievable. We have also elaborated upon the new quantum address scheme where the multi-time-bin photon state is used for the control of the four-level atom during the readout of the photonic qubits from the quantum memory. The scheme reduces the required number of logical elements to one. Experimental implementation by means of current quantum technologies in the optical and microwave domains is also discussed.

  17. Lille takes lead in high-tech French recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Larane, A.

    1995-11-01

    Lille, capital of the Nord region of northern France, believes in the virtues of selective sorting. To assure that its recycling efforts are successful, the city has appointed specialist French companies to develop high-tech solutions. As waste sorting in the city becomes more mechanized, refuse is now being collected by using refuse bins fitted with a silicon chip to aid in the collection and recycling process. The city of Lille has a population of 1 million residents.Suburban residents are now being supplied with two recycling bins--each with two compartments--manufactured by the French company Plastic Ominum (Paris). The first bin, which is blue, has one compartment for paper and cardboard and one for glass, plastic bottles, and other types of containers. The second bin, brown in color has one compartment for biodegradable waste and the other for non-recoverable waste.

  18. Xerox's closed recycling loop still contains kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Xerox Corp. has established a recycling loop for plastics screw-top toner bottles and dry-ink containers used in most of the company's high-volume copiers. However, a severe shortage of post-consumer recycled plastic has been short-circuiting Xerox's good intentions. Last year, the Stamford, Conn.-based company stopped manufacturing toner containers from virgin plastics and instead began using recycled raw materials, such as discarded milk and water jugs collected from municipal curbside recycling programs. The bottles are ground and remolded into such products as air filters for vacuum cleaners, plastic lumber, compost bins, landscape ties, benches and fence posts. However, what sounds like a win-win situation actually is costing too much money. Contrary to popular belief, post-consumer recycled plastic costs more than virgin plastic. Despite the added expense, Xerox will continue to use recycled plastics when possible.

  19. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  20. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  1. Letters from Abbottabad: Bin Ladin Sidelined?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    characterized by religious fanaticism and biases, and therefore “distort to some extent the image of al-Qa`ida.”51 Beyond centralizing jihadi releases, Bin...security; the other pertained to extremism and fanaticism in religion by some “brothers” who claim to be affiliated with al-Qa`ida. Yunis was

  2. Evaluation Strategies for Bitmap Indices with Binning

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-06-03

    Bitmap indices are efficient data structures for querying read-only data with low attribute cardinalities. To improve the efficiency of the bitmap indices on attributes with high cardinalities, we present a new strategy to evaluate queries using bitmap indices. This work is motivated by a number of scientific data analysis applications where most attributes have cardinalities in the millions. On these attributes, binning is a common strategy to reduce the size of the bitmap index. In this article we analyze how binning affects the number of pages accessed during query processing, and propose an optimal way of using the bitmap indices to reduce the number of pages accessed. Compared with two basic strategies the new algorithm reduces the query response time by up to a factor of two. On a set of 5-dimensional queries on real application data, the bitmap indices are on average 10 times faster than the projection index.

  3. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. THIS ORE BIN WAS ADDED IN THE LATE 1930'S. IT IS TRAPAZOIDAL IN SHAPE, WIDER AT THE REAR THAN THE FRONT, AND DIVIDED INTO THREE BINS, EACH WITH ITS OWN CONTROL DOOR (SEE CA-290-15). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW WITH STORAGE BINS FOR COLLECTING METAL SHAVINGS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH STORAGE BINS FOR COLLECTING METAL SHAVINGS FROM THE TAPPING MACHINES AS THEY CUT SCREW THREADS INTO PIPE FITTINGS. SHAVINGS TRAVEL ON CONVEYORS UNDER THE PLATFORM, ARE THEN ELEVATED TO SMALL LEVER-RELEASED BINS, WHICH HOLD SCRAP WHILE THE LARGER BINS ARE BEING EMPTIED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Pack Factor Measurementss for Corn in Grain Storage Bins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain is commonly stored commercially in tall bins, which often are as deep as 35 m (114.8 ft) for tall and narrow concrete bins and about 32 m (105 ft) in diameter for large corrugated steel bins. Grain can support the great pressure without crushing, but it yields somewhat to compaction under its ...

  7. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Ideas: Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  10. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  11. Comparison of binning approaches for pulsed photothermal temperature profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2009-07-01

    In experiments and numerical simulations of pulsed photothermal temperature profiling, we compare three signal binning approaches. In uniform binning n subsequent signal data points are averaged, quadratic binning follows from the characteristic of thermal diffusion, and geometrical binning utilizes geometric progression. Our experiment was performed on collagen gel samples with absorbing layers located at various subsurface depths. From measured PPTR signals laser-induced temperature profiles were reconstructed using spectrally composite kernel. The simulated PPTR signals of temperature profiles resembling experimental temperature profiles contain noise with characteristics consistent with our experimental system. In addition, we simulated PPTR signal of a biopsy-defined port-wine stain skin geometry. In PPTR temperature profiling of collagen gel samples, quadratic binning results in optimal reconstructions for shallow absorbing structures, while uniform binning performs optimally for deeper absorbing structures. Overall, geometric binning yields least accurate reconstructions, especially for deeper absorbing layers.

  12. Still the same after all these years: Santa Rosa`s curbside recycling model

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, K.

    1997-10-01

    When Santa Rosa, located north of San Francisco, first began its recycling program in 1977, it was no different from the other fledgling curbside recycling programs in the state. Back then, residents collected recyclables in their homes and put them out on the curb each week next to the garbage cans in whatever container they could find, whether it was a paper grocery bag or a cardboard box. The city`s pre-bin recycling program had a participation rate of about 25%. Then in 1978, with the firm`s help, Empire officials came up with the idea of providing recycling bins to residents. The program planners asked residents to source-separate their recyclables and then put the metals (including steel, tin, and aluminum); all three glass colors (brown, green, and clear); and newspaper in three individual bins. A few weeks after city officials distributed the bins to residents, the program showed a participation rate of 77%, indicating to Clark that the bins were necessary to significantly increase public awareness of the program.

  13. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  14. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  15. Recycling Philology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Peggy A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that English teachers recycle philology as a field of study. Redefines the shape of philology in view of postmodern theories of signification. Considers concepts of hermeneutics in retheorizing the aims of philology. Shows how such philological investigation might be used in the classroom to study literary texts. (HB)

  16. 16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. 8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM ACCESS ROAD. THE ROADWAY ON THIS LEVEL (CENTER) WAS USED FOR UNLOADING ORE BROUGHT ON BURROWS INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TOP LEVEL OF THE MILL. THE ORE BIN IN THE UPPER LEFT WAS ADDED LATER WHEN ORE WAS BROUGHT TO THE MILL BY TRUCKS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Benefits of a Hospital Two-Bin Kanban System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    stocks split between primary (in front) and secondary bins (directly behind). RFID tags are placed on the front of each bin. Photos taken at WRNMMC...on 16DEC13. ....................................................................3  Figure 2.  Example of RFID tags placed on the RFID board that...signals items in need of replenishing. Colored RFID tags distinguish secondary bins. Photos taken at WRNMMC on 16DEC13

  19. 37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ADDITION AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. VISIBLE ARE DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER), THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, AND UPPER PORTION OF THE STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE UPPER TAILINGS POND LIES BEYOND THE MILL WITH THE UPPER TAILINGS DAM UNDER THE GRAVEL ROAD IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. A bin integral method for solving the kinetic collection equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-Ping; Xue, Yan; Grabowski, Wojciech W.

    2007-09-01

    A new numerical method for solving the kinetic collection equation (KCE) is proposed, and its accuracy and convergence are investigated. The method, herein referred to as the bin integral method with Gauss quadrature (BIMGQ), makes use of two binwise moments, namely, the number and mass concentration in each bin. These two degrees of freedom define an extended linear representation of the number density distribution for each bin following Enukashvily (1980). Unlike previous moment-based methods in which the gain and loss integrals are evaluated for a target bin, the concept of source-bin pair interactions is used to transfer bin moments from source bins to target bins. Collection kernels are treated by bilinear interpolations. All binwise interaction integrals are then handled exactly by Gauss quadrature of various orders. In essence the method combines favorable features in previous spectral moment-based and bin-based pair-interaction (or flux) methods to greatly enhance the logic, consistency, and simplicity in the numerical method and its implementation. Quantitative measures are developed to rigorously examine the accuracy and convergence properties of BIMGQ for both the Golovin kernel and hydrodynamic kernels. It is shown that BIMGQ has a superior accuracy for the Golovin kernel and a monotonic convergence behavior for hydrodynamic kernels. Direct comparisons are also made with the method of Berry and Reinhardt (1974), the linear flux method of Bott (1998), and the linear discrete method of Simmel et al. (2002).

  1. Bursting money bins, the ice and water structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2015-05-01

    In the classic comics by Carl Barks, "The Big Bin on Killmotor Hill" [1], Uncle Scrooge, trying to defend his money bin from the Beagle Boys, follows a suggestion by Donald Duck, and fills the bin with water. Unfortunately, that night is going be the coldest one in the history of Ducksburg. The water freezes, bursting the "ten-foot walls'' of the money bin, and finally the gigantic cube of ice and dollars slips down the hill up to the Beagle Boys lot.

  2. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  3. Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rainier Romero; Burtseva, Larysa

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.

  4. 4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, c. 1912. SHOWS TIMBER FRAMING UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS AT PREVIOUS LOCATION OF CRUSHER HOUSE, AND SNOW SHED PRESENT OVER SOUTH CRUDE ORE BIN WITH PHASE CHANGE IN SNOW SHED CONSTRUCTION INDICATED AT EAST END OF EAST CRUDE ORE BIN. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE MACHINE SHOP, UPPER LEFT CORNER. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose.

  6. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  7. 14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel for load-out belt conveyor system located below tanks. Square, numbered spouts gravity-feed grain from overhead bins onto belt. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. 64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Steel Ammunition Bins, MIL-STD-l66O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on steel ammunition bins with newly-designed plywood lids for use in the...transportation of hazardous waste. This report contains test results of the steel ammunition bins with plywood lids meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, test procedures.

  10. Pavement recycling catching on

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, G.

    1980-11-01

    The soaring costs of asphalt, aggregates, energy, and labor have revived interest in the recycling of old pavements and road bases. Two types of techniqueshot mix recycling and cold mix recycling are described and compared. The experiences of Wisconsin and Texas with pavement recycling are reviewed. Wisconsin uses the hot mix recycling, while Texas refurbishes its roads with the cold mix recycling. One contractor's doubts about surface recycling of pavements are outlined. (13 photos)

  11. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro; Harada, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain-binding protein 1-like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1-dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport.

  12. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain–binding protein 1–like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1–dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport. PMID:26833786

  13. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    PubMed

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game.

  14. gbtools: Interactive Visualization of Metagenome Bins in R

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Brandon K. B.; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in DNA sequencing technology have increased the amount and quality of sequences that can be obtained from metagenomic samples, making it practical to extract individual microbial genomes from metagenomic assemblies (“binning”). However, while many tools and methods exist for unsupervised binning with various statistical algorithms, there are few options for visualizing the results, even though visualization is vital to exploratory data analysis. We have developed gbtools, a software package that allows users to visualize metagenomic assemblies by plotting coverage (sequencing depth) and GC values of contigs, and also to annotate the plots with taxonomic information. Different sets of annotations, including taxonomic assignments from conserved marker genes or SSU rRNA genes, can be imported simultaneously; users can choose which annotations to plot. Bins can be manually defined from plots, or be imported from third-party binning tools and overlaid onto plots, such that results from different methods can be compared side-by-side. gbtools reports summary statistics of bins including marker gene completeness, and allows the user to add or subtract bins with each other. We illustrate some of the functions available in gbtools with two examples: the metagenome of Olavius algarvensis, a marine oligochaete worm that has up to five bacterial symbionts, and the metagenome of a synthetic mock community comprising 64 bacterial and archaeal strains. We show how instances of poor automated binning, sequencer GC% bias, and variation between samples can be quickly diagnosed by visualization, and demonstrate how the results from different binning tools can be combined and refined to yield manually curated bins with higher completeness. gbtools is open-source and written in R. The software package, documentation, and example data are available freely online at https://github.com/kbseah/genome-bin-tools. PMID:26732662

  15. Tomographic reconstruction of time-bin-entangled qudits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowierski, Samantha J.; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-10-01

    We describe an experimental implementation to generate and measure high-dimensional time-bin-entangled qudits. Two-photon time-bin entanglement is generated via spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode fiber. Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers transform selected time bins to polarization entanglement, allowing standard polarization-projective measurements to be used for complete quantum state tomographic reconstruction. Here we generate maximally entangled qubits (d =2 ) , qutrits (d =3 ) , and ququarts (d =4 ) , as well as other phase-modulated nonmaximally entangled qubits and qutrits. We reconstruct and verify all generated states using maximum-likelihood estimation tomography.

  16. 44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. 43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  18. Binning for IC Quality: Experimental Studies on the SEMATECH Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Adit D.; Lakin, David R., II; Sinha, Gaurav; Nigh, Phil

    1998-01-01

    The earlier smaller bipolar study did not provide a high enough bin 0 population to directly observe test escapes and thereby estimate defect levels for the best bin. Results presented here indicate that the best bin can be reasonably expected to show a 2 - 5 factor improvement in defect levels over the average for the lot for moderate to high yields (the overall yield for these experiments was approximately 65%). The experiments also confirm the dependence of the best bin quality on test transparency. The defect level improvement is poorer for the case Of IDDQ escapes where the tests applied had a much higher escape rate. Overall experimental results are consistent with analytical projections for typical values of the clustering parameter in [9]. The final version of this paper will include extensive analysis to validate the analytical models based on this data.

  19. 12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  20. Soft-collinear factorization and zero-bin subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu Juiyu; Fuhrer, Andreas; Kelley, Randall; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Hoang, Andre H.

    2009-03-01

    We study the Sudakov form factor for a spontaneously broken gauge theory using a (new) {delta}-regulator. To be well defined, the effective theory requires zero-bin subtractions for the collinear sectors. The zero-bin subtractions depend on the gauge boson mass M and are not scaleless. They have both finite and 1/{epsilon} contributions and are needed to give the correct anomalous dimension and low-scale matching contributions. We also demonstrate the necessity of zero-bin subtractions for soft-collinear factorization. We find that after zero-bin subtractions the form factor is the sum of the collinear contributions minus a soft mass-mode contribution, in agreement with a previous result of Idilbi and Mehen in QCD. This appears to conflict with the method-of-regions approach, where one gets the sum of contributions from different regions.

  1. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  2. UNLOADING TRESTLE AND COAL BIN FOR BOILERS AT LOWER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNLOADING TRESTLE AND COAL BIN FOR BOILERS AT LOWER END OF MILL. FLOTATION CELL ROOM IS AT RIGHT, WITH THICKENER ROOM BEYOND. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. 35. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR BUILDING TOP LEFT, OFFICE AND STOREROOM TOP CENTER, ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  4. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR BUILDING TOP LEFT, OFFICE AND STOREROOM TOP CENTER, ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  5. 24. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, TOWARD WHERE ORE DELIVERY TRACK WOULD HAVE RUN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  6. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, TOWARD WHERE ORE DELIVERY TRACK WOULD HAVE RUN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  7. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, CONDENSERS, CENTER, AND CIRCULAR REDWOOD TANK PLATFORMS, RIGHT, LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  8. 22. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, CONDENSERS, CENTER, AND CIRCULAR REDWOOD TANK PLATFORMS, RIGHT, LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  9. 2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  10. 3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.710 Bin classification for filtered systems. (a) Following...) of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement....

  13. 53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  16. NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  17. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN STORAGE TANK IN FOREGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Receiving & Storage Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 71. WESTWARD VIEW OF COKE BIN INSIDE OF THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. WESTWARD VIEW OF COKE BIN INSIDE OF THE SOUTH STOCKHOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 46. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF FERROMANGANESE STORAGE BINS. THE CAR PREPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF FERROMANGANESE STORAGE BINS. THE CAR PREPARATION BUILDING IS IN THE BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. 14. GLOBE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) BIN FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GLOBE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) BIN FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM NORTHEAST CORNER. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  4. GLOBE ELEVATOR, LOOKING AT NO. 2 HOUSE FROM THE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GLOBE ELEVATOR, LOOKING AT NO. 2 HOUSE FROM THE BIN FLOOR OF NO. 1 HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 2 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  5. Simulating storm electrification with bin and bulk microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Simulated storm electrification can be highly dependent on the parameterizations of microphysical processes, particularly those involving ice particles. Commonly-used bulk microphysics assume a functional form of the particle size distribution and predict one or more moments of the distribution, such as total mass, number concentration, and reflectivity. Bin schemes, on the other hand, allow the particle spectrum to evolve by predicting the number of particles in discrete size ranges (bins). Bin schemes are often promoted as benchmark solutions, but have much greater computational expense and can have other disadvantages. Only a few studies have compared results for bin and bulk schemes within the same model framework, which controls for differences in model numerics and other physics. Here, the bin microphysics scheme of Takahashi has been incorporated into the COMMAS model for comparison with the 2-3-moment bulk scheme. The resulting electrification, charge structure and lightning are compared, as well. Charge separation and transfer have been newly added to the bin scheme, along with some updates to the physics, such as improved ice melting. Thus the same laboratory-based charging schemes from previous work can be used with both microphysics packages. The bulk and bin schemes generally have similar microphysical features in the simulations. Differences can result in part from differences the parameterizations of partical interactions (and particle types) as much as from the simple difference in size distributions. For example both the bin and bulk schemes are sensitive to the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, as shown in recent work from the bulk scheme. Results will be presented for idealized 2-dimensional cases and for fully 3D simulations of a small multicell thunderstorms.

  6. On the Mathematical Consequences of Binning Spike Trains.

    PubMed

    Cessac, Bruno; Le Ny, Arnaud; Löcherbach, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We initiate a mathematical analysis of hidden effects induced by binning spike trains of neurons. Assuming that the original spike train has been generated by a discrete Markov process, we show that binning generates a stochastic process that is no longer Markov but is instead a variable-length Markov chain (VLMC) with unbounded memory. We also show that the law of the binned raster is a Gibbs measure in the DLR (Dobrushin-Lanford-Ruelle) sense coined in mathematical statistical mechanics. This allows the derivation of several important consequences on statistical properties of binned spike trains. In particular, we introduce the DLR framework as a natural setting to mathematically formalize anticipation, that is, to tell "how good" our nervous system is at making predictions. In a probabilistic sense, this corresponds to condition a process by its future, and we discuss how binning may affect our conclusions on this ability. We finally comment on the possible consequences of binning in the detection of spurious phase transitions or in the detection of incorrect evidence of criticality.

  7. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  8. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  9. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  10. Solar Radiation Pressure Binning for the Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Ghrist, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital maintenance parameters for individual satellites or groups of satellites have traditionally been set by examining orbital parameters alone, such as through apogee and perigee height binning; this approach ignored the other factors that governed an individual satellite's susceptibility to non-conservative forces. In the atmospheric drag regime, this problem has been addressed by the introduction of the "energy dissipation rate," a quantity that represents the amount of energy being removed from the orbit; such an approach is able to consider both atmospheric density and satellite frontal area characteristics and thus serve as a mechanism for binning satellites of similar behavior. The geo-synchronous orbit (of broader definition than the geostationary orbit -- here taken to be from 1300 to 1800 minutes in orbital period) is not affected by drag; rather, its principal non-conservative force is that of solar radiation pressure -- the momentum imparted to the satellite by solar radiometric energy. While this perturbation is solved for as part of the orbit determination update, no binning or division scheme, analogous to the drag regime, has been developed for the geo-synchronous orbit. The present analysis has begun such an effort by examining the behavior of geosynchronous rocket bodies and non-stabilized payloads as a function of solar radiation pressure susceptibility. A preliminary examination of binning techniques used in the drag regime gives initial guidance regarding the criteria for useful bin divisions. Applying these criteria to the object type, solar radiation pressure, and resultant state vector accuracy for the analyzed dataset, a single division of "large" satellites into two bins for the purposes of setting related sensor tasking and orbit determination (OD) controls is suggested. When an accompanying analysis of high area-to-mass objects is complete, a full set of binning recommendations for the geosynchronous orbit will be available.

  11. Resolution of ambiguous radar measurements using a floating bin correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, E. R.; Frost, E. L.

    It is pointed out that the Chinese Remainder Theorem (Mooney and Skillman, 1970) can be used to yield unambiguous measurements by comparing outputs allocated to fixed integer number bins using integer arithmetic to modulo to the correct bin number. In general, targets straddling two or more bins or the assignment of an incorrect bin number will yield incorrect parameter values. An ambiguity resolution technique using multiple pulse repetition frequency (PRF) data and a sliding floating point window or 'floating bin' to correlate ambiguous centroided Doppler measurements is proposed. An advantage of the technique is that false targets are much less prevalent than in classical techniques. What is more, the same technique may be employed to resolve ambiguous range wherein centroided range measurements are moduloed with the pulse repetition interval associated with each PRF. Results demonstrate that this method is better than conventional approaches in that the number of false targets produced is significantly lower while simultaneoulsy providing a high probability of correlation. In addition, the correlation can be effected in real time.

  12. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  13. Challenges in metal recycling.

    PubMed

    Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

    2012-08-10

    Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions that could improve recycling rates are increased collection rates of discarded products, improved design for recycling, and the enhanced deployment of modern recycling methodology. As a global society, we are currently far away from a closed-loop material system. Much improvement is possible, but limitations of many kinds--not all of them technological--will preclude complete closure of the materials cycle.

  14. Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLago, Louise Furia

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

  15. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  16. 37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TO BINS ALONG NORTH WALL OF FACTORY BUILDING WHICH REMAIN FILLED WITH NEW OLD STOCK AND USED PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. THE ROPE AT THE LOWER FOREGROUND WAS USED IN ERECTING WINDMILLS AND TOWERS FOR CUSTOMERS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  17. VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE STOCK BINS IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE ON THE RIGHT, STOVES IN THE CENTER, AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ON THE LEFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN FOREGROUND, FOUR LARGE BOILER UNITS, AND STOVES AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM NEARBY THE ENGINE. THE CONCRETE MACHINE PAD TO THE RIGHT OF THE CRUSHER PROBABLY HELD THE ENGINE THAT DROVE THE CRUSHER. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  5. 60. View from stock bin trestle looking northeast at Babcock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. View from stock bin trestle looking northeast at Babcock & Wilcox type boilers (manufactured by Casey-Hedges Co., Chattanooga, TN) where washed furnace gas is burned with natural gas and coal to generate heat for steam. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. Grain tripper straddles belt conveyor at mid-view. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. Binning sequences using very sparse labels within a metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Hsu, Arthur L; Halgamuge, Saman K; Tang, Sen-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Background In metagenomic studies, a process called binning is necessary to assign contigs that belong to multiple species to their respective phylogenetic groups. Most of the current methods of binning, such as BLAST, k-mer and PhyloPythia, involve assigning sequence fragments by comparing sequence similarity or sequence composition with already-sequenced genomes that are still far from comprehensive. We propose a semi-supervised seeding method for binning that does not depend on knowledge of completed genomes. Instead, it extracts the flanking sequences of highly conserved 16S rRNA from the metagenome and uses them as seeds (labels) to assign other reads based on their compositional similarity. Results The proposed seeding method is implemented on an unsupervised Growing Self-Organising Map (GSOM), and called Seeded GSOM (S-GSOM). We compared it with four well-known semi-supervised learning methods in a preliminary test, separating random-length prokaryotic sequence fragments sampled from the NCBI genome database. We identified the flanking sequences of the highly conserved 16S rRNA as suitable seeds that could be used to group the sequence fragments according to their species. S-GSOM showed superior performance compared to the semi-supervised methods tested. Additionally, S-GSOM may also be used to visually identify some species that do not have seeds. The proposed method was then applied to simulated metagenomic datasets using two different confidence threshold settings and compared with PhyloPythia, k-mer and BLAST. At the reference taxonomic level Order, S-GSOM outperformed all k-mer and BLAST results and showed comparable results with PhyloPythia for each of the corresponding confidence settings, where S-GSOM performed better than PhyloPythia in the ≥ 10 reads datasets and comparable in the ≥ 8 kb benchmark tests. Conclusion In the task of binning using semi-supervised learning methods, results indicate S-GSOM to be the best of the methods tested. Most

  9. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  10. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  11. European update on recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1993-10-01

    This article discusses the current status of recycling of automobiles in Europe based on a report compiled by Euromotor Reports and also discusses the move toward designing automobiles for disassembly to aid in the recycling process. Plastics and rubber are the emphasis of the report along with copper and aluminum. Problem areas in recycling or dismantling are also discussed.

  12. The Sustainability of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juniper, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

  13. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  14. System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Keran, V.P.

    1983-03-08

    A method and means for improving the efficiency of the process for directly reducing ore containing iron oxide in a rotary kiln using a solid carbonaceous reducing agent, such as coal, introduced from the ore feed and discharge ends of the kiln, as both fuel and reductant, is disclosed wherein the charred coal or char found in the discharge product is recycled into the process at the discharge end of the kiln rather than the feed end as in the prior art. In particular, the recovered char, both coarse and finer particles, are transported to a recycle bin from which they are returned at a preselected rate to the kiln process by being injected along with the coal blown into the discharge end of the kiln. Alternatively, the recycle char alone may be fed without any coal at the discharge end of the kiln.

  15. TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ORE CHUTE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. TRAM MACHINERY AND GEARS ARE AT LOWER CENTER. A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR AT THE REAR LEFT OF THE TERMINAL PROBABLY WAS ADDED AFTER THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. THE MOVING CABLE OF THE TRAM WAS DRIVEN BY THESE GEARS AND THE LARGE WHEEL UNDERNEATH (SEE CA-291-31 FOR DETAIL). EMPTY TRAM BUCKETS CAME IN FROM THE LEFT, SWINGING AROUND TO THE CHUTES FROM THE ORE BIN TO BE LOADED FOR THE TRIP DOWN TO THE MILL (SEE CA-291-35 FOR DETAIL). THE BREAK OVER TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT TOP LEFT. THE SUPPORT TOWER BETWEEN THE UPPER TERMINAL AND THE BREAK OVER TOWER IS COLLAPSED. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

  17. 34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. 39. VIEW OF ORE BIN, ADITS, AND OVERBURDEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF ORE BIN, ADITS, AND OVERBURDEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200m EAST OF MILL SITE. MAIN ACCESS ROAD FROM SKIDOO TOWN SITE TO THE MILL RUNS ACROSS CENTER. TRAVELING ON THE ROAD FROM LEFT TO RIGHT GOES TOWARD THE MILL FROM THE TOWN. SEE CA-290-1 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 1. VIEW OF ORE BIN ADITS, AND OVERBURDEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ORE BIN ADITS, AND OVERBURDEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 200m EAST OF MILL SITE MAIN ACCESS ROAD FROM SKIDOO TOWN SITE TO THE MILL RUNS ACROSS CENTER. TRAVELING ON THE ROAD FROM LEFT TO RIGHT GOES TOWARD THE MILL FROM THE TOWN. SEE CA-290-39 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Designers pick surge hoppers over bins for many boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    A boiler fuel-feed system is described and the use of live- bottom surge hoppers is preferred over bins with multiple-screw feeders. The need for an even distribution of hog fuel without segregation by size among the various feed chutes to supply the furnace is stressed. The distribution of fuel among the chutes using flight conveyors, swining spouts and vibrating conveyors is described.

  1. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  2. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    SciTech Connect

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  3. Dynamic Adaptive Binning: An Improved Quantification Technique for NMR Spectroscopic Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    adaptive intelligent binning, which recursively identifies bin edges in existing bins (De Meyer et al. 2008). Another dynamic binning method is...43. Cancino-De-Greiff, H. F., Ramos-Garcia, R., & Lorenzo -Ginori, J. V. (2002). Signal de-noising in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet...for metabolomics data using the undecimated wavelet transform. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 85, 144–154. De Meyer , T., Sinnaeve, D

  4. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of bins or other bonded space....

  6. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Case study: Is the 'catch-all-plastics bin' useful in unlocking the hidden resource potential in the residual waste collection system?

    PubMed

    Kranzinger, Lukas; Schopf, Kerstin; Pomberger, Roland; Punesch, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    Austria's performance in the collection of separated waste is adequate. However, the residual waste still contains substantial amounts of recyclable materials - for example, plastics, paper and board, glass and composite packaging. Plastics (lightweight packaging and similar non-packaging materials) are detected at an average mass content of 13% in residual waste. Despite this huge potential, only 3% of the total amount of residual waste (1,687,000 t y(-1)) is recycled. This implies that most of the recyclable materials contained in the residual waste are destined for thermal recovery and are lost for recycling. This pilot project, commissioned by the Land of Lower Austria, applied a holistic approach, unique in Europe, to the Lower Austrian waste management system. It aims to transfer excess quantities of plastic packaging and non-packaging recyclables from the residual waste system to the separately collected waste system by introducing a so-called 'catch-all-plastics bin'. A quantity flow model was constructed and the results showed a realistic increase in the amount of plastics collected of 33.9 wt%. This equals a calculated excess quantity of 19,638 t y(-1). The increased plastics collection resulted in a positive impact on the climate footprint (CO2 equivalent) in line with the targets of EU Directive 94/62/EG (Circular Economy Package) and its Amendments. The new collection system involves only moderate additional costs.

  9. The generation and cost of litter resulting from the curbside collection of recycling.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P; Broaddus, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the generation of litter, defined as spillage and uncollected residue, from a curbside collection system for residential recycling. The primary recycling containers used in the study were 18-gal (68 L), open-top bins. The study, conducted over a seven-week period, was comprised of both an urban and suburban area. Six litter characterizations were conducted in which all new litter larger than 1 in.(2) was collected, segregated, counted, and weighed. We found that each week the open-top recycling bins contributed approximately 20,590 pieces of litter over 1 in. in size per every 1000 households, which resulted in the generation of 3.74 tons of litter per 1000 households per year. In addition to the bins having no top, the primary root causes of the litter were constantly overflowing recycling bins, the method of collection, and material scavenging. Based on an estimated cost of litter cleanup ranging from $0.17 to $0.79 per piece of litter, the direct economic costs from the collection of litter and loss in recycling revenues were estimated at US$3920 to US$19,250 per 1000 households per year. Other notable impacts from the litter, such as increased risk of flood damage from storm drain impairment and marine ecosystem damages exist, but were not monetized. The results strongly suggest that modification of the curbside collection system would decrease the amount and associated cost of litter by replacing existing curbside collection containers with larger volume containers with covers and by modifying the task-based incentive system to emphasize litter prevention rather than the current aim of completing the task most quickly.

  10. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  11. Design for aluminum recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes the increasing use of aluminum in automobiles and the need to recycle to benefit further growth of aluminum applications by assuring an economical, high-quality source of metal. The article emphasizes that coordination of material specifications among designers can raise aluminum scrap value and facilitate recycling. Applications of aluminum in automobile construction are discussed.

  12. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  13. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  14. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  15. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  16. Improving a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme Using TRMM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Liu, Chuntao; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Comparisons between cloud model simulations and observations are crucial in validating model performance and improving physical processes represented in the mod Tel.hese modeled physical processes are idealized representations and almost always have large rooms for improvements. In this study, we use data from two different sensors onboard TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite to improve the microphysical scheme in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. TRMM observed mature-stage squall lines during late spring, early summer in central US over a 9-year period are compiled and compared with a case simulation by GCE model. A unique aspect of the GCE model is that it has a state-of-the-art spectral bin microphysical scheme, which uses 33 different bins to represent particle size distribution of each of the seven hydrometeor species. A forward radiative transfer model calculates TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) reflectivity and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 85 GHz brightness temperatures from simulated particle size distributions. Comparisons between model outputs and observations reveal that the model overestimates sizes of snow/aggregates in the stratiform region of the squall line. After adjusting temperature-dependent collection coefficients among ice-phase particles, PR comparisons become good while TMI comparisons worsen. Further investigations show that the partitioning between graupel (a high-density form of aggregate), and snow (a low-density form of aggregate) needs to be adjusted in order to have good comparisons in both PR reflectivity and TMI brightness temperature. This study shows that long-term satellite observations, especially those with multiple sensors, can be very useful in constraining model microphysics. It is also the first study in validating and improving a sophisticated spectral bin microphysical scheme according to long-term satellite observations.

  17. 36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS LOOKING AT THE BACK SIDE OF THE HENDY CHALLENGE CONTINUOUS ORE FEEDERS, #1 IS ON THE LEFT, #2 IS CENTER, AND #3 IS ON THE RIGHT. THESE ARE USED TO KEEP A CONTINUOUS FLOW OF ORE INTO THE STAMP MILLS. NOTE THE SPARE FEEDER DISKS ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM CENTER AND SPARE STAMP HEADS AND SHOES ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM LEFT OF THE IMAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  18. Constant-complexity stochastic simulation algorithm with optimal binning

    SciTech Connect

    Sanft, Kevin R.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2015-08-21

    At the molecular level, biochemical processes are governed by random interactions between reactant molecules, and the dynamics of such systems are inherently stochastic. When the copy numbers of reactants are large, a deterministic description is adequate, but when they are small, such systems are often modeled as continuous-time Markov jump processes that can be described by the chemical master equation. Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) generates exact trajectories of these systems, but the amount of computational work required for each step of the original SSA is proportional to the number of reaction channels, leading to computational complexity that scales linearly with the problem size. The original SSA is therefore inefficient for large problems, which has prompted the development of several alternative formulations with improved scaling properties. We describe an exact SSA that uses a table data structure with event time binning to achieve constant computational complexity with respect to the number of reaction channels for weakly coupled reaction networks. We present a novel adaptive binning strategy and discuss optimal algorithm parameters. We compare the computational efficiency of the algorithm to existing methods and demonstrate excellent scaling for large problems. This method is well suited for generating exact trajectories of large weakly coupled models, including those that can be described by the reaction-diffusion master equation that arises from spatially discretized reaction-diffusion processes.

  19. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Concurrence of a pair of time-bin entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, M.; Morales-Cadena, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    A metastable state ? subjected to a couple of pulses transits to an excited level ? of an atom with probabilities ? and ?, respectively. One photon is emitted in the transition from the level ? to a lower atomic level ?. A second photon is emitted in the transition from the level ? to a lowest atomic level ?. The first photon must be emitted before than the second one so they are both time ordered (time-bin) and entangled. It is calculated that the concurrence of the two produced time-bin photons as a function of ?, ? and the branching ratios of the two transitions ? and (?). It is found that the two produced photons are maximally entangled if the branching ratios are greater than 80%. It is also found that certain values of ?, ? and the branching ratios preclude entanglement between the two produced photons. Intervals of values for ? and ? where the concurrence is large enough and then two-qubit quantum information processing protocols can be optimally implemented are found.

  1. Multifractal diffusion entropy analysis: Optimal bin width of probability histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of Multifractal Diffusion Entropy Analysis we propose a method for choosing an optimal bin-width in histograms generated from underlying probability distributions of interest. The method presented uses techniques of Rényi’s entropy and the mean squared error analysis to discuss the conditions under which the error in the multifractal spectrum estimation is minimal. We illustrate the utility of our approach by focusing on a scaling behavior of financial time series. In particular, we analyze the S&P500 stock index as sampled at a daily rate in the time period 1950-2013. In order to demonstrate a strength of the method proposed we compare the multifractal δ-spectrum for various bin-widths and show the robustness of the method, especially for large values of q. For such values, other methods in use, e.g., those based on moment estimation, tend to fail for heavy-tailed data or data with long correlations. Connection between the δ-spectrum and Rényi’s q parameter is also discussed and elucidated on a simple example of multiscale time series.

  2. Constant-complexity stochastic simulation algorithm with optimal binning.

    PubMed

    Sanft, Kevin R; Othmer, Hans G

    2015-08-21

    At the molecular level, biochemical processes are governed by random interactions between reactant molecules, and the dynamics of such systems are inherently stochastic. When the copy numbers of reactants are large, a deterministic description is adequate, but when they are small, such systems are often modeled as continuous-time Markov jump processes that can be described by the chemical master equation. Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) generates exact trajectories of these systems, but the amount of computational work required for each step of the original SSA is proportional to the number of reaction channels, leading to computational complexity that scales linearly with the problem size. The original SSA is therefore inefficient for large problems, which has prompted the development of several alternative formulations with improved scaling properties. We describe an exact SSA that uses a table data structure with event time binning to achieve constant computational complexity with respect to the number of reaction channels for weakly coupled reaction networks. We present a novel adaptive binning strategy and discuss optimal algorithm parameters. We compare the computational efficiency of the algorithm to existing methods and demonstrate excellent scaling for large problems. This method is well suited for generating exact trajectories of large weakly coupled models, including those that can be described by the reaction-diffusion master equation that arises from spatially discretized reaction-diffusion processes.

  3. A dynamic optimization model for solid waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Anghinolfi, Davide; Paolucci, Massimo; Robba, Michela; Taramasso, Angela Celeste

    2013-02-01

    Recycling is an important part of waste management (that includes different kinds of issues: environmental, technological, economic, legislative, social, etc.). Differently from many works in literature, this paper is focused on recycling management and on the dynamic optimization of materials collection. The developed dynamic decision model is characterized by state variables, corresponding to the quantity of waste in each bin per each day, and control variables determining the quantity of material that is collected in the area each day and the routes for collecting vehicles. The objective function minimizes the sum of costs minus benefits. The developed decision model is integrated in a GIS-based Decision Support System (DSS). A case study related to the Cogoleto municipality is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. From optimal results, it has been found that the net benefits of the optimized collection are about 2.5 times greater than the estimated current policy.

  4. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  5. Fermilab recycler diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

  6. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  7. Optimal binning of X-ray spectra and response matrix design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, J. S.; Bleeker, J. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: A theoretical framework is developed to estimate the optimal binning of X-ray spectra. Methods: We derived expressions for the optimal bin size for model spectra as well as for observed data using different levels of sophistication. Results: It is shown that by taking into account both the number of photons in a given spectral model bin and their average energy over the bin size, the number of model energy bins and the size of the response matrix can be reduced by a factor of 10-100. The response matrix should then contain the response at the bin centre as well as its derivative with respect to the incoming photon energy. We provide practical guidelines for how to construct optimal energy grids as well as how to structure the response matrix. A few examples are presented to illustrate the present methods.

  8. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L. R.

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  9. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. BIN1 is Reduced and Cav1.2 Trafficking is Impaired in Human Failing Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Smyth, James W.; Chu, Kevin Y.; Vogan, Jacob M.; Fong, Tina S.; Jensen, Brian C.; Fang, Kun; Halushka, Marc K.; Russell, Stuart D.; Colecraft, Henry; Hoopes, Charles W.; Ocorr, Karen; Chi, Neil C.; Shaw, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a growing epidemic and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T-tubules. BIN1 is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T-tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. Objective To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. Methods Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from non-failing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after shRNA mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino mediated knockdown of BIN1. Results BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced 42% by imaging and biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced 68%. Total calcium current is reduced 41% in a cell line expressing non-trafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. Conclusions The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility. PMID:22138472

  11. Bridging integrator 1 (Bin1) deficiency in zebrafish results in centronuclear myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura L.; Gupta, Vandana A.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM2), caused by mutations in bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), is a mildly progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by abnormally centralized myonuclei and muscle weakness. BIN1 is important for membrane sensing and remodeling in vitro in different cell types. However, to fully understand the biological roles of BIN1 in vivo and to answer critical questions concerning the muscle-specific function of BIN1 in vertebrates, robust small animal models are required. In this study, we create and characterize a novel zebrafish model of CNM2 using antisense morpholinos. Immunofluorescence and histopathological analyses of Bin1-deficient zebrafish skeletal muscle reveal structural defects commonly reported in human CNM2 biopsies. Live imaging of zebrafish embryos shows defective calcium release in bin1 morphants, linking the presence of abnormal triads to impairments in intracellular signaling. RNA-mediated rescue assays demonstrate that knockdown of zebrafish bin1 can reliably examine the pathogenicity of novel BIN1 mutations in vivo. Finally, our results strongly suggest that the phosphoinositide-binding domain of BIN1, present only in skeletal muscle isoforms, may be more critical for muscle maturation and maintenance than for early muscle development. Overall, our data support that BIN1 plays an important role in membrane tubulation and may promote skeletal muscle weakness in CNM2 by disrupting machinery necessary for excitation–contraction coupling in vertebrate organisms. The reproducible phenotype of Bin1-deficient zebrafish, together with the generalized advantages of the teleost system, makes this model readily adaptable to high-throughput screening strategies and may be used to identify therapies for CNM2 and related neuromuscular diseases. PMID:24549043

  12. KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN BINNING AND PHEWAS ANALYSIS IN MARSHFIELD PERSONALIZED MEDICINE RESEARCH PROJECT USING BIOBIN.

    PubMed

    Basile, Anna O; Wallace, John R; Peissig, Peggy; McCarty, Catherine A; Brilliant, Murray; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has presented an opportunity for rare variant discovery and association of these variants with disease. To address the challenges of rare variant analysis, multiple statistical methods have been developed for combining rare variants to increase statistical power for detecting associations. BioBin is an automated tool that expands on collapsing/binning methods by performing multi-level variant aggregation with a flexible, biologically informed binning strategy using an internal biorepository, the Library of Knowledge (LOKI). The databases within LOKI provide variant details, regional annotations and pathway interactions which can be used to generate bins of biologically-related variants, thereby increasing the power of any subsequent statistical test. In this study, we expand the framework of BioBin to incorporate statistical tests, including a dispersion-based test, SKAT, thereby providing the option of performing a unified collapsing and statistical rare variant analysis in one tool. Extensive simulation studies performed on gene-coding regions showed a Bin-KAT analysis to have greater power than BioBin-regression in all simulated conditions, including variants influencing the phenotype in the same direction, a scenario where burden tests often retain greater power. The use of Madsen- Browning variant weighting increased power in the burden analysis to that equitable with Bin-KAT; but overall Bin-KAT retained equivalent or higher power under all conditions. Bin-KAT was applied to a study of 82 pharmacogenes sequenced in the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP). We looked for association of these genes with 9 different phenotypes extracted from the electronic health record. This study demonstrates that Bin-KAT is a powerful tool for the identification of genes harboring low frequency variants for complex phenotypes.

  13. KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN BINNING AND PHEWAS ANALYSIS IN MARSHFIELD PERSONALIZED MEDICINE RESEARCH PROJECT USING BIOBIN*

    PubMed Central

    BASILE, ANNA O; WALLACE, JOHN R; PEISSIG, PEGGY; MCCARTY, CATHERINE A; BRILLIANT, MURRAY

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has presented an opportunity for rare variant discovery and association of these variants with disease. To address the challenges of rare variant analysis, multiple statistical methods have been developed for combining rare variants to increase statistical power for detecting associations. BioBin is an automated tool that expands on collapsing/binning methods by performing multi-level variant aggregation with a flexible, biologically informed binning strategy using an internal biorepository, the Library of Knowledge (LOKI). The databases within LOKI provide variant details, regional annotations and pathway interactions which can be used to generate bins of biologically-related variants, thereby increasing the power of any subsequent statistical test. In this study, we expand the framework of BioBin to incorporate statistical tests, including a dispersion-based test, SKAT, thereby providing the option of performing a unified collapsing and statistical rare variant analysis in one tool. Extensive simulation studies performed on gene-coding regions showed a Bin-KAT analysis to have greater power than BioBin-regression in all simulated conditions, including variants influencing the phenotype in the same direction, a scenario where burden tests often retain greater power. The use of Madsen-Browning variant weighting increased power in the burden analysis to that equitable with Bin-KAT; but overall Bin-KAT retained equivalent or higher power under all conditions. Bin-KAT was applied to a study of 82 pharmacogenes sequenced in the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP). We looked for association of these genes with 9 different phenotypes extracted from the electronic health record. This study demonstrates that Bin-KAT is a powerful tool for the identification of genes harboring low frequency variants for complex phenotypes. PMID:26776191

  14. BIN1 Is Decreased in Sporadic but Not Familial Alzheimer’s Disease or in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, Elizabeth B. C.; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Miners, J. Scott; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Love, Seth; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has been implicated in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by a number of genome wide association studies (GWAS) in a variety of populations. Here we measured BIN1 in frontal cortex samples from 24 sporadic AD and 24 age-matched non-dementia brains and correlated the expression of this protein with markers of AD. BIN1 was reduced by 87% (p=0.007) in sporadic AD compared to non-dementia controls, but BIN1 in sporadic AD did not correlate with soluble Aβ (rs=-0.084, p=0.698), insoluble Aβ (rs=0.237, p=0.269), Aβ plaque load (rs=0.063, p=0.771) or phospho-tau load (rs=-0.160, p=0.489). In contrast to our findings in sporadic AD, BIN1 was unchanged in the hippocampus from 6 cases of familial AD compared to 6 age-matched controls (p=0.488). BIN1 declined with age in a cohort of non-dementia control cases between 25 and 88 years but the correlation was not significant (rs=-0.449, p=0.081). Although BIN1 is known to have a role in endocytosis, and the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is dependent on endocytosis, knockdown of BIN1 by targeted siRNA or the overexpression of BIN1 in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) had no effect on APP processing. These data suggest that the alteration in BIN1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic, but not familial AD and is not a consequence of AD neurodegeneration or the ageing process, a finding in keeping with the numerous GWAS that implicate BIN1 in sporadic AD. However, the mechanism of its contribution remains to be established. PMID:24205320

  15. Potential fitting biases resulting from grouping data into variable width bins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towers, S.

    2014-07-01

    When reading peer-reviewed scientific literature describing any analysis of empirical data, it is natural and correct to proceed with the underlying assumption that experiments have made good faith efforts to ensure that their analyses yield unbiased results. However, particle physics experiments are expensive and time consuming to carry out, thus if an analysis has inherent bias (even if unintentional), much money and effort can be wasted trying to replicate or understand the results, particularly if the analysis is fundamental to our understanding of the universe. In this note we discuss the significant biases that can result from data binning schemes. As we will show, if data are binned such that they provide the best comparison to a particular (but incorrect) model, the resulting model parameter estimates when fitting to the binned data can be significantly biased, leading us to too often accept the model hypothesis when it is not in fact true. When using binned likelihood or least squares methods there is of course no a priori requirement that data bin sizes need to be constant, but we show that fitting to data grouped into variable width bins is particularly prone to produce biased results if the bin boundaries are chosen to optimize the comparison of the binned data to a wrong model. The degree of bias that can be achieved simply with variable binning can be surprisingly large. Fitting the data with an unbinned likelihood method, when possible to do so, is the best way for researchers to show that their analyses are not biased by binning effects. Failing that, equal bin widths should be employed as a cross-check of the fitting analysis whenever possible.

  16. Recycling in a megacity.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

    2004-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage.

  17. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  18. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  19. Who owns the recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1994-05-01

    On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

  20. 29 CFR 1917.49 - Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment... Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment. (a) Standing and running rigging and associated gear used as a permanent part of spouts, chutes or similar devices shall be inspected before each...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.49 - Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment... Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment. (a) Standing and running rigging and associated gear used as a permanent part of spouts, chutes or similar devices shall be inspected before each...

  2. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or other space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall be sealed by affixing locks or in bond seals... which will effectively prevent the removal of, or access to, the wheat in the bonded space except...

  3. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or other space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall be sealed by affixing locks or in bond seals... which will effectively prevent the removal of, or access to, the wheat in the bonded space except...

  4. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or other space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall be sealed by affixing locks or in bond seals... which will effectively prevent the removal of, or access to, the wheat in the bonded space except...

  5. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or other space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall be sealed by affixing locks or in bond seals... which will effectively prevent the removal of, or access to, the wheat in the bonded space except...

  6. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    PubMed Central

    Farrimond, Samantha J; Leland, Louis S

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. PMID:16813047

  7. 29 CFR 1917.49 - Spouts, chutes, hoppers, bins, and associated equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.49...) Chute and hopper openings which present a hazard shall be guarded to prevent employees from falling... until the employee has left the bin. (j) Bin top openings that present a hazard to employees shall...

  8. Temperospatial distribution of the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and L. decolor in steel bins containing wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the temperospatial distribution of psocids in steel bins containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat. Psocids were sampled using a grain trier, cardboard refuges on the surface of the grain and near the bin hatch, and automated sampling using the StorMax Insector™ system. The psocid speci...

  9. BinSanity: unsupervised clustering of environmental microbial assemblies using coverage and affinity propagation

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, John F.; Tully, Benjamin J.

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has become an integral part of defining microbial diversity in various environments. Many ecosystems have characteristically low biomass and few cultured representatives. Linking potential metabolisms to phylogeny in environmental microorganisms is important for interpreting microbial community functions and the impacts these communities have on geochemical cycles. However, with metagenomic studies there is the computational hurdle of ‘binning’ contigs into phylogenetically related units or putative genomes. Binning methods have been implemented with varying approaches such as k-means clustering, Gaussian mixture models, hierarchical clustering, neural networks, and two-way clustering; however, many of these suffer from biases against low coverage/abundance organisms and closely related taxa/strains. We are introducing a new binning method, BinSanity, that utilizes the clustering algorithm affinity propagation (AP), to cluster assemblies using coverage with compositional based refinement (tetranucleotide frequency and percent GC content) to optimize bins containing multiple source organisms. This separation of composition and coverage based clustering reduces bias for closely related taxa. BinSanity was developed and tested on artificial metagenomes varying in size and complexity. Results indicate that BinSanity has a higher precision, recall, and Adjusted Rand Index compared to five commonly implemented methods. When tested on a previously published environmental metagenome, BinSanity generated high completion and low redundancy bins corresponding with the published metagenome-assembled genomes. PMID:28289564

  10. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  11. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. This equipment shall be cleaned as often as is necessary...

  12. Causes of Students' Violence at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrawwad, Theeb M.; Alrfooh, Atif Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the causes of students' violence from the student's point of view, and also aimed at investigating the proper solutions to reduce the spread of violence at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University. The study sample consisted of (906) male and female students from Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, who have enrolled the summer…

  13. 7 CFR 58.246 - Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of dryers, collectors, conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. 58.246 Section 58.246 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., conveyors, ducts, sifters and storage bins. This equipment shall be cleaned as often as is necessary...

  14. EVALUATION OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE DESTRUCTIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR VALIDITY OF ORIGINAL 3013 CONTAINER BINNING

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclard, J.; Kessinger, G.

    2010-02-01

    The surveillance program for 3013 containers is based, in part, on the separation of containers into various bins related to potential container failure mechanisms. The containers are assigned to bins based on moisture content and pre-storage estimates of content chemistry. While moisture content is measured during the packaging of each container, chemistry estimates are made by using a combination of process knowledge, packaging data and prompt gamma analyses to establish the moisture and chloride/fluoride content of the materials. Packages with high moisture and chloride/fluoride contents receive more detailed surveillances than packages with less chloride/fluoride and/or moisture. Moisture verification measurements and chemical analyses performed during the surveillance program provided an opportunity to validate the binning process. Validation results demonstrated that the binning effort was generally successful in placing the containers in the appropriate bin for surveillance and analysis.

  15. Efficient BinDCT hardware architecture exploration and implementation on FPGA.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelali, Abdessalem; Chatti, Ichraf; Hannachi, Marwa; Mtibaa, Abdellatif

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a hardware module design for the forward Binary Discrete Cosine Transform (BinDCT) and its implementation on a field programmable gate array device. Different architectures of the BinDCT module were explored to ensure the maximum efficiency. The elaboration of these architectures included architectural design, timing and pipeline analysis, hardware description language modeling, design synthesis, and implementation. The developed BinDCT hardware module presents a high efficiency in terms of operating frequency and hardware resources, which has made it suitable for the most recent video standards with high image resolution and refresh frequency. Additionally, the high hardware efficiency of the BinDCT would make it a very good candidate for time and resource-constrained applications. By comparison with several recent implementations of discrete cosine transform approximations, it has been shown that the proposed hardware BinDCT module presents the best performances.

  16. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece: Blinding and Binning in Histopathology Methods in the Biomarker Qualification Process.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Rodney

    2015-08-01

    Both, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have released documents discussing histopathology methods in biomarker qualification studies. These documents appear to disagree on two critical and controversial aspects of methodology; blinding of pathologists and binning of data (Burkhardt et al. 2011; U.S. FDA 2011). Upon closer examination, however, both documents propose that blinded evaluation of biomarker studies is appropriate under similar strict criteria. However, they differ in their recommendations on the binning of data (i.e., individual binning of all changes vs. common binning of changes observed in control animals), seemingly based on different perceptions of study objectives and the role of the pathologist. This article offers a personal opinion on blinded evaluations and data binning in the context of biomarker qualification studies.

  17. Segmenting sign language into motor primitives with Bayesian binning

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominik; Meirovitch, Yaron; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    The endpoint trajectories of human movements fulfill characteristic power laws linking velocity and curvature. The parameters of these power laws typically vary between different segments of longer action sequences. These parameters might thus be exploited for the unsupervised segmentation of actions into movement primitives. For the example of sign language we investigate whether such segments can be identified by Bayesian binning (BB), using a Gaussian observation model whose mean has a polynomial time dependence. We show that this method yields good segmentation and correctly models ground truth kinematics composed of consecutive segments derived from wrist trajectories recorded from users of Israeli Sign Language (ISL). Importantly, polynomial orders between 3 and 5 yield an optimal trade-off between complexity and accuracy of the trajectory approximation, in accordance with the minimum acceleration and minimum jerk models. Comparing the orders of the polynomials best approximating natural kinematics against those needed to fit the power law ground truth data suggests that kinematic properties not compatible with power laws are also not adequately represented by low order polynomials and require higher order polynomials for a good approximation. PMID:23750135

  18. A lifelong learning hyper-heuristic method for bin packing.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kevin; Hart, Emma; Paechter, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel hyper-heuristic system that continuously learns over time to solve a combinatorial optimisation problem. The system continuously generates new heuristics and samples problems from its environment; and representative problems and heuristics are incorporated into a self-sustaining network of interacting entities inspired by methods in artificial immune systems. The network is plastic in both its structure and content, leading to the following properties: it exploits existing knowledge captured in the network to rapidly produce solutions; it can adapt to new problems with widely differing characteristics; and it is capable of generalising over the problem space. The system is tested on a large corpus of 3,968 new instances of 1D bin-packing problems as well as on 1,370 existing problems from the literature; it shows excellent performance in terms of the quality of solutions obtained across the datasets and in adapting to dynamically changing sets of problem instances compared to previous approaches. As the network self-adapts to sustain a minimal repertoire of both problems and heuristics that form a representative map of the problem space, the system is further shown to be computationally efficient and therefore scalable.

  19. Exosomes: From Garbage Bins to Promising Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    H. Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K. Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F.; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents. PMID:28257101

  20. Exosomes: From Garbage Bins to Promising Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    H Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian

    2017-03-02

    Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents.

  1. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  2. Distortion of power law blinking with binning and thresholding

    SciTech Connect

    Amecke, Nicole; Heber, André; Cichos, Frank

    2014-03-21

    Fluorescence intermittency is a random switching between emitting (on) and non-emitting (off) periods found for many single chromophores such as semiconductor quantum dots and organic molecules. The statistics of the duration of on- and off-periods are commonly determined by thresholding the emission time trace of a single chromophore and appear to be power law distributed. Here we test with the help of simulations if the experimentally determined power law distributions can actually reflect the underlying statistics. We find that with the experimentally limited time resolution real power law statistics with exponents α{sub on/off} ≳ 1.6, especially if α{sub on} ≠ α{sub off} would not be observed as such in the experimental data after binning and thresholding. Instead, a power law appearance could simply be obtained from the continuous distribution of intermediate intensity levels. This challenges much of the obtained data and the models describing the so-called power law blinking.

  3. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Mining machine loading bin mounted on boom structure and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lebegue, M.K.

    1983-04-19

    A self-propelled mining machine includes a mobile body portion with a boom extending forwardly therefrom. The boom rotatably supports a rotatably driven cutter drum having peripherally extending cutting elements. The boom member includes a trough formed by inclined sidewalls. The inclined sidewalls are positioned in space relation and extend upwardly on opposite sides of the receiving end of a conveyor that extends continuously the length of the machine body portion. The sidewalls slope downwardly toward the lateral edges of the conveyor receiving end and form a material receiving bin or hopper. The receiving end of the conveyor forms the floor of the hopper. The front end of the hopper extends the length of the cutter drum. Suitable drive means rotate the cutter drum to dislodge material from a mine face and direct the dislodged material by rotation of the cutter drum over the cutter drum and rearwardly into the hopper. The dislodged material is directed down the inclined sidewalls of the hopper onto the receiving end of the conveyor. The conveyor transports the dislodged material rearwardly on the mining machine to a discharged end of the conveyor. The boom member together with the receiving end of the conveyor and the hopper are pivotally movable with the cutter drum member as the cutter drum is raised and lowered to form a shear cut in the mine face.

  5. Bin-Hash Indexing: A Parallel Method for Fast Query Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, Edward W; Gosink, Luke J.; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, Edward Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2008-06-27

    This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries. The index, called Bin-Hash, offers extremely high levels of concurrency, and is therefore well-suited for the emerging commodity of parallel processors, such as multi-cores, cell processors, and general purpose graphics processing units (GPU). The Bin-Hash approach first bins the base data, and then partitions and separately stores the values in each bin as a perfect spatial hash table. To answer a query, we first determine whether or not a record satisfies the query conditions based on the bin boundaries. For the bins with records that can not be resolved, we examine the spatial hash tables. The procedures for examining the bin numbers and the spatial hash tables offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; all records are able to be evaluated by our procedure independently in parallel. Additionally, our Bin-Hash procedures access much smaller amounts of data than similar parallel methods, such as the projection index. This smaller data footprint is critical for certain parallel processors, like GPUs, where memory resources are limited. To demonstrate the effectiveness of Bin-Hash, we implement it on a GPU using the data-parallel programming language CUDA. The concurrency offered by the Bin-Hash index allows us to fully utilize the GPU's massive parallelism in our work; over 12,000 records can be simultaneously evaluated at any one time. We show that our new query processing method is an order of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art CPU-based indexing technologies. Additionally, we compare our performance to existing GPU-based projection index strategies.

  6. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Hannan, M.A.; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). • Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. • Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. • The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  7. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  8. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  9. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  10. Recycling, Rethinking, and Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William E.

    The issues and problems confronted by a professor of literature when asked to teach a technical writing course for engineers are related in this paper. The first section of the paper explains how the professor was "recycled" from a teacher of literature to a professor of technical writing at his college. The second section describes some of the…

  11. Designing for recycling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

  12. The Recycle Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  13. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  14. Recycling for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Melvin

    2012-02-01

    Melvin Hoare, Steve Rawlings and the CUGA consortium look forward to the potential offered by recycling the ˜30 m class antennas at Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, including a new deep-space tracking facility, research and training, and the possibility of enhancing the e-MERLIN array.

  15. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  16. Recycling Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, Anne; And Others

    This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

  17. Teacher Values in Teaching Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joseph E.; Harako, Eiichiro Atom

    1994-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceived values about recycling and how their values then influence the teaching of recycling. Results suggest that the teachers surveyed have a strong supportive feeling toward recycling and consequently impose their values onto their students in the teaching/learning exchange. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/MDH)

  18. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  19. Refrigerator recycling and CFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

    1994-12-31

    Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

  20. Clinical evaluations of an amplitude-based binning algorithm for 4DCT reconstruction in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Low, Daniel; Bradley, Jeffrey; Robinson, Clifford; Mutic, Sasa; Parikh, Parag

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Phase-binning algorithms are commonly utilized in 4DCT image reconstruction for characterization of tumor or organ shape and respiration motion, but breathing irregularities occurring during 4DCT acquisition can cause considerable image distortions. Recently, amplitude-binning algorithms have been evaluated as a potential improvement to phase-binning algorithms for 4DCT image reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the first commercially available on-line retrospective amplitude-binning algorithm for comparison to the traditional phase-binning algorithm. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for evaluation. A phantom of known geometry was mounted on a 4D motion platform programmed with seven respiratory waves (two computer generated and five patient trajectories) and scanned with a Philips Brilliance Big bore 16-slice CT simulator. 4DCT images were reconstructed using commercial amplitude- and phase-binning algorithms. Image quality of the amplitude- and phase-binned image sets was compared by evaluation of shape and volume distortions in reconstructed images. Clinical evaluations were performed on 64 4DCT patient image sets in a blinded review process. The amplitude- and phase-binned 4DCT maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were further evaluated for 28 stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases of total 64 cases. A preliminary investigation of the effects of respiratory amplitude and pattern irregularities on motion artifact severity was conducted. Results: The phantom experiments illustrated that, as expected, maximum inhalation occurred at the 0% amplitude and maximum exhalation occurred at the 50% amplitude of the amplitude-binned 4DCT image sets. The phantom shape distortions were more severe in the images reconstructed from the phase-binning algorithm. In the clinical study, compared to the phase-binning algorithm, the amplitude-binning algorithm yielded fewer or less severe motion

  1. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, Maher; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with a system of integration of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste bin and truck monitoring system. RFID, GPS, GPRS and GIS along with camera technologies have been integrated and developed the bin and truck intelligent monitoring system. A new kind of integrated theoretical framework, hardware architecture and interface algorithm has been introduced between the technologies for the successful implementation of the proposed system. In this system, bin and truck database have been developed such a way that the information of bin and truck ID, date and time of waste collection, bin status, amount of waste and bin and truck GPS coordinates etc. are complied and stored for monitoring and management activities. The results showed that the real-time image processing, histogram analysis, waste estimation and other bin information have been displayed in the GUI of the monitoring system. The real-time test and experimental results showed that the performance of the developed system was stable and satisfied the monitoring system with high practicability and validity.

  2. Cardiac Spliced BIN1 Folds T-tubule Membrane, Controlling Ion Flux and Limiting Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, TingTing; Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cho, Hee Cheol; Kalashnikova, Mariya; Sun, Baiming; Zhang, Hao; Bhargava, Anamika; Grabe, Michael; Olgin, Jeffrey; Gorelik, Julia; Marbán, Eduardo; Jan, Lily Y.; Shaw, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte T-tubules are important for regulating ionic flux. Bridging Integrator 1 (BIN1) is a T-tubule protein associated with calcium channel trafficking that is down-regulated in failing hearts. Here we find that cardiac T-tubules normally contain dense protective inner membrane folds that are formed by a cardiac spliced isoform of BIN1. In mice with cardiac Bin1 deletion, T-tubule folding is decreased which does not change overall cardiomyocyte morphology, but frees diffusion of local extracellular calcium and potassium ions, prolonging action potential duration, and increasing susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We also find that T-tubule inner folds are rescued only by the BIN1 isoform BIN1+13+17, which promotes N-WASP dependent actin polymerization to stabilize T-tubule membrane at cardiac Z-discs. In conclusion, BIN1+13+17 recruits actin to fold T-tubule membrane, creating a fuzzy space that protectively restricts ionic flux. When BIN1+13+17 is decreased, as occurs in acquired cardiomyopathy, T-tubule morphology is altered and arrhythmias can result. PMID:24836577

  3. Solvent Recycling for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    alternatives to solvent cleaning. Typical equipment types that can be effectively cleaned with recycled solvents include spray guns paint hoses pumps...in place of solvent-based coatings; or equipment changes, such as the use of airless or HVLP systems to reduce paint consumption and overspray...Using mechanical cleaning methods instead of solvent cleaning Change from conventional painting to solventless processes such as thermal spray or powder

  4. Time-Bin Entanglement Distribution on a Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Network

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, Warren P; Bennink, Ryan S; Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheme for distributing time-bin entangled photons to multiple pairs of clients. With clients linked through the strong spectral correlations between the photons, a single down-conversion source can serve many clients simultaneously.

  5. A New Binning Method for Metagenomics by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chih

    2015-01-01

    More and more developed and inexpensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow us to extract vast sequence data from a sample containing multiple species. Characterizing the taxonomic diversity for the planet-size data plays an important role in the metagenomic studies, while a crucial step for doing the study is the binning process to group sequence reads from similar species or taxonomic classes. The metagenomic binning remains a challenge work because of not only the various read noises but also the tremendous data volume. In this work, we propose an unsupervised binning method for NGS reads based on the one-dimensional cellular automaton (1D-CA). Our binning method facilities to reduce the memory usage because 1D-CA costs only linear space. Experiments on synthetic dataset exhibit that our method is helpful to identify species of lower abundance compared to the proposed tool.

  6. 4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. 55. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION TO RIGHT (WEST) WITH BAKER COOLER IN FRONT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. MetaBAT: Metagenome Binning based on Abundance and Tetranucleotide frequence

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwan; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Grouping large fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Here we developed automated metagenome binning software, called MetaBAT, which integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency. On synthetic datasets MetaBAT on average achieves 98percent precision and 90percent recall at the strain level with 281 near complete unique genomes. Applying MetaBAT to a human gut microbiome data set we recovered 176 genome bins with 92percent precision and 80percent recall. Further analyses suggest MetaBAT is able to recover genome fragments missed in reference genomes up to 19percent, while 53 genome bins are novel. In summary, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool to facilitate comprehensive understanding of complex microbial communities.

  9. Genetic Patterns in European Geometrid Moths Revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Axel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88%) in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93%) were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3%) were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads) shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18%) were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed regional variation of

  10. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  11. Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

    2006-08-01

    Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

  12. Mosquito larvicide BinAB revealed by de novo phasing with an X-ray laser

    PubMed Central

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Sawaya, Michael R.; Gingery, Mari; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Cascio, Duilio; Brewster, Aaron S.; Michels-Clark, Tara; Hice, Robert H.; Coquelle, Nicolas; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; DePonte, Daniel P.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Koglin, Jason E.; Hunter, Mark S.; Park, Hyun-Woo; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Federici, Brian A.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary BinAB is a naturally occurring paracrystalline larvicide distributed worldwide to combat the devastating diseases borne by mosquitoes. These crystals are composed of homologous molecules, BinA and BinB, which play distinct roles in the multi-step intoxication process, transforming from harmless, robust crystals, to soluble protoxin heterodimers, to internalized mature toxin, and finally toxic oligomeric pores. The small size of the crystals, 50 unit cells per edge, on average, has impeded structural characterization by conventional means. Here, we report the structure of BinAB solved de novo by serial-femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). The structure reveals tyrosine and carboxylate-mediated contacts acting as pH switches to release soluble protoxin in the alkaline larval midgut. An enormous heterodimeric interface appears responsible for anchoring BinA to receptor-bound BinB for co-internalization. Remarkably, this interface is largely composed of propeptides, suggesting that proteolytic maturation would trigger dissociation of the heterodimer and progression to pore formation. PMID:27680699

  13. An evaluation of fall speed characteristics in bin and bulk microphysical schemes and use of bin fall speeds to improve forecasts of warm-season rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aligo, Eric A.

    2011-12-01

    As computer power increases and model grid spacing decreases, more emphasis will be put on model microphysics to produce accurate forecasts of rainfall including that from warm-season mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Some believe bin microphysical schemes are far superior to the commonly used bulk microphysical schemes because of their ability to more accurately depict certain processes like sedimentation. However, bin schemes are computationally inefficient and there are no plans in the near future to implement such schemes operationally. Instead, this study proposes to use a technique in Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Advanced Research WRF (ARW) simulations that attempts to improve bulk microphysical forecasts of warm-season MCSs by harnessing the intrinsic characteristics of bin fall speed distributions that are important for the sedimentation process provided the fall speed characteristics in bin schemes differ from those in commonly used bulk schemes. Fall speed distributions of rain, snow, graupel and cloud ice were compared between a bin scheme and three bulk schemes, and were found to be different between the different schemes. The microphysical processes that contributed the largest to the microphysical budget in the bin scheme often occurred with the slower fall speeds, but the opposite was true for the bulk schemes. There was evidence of size-sorting in the bin and Thompson bulk schemes, a naturally occurring phenomenon. This feature was not simulated in the WSM6 and Lin schemes and can be attributed to those schemes being single moment and the Thompson scheme being double moment in ice and rain. Since the characteristics of the bin fall speeds were different from those in the bulk schemes, bin fall speeds were used to modify bulk scheme fall speeds using a probability matching technique that was developed to improve the prediction of warm-season MCSs. The sensitivity of different convective morphologies to the fall speed modifications was also

  14. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  15. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  16. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  17. Closing the Loop: Recycling and Buying Recycled Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Purchasing recycled paper should be part of every school's solid-waste reduction efforts. Public purchasing can stimulate demand for collected materials and encourage industry to produce recycled products. Schools can form buying consortiums to reduce costs. Schools can also practice source reduction of waste. Lists information resources. (MLF)

  18. Using five sampling methods to measure insect distribution and abundance in bins storing wheat.

    PubMed

    Hagstrum

    2000-07-01

    Newly-harvested wheat stored in each of two bins on each of two farms in Kansas during each of 3 years was sampled every 3-4 days at two locations (in the center and midway between the center and bin wall) within each bin. The variation in insect numbers between bins, locations within a bin, farms and years differed with insect species and sampling method. Five sampling methods were used to monitor insect populations in three regions of each bin: (1) in the head space above the grain; (2) on the grain surface; and (3) within the top 50 cm of the grain mass. Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) and Ahasverus advena (Waltl) were more evenly distributed among these three regions of a bin than the other species. Typhaea stercorea (L.) were found mainly in the head space and on the grain surface. These distribution patterns were consistent throughout the 126-day storage period. R. dominica (F.) were found in the head space and within the grain mass early in the storage period, and mainly in the grain mass as grain cooled in the autumn. The majority of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (91%) were caught in sticky traps in the head space. Two of the three less abundant species, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), tended to be found most often on the grain surface and the other, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), within the grain mass. The sampling method often influenced the results. Emergence traps captured greater numbers of A. advena than other species. More R. dominica were found in grain samples than in traps in the autumn. Pushing probe traps below the surface of the grain reduced the numbers of T. stercorea, A. advena, S. oryzae and T. castaneum captured. Differences between species and times during the storage period in the effectiveness of different sampling methods need to be considered in making pest management decisions.

  19. Recycling the news

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    With its infamous bureaucracy, legions of news organizations, and the prominence of the federal government, Washington, D.C., and its environs generate literally tons of paper every day. Paper represents almost 40% of the waste stream, according to the US EPA. The agency`s figures show that more than 80 million tpy of paper are generated, and with such a significant portion of this waste capable of being recycled, it is essential that the nation`s capital have enough paper recycling facilities. Capital Fiber (Springfield, VA.), a large-scale intermediate paper processing facility, is an example of one such facility. Its primary material is old newspapers (ONP), and its operations consist of receiving, sorting, and consolidating waste paper for baling and resale. The company is a joint venture between daily newspaper giant the Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), which owns 80%, and the Canusa Corp. (Baltimore), a waste paper brokerage firm, which owns the other 20% of Capitol Fiber. Capital Fiber`s Springfield facility handles nine grades of paper, including pre-consumer and post-consumer ONP, blank news (newspaper trimmings that have not been printed on), old corrugated containers (OCC), sorted white ledger and sorted office waste, and various wrappers, supermixes, and other mixed grades. Within each of these categories are various sub-grades of paper, and the facility also takes old telephone books, computer paper, and flyleaf, the extra tim cut from periodicals. But, not surprisingly, the predominant material is ONP.

  20. CFC recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanek, D.J.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a method for recycling freon. It comprises attaching a freon removal valve to a freon supply located in an appliance such as an air conditioner, refrigerator, freezer or the like, positioning a substantially empty freon collecting vessel in gas flow relationship to the valve by providing the freon removal valve with a puncture needle extending upwardly and adapted to puncture a freon supply tubing in the appliance, below the puncture needle is positioned a spring means, and below the spring means is positioned a piercing means adapted to pierce a closure in the collecting vessel to thereby establish a gas passage means extending from the supply tube, through the needle, through the piercing means to the collecting vessel, collecting the freon thereby in the collecting vessel, providing a substantially gas-free sealing means on the collecting vessel to insure substantial total containment of the freon within the collecting vessel, and delivering the collecting vessel to a collection center for reuse and recycling of the freon.

  1. Methylation decreases the Bin1 tumor suppressor in ESCC and restoration by decitabine inhibits the epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexiao; Wang, Jiali; Jia, Yunlong; Wang, Yu; Han, Xiaonan; Duan, Yuqing; Lv, Wei; Ma, Ming; Liu, Lihua

    2017-01-31

    Bridging integrator-1 (Bin1), as a tumor suppressor, is frequently attenuated or even abolished in multiple primary cancers. A reduced expression of Bin1 caused by DNA methylation, has been reported in breast and prostate cancers. However, the methylation status of Bin1 and potent biological functions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. In a previous study, we showed that the Bin1 expression was low in ESCC tissues. Herein, we further characterized this mechanism, confirming that gene hypermethylation was significantly correlated with the aberrant attenuation of Bin1. In addition, the Bin1 hypermethylation was associated with the poorer clinical parameters and shorter survival times of ESCC patients. Methylation-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (MS-RT-PCR) showed that Bin1 was hypermethylated in several ESCC cell lines, which might be the main cause of reduced Bin1 expression. In addition, treatment with the de-methylation agent Decitabine (DAC) could restore Bin1 expression and evidently restrained ESCC cell malignant behaviors, particularly the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) via reactivating the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Bin1 methylation could augment the malignant biological behaviors of ESCC and predict the poor prognosis for ESCC patients, thus indicating the potential clinical application value of DAC-based de-methylation therapy in ESCC.

  2. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19…

  3. Automotive aluminum recycling in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the aluminium recycling industry's ability to handle effectively the increased amounts of automotive aluminium scrap resulting from increased amounts of wrought and cast aluminium alloys in automobile manufacturing. This study takes a system-wide view of both volume and composition aspects of automotive aluminium recycling.

  4. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  5. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  6. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  7. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  8. Shapes on a plane: Evaluating the impact of projection distortion on spatial binning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Strebe, Daniel “daan”; Finn, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    One method for working with large, dense sets of spatial point data is to aggregate the measure of the data into polygonal containers, such as political boundaries, or into regular spatial bins such as triangles, squares, or hexagons. When mapping these aggregations, the map projection must inevitably distort relationships. This distortion can impact the reader’s ability to compare count and density measures across the map. Spatial binning, particularly via hexagons, is becoming a popular technique for displaying aggregate measures of point data sets. Increasingly, we see questionable use of the technique without attendant discussion of its hazards. In this work, we discuss when and why spatial binning works and how mapmakers can better understand the limitations caused by distortion from projecting to the plane. We introduce equations for evaluating distortion’s impact on one common projection (Web Mercator) and discuss how the methods used generalize to other projections. While we focus on hexagonal binning, these same considerations affect spatial bins of any shape, and more generally, any analysis of geographic data performed in planar space.

  9. Solid waste bin level detection using gray level co-occurrence matrix feature extraction approach.

    PubMed

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents solid waste bin level detection and classification using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature extraction methods. GLCM parameters, such as displacement, d, quantization, G, and the number of textural features, are investigated to determine the best parameter values of the bin images. The parameter values and number of texture features are used to form the GLCM database. The most appropriate features collected from the GLCM are then used as inputs to the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers for bin image classification and grading. The classification and grading performance for DB1, DB2 and DB3 features were selected with both MLP and KNN classifiers. The results demonstrated that the KNN classifier, at KNN = 3, d = 1 and maximum G values, performs better than using the MLP classifier with the same database. Based on the results, this method has the potential to be used in solid waste bin level classification and grading to provide a robust solution for solid waste bin level detection, monitoring and management.

  10. Content-based image retrieval system for solid waste bin level detection and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, M; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan; Al Mamun, Md Abdulla

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a CBIR system to investigate the use of image retrieval with an extracted texture from the image of a bin to detect the bin level. Various similarity distances like Euclidean, Bhattacharyya, Chi-squared, Cosine, and EMD are used with the CBIR system for calculating and comparing the distance between a query image and the images in a database to obtain the highest performance. In this study, the performance metrics is based on two quantitative evaluation criteria. The first one is the average retrieval rate based on the precision-recall graph and the second is the use of F1 measure which is the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall. In case of feature extraction, texture is used as an image feature for bin level detection system. Various experiments are conducted with different features extraction techniques like Gabor wavelet filter, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray level aura matrix (GLAM) to identify the level of the bin and its surrounding area. Intensive tests are conducted among 250 bin images to assess the accuracy of the proposed feature extraction techniques. The average retrieval rate is used to evaluate the performance of the retrieval system. The result shows that, the EMD distance achieved high accuracy and provides better performance than the other distances.

  11. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, I; Eduardo, I; Blanca, J; Esteras, C; Picó, B; Nuez, F; Arús, P; Garcia-Mas, J; Monforte, Antonio José

    2008-12-01

    We report the development of 158 primer pairs flanking SSR motifs in genomic (gSSR) and EST (EST-SSR) melon sequences, all yielding polymorphic bands in melon germplasm, except one that was polymorphic only in Cucurbita species. A similar polymorphism level was found among EST-SSRs and gSSRs, between dimeric and trimeric EST-SSRs, and between EST-SSRs placed in the open reading frame or any of the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. Correlation between SSR length and polymorphism was only found for dinucleotide EST-SSRs located within the untranslated regions, but not for trinucleotide EST-SSRs. Transferability of EST-SSRs to Cucurbita species was assayed and 12.7% of the primer pairs amplified at least in one species, although only 5.4% were polymorphic. A set of 14 double haploid lines from the cross between the cultivar "Piel de Sapo" and the accession PI161375 were selected for the bin mapping approach in melon. One hundred and twenty-one SSR markers were newly mapped. The position of 46 SSR loci was also verified by genotyping the complete population. A final bin-map was constructed including 80 RFLPs, 212 SSRs, 3 SNPs and the Nsv locus, distributed in 122 bins with an average bin length of 10.2 cM and a maximum bin length of 33 cM. Map density was 4.2 cM/marker or 5.9 cM/SSR.

  12. Technology for more profitable recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L. )

    1992-03-01

    Recycling has been part of the US heritage for more than a century. But in contrast to the country's earliest recycling - which was pursued simply because it made good money - today's movement is fueled primarily by environmental concerns. One result of this change in motivation is that modern recycling isn't always profitable. Sometimes the supply of collected materials far exceeds the demand, and with some substances even minor contamination can prohibit reuse. Now advanced technologies, including a number of electricity-based processes, are helping overcome market barriers. While technology alone can't solve all the problems of the recycling industry, researchers are confident that technological advancements will help pave the way to more profitable recycling.

  13. Nanodomains in Biomembranes with Recycling.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mareike; Manghi, Manoel; Destainville, Nicolas

    2016-10-13

    Cell membranes are out of thermodynamic equilibrium notably because of membrane recycling, i.e., active exchange of material with the cytosol. We propose an analytically tractable model of biomembrane predicting the effects of recycling on the size of protein nanodomains also called protein clusters. The model includes a short-range attraction between proteins and a weaker long-range repulsion which ensures the existence of so-called cluster phases in equilibrium, where monomeric proteins coexist with finite-size domains. Our main finding is that, when taking recycling into account, the typical cluster size at steady state increases logarithmically with the recycling rate at fixed protein concentration. Using physically realistic model parameters, the predicted 2-fold increase due to recycling in living cells is most likely experimentally measurable with the help of super-resolution microscopy.

  14. Factors influencing households' participation in recycling.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Paula; Reis, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    The success of a recycling programme depends on the active and sustained participation of citizens in the correct separation and collection of recyclable waste. An effective study of strategies aimed at augmenting people's involvement in recycling involves understanding which factors influence the decision to co-operate with a recycling programme. This research investigates the influence of attitudes, incentives, presence of children in household and information through direct media, on households' participation in recycling. The results suggest that positive attitudes toward recycling and information are important factors in explaining recycling participation. Some guidelines that may be considered in future communication and intervention strategies designed to promote recycling participation are discussed.

  15. Urban water recycling.

    PubMed

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  18. Native conflict awared layout decomposition in triple patterning lithography using bin-based library matching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xianhua; Jiang, Hao; Lv, Wen; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Triple patterning (TP) lithography becomes a feasible technology for manufacturing as the feature size further scale down to sub 14/10 nm. In TP, a layout is decomposed into three masks followed with exposures and etches/freezing processes respectively. Previous works mostly focus on layout decomposition with minimal conflicts and stitches simultaneously. However, since any existence of native conflict will result in layout re-design/modification and reperforming the time-consuming decomposition, the effective method that can be aware of native conflicts (NCs) in layout is desirable. In this paper, a bin-based library matching method is proposed for NCs detection and layout decomposition. First, a layout is divided into bins and the corresponding conflict graph in each bin is constructed. Then, we match the conflict graph in a prebuilt colored library, and as a result the NCs can be located and highlighted quickly.

  19. Incorporation of a priori gravity field information in satellite orbit determination using bin parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine satellite orbits using tracking data and a priori gravitational field is described. The a priori constraint on the orbit dynamics is determined by the covariance matrix of the spherical harmonic coefficients for the gravity model, so that the optimal combination of the measurements and gravitational field is achieved. A set of bin parameters is introduced to represent the perturbation of the gravitational field on the position of the satellite orbit. The covariance matrix of a conventional gravity model is transformed into that for the bin parameters by the variational partial derivatives. The covariance matrices of the bin parameters and the epoch state are combined to form the covariance matrix of the satellite positions at the measurement times. The combined matrix is used as the a priori information to estimate the satellite positions with measurements.

  20. Environmentally acceptable recycling in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    The modern concept of ecologically sound recycling is to ensure, as far as possible, effective use or reuse of all materials arising during the production of a component, and also the component itself at the end of its useful life. The recycling circle is well established for widely used metals such as iron and steel, aluminium and zinc. However, for magnesium, although recycled secondary scrap was a major input into magnesium casting production in the 1950`s recycling of this type of material back to components is currently almost nonexistent. The current rapid growth in use of magnesium die castings by the automotive industry will eventually result in a significant growth in availability of secondary magnesium scrap, which will present new challenges and opportunities to the skillful recyclers. However this has not yet happened, and the major preoccupation of most recyclers is to satisfy the demands of the growing die-casting industry, balancing the triple requirements of: (1) recycling or disposing of all products arising from the die-casting operation at a price, or cost, perceived as fair by the die caster; (2) satisfying our public demands to safeguard the environment in terms of emissions, effluents and disposal to land fill; and (3) establishing and maintaining a viable business activity while satisfying (1) and (2). It is to this area that the remainder of this paper is dedicated.

  1. High-visibility time-bin entanglement for testing chained Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasin, Marco; Mantoan, Elia; Jogenfors, Jonathan; Vallone, Giuseppe; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    The violation of Bell's inequality requires a well-designed experiment to validate the result. In experiments using energy-time and time-bin entanglement, initially proposed by Franson in 1989, there is an intrinsic loophole due to the high postselection. To obtain a violation in this type of experiment, a chained Bell inequality must be used. However, the local realism bound requires a high visibility in excess of 94.63% in the time-bin entangled state. In this work, we show how such a high visibility can be reached in order to violate a chained Bell inequality with six, eight, and ten terms.

  2. Estimation and allocation of solid waste to bin through geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Gupta, Apurba; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Devotta, Sukumar

    2005-10-01

    This study presents a geographical information system (GIS)-based procedure for the precise estimation of solid waste generation, computed using the local population density and income group distribution. Using a triangulated irregular network (TIN) in a GIS environment, the procedure further determines the command area for waste allocation to a particular bin which is generally located so the route slopes towards the collection points for ease of transportation by cart pullers. Computational results of bin location, type, size and the frequency of removal are presented for a typical urban area with known population density, income group distribution, road network and topology.

  3. The Histidine Kinase BinK Is a Negative Regulator of Biofilm Formation and Squid Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial colonization of animal epithelial tissue is a dynamic process that relies on precise molecular communication. Colonization of Euprymna scolopes bobtail squid by Vibrio fischeri bacteria requires bacterial aggregation in host mucus as the symbiont transitions from a planktonic lifestyle in seawater to a biofilm-associated state in the host. We have identified a gene, binK (biofilm inhibitor kinase; VF_A0360), which encodes an orphan hybrid histidine kinase that negatively regulates the V. fischeri symbiotic biofilm (Syp) in vivo and in vitro. We identified binK mutants as exhibiting a colonization advantage in a global genetic screen, a phenotype that we confirmed in controlled competition experiments. Bacterial biofilm aggregates in the host are larger in strains lacking BinK, whereas overexpression of BinK suppresses biofilm formation and squid colonization. Signaling through BinK is required for temperature modulation of biofilm formation at 28°C. Furthermore, we present evidence that BinK acts upstream of SypG, the σ54-dependent transcriptional regulator of the syp biofilm locus. The BinK effects are dependent on intact signaling in the RscS-Syp biofilm pathway. Therefore, we propose that BinK antagonizes the signal from RscS and serves as an integral component in V. fischeri biofilm regulation. IMPORTANCE Bacterial lifestyle transitions underlie the colonization of animal hosts from environmental reservoirs. Formation of matrix-enclosed, surface-associated aggregates (biofilms) is common in beneficial and pathogenic associations, but investigating the genetic basis of biofilm development in live animal hosts remains a significant challenge. Using the bobtail squid light organ as a model, we analyzed putative colonization factors and identified a histidine kinase that negatively regulates biofilm formation at the host interface. This work reveals a novel in vivo biofilm regulator that influences the transition of bacteria from their

  4. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  6. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOEpatents

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  7. Mobilizing citizen effort to enhance environmental outcomes: a randomized controlled trial of a door-to-door recycling campaign.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Sarah; John, Peter; Liu, Hanhua; Nomura, Hisako

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a randomized controlled trial to test whether doorstep canvassing can raise participation in kerbside recycling. Existing research shows that canvassing can confront negative attitudes, increase understanding and resolve structural obstacles, but there is less known about the longitudinal effects of such interventions, which may fall away over time. 194 streets in Trafford, in the North West of England, UK were randomly assigned into a treatment and a control group. All households in the treatment group were visited by canvassers who were trained to promote and encourage recycling. Recycling participation rates for all households were measured by observing bin set out rates over a three-week period. Measurement was done before and after the canvassing campaign and then again three months later to see if the intervention had been effective in raising participation rates. Random-effects multilevel regression models, controlling for baseline recycling, street size, deprivation and size of ethnic minority population, show that the canvassing raised recycling participation rates for the treatment group compared to the control group, but there was a decline in the impact of the intervention over time. The intervention was more effective on streets with low levels of recycling at baseline.

  8. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  9. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a...

  10. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing or assembling another item. (b) Marketers... the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling..., means at least 60 percent. (2) When recycling facilities are available to less than a...

  11. Operating A Recycling Program: A Citizen's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Kevin; Powell, Jerry

    Presented are recycling program alternatives, procedures for handling and marketing recyclable materials, and suggestions for financing and publicizing a recycling operation. This publication offers a general overview of the possibilities and potential pitfalls of recycling efforts, thereby serving as a catalyst and guide for organizations wishing…

  12. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  13. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Nigon, Jean-Louis; Lenain, Richard; Zaetta, Alain

    2002-07-01

    Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

  14. Recycling and Disposal of CFLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Consumers can help prevent the release of mercury into the environment by taking advantage of available local options for recycling CFLs and other household hazardous wastes, rather than disposing of them in regular household trash.

  15. Fuel collecting and recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.F.

    1980-06-10

    This system serves to collect and recycle fuel leftover in the fuel manifold and fuel distribution system of a gas turbine power plant when it is shutdown and operates in conjunction with the power plant's existing fuel control.

  16. Considerations for Recycling School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledgeable recycling of existing educational facilities requires an assessment of educational needs, evaluation of available facilities, and determination of the historical significance of structures being considered for renovation. (MLF)

  17. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  18. New approaches to recycling tires

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  19. The binned bispectrum estimator: template-based and non-parametric CMB non-Gaussianity searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Martin; Racine, Benjamin; van Tent, Bartjan

    2016-05-01

    We describe the details of the binned bispectrum estimator as used for the official 2013 and 2015 analyses of the temperature and polarization CMB maps from the ESA Planck satellite. The defining aspect of this estimator is the determination of a map bispectrum (3-point correlation function) that has been binned in harmonic space. For a parametric determination of the non-Gaussianity in the map (the so-called fNL parameters), one takes the inner product of this binned bispectrum with theoretically motivated templates. However, as a complementary approach one can also smooth the binned bispectrum using a variable smoothing scale in order to suppress noise and make coherent features stand out above the noise. This allows one to look in a model-independent way for any statistically significant bispectral signal. This approach is useful for characterizing the bispectral shape of the galactic foreground emission, for which a theoretical prediction of the bispectral anisotropy is lacking, and for detecting a serendipitous primordial signal, for which a theoretical template has not yet been put forth. Both the template-based and the non-parametric approaches are described in this paper.

  20. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  1. Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis: effect of bin width on the probability of linkage.

    PubMed

    Slager, S L; Juo, S H; Durner, M; Hodge, S E

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed part of the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 12 simulated data using Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods that are implemented in the computer program Loki. The MCMC method reports the "probability of linkage" (PL) across the chromosomal regions of interest. The point of maximum PL can then be taken as a "location estimate" for the location of the quantitative trait locus (QTL). However, Loki does not provide a formal statistical test of linkage. In this paper, we explore how the bin width used in the calculations affects the max PL and the location estimate. We analyzed age at onset (AO) and quantitative trait number 5, Q5, from 26 replicates of the general simulated data in one region where we knew a major gene, MG5, is located. For each trait, we found the max PL and the corresponding location estimate, using four different bin widths. We found that bin width, as expected, does affect the max PL and the location estimate, and we recommend that users of Loki explore how their results vary with different bin widths.

  2. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  3. 56. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN TOWER WAS FED BY THE 14 INCH BELT CONVEYOR SUPPORTED ON BENT, LOWER RIGHT. THE ROTATING BAKER COOLER IS SUPPORTED BY A CONCRETE FOUNDATION TROUGH. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. 54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ON LEFT WITH BASE OF EXHAUST STACK, PORTION OF TOPPLED STACK ON LOWER RIGHT IN VIEW, AND UPPER TAILINGS POND BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  6. 9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EMPIRE STATE MINE, BOTTOM ORE BIN/SHOOT. TIN ROOF OF SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING AND UPPER ORE SHOOT VISIBLE. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, PRIMARY ORE BIN,OVERBURDEN PILE, AND DEBRIS SCATTER,LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THE MAIN ACCESS TRAIL BETWEEN THE LOWER MILL AREA GOES ACROSS THE CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT. WINCHING ENGINE AND FOUNDATION IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER (SEE CA-291-37). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Structural insights into the cooperative remodeling of membranes by amphiphysin/BIN1

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Julia; Basnet, Nirakar; Mizuno, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphysin2/BIN1 is a crescent-shaped N-BAR protein playing a key role in forming deeply invaginated tubes in muscle T-tubules. Amphiphysin2/BIN1 structurally stabilizes tubular formations in contrast to other N-BAR proteins involved in dynamic membrane scission processes; however, the molecular mechanism of the stabilizing effect is poorly understood. Using cryo-EM, we investigated the assembly of the amphiphysin/BIN1 on a membrane tube. We found that the N-BAR domains self-assemble on the membrane surface in a highly cooperative manner. Our biochemical assays and 3D reconstructions indicate that the N-terminal amphipathic helix H0 plays an important role in the initiation of the tube assembly and further in organizing BAR-mediated polymerization by locking adjacent N-BAR domains. Mutants that lack H0 or the tip portion, which is also involved in interactions of the neighboring BAR unit, lead to a disruption of the polymer organization, even though tubulation can still be observed. The regulatory region of amphiphysin/BIN1 including an SH3 domain does not have any apparent involvement in the polymer lattice. Our study indicates that the H0 helix and the BAR tip are necessary for efficient and organized self-assembly of amphiphysin/N-BAR. PMID:26487375

  9. Long term laboratory corrosion monitoring of calcine bin set materials exposed to zirconia calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk, W.J.

    1994-06-01

    Corrosion testing of Type 1025 carbon steel, 405, 304, 304L, 316L, and 347 stainless steels, and 6061-T6 aluminum were conducted in synthetic zirconia calcine to model long term corrosion performance of bin set material. Testing was conducted over a period of 17 years. The existing calcine bin set {number_sign}1 is constructed of Type 405 stainless steel, 2 through 4 are constructed of Type 304 stainless steel and 5 through 7 are constructed of Type 304L stainless steel. The highest rate observed for Type 304L stainless steel was 8.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} inches per month. This would equal a wall thickness loss of about 5 mils after 500 years of storage. Currently, the established schedule for removal of corrosion test coupons from the calcine storage bins is at the end of the 10th, 100th, 250th, and 450th year of solid storage service. Very low corrosion rates and metal oxide data determined from the long term laboratory test, in conjunction with corrosion rates from the coupon assessment of the second bin set, indicate this schedule should be revised from 10 years to 50 years for the first assessment.

  10. Transport at the Recycling Endosome

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Victor W.; Prekeris, Rytis

    2010-01-01

    Summary The recycling endosome (RE) has long been considered as a sub-compartment of the early endosome that recycles internalized cargoes to the plasma membrane. The RE is now appreciated to participate in a more complex set of intracellular itineraries. Key cargo molecules and transport factors that act in these pathways are being identified. These advancements are beginning to reveal complexities in pathways involving the RE, and also suggest ways of further delineating functional domains of this compartment. PMID:20541925

  11. Illinois recycled materials: market directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This market directory serves as a guide for recyclers desiring a comprehensive list of companies purchasing large volumes of residential and commercial post-consumer recyclables. Throughout the directory, recyclers are reminded to check with buyers regarding current-delivery schedules, requirements for material preparation and shipping, and to determine if buyers are actually purchasing the type of materials that you have to sell. In summary, this is a detailed guide to who is buying what and how they want it processed. But since market conditions and buying policies change, recyclers are cautioned to always contact buyers before shipping. The directory provides data on end manufacturers, major material processors, and brokers. It does not include a listing of collection centers for consumers to take recyclables nor does it include buyers of scrap iron and steel. That information is provided in the Directory of Illinois Recycling Centers, available from the Department of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR). Information was obtained primarily through telephone contacts with individual buyers.

  12. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility.

  13. Evaluation of five sampling methods for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) and L. decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An evaluation of five sampling methods for studying psocid population levels was conducted in two steel bins containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat in Manhattan, KS. Psocids were sampled using a 1.2-m open-ended trier, corrugated cardboard refuges placed on the underside of the bin hatch or the surf...

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  15. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800

  16. TH-E-17A-05: Optimizing Four Dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography Projection Allocation to Respiratory Bins

    SciTech Connect

    OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy but it can suffer from poor image quality. To avoid repeating scans it is beneficial to make the best use of the imaging data obtained. For conventional 4DCBCT the location and size of respiratory bins is fixed and projections are allocated to the respiratory bin within which it falls. Strictly adhering to this rule is unnecessary and can compromise image quality. In this study we optimize the size and location of respiratory bins and allow projections to be sourced from adjacent phases of the respiratory cycle. Methods: A mathematical optimization framework using mixed integer quadratic programming has been developed that determines when to source projections from adjacent respiratory bins and optimizes the size and location of the bins. The method, which we will call projection sharing, runs in under 2 seconds of CPU time. Five 4DCBCT datasets of stage III-IV lung cancer patients were used to test the algorithm. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections (SD-A) and the standard deviation in the volume of the reconstructed fiducial gold coil (SD-V) were used as proxies to measure streaking artefacts and motion blur respectively. Results: The SD-A using displacement binning and projection sharing was 30%–50% smaller than conventional phase based binning and 59%–76% smaller than conventional displacement binning indicating more uniformly spaced projections and fewer streaking artefacts. The SD-V was 20–90% smaller when using projection sharing than using conventional phase based binning suggesting more uniform marker segmentation and less motion blur. Conclusion: Image quality was visibly and significantly improved with projection sharing. Projection sharing does not require any modifications to existing hardware and offers a more robust replacement to phase based binning, or, an option if phase based reconstruction is not of a

  17. Recycling came of age in 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1995-04-01

    While metal and glass recycling have a long history, newer recycling efforts for paper and plastic have gone from a nascent business to maturing industry. After five years, sufficient infrastructure exists to support recycling as a full-fledged business. In the late 1980s, recycling was a business trying to get off the ground. Now it is recognized by many cities and states as a means of economic development and job creation. But recycling`s coming of age was not without growing pains. Many recyclers had to hang on while markets were poor and spotty. Gluts of plastic, waste paper, aluminum, and green glass often made it difficult for recyclers to turn a profit. Until early 1994, prices for most commodities were significantly low, and in some cases, these low prices forced recyclers and processors to close their doors, or at least curtail their operations.

  18. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-09-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

  19. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  20. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors that possess

  1. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  2. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  3. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential.

  4. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Didierlaurent, David Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier; Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen; Batatia, Hadj; Courbon, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more

  5. Recycling Expensive Medication: Why Not?

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    New (and proposed) advances in packaging, preserving, labeling, and verifying product integrity of individual tablets and capsules may allow for the recycling of certain expensive medicines. Previously sold, but unused, medication, if brought back to special pharmacies for resale or donation, may provide a low-cost source of patent-protected medicines. Benefits of such a program go beyond simply providing affordable medication to the poor. This article suggests that medicine recycling may be a possibility (especially if manufacturers are mandated to blister-package and bar-code individual tablets and capsules). This early discussion of medication recycling identifies relevant issues, such as: need, rationale, existing programs, available supplies, expiration dates, new technology for ensuring safety and potency, environmental impact, public health benefits, program focus, program structure, and liability. PMID:15266231

  6. Relative calibration of energy thresholds on multi-bin spectral x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjölin, M.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate and reliable energy calibration of spectral x-ray detectors used in medical imaging is essential for avoiding ring artifacts in the reconstructed images (computed tomography) and for performing accurate material basis decomposition. A simple and accurate method for relative calibration of the energy thresholds on a multi-bin spectral x-ray detector is presented. The method obtains the linear relations between all energy thresholds in a channel by scanning the thresholds with respect to each other during x-ray illumination. The method does not rely on a model of the detector's response function and does not require any identifiable features in the x-ray spectrum. Applying the same method, the offset between the thresholds can be determined also without external stimuli by utilizing the electronic noise as a source. The simplicity and accuracy of the method makes it suitable for implementation in clinical multi-bin spectral x-ray imaging systems.

  7. Bin size independence in intra-day seasonalities for relative prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we perform a statistical analysis over the returns and relative prices of the CAC 40 and the S&P 500 with the purpose of analysing the intra-day seasonalities of single and cross-sectional stock dynamics. In order to do that, we characterized the dynamics of a stock (or a set of stocks) by the evolution of the moments of its returns (and relative prices) during a typical day. We show that these intra-day seasonalities are independent of the size of the bin, and the index we consider, (but characteristic for each index) for the case of the relative prices but not for the case of the returns. Finally, we suggest how this bin size independence could be used in order to characterize "atypical days" for indexes and "anomalous behaviours" in stocks.

  8. Automated construction of highly accurate meiotic mapping panels for human chromosome 7 using BINS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Helms, C.; Dutchik, J.

    1994-09-01

    Development of a set of highly accurate meiotic breakpoint panels for the human genome based on CEPH reference pedigree genotypes and highly informative microsatellite markers will provide a valuable resource for the efficient mapping of new markers and will promote the rapid integration of physical and genetic map information. Key to the development of such a panel is the availability of a reliable set of genotypic data and automated methods for panel construction and verification. We have recently completed construction of comprehensive, microsatellite, and index linkage maps for human chromosome 7 using CEPH pedigree genotypes and CRI-MAP (with odds for marker order of 1000:1). A subset of markers used to build these maps that were typed on 40 CEPH families and rigorously checked for errors (e.g. using the Chrompics option of CRI-MAP) were selected for use to develop a set of meiotic breakpoint panels. The BINS programs has been developed to determine the locations of reliable crossovers using primary genotype data for every individual of each pedigree with the aim of creating crossover mapping panels. BINS utilizes a set of algorithms that parses out reliable and consistent data and uses these data to construct a crossover-based map. BINS has been utilized to construct a primary meiotic mapping panel for human chromosome 7. A graphical display of the breakpoint data provides an easily interpretable image and specifically highlights possible data inconsistencies (e.g. questionable double crossovers). We have used BINS and the CEPH genotypes to construct a preliminary set of panels for chromosome 7. Refinement of the panels is in progress.

  9. Recycler short kicker beam impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

  10. The recyclability of lead alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, A.W.; Sankovitch, M.J.

    1997-12-01

    In 1996, the production of battery lead and alloys from the recycle industry was 3 times the Primary lead production in the United States. The Buick Resource Recovery Center of the Doe Run Lead Company at a capacity of 90,000 tons per year is one of 25 plants recycling lead metal in the United States. This plant was commissioned in 1991 and has been running with a 0.30 Lost Time Accident rate per 200,000 hours of work. The paper delineates and ranks the cost of treating various impurities found in lead.

  11. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  12. Process to recycle shredder residue

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  13. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  14. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  15. Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Takesue, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2006-07-15

    We propose a scheme for quantum secret sharing (QSS) that uses a modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement. By modulating the relative phase randomly by {l_brace}0,{pi}{r_brace}, a sender with the entanglement source can randomly change the sign of the correlation of the measurement outcomes obtained by two distant recipients. The two recipients must cooperate if they are to obtain the sign of the correlation, which is used as a secret key. We show that our scheme is secure against intercept-and-resend (IR) and beam splitting attacks by an outside eavesdropper thanks to the nonorthogonality of high-dimensional time-bin entangled states. We also show that a cheating attempt based on an IR attack by one of the recipients can be detected by changing the dimension of the time-bin entanglement randomly and inserting two 'vacant' slots between the packets. Then, cheating attempts can be detected by monitoring the count rate in the vacant slots. The proposed scheme has better experimental feasibility than previously proposed entanglement-based QSS schemes.

  16. Improved metagenome assemblies and taxonomic binning using long-read circular consensus sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. A.; Pan, Y.; Tooming-Klunderud, A.; Eijsink, V. G. H.; McHardy, A. C.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Pope, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    DNA assembly is a core methodological step in metagenomic pipelines used to study the structure and function within microbial communities. Here we investigate the utility of Pacific Biosciences long and high accuracy circular consensus sequencing (CCS) reads for metagenomic projects. We compared the application and performance of both PacBio CCS and Illumina HiSeq data with assembly and taxonomic binning algorithms using metagenomic samples representing a complex microbial community. Eight SMRT cells produced approximately 94 Mb of CCS reads from a biogas reactor microbiome sample that averaged 1319 nt in length and 99.7% accuracy. CCS data assembly generated a comparative number of large contigs greater than 1 kb, to those assembled from a ~190x larger HiSeq dataset (~18 Gb) produced from the same sample (i.e approximately 62% of total contigs). Hybrid assemblies using PacBio CCS and HiSeq contigs produced improvements in assembly statistics, including an increase in the average contig length and number of large contigs. The incorporation of CCS data produced significant enhancements in taxonomic binning and genome reconstruction of two dominant phylotypes, which assembled and binned poorly using HiSeq data alone. Collectively these results illustrate the value of PacBio CCS reads in certain metagenomics applications. PMID:27156482

  17. OCTOPUS Negatively Regulates BIN2 to Control Phloem Differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Anne, Pauline; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gissot, Lionel; Beaubiat, Sébastien; Hématy, Kian; Palauqui, Jean-Christophe

    2015-10-05

    The phloem is a vascular strand that conducts photoassimilates and systemic signals throughout the plant to coordinate growth. To date, few molecular genetic determinants have been identified to control both specification and differentiation of this tissue [1-3]. Among them, OCTOPUS (OPS) protein was previously identified as a polarly localized plasma membrane-associated protein of unknown biochemical function whose broad provascular expression becomes restricted to the phloem upon differentiation [2]. OPS loss-of-function mutants showed an altered vascular network in cotyledons and an intermittent phloem differentiation in the root [2, 4]. Here, we demonstrate a role for OPS as a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway. Indeed, transgenic lines overexpressing OPS (OPS-OE) display the hallmarks of constitutively overactivated BR mutants. Physiological and genetic analyses place OPS as a positive regulator of the BR signaling pathway upstream of the key transcription factors BES1 and BZR1. Directed protein interactions with known BR signaling proteins identified BIN2, a GSK3 protein involved in multiple signaling pathways, as a partner of OPS. This interaction recruits BIN2 to the plasma membrane, thus preventing its inhibitory activity in the nucleus. Finally, both bikinin (a potent inhibitor of GSK3 [5]) treatment and downstream dominant mutants bes1-D [6] and bzr1-D [7] can rescue phloem defects of ops in the root. Together, our data show that OPS antagonizes BIN2 to promote phloem differentiation.

  18. Visual analytics of large multidimensional data using variable binned scatter plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Sharma, Ratnesh K.; Keim, Daniel A.; Janetzko, Halldór

    2010-01-01

    The scatter plot is a well-known method of visualizing pairs of two-dimensional continuous variables. Multidimensional data can be depicted in a scatter plot matrix. They are intuitive and easy-to-use, but often have a high degree of overlap which may occlude a significant portion of data. In this paper, we propose variable binned scatter plots to allow the visualization of large amounts of data without overlapping. The basic idea is to use a non-uniform (variable) binning of the x and y dimensions and plots all the data points that fall within each bin into corresponding squares. Further, we map a third attribute to color for visualizing clusters. Analysts are able to interact with individual data points for record level information. We have applied these techniques to solve real-world problems on credit card fraud and data center energy consumption to visualize their data distribution and cause-effect among multiple attributes. A comparison of our methods with two recent well-known variants of scatter plots is included.

  19. Association study of the BIN1 and IL-6 genes on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ramos Dos Santos, Lígia; Belcavello, Luciano; Camporez, Daniela; Iamonde Maciel de Magalhães, Caerê; Zandonade, Eliana; Lírio Morelato, Renato; Imbroisi Valle Errera, Flavia; Drumond Louro, Iuri; Do Carmo Pimentel Batitucci, Marial; de Paula, Flavia

    2016-02-12

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified several novel genes associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in elders. However, most of the novel genes have not been validated through replication in separated populations. Among them, the BIN1 gene is involved in endocytosis and intracellular trafficking as well as in the formation of β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, which are the main pathological hallmarks of AD. The IL-6 gene has also been frequently associated with AD; however, consistent results have not been found. IL-6, a cytokine from the immune system, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several degenerative diseases. Similar to BIN1, it is suggested that IL-6 is also involved in the formation of β amyloid plaques. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BIN1 (rs744373) and IL-6 (rs1800795) genes are associated with AD. Genotype frequencies were evaluated via PCR-RFLP in 82 late-onset AD patients and 159 elderly healthy controls, who were matched by age and gender. In this study, no association was found for either polymorphism, suggesting that these genes are not implicated in the aetiology of AD in all populations.

  20. Robotic Acquisition Of Jumbled Parts From Bins By Visual And Tactile Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Rajarshi; Wilder, Joseph

    1984-02-01

    The i-bot system is a flexible, adaptive and programmable sensory device for industrial robots. The system consists of independent modules for vision and gripper control, that guide the robot to perform acquisition of jumbled or isolated parts from a bin. The acquired parts are transported to a fixture and properly aligned by the robot-arm. The parts in the bin are identical except for minor dimensional and textural variations. These parts may be colored, contain graphics, possess multiple diameters or other cross sections, mixed material content and reflectivities. The system operates by taking a high resolution grey scale image of the bin of parts using an overhead camera under ambient illumination. The image is preprocessed by video range expansion, windowing, histogram based enhancement techniques and is segmented into multiple clusters by analyzing spatial characteristics. Algorithms are developed for fast and iterative data compression and for estimation of location and orientation of a cluster irrespective of its shape. The photobeam, collision, and pressure sensors on the parallel jaw gripper aremonitored during the acquisition process. Experiments have been performed with fuel filters, curved plier blanks, multicolored markers, "L" shaped fuel links, ball bearings and a mixture of semi-rusted threaded and unthreaded bolts of various lengths. In one image processing cycle of 2 seconds, i-bot can compute locations and orientations of a maximum of 3 work-pieces at a successful acquisition rate of approximately 95%.

  1. Uniform rovibrational collisional N2 bin model for DSMC, with application to atmospheric entry flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, E.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Magin, T. E.

    2016-11-01

    A state-to-state model for internal energy exchange and molecular dissociation allows for high-fidelity DSMC simulations. Elementary reaction cross sections for the N2 (v, J)+ N system were previously extracted from a quantum-chemical database, originally compiled at NASA Ames Research Center. Due to the high computational cost of simulating the full range of inelastic collision processes (approx. 23 million reactions), a coarse-grain model, called the Uniform RoVibrational Collisional (URVC) bin model can be used instead. This allows to reduce the original 9390 rovibrational levels of N2 to 10 energy bins. In the present work, this reduced model is used to simulate a 2D flow configuration, which more closely reproduces the conditions of high-speed entry into Earth's atmosphere. For this purpose, the URVC bin model had to be adapted for integration into the "Rarefied Gas Dynamics Analysis System" (RGDAS), a separate high-performance DSMC code capable of handling complex geometries and parallel computations. RGDAS was developed at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in Novosibirsk, Russia for use by the European Space Agency (ESA) and shares many features with the well-known SMILE code developed by the same group. We show that the reduced mechanism developed previously can be implemented in RGDAS, and the results exhibit nonequilibrium effects consistent with those observed in previous 1D-simulations.

  2. Misregulated alternative splicing of BIN1 is associated with T tubule alterations and muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fugier, Charlotte; Klein, Arnaud F; Hammer, Caroline; Vassilopoulos, Stéphane; Ivarsson, Ylva; Toussaint, Anne; Tosch, Valérie; Vignaud, Alban; Ferry, Arnaud; Messaddeq, Nadia; Kokunai, Yosuke; Tsuburaya, Rie; de la Grange, Pierre; Dembele, Doulaye; Francois, Virginie; Precigout, Guillaume; Boulade-Ladame, Charlotte; Hummel, Marie-Christine; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Sergeant, Nicolas; Laquerrière, Annie; Thibault, Christelle; Deryckere, François; Auboeuf, Didier; Garcia, Luis; Zimmermann, Pascale; Udd, Bjarne; Schoser, Benedikt; Takahashi, Masanori P; Nishino, Ichizo; Bassez, Guillaume; Laporte, Jocelyn; Furling, Denis; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2011-06-01

    Myotonic dystrophy is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults and the first recognized example of an RNA-mediated disease. Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM1) and myotonic dystrophy of type 1 (DM1) or of type 2 (DM2) are caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG or CCUG repeats, respectively. These mutant RNAs sequester the splicing regulator Muscleblind-like-1 (MBNL1), resulting in specific misregulation of the alternative splicing of other pre-mRNAs. We found that alternative splicing of the bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) pre-mRNA is altered in skeletal muscle samples of people with CDM1, DM1 and DM2. BIN1 is involved in tubular invaginations of membranes and is required for the biogenesis of muscle T tubules, which are specialized skeletal muscle membrane structures essential for excitation-contraction coupling. Mutations in the BIN1 gene cause centronuclear myopathy, which shares some histopathological features with myotonic dystrophy. We found that MBNL1 binds the BIN1 pre-mRNA and regulates its alternative splicing. BIN1 missplicing results in expression of an inactive form of BIN1 lacking phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate-binding and membrane-tubulating activities. Consistent with a defect of BIN1, muscle T tubules are altered in people with myotonic dystrophy, and membrane structures are restored upon expression of the normal splicing form of BIN1 in muscle cells of such individuals. Finally, reproducing BIN1 splicing alteration in mice is sufficient to promote T tubule alterations and muscle weakness, a predominant feature of myotonic dystrophy.

  3. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  4. Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settanni, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

  5. Montgomery Recycling Corporation for Notice of Violation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NOV alleges that Montgomery Recycling generated more than 12.5 million invalid biomass-based diesel renewable identification numbers (RINs). Montgomery Recycling failed to produce any qualifying renewable fuel and transferred the majority.

  6. EPA Announces Nutrient Recycling Challenge Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the winners of Phase I of the Nutrient Recycling Challenge-a competition to develop affordable technologies to recycle nutrients from livestock manure. The winners received

  7. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOEpatents

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  8. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  9. Integration of Demilitarization Contractors and Recyclers - Collateral Benefits of On-Site Training of Recyclers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    their recycling members refuse to deal with military scrap unless exceptional precautions are taken and full documentation provided.2 Environmental ...these materials were not recycled, the scrap would have to be landfilled with the associated environmental impacts. Recycling is very good for...the environment. The United States annually recycles more than 90 million tons of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The environmental implications are

  10. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  11. Status of the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P.F.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The author presents the current operational status of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. Using a mix of stochastic and electron cooling, we prepare antiproton beams for the Fermilab Tevatron Collider program. Included are discussion of stashing and cooling performance, operational scenarios, and collider performance.

  12. Recycled Water Poses Disinfectant Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible health hazards resulting from released nucleic acid of inactivated viruses, chlorinated nonliving organic molecules, and overestimated reliability of waste treatment standards. Suggests the recycle system use a dual disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone in water treatment. (CC)

  13. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  14. Recycling, Thermodynamics and Environmental Thrift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1972-01-01

    Compares the cost, in terms of thermodynamic potential, of manufacturing automobiles from raw mineral resources or from recycled vehicles, and of the production of extended-life products. Uses this as an example for arguing that new technologies, with efficiencies closer to the theoretical themodynamic minima, are needed if a society is to…

  15. Moleculo Long-Read Sequencing Facilitates Assembly and Genomic Binning from Complex Soil Metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    White, Richard Allen; Bottos, Eric M.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Glass, Kevin; Jansson, Janet K.; Langille, Morgan

    2016-06-28

    ABSTRACT

    Soil metagenomics has been touted as the “grand challenge” for metagenomics, as the high microbial diversity and spatial heterogeneity of soils make them unamenable to current assembly platforms. Here, we aimed to improve soil metagenomic sequence assembly by applying the Moleculo synthetic long-read sequencing technology. In total, we obtained 267 Gbp of raw sequence data from a native prairie soil; these data included 109.7 Gbp of short-read data (~100 bp) from the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), an additional 87.7 Gbp of rapid-mode read data (~250 bp), plus 69.6 Gbp (>1.5 kbp) from Moleculo sequencing. The Moleculo data alone yielded over 5,600 reads of >10 kbp in length, and over 95% of the unassembled reads mapped to contigs of >1.5 kbp. Hybrid assembly of all data resulted in more than 10,000 contigs over 10 kbp in length. We mapped three replicate metatranscriptomes derived from the same parent soil to the Moleculo subassembly and found that 95% of the predicted genes, based on their assignments to Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, were expressed. The Moleculo subassembly also enabled binning of >100 microbial genome bins. We obtained via direct binning the first complete genome, that of “CandidatusPseudomonas sp. strain JKJ-1” from a native soil metagenome. By mapping metatranscriptome sequence reads back to the bins, we found that several bins corresponding to low-relative-abundanceAcidobacteriawere highly transcriptionally active, whereas bins corresponding to high-relative-abundanceVerrucomicrobiawere not. These results demonstrate that Moleculo sequencing provides a significant advance for resolving complex soil microbial communities.

    IMPORTANCESoil microorganisms carry out key processes for life on our planet, including cycling of carbon and other nutrients and supporting growth of plants. However, there is poor molecular-level understanding of their

  16. Moleculo Long-Read Sequencing Facilitates Assembly and Genomic Binning from Complex Soil Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard Allen; Bottos, Eric M.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Brislawn, Colin J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Glass, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil metagenomics has been touted as the “grand challenge” for metagenomics, as the high microbial diversity and spatial heterogeneity of soils make them unamenable to current assembly platforms. Here, we aimed to improve soil metagenomic sequence assembly by applying the Moleculo synthetic long-read sequencing technology. In total, we obtained 267 Gbp of raw sequence data from a native prairie soil; these data included 109.7 Gbp of short-read data (~100 bp) from the Joint Genome Institute (JGI), an additional 87.7 Gbp of rapid-mode read data (~250 bp), plus 69.6 Gbp (>1.5 kbp) from Moleculo sequencing. The Moleculo data alone yielded over 5,600 reads of >10 kbp in length, and over 95% of the unassembled reads mapped to contigs of >1.5 kbp. Hybrid assembly of all data resulted in more than 10,000 contigs over 10 kbp in length. We mapped three replicate metatranscriptomes derived from the same parent soil to the Moleculo subassembly and found that 95% of the predicted genes, based on their assignments to Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, were expressed. The Moleculo subassembly also enabled binning of >100 microbial genome bins. We obtained via direct binning the first complete genome, that of “Candidatus Pseudomonas sp. strain JKJ-1” from a native soil metagenome. By mapping metatranscriptome sequence reads back to the bins, we found that several bins corresponding to low-relative-abundance Acidobacteria were highly transcriptionally active, whereas bins corresponding to high-relative-abundance Verrucomicrobia were not. These results demonstrate that Moleculo sequencing provides a significant advance for resolving complex soil microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Soil microorganisms carry out key processes for life on our planet, including cycling of carbon and other nutrients and supporting growth of plants. However, there is poor molecular-level understanding of their functional roles in ecosystem stability and responses to environmental

  17. Recycled Office Paper: Why It Costs More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usherson, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses obstacles to making recycled office paper cheaper. Explains how the economics of recycled office paper discourages recycling by commodity mills. Includes discussion of integrated and nonintegrated mills, commodity and specialty mills, specialty printing and writing mills, postconsumer material, supply and demand, and economic…

  18. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8601 of November 15, 2010 America Recycles Day, 2010 By the President of the... Recycles Day, we celebrate the individuals, communities, local governments, and businesses that work... the breadth of our successes on America Recycles Day, we must also recommit to building upon...

  19. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... November 18, 2011 Part VII The President Proclamation 8754--America Recycles Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Recycles Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As Americans, we have a... and materials, and reuse whenever possible. On America Recycles Day, we celebrate the commitment...

  20. 77 FR 69729 - America Recycles Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... November 20, 2012 Part IV The President Proclamation 8905--America Recycles Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... Recycles Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For 15 years, our country has celebrated America Recycles Day as a time to focus on conserving valuable materials,...

  1. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... November 19, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 9057--America Recycles Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Recycles Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During the First and...--that require all of us to do our part. On America Recycles Day, we carry forward a great...

  2. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  3. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema

    Ryan Ott

    2016-07-12

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  5. The Hang-Ups on Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    While all seem to agree that recycling will alleviate solid waste problems and energy and mineral shortages, recycling is, at present, bogged down by the thin market for recycled materials, the recessionary business picture, the vertical integration of many companies, unfavorable tax laws, and high rail freight rates. (BT)

  6. Recycling Technology: Can It Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clum, James A.; Loper, Carl R., Jr.

    This paper describes the content of a seminar-type engineering course dealing with materials reutilization (recycling). The course, consisting of lecture and discussion by various faculty and outside experts as well as student presentations of research papers on recycling topics, is intended to investigate current areas in which recycling of…

  7. Recycling in Schools: From Fad to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, J. Winston

    1991-01-01

    Numerous business issues arise when organizing a school recycling program. Important questions include the appropriate program organization, deciding what materials to recycle, the selection of appropriate business partners, and various financial issues. Offers suggestions for achieving a successful recycling program. (MLF)

  8. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  9. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must...

  10. 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javna, John

    This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can…

  11. Materials Recycling: The Virtue of Necessity. Worldwatch Paper 56.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers…

  12. The Effect of Bin Laden’s Death and Arab Spring on Al Qaeda’s Operational Center of Gravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of bin Laden’s Death and the Arab Spring on AQ’s Operational...401-841-3556 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Effect of bin Laden’s Death and Arab Spring on...2 Deconstructing Al Qaeda’s Operational Center of Gravity 4 The Effect of UBL’s death and Arab Spring on AQ’s Operational

  13. Efficient Bell state analyzer for time-bin qubits with fast-recovery WSi superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Valivarthi, R; Lucio-Martinez, I; Rubenok, A; Chan, P; Marsili, F; Verma, V B; Shaw, M D; Stern, J A; Slater, J A; Oblak, D; Nam, S W; Tittel, W

    2014-10-06

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits that employs two superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with short dead-times, allowing projections onto two Bell states, |ψ⁻〉 and |ψ⁺〉. Compared to previous implementations for time-bin qubits, this yields an increase in the efficiency of Bell state analysis by a factor of thirty.

  14. An industry response to recycle 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-06-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE`s position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this `Recycle 2000` initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality.

  15. Carambola optics for recycling of light.

    PubMed

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-20

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  16. Carambola optics for recycling of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-01

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  17. Electronic labelling in recycling of manufactured articles.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Lech; Krammer, Alfred

    2002-12-01

    The concept of a recycling system aiming at the recovery of resources from manufactured articles is proposed. The system integrates electronic labels for product identification and internet for global data exchange. A prototype for the recycling of electric motors has been developed, which implements a condition-based recycling decision system to automatically select the environmentally and economically appropriate recycling strategy, thereby opening a potential market for second-hand motors and creating a profitable recycling process itself. The project has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of electronic identification applied on a large number of motors and to validate the system in real field conditions.

  18. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  19. A problem unstuck? Evaluating the effectiveness of sticker prompts for encouraging household food waste recycling behaviour.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Linzi; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Morse, Stephen; Smyth, Matthew; Hunt, Sally

    2017-02-01

    This Randomised Control Trial (RCT) investigated the effectiveness of using stickers as a visual prompt to encourage the separate collection of household food waste for recycling in two local authorities in South East England. During a baseline period of up to 15weeks, separately collected food waste was weighed (in tonnes) and averaged across households in both treatment (N=33,716 households within 29 defined areas) and control groups (N=30,568 households within 26 areas). A sticker prompt was then affixed to the lids of refuse bins in the treatment group area only. Weights for both groups were subsequently measured across a 16-week experimental period. Results showed that, in the control group, there was no change in the average weight of food waste captured for recycling between the baseline and experimental period. However, there was a significant increase (20.74%) in the treatment group, and this change in behaviour persisted in the longer term. Sticker prompts therefore appear to have a significant and sustained impact on food waste recycling rates, while being simple, practically feasible and inexpensive (£0.35 per household) for local authorities to implement at scale.

  20. High performance polyester concrete using recycled PET

    SciTech Connect

    Rebeiz, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes could be used in production of unsaturated polyester resins. In turn, these resins could be mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete (PC). Unsaturated polyesters based on recycled PET might be a potentially lower source cost of resins for producing useful PC based-products. The advantage of recycling PET in PC is that the PET materials do not have to be purified, including removal of colors, to the same extent as other PET recycling applications, which should facilitate the recycling operation and minimize its cost. The recycling of PET in PC could also help save energy and allow the long term disposal of the PET waste, an important advantage in recycling applications.

  1. A DNA-Based Registry for All Animal Species: The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    PubMed Central

    Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs), these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL) and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU) algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth. PMID:23861743

  2. Quantifying Antarctic marine biodiversity: The SCAR-MarBIN data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Danis, Bruno; Clarke, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The documentation and analysis of broad-scale biological diversity requires modern databases. Here we describe the SCAR-Marine Biodiversity Information Network (SCAR-MarBIN) and demonstrate its value with a preliminary analysis of geographic patterns in species richness for a variety of marine taxa. SCAR-MarBIN is a web portal ( www.scarmarbin.be) that compiles and manages existing and new information on Antarctic marine biodiversity; it currently links over 140 datasets comprising over one million records. The portal is home to the Registry of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS), an authoritative taxonomic list of marine species occurring in Antarctica. RAMS is a key resource for the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML), a major five-year project that aims at assessing the nature, distribution and abundance of Southern Ocean biological diversity. SCAR-MarBIN provides a means of quantifying not only the diversity and distribution of Antarctic marine life but also a record of how, when and where these have been studied. It allows for the examination of geographic and bathymetric ranges, the documentation of gaps within and limits to the data, together with the identification of areas of particularly high diversity (hotspots) and also under-sampled regions or taxa. A preliminary analysis indicates that the pattern of sampling hotspots is driven principally by the pelagic data, mainly bird and mammal observations, whereas benthic species drive the overall pattern in species richness. Analyses of the complete data set reveal important biases in the data: most samples have been taken in shallow water (<700 m) and are either concentrated around shore-based research stations, or in the open ocean close to regular ship transit routes. These data provide a useful benchmark for the future, enabling ventures such as CAML to assess their impact on knowledge of biological diversity. It also highlights key areas for further investigation, such as the deep sea and the Amundsen Sea.

  3. Effects of range bin shape and Doppler filter response in a digital SAR data processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    In calibrating the backscatter coefficient obtained with an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system to determine absolute values of radar cross-section and reflectivity it is common practice to use a target of known radar cross-section placed within the scene. A corner reflector acts as a point target, but the return from it may not be centered in the resolution cell. It is important, for accurate calibration, to perform straddling corrections based on the range bin and Doppler filter response curves.

  4. Continuously active interferometer stabilization and control for time-bin entanglement distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Toliver, Paul; Dailey, James M.; Agarwal, Anjali; ...

    2015-02-10

    In this study, we describe a new method enabling continuous stabilization and fine-level phase control of time-bin entanglement interferometers. Using this technique we demonstrate entangled photon transmission through 50 km of standard single-mode fiber. This technique reuses the entangled-pair generation pump which is co-propagated with the transmitted entangled photons. In addition, the co-propagating pump adds minimal noise to the entangled photons which are characterized by measuring a two-photon interference fringe.

  5. Optical Extinction Measurements of Dust Density in the GMRO Regolith Test Bin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J.; Mantovani, J.; Mueller, R.; Nugent, M.; Nick, A.; Schuler, J.; Townsend, I.

    2016-01-01

    A regolith simulant test bin was constructed and completed in the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab in 2013. This Planetary Regolith Test Bed (PRTB) is a 64 sq m x 1 m deep test bin, is housed in a climate-controlled facility, and contains 120 MT of lunar-regolith simulant, called Black Point-1 or BP-1, from Black Point, AZ. One of the current uses of the test bin is to study the effects of difficult lighting and dust conditions on Telerobotic Perception Systems to better assess and refine regolith operations for asteroid, Mars and polar lunar missions. Low illumination and low angle of incidence lighting pose significant problems to computer vision and human perception. Levitated dust on Asteroids interferes with imaging and degrades depth perception. Dust Storms on Mars pose a significant problem. Due to these factors, the likely performance of telerobotics is poorly understood for future missions. Current space telerobotic systems are only operated in bright lighting and dust-free conditions. This technology development testing will identify: (1) the impact of degraded lighting and environmental dust on computer vision and operator perception, (2) potential methods and procedures for mitigating these impacts, (3) requirements for telerobotic perception systems for asteroid capture, Mars dust storms and lunar regolith ISRU missions. In order to solve some of the Telerobotic Perception system problems, a plume erosion sensor (PES) was developed in the Lunar Regolith Simulant Bin (LRSB), containing 2 MT of JSC-1a lunar simulant. PES is simply a laser and digital camera with a white target. Two modes of operation have been investigated: (1) single laser spot - the brightness of the spot is dependent on the optical extinction due to dust and is thus an indirect measure of particle number density, and (2) side-scatter - the camera images the laser from the side, showing beam entrance into the dust cloud and the boundary between dust and void. Both

  6. International Recycling of LLW Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, T.; Jansen, J.; Shinya, Sawada

    2008-07-01

    Melting of radioactive scrap metal has been successfully practiced for more than 15 years, with approximately 60,000 tons of steel being processed into beneficial reuse applications. This process has converted radioactive scrap metal at a licensed facility into useful products such as shield blocks, security barriers and shield containers. These products are used within the nuclear industry, such as nuclear power plants, waste disposal facilities and high-energy physics research facilities. Recycling provides the following benefits by comparison with direct disposal: - Preserving metal resources. - Conserving valuable Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site resources, thereby extending disposal site life. - Reducing the cost of metal products to end users by using materials less expensive than virgin metals. This paper outlines international metal recycling practices implemented at EnergySolutions' Bear Creek Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

  7. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  8. Deep water recycling through time.

    PubMed

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity (vs ), slab age (a) and mantle temperature (Tm). Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. We parameterize the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle, W (×10(5) kg/m(2)), as a function of vs (cm/yr), a (Myrs), and Tm (°C):[Formula: see text]. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ∼15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ∼2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ∼2.2×10(5) kg/m(2) of H2O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ∼26% of the global influx water, or 7×10(8) Tg/Myr of H2O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5-3.7 × 10(8) Tg/Myr of H2O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga.

  9. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Patrick K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  10. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  11. Recycled Glass and Dredged Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    stations, and is either source-separated or co-mingled with plastics , aluminum cans, ceramics, or colored glass containers. In the United States in...cullet (for new bottles and other containers) or non-container glass cullet (all other uses), and non-container processed cullet production is...aggregates (i.e. opposition to change), cost, and regulations. Contamination and Safety Issues. Recycled container glass may contain debris (defined as

  12. Ozone bleaching of recycled paper

    SciTech Connect

    Muguet, M.; Kogan, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Chlorinated bleaching chemicals, notably chlorine and hypochlorite, are still being used to bleach deinked, woodfree pulps. Increasing environmental concern about the use of these chemicals--coupled with the industry's efforts to increase the use of recycled fibers--highlight the need to develop better techniques for producing high-quality deinked pulp. Results presented in this report suggest that deinked fibers can be treated with ozone followed by a peroxide bleaching stage to produce a high-quality pulp.

  13. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  14. Deep water recycling through time

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity (vs), slab age (a) and mantle temperature (Tm). Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. We parameterize the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle, W (×105 kg/m2), as a function of vs (cm/yr), a (Myrs), and Tm (°C):. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ∼15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ∼2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ∼2.2×105 kg/m2 of H2O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ∼26% of the global influx water, or 7×108 Tg/Myr of H2O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5–3.7 × 108 Tg/Myr of H2O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga. Key Points Deep water recycling might be possible even in early Earth conditions We provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of H2O flux deep into the mantle Subduction velocity has a a major control on the crustal dehydration pattern PMID:26321881

  15. Problems with bins: A critical reassessment of Gotelli and Ulrich's Bayes approach using bird data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Gagern, Melanie; von Gagern, Martin; Schmitz Ornés, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Null model analyses are a common technique used to detect co-occurrence patterns in presence-absence matrices of species. One method which aims to identify interesting pairs of species has been introduced by Gotelli and Ulrich (2010). Based on the "fixed-fixed" null model constraint, it uses a pair-wise C-Score measure and partitions pairs into a number of bins in an attempt to reduce the number of false positives. Applying this technique to ornithological observations from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, provided some insights into the suitability of the method for this kind of data in particular, and raised some more fundamental questions about the method in general. Specifically, the number of bins, which can be chosen arbitrarily, is shown to have significant impact on the number and identity of the returned species pairs. Other parameters, like the number of null model iterations, or the algorithm used to generate these null model matrices, have less impact as long as certain minimal requirements are met. The computations have been performed using different implementations of the method mentioned, "Pairs" by Ulrich and our own code "RePairs". The latter also introduces a randomization algorithm based on a network flow model. Comparing these implementations exposed an error in "Pairs", which might invalidate results obtained using it.

  16. Fast Multispectral Imaging by Spatial Pixel-Binning and Spectral Unmixing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Wei; Shen, Hui-Liang; Li, Chunguang; Chen, Shu-Jie; Xin, John H

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral imaging system is of wide application in relevant fields for its capability in acquiring spectral information of scenes. Its limitation is that, due to the large number of spectral channels, the imaging process can be quite time-consuming when capturing high-resolution (HR) multispectral images. To resolve this limitation, this paper proposes a fast multispectral imaging framework based on the image sensor pixel-binning and spectral unmixing techniques. The framework comprises a fast imaging stage and a computational reconstruction stage. In the imaging stage, only a few spectral images are acquired in HR, while most spectral images are acquired in low resolution (LR). The LR images are captured by applying pixel binning on the image sensor, such that the exposure time can be greatly reduced. In the reconstruction stage, an optimal number of basis spectra are computed and the signal-dependent noise statistics are estimated. Then the unknown HR images are efficiently reconstructed by solving a closed-form cost function that models the spatial and spectral degradations. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is evaluated using real-scene multispectral images. Experimental results validate that, in general, the method outperforms the state of the arts in terms of reconstruction accuracy, with additional 20× or more improvement in computational efficiency.

  17. BINNING SOMATIC MUTATIONS BASED ON BIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE FOR PREDICTING SURVIVAL: AN APPLICATION IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyoon; Li, Ruowang; Dudek, Scott M.; Wallace, John R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2014-01-01

    Enormous efforts of whole exome and genome sequencing from hundreds to thousands of patients have provided the landscape of somatic genomic alterations in many cancer types to distinguish between driver mutations and passenger mutations. Driver mutations show strong associations with cancer clinical outcomes such as survival. However, due to the heterogeneity of tumors, somatic mutation profiles are exceptionally sparse whereas other types of genomic data such as miRNA or gene expression contain much more complete data for all genomic features with quantitative values measured in each patient. To overcome the extreme sparseness of somatic mutation profiles and allow for the discovery of combinations of somatic mutations that may predict cancer clinical outcomes, here we propose a new approach for binning somatic mutations based on existing biological knowledge. Through the analysis using renal cell carcinoma dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identified combinations of somatic mutation burden based on pathways, protein families, evolutionary conversed regions, and regulatory regions associated with survival. Due to the nature of heterogeneity in cancer, using a binning strategy for somatic mutation profiles based on biological knowledge will be valuable for improved prognostic biomarkers and potentially for tailoring therapeutic strategies by identifying combinations of driver mutations. PMID:25592572

  18. BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2 induces clustering of phosphoinositides to recruit its downstream partner dynamin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picas, Laura; Viaud, Julien; Schauer, Kristine; Vanni, Stefano; Hnia, Karim; Fraisier, Vincent; Roux, Aurélien; Bassereau, Patricia; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frédérique; Payrastre, Bernard; Laporte, Jocelyn; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste; Goud, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Phosphoinositides play a central role in many physiological processes by assisting the recruitment of proteins to membranes through specific phosphoinositide-binding motifs. How this recruitment is coordinated in space and time is not well understood. Here we show that BIN1/M-Amphiphysin2, a protein involved in T-tubule biogenesis in muscle cells and frequently mutated in centronuclear myopathies, clusters PtdIns(4,5)P2 to recruit its downstream partner dynamin. By using several mutants associated with centronuclear myopathies, we find that the N-BAR and the SH3 domains of BIN1 control the kinetics and the accumulation of dynamin on membranes, respectively. We show that phosphoinositide clustering is a mechanism shared by other proteins that interact with PtdIns(4,5)P2, but do not contain a BAR domain. Our numerical simulations point out that clustering is a diffusion-driven process in which phosphoinositide molecules are not sequestered. We propose that this mechanism plays a key role in the recruitment of downstream phosphoinositide-binding proteins.

  19. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  20. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  1. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  2. Coarse-grained model for N2-N relaxation in hypersonic shock conditions using two-dimensional bins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong; Li, Zheng; Levin, Deborah A.

    2016-11-01

    A high fidelity internal energy relaxation model for N2-N suitable for use in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of chemically reacting flows is proposed. A novel two-dimensional binning approach with variable bin energy resolutions in the rotational and vibrational modes is developed for treating the internal mode of N2. Both bin-to-bin and state-specific relaxation cross sections are obtained using the molecular dynamics/quasi-classical trajectory (MD/QCT) method with two potential energy surfaces as well as the state-specific database of Jaffe et al. The 99 bin model is used in homogeneous DSMC relaxation simulations and is found to be able to recover the state-specific master equation results of Panesi et al. when the Jaffe state-specific cross sections are used. Rotational relaxation energy profiles and relaxation times obtained using the ReaxFF and Jaffe potential energy surfaces (PESs) are in general agreement but there are larger differences between the vibrational relaxation times. These differences become smaller as the translational temperature increases because the difference in the PES energy barrier becomes less important.

  3. Development of a two-dimensional binning model for N2-N relaxation in hypersonic shock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong; Li, Zheng; Levin, Deborah A.

    2016-08-01

    A high fidelity internal energy relaxation model for N2-N suitable for use in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of chemically reacting flows is proposed. A novel two-dimensional binning approach with variable bin energy resolutions in the rotational and vibrational modes is developed for treating the internal mode of N2. Both bin-to-bin and state-specific relaxation cross sections are obtained using the molecular dynamics/quasi-classical trajectory (MD/QCT) method with two potential energy surfaces as well as the state-specific database of Jaffe et al. The MD/QCT simulations of inelastic energy exchange between N2 and N show that there is a strong forward-preferential scattering behavior at high collision velocities. The 99 bin model is used in homogeneous DSMC relaxation simulations and is found to be able to recover the state-specific master equation results of Panesi et al. when the Jaffe state-specific cross sections are used. Rotational relaxation energy profiles and relaxation times obtained using the ReaxFF and Jaffe potential energy surfaces (PESs) are in general agreement but there are larger differences between the vibrational relaxation times. These differences become smaller as the translational temperature increases because the difference in the PES energy barrier becomes less important.

  4. Accurate binning of metagenomic contigs via automated clustering sequences using information of genomic signatures and marker genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Liao, Yu-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomics, the application of shotgun sequencing, facilitates the reconstruction of the genomes of individual species from natural environments. A major challenge in the genome recovery domain is to agglomerate or ‘bin’ sequences assembled from metagenomic reads into individual groups. Metagenomic binning without consideration of reference sequences enables the comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms and aids in the microbial genome reconstruction process. Here we present MyCC, an automated binning tool that combines genomic signatures, marker genes and optional contig coverages within one or multiple samples, in order to visualize the metagenomes and to identify the reconstructed genomic fragments. We demonstrate the superior performance of MyCC compared to other binning tools including CONCOCT, GroopM, MaxBin and MetaBAT on both synthetic and real human gut communities with a small sample size (one to 11 samples), as well as on a large metagenome dataset (over 250 samples). Moreover, we demonstrate the visualization of metagenomes in MyCC to aid in the reconstruction of genomes from distinct bins. MyCC is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sb2nhri/files/MyCC/. PMID:27067514

  5. Fermilab recycler stochastic cooling commissioning and performance

    SciTech Connect

    D. Broemmelsiek; Ralph Pasquinelli

    2003-06-04

    The Fermilab Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring located in the Fermilab Main Injector tunnel near the ceiling. The Recycler has two roles in Run II. First, to store antiprotons from the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator so that the antiproton production rate is no longer compromised by large numbers of antiprotons stored in the Accumulator. Second, to receive antiprotons from the Fermilab Tevatron at the end of luminosity periods. To perform each of these roles, stochastic cooling in the Recycler is needed to preserve and cool antiprotons in preparation for transfer to the Tevatron. The commissioning and performance of the Recycler stochastic cooling systems will be reviewed.

  6. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  7. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  8. Gold recycling; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, Earle B.

    2000-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  9. Public Perception of Strategies for Increasing Participation in Recycling Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamwange, Monica

    1996-01-01

    Assesses public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs: increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling, increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the…

  10. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  11. Energy return on investment of used nuclear fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-31

    N-EROI calculates energy return on investment (EROI) for recycling of used nublear fuel in four scenarios: one-pass recycle in light water reactors; two-pass recycle in light water reactors; mulit-pass recycle in burner fast reactora; one-pass recycle in breeder fast reactors.

  12. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  13. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  14. Recycling of auto shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Nourreddine, Menad

    2007-01-31

    Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15% of the vehicle's weight can be disposed of at landfill sites and by 2015, this will be reduced to 5%. The draft directive states that a further 10% can be incinerated. The quantities of shredder fluff are likely to increase in the coming years. This is because of the growing number of cars being scrapped, coupled with the increase in the amount of plastics used in cars. In Sweden, some current projects are focusing on recycling of ASR material. In this paper some different alternatives for using this material are reported. The hypothetical injection of ASR into a blast furnace concentrating on ASR's effect to some blast furnace (BF) parameters has been completed using a blast furnace mass balance model. As a result, in principle, ASR can be used as reducing agent in the BF process if certain conditions are met. The particle size of ASR material must be controlled to ensure optimal gasification of the material in the raceway. Regarding the chemical composition of ASR, the non-ferrous content can affect the pig iron quality, which is difficult to rectify at a later point. The most attractive recycling alternative is to use the products obtained from pyrolysis of ASR in appropriate metallurgical processes.

  15. Influenza A virus recycling revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

  16. Towards sustainability in water recycling.

    PubMed

    Sala, L; Serra, M

    2004-01-01

    Those like us who believe in and spread the gospel of planned wastewater reclamation and reuse usually emphasize that this is a step towards sustainability in water resource management, but this is something that is very seldom analyzed. This paper discusses, from a critical point of view, issues such as goals in water reuse and influence on water demands, ecological analysis of the cycle of the main pollutants, health aspects and treatment requirements, energy consumption and measurable environmental benefits, in order to provide a set of criteria to assess sustainability in water recycling projects and to decrease the impact of the cultural water cycle on the environment.

  17. Recycling optical fibers for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Paulo; Domingues, Fátima; Alberto, Nélia; Marques, Carlos; Antunes, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Optical fiber sensors has become one of the most promising sensing technologies. Within all the optical fiber sensing technologies, the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) micro-cavities are one of the most attractive, due to the size, linearity and higher sensitivity. In this work we present the recent results, achieved by our group, regarding the production of optical sensors, by recycling optical fibers destroyed through the catastrophic fuse effect. This enabled the production of FPI sensors, in a cost effective way, tailored for the monitoring of several physical parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), refractive index (RI) and hydrostatic pressure.

  18. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  19. Nqrs Data for C9H20BiN7O7S3 [C9H18BiN7O6S3·H2O] (Subst. No. 1193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H20BiN7O7S3 [C9H18BiN7O6S3·H2O] (Subst. No. 1193)

  20. Scenario-based analysis of binning in MWIR detectors for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürüm, Ulas

    2016-05-01

    High resolution imaging is an important aspect of imaging in missile applications especially for automated target recognition and tracking. However it is not without its negative aspects. For similar detector size, increase in the resolution is only possible with decrease in pixel pitch which results a smaller detection area which translates to longer detection ranges. Binning is a relatively mature feature for silicon detectors used for obtaining better signal to noise ratio. In this study; a similar concept is proposed for MWIR detectors with emphasis on security related properties such as detection range and performance of an autonomous/semi-autonomous electro-optical system. The analysis and simulations has been performed for a fixed sample with predefined optical and electrical properties for noise and signal models for the clarity of the subject.

  1. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 µm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 – 20% over northern East Asia and 20 – 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  2. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Fast, J. D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimations of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated the Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can explicitly represent these parameters by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol sizes (12 bins) and BC mixing states (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters between 1 and 40 nm are resolved using additional eight size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-Chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. The BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10-20% over northern East Asia and 20-35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. The application of ATRAS in East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  3. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Fast, J. D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-04-01

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10-20% over northern East Asia and 20-35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under

  4. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  5. Recycling of typical supercapacitor materials.

    PubMed

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Giannouri, Maria; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Lekakou, Constantina; Trapalis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    A simple, facile and low-cost method for recycling of supercapacitor materials is proposed. This process aims to recover some fundamental components of a used supercapacitor, namely the electrolyte salt tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) dissolved in an aprotic organic solvent such as acetonitrile (ACN), the carbonaceous material (activated charcoal, carbon nanotubes) purified, the current collector (aluminium foil) and the separator (paper) for further utilization. The method includes mechanical shredding of the supercapacitor in order to reduce its size, and separation of aluminium foil and paper from the carbonaceous resources containing TEABF4 by sieving. The extraction of TEABF4 from the carbonaceous material was based on its solubility in water and subsequent separation through filtering and distillation. A cyclic voltammetry curve of the recycled carbonaceous material revealed supercapacitor behaviour allowing a potential reutilization. Furthermore, as BF4(-) stemming from TEABF4 can be slowly hydrolysed in an aqueous environment, thus releasing F(-) anions, which are hazardous, we went on to their gradual trapping with calcium acetate and conversion to non-hazardous CaF2.

  6. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  7. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  8. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

  9. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. C.; Adamson, P.; Ainsworth, R.; Capista, D.; Hazelwood, K.; Kourbanis, I.; Mokhov, N. V.; Morris, D. K.; Murphy, M.; Sidorov, V.; Stern, E.; Tropin, I.; Yang, M-J.

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  10. BIN1 Membrane Curvature Sensing and Generation Show Autoinhibition Regulated by Downstream Ligands and PI(4,5)P2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In striated muscles, invaginations from the plasma membrane, termed transverse tubules (T-tubule), function in the excitation–contraction coupling machinery. BIN1 (isoform8) plays a critical role in the biogenesis of T-tubules. BIN1 contains an N-terminal BAR domain to sense and induce membrane curvature, an isoform8-specific polybasic motif (exon10) as the phosphoinositide binding module and a C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain for the recruitment of downstream proteins such as dynamin 2. Previous studies of N-BAR domains focused on elucidating mechanisms of membrane curvature sensing and generation (MC-S&G). Less is known about how MC-S&G is regulated. We found that the SH3 domain binds to the exon10 motif more strongly compared to the proline-rich domain (PRD) of dynamin 2. Furthermore, we found that the MC-S&G ability of full-length BIN1 is inhibited on membranes lacking PI(4,5)P2. Addition of PI(4,5)P2 in the membrane activates BIN1 to sense and induce membrane curvature. Co-presence of the SH3 domain and exon10 motif leads to the strongest phosphoinositide-mediated control of BIN1 function. Addition of SH3 domain ligand (such as PRD peptides), as well as addition of the water-soluble PI(4,5)P2 analogue, can both enhance the MC-S&G ability of BIN1 on membranes without PI(4,5)P2, indicating that the key to activate BIN1 is to disrupt the exon10–SH3 interaction. The nonsense mutation K436X, found in centronuclear myopathy (CNM) patients, abolishes SH3 domain binding with either exon10 or the PRD motif, resulting in increased membrane deformation capacity. Our results suggest an autoinhibition model for BIN1 that involves a synergistic regulation by membrane composition and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25350771

  11. MOBILE ON-SITE RECYCLING OF METALWORKING FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling metalworking fluids through a mobile recycling unit. The specific recycling unit evaluated is based on the technology of filtration, pasteurization, and centrifugation. Metal...

  12. Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  13. Economic feasibility of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, B.C.; Rosholt, D.L.; Nichols, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive scrap metal has traditionally been disposed of by burial in low-level waste repositories, an option that will become increasingly unattractive if burial costs rise as projected. This paper will examine recycling opportunities that may arise from two divergent economic trends: (1) escalating burial costs, and (2) historically flat product costs from state-of-the-art metal recycle operations. Emphasis will be placed on recycling the radioactive scrap steel (RSS) that will arise from D&D of Government and commercial nuclear facilities in the western United States. An effort is underway to compare processes for recycling RSS at least cost to the generator, least impact to the environment, and minimum worker exposure to radionuclide hazards. An experienced industry team with expertise in radioactive metals recycling, commercial steel recycling, and state-of-the-art metal recycle facilities design has been assembled under subcontract for this purpose. Methods for evaluating process options to arrive at an optimized solution will be discussed in the paper. An analysis of burial versus recycle costs for RSS will also be presented.

  14. Recycling Primer: Getting Back to Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

    The disposal of garbage is a complex issue. Four strategies have been developed to attack the problem. They deal with: (1) waste reduction; (2) recycling; (3) energy recovery; and (4) land filling. This handbook emphasizes recycling as a method of handling the problem of dealing with solid wastes. Included are a list of the categories and uses of…

  15. Recycling in the states: 1994 update

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1995-03-01

    Recycling fell off the radar scope of most state and federal legislators in 1994. Most states waited to see if local governments could meet recycling goals and if market development efforts would be fruit. The few laws that passed only made minor changes to existing laws. On the federal level, Congress did even less. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was not reauthorized, newspaper recycled-content legislation died in committee, and beverage container deposit legislation never came to a vote. 1995 will probably be no different than 1994. Republicans control both houses of Congress for the first time in 40 years. Recycling, however, is not a partisan issue. State and national republican legislators have introduced many pro-recycling bills. State action also will be affected by the rise in prices in 1994 for paper, plastic, and aluminum recyclables. Starting with old corrugated container price increases in early 1994 and continuing throughout the year for most grades of waste paper, prices for recyclables were at or near historic highs. If prices remain strong in 1995, it is unlikely that state legislators will see the need for additional recycling legislation.

  16. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  17. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  18. Idea Notebook: Recycling with an Educational Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerth, Tom; Wilson, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Four students at St. Louis University High School developed a project to clean up the environment while saving energy and natural resources. Aluminum and steel cans were recycled and the money was used to buy and plant trees. Students learned about recycling, organization, money management, and improving the environment. (JMM)

  19. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2016-07-12

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  20. Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

  1. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  2. Pedagogical Recycling: How Colleagues Change Colleagues' Minds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    A teacher-researcher uses the metaphor of recycling along a continuum to describe how teachers adapt the ideas of their colleagues with varying degrees of change based on their different contexts. The objective of recycling is not only to reduce waste but also to extend use and the key to lasting changes in mind is sustained participation in…

  3. The cost of recycling at the curb

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1993-10-01

    The cost for a truck and a crew to collect commingled residential recyclables five days a week is between $104,000 and $148,000 per year. Route cost does not include processing cost, revenue from the sale of recyclables, or the cost of containers. Per-ton costs vary depending on crew size, truck capacity, set-out rate, distance between stops, and other factors. On a typical suburban route, per-ton cost will probably be between $115 and $120 per ton. To gain better insight into the costs of collecting recyclables, NSWMA's Waste Recycles Council (WRC) decided to determine the yearly cost of operating a recycling collection route and then apply those costs to a typical suburban route, testing the effect of variations in crew size, truck size, and set-out rates. WRC members wanted to understand all the costs involved in collecting recyclables. They wanted a complete list of recycling collection costs. They also wanted to know which collection variables were the most important. This led to the decision to use the full-cost accounting methodology to allocate costs. All the operating and capital costs applicable to recycling including collection and processing equipment, labor, buildings, land, administration, and overhead would be included. Another reason for using full cost accounting is that several states require it for all solid waste management systems.

  4. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  5. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  6. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  7. Recycling opportunities for neighbourhoods and communities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses recycling paper, glass, plastics, and metals. It presents a community technology approach to recycling, and reviews present efforts in repair and renovation, reuse, and recycling. A final chapter on the appropriateness of recycling technologies to neighborhoods and communities concludes that only a paper recycling plant can be supported by a neighborhood (100 people) and a pulp packaging unit would require a community (1000 people). A district (10,000) people would be required to support a small-scale cellulose insulation manufacturing plant, 100,000 people are needed to support a glass/resin tile production plant, and 1,000,000 people are needed to support small-scale aluminum smelting.

  8. Multiple light recycling with the Carambola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2006-08-01

    The Carambola is an optical device designed to allow the deterministic and multiple recycling of light rays. The rays transit through the source a defined number of times before exiting in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled. The brightness enhancement by light recycling (the optical light recycling factor) with the Carambola depends on the reflectivity of the reflecting walls of the Carambola, as well as on the size of the source and on the optical thickness of the source. The results of a ray-tracing simulation and an analytical model are promising an optical light recycling factor up to three for a Xenon high-pressure arc discharge lamp.

  9. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  10. Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Hui, David Chi Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

  11. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  12. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J.; Hellickson, D.A.; Dudek, F.J.

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.

    PubMed

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-04

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  14. Generalized Teleportation and Entanglement Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  15. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

  16. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    SciTech Connect

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these {open_quotes}nuisance{close_quotes} and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O`Leary, and as a demonstration zone where {open_quotes}innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.{close_quotes} Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period.

  17. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  18. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  19. Internet Addiction and Its Relationship with Self-Efficacy Level among Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrekebat, Amjad Farhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the Internet addiction and its relationship to self-efficacy level among Al-Hussein Bin Talal University students. The study sample consisted of 300 female and male students, who were selected randomly. The participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of two scales: Internet addiction which was…

  20. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Becraft, Eric D; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Ohlsson, J Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Swingley, Wesley D

    2015-12-04

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This "microbial dark matter" represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum "Calescamantes" (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs.

  1. Single-Cell-Genomics-Facilitated Read Binning of Candidate Phylum EM19 Genomes from Geothermal Spring Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Becraft, Eric D.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Ohlsson, J. Ingemar; Briggs, Brandon R.; Kanbar, Jad; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen R.; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of microbial life remains uncatalogued due to the inability to cultivate these organisms in the laboratory. This “microbial dark matter” represents a substantial portion of the tree of life and of the populations that contribute to chemical cycling in many ecosystems. In this work, we leveraged an existing single-cell genomic data set representing the candidate bacterial phylum “Calescamantes” (EM19) to calibrate machine learning algorithms and define metagenomic bins directly from pyrosequencing reads derived from Great Boiling Spring in the U.S. Great Basin. Compared to other assembly-based methods, taxonomic binning with a read-based machine learning approach yielded final assemblies with the highest predicted genome completeness of any method tested. Read-first binning subsequently was used to extract Calescamantes bins from all metagenomes with abundant Calescamantes populations, including metagenomes from Octopus Spring and Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park and Gongxiaoshe Spring in Yunnan Province, China. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Calescamantes are heterotrophic, facultative anaerobes, which can utilize oxidized nitrogen sources as terminal electron acceptors for respiration in the absence of oxygen and use proteins as their primary carbon source. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, the geographically separate Calescamantes populations were highly similar in their predicted metabolic capabilities and core gene content, respiring O2, or oxidized nitrogen species for energy conservation in distant but chemically similar hot springs. PMID:26637598

  2. 77 FR 38127 - The Designation of Abubakar Shekau, Also Known as Abu Mohammed Abubakar bin Mohammed, Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Designation of Abubakar Shekau, Also Known as Abu Mohammed Abubakar bin Mohammed, Also Known as Shekau, Also Known as Abu Muhammed Abubakar Bi Muhammed, Also Known as Shehu, Also Known as Shayku, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant...

  3. Test Anxiety & Its Relation to Perceived Academic Self-Efficacy among Al Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    sa'ad alzboon, Habis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the degree of perceived academic self-efficacy and the relationship nature between test anxiety and perceived academic self-efficacy among students of Al Hussein Bin Talal University (AHU). Moreover, to identify the degree of available statistical significance differences that are attributed to gender, college and…

  4. Toward an Instructional Philosophy: "A Theoretical Framework for Teaching and Training at Salman Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qandile, Yasine A.; Al-Qasim, Wajeeh Q.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a clear instructional philosophy for Salman bin Abdulaziz University as a fundamental basis for teaching and training as well as a theoretical framework for curriculum design and development. The study attempts to answer the main questions about pertaining to the basic structure of contemporary higher…

  5. Sampling plans for the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and Liposcelis decolor (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat.

    PubMed

    Opit, G P; Throne, J E; Flinn, P W

    2009-08-01

    Psocids are an emerging problem in grain storage, handling, and processing facilities in the United States. We used data from two steel bins each containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., to develop sampling plans for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein), Liposcelis decolor (Pearman) (both Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), and a mixture of the two species. Taylor's coefficients a (a sampling factor) and b (an index of aggregation) for these pests were calculated and incorporated into sampling protocols to improve accuracy. The optimal binomial sample sizes for estimating populations of these psocids at densities of < 25 psocids per refuge were large; therefore, we recommend the use of numerical sampling within this range of densities. Numerical sampling of L. entomophila and L. decolor at densities of < 25 psocids per refuge should not be too laborious given the low psocid numbers involved; we recommend using 10 refuges per bin. For presence-absence sampling of L. entomophila or L. decolor, 20 refuges per bin should be used at densities of 25-100 psocids per refuge. The sampling plans we have developed based on the use of cardboard refuges are convenient for use in steel bins containing wheat because they are inexpensive, provide a rapid assessment of psocid population incidence, and are easy to implement. These sampling plans can be used to monitor populations of and the efficacy of management strategies used against L. entomophila and L. decolor.

  6. Multi-market impacts of market based recycling initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    In 1994 states enacted 110 new laws concerning recycling. These laws range from mandatory recycling programs to tax credits for businesses that use recycled material. All of the policies move to accomplish the end of more recycling. However, upon close examination of the recycling externality, one finds that recycling is not the appropriate end. Rather, recycling is one possible means of accomplishing the end of waste management. In this context, recycling finds its place after waste reduction, reuse and composting. Policy makers must consider the impacts of recycling initiatives on all parts of the waste cycle . In this paper, the multi-market impacts of three of the more popular policy instruments: recycling subsidies, per-bag fees, and a disposal tax/reuse subsidy are considered through close analysis of the consumer choice problem. Although all three policies encourage recycling, they differ in terms of the amount of waste created, reused, composted, illegally burned and dumped.

  7. Plasma power recycling at the divertor surface

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xian -Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2016-12-03

    With a divertor made of solid materials like carbon and tungsten, plasma ions are expected to be recycled at the divertor surface with a time-averaged particle recycling coefficient very close to unity in steady-state operation. This means that almost every plasma ion (hydrogen and helium) will be returned to the plasma, mostly as neutrals. The power flux deposited by the plasma on the divertor surface, on the other hand, can have varying recycling characteristics depending on the material choice of the divertor; the run-time atomic composition of the surface, which can be modified by material mix due to impurity migration in the chamber; and the surface morphology change over time. In general, a high-Z–material (such as tungsten) surface tends to reflect light ions and produce stronger power recycling, while a low-Z–material (such as carbon) surface tends to have a larger sticking coefficient for light ions and hence lower power recycling. Here, an explicit constraint on target plasma density and temperature is derived from the truncated bi-Maxwellian sheath model, in relation to the absorbed power load and power recycling coefficient at the divertor surface. Lastly, it is shown that because of the surface recombination energy flux, the attached plasma has a sharper response to power recycling in comparison to a detached plasma.

  8. Recycling in 1993: Ebbs and flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rabasca, L.

    1993-12-01

    This has been a year of ups and downs for recycling as markets and capacity have ebbed and flowed. The beginning of 1993 started strong as prices for most commodities began to rise. However, by spring, prices for all commodities began to falter. By early fall, prices for many commodities, especially paper, had fallen to near historical lows. Overall, glass and steel markets remained stable but flat in 1993, while markets for paper, plastics, and aluminum weakened. By June, markets for recyclables had become so weak that Mindis Recycling, a buy-back center in Atlanta, began charging patrons 4 cents per pounds to process paper, glass, and plastic brought to the facility. Patrons are required to pay a minimum of $5 to drop off their recyclables. Although participation at the buyback center has declined since a fee was charged, company officials say they cannot change the policy unless market prices for recyclables increase. A number of factors have caused these low prices. Mainly, a weak world economy coupled with an oversupply of material on the world market. Germany's aggressive recycling law, an influx of aluminum from the former Soviet Union, and plans for China and several other Asian countries to begin producing their own plastics have all wreaked havoc on US markets for recyclables.

  9. Crustal recycling and the aleutian arc

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, R.W.; Kay, S.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Two types of crustal recycling transfer continental crust back into its mantle source. The first of these, upper crustal recycling, involves elements that have been fractionated by the hydrosphere-sediment system, and are subducted as a part of the oceanic crust. The subduction process (S-process) then fractionates these elements, and those not removed at shallow tectonic levels and as excess components of arc magmas are returned to the mantle. Newly determined trace element composition of Pacific oceanic sedimants are variable and mixing is necessary during the S-process, if sediment is to provide excess element in the ratios observed in Aleutian arc magmas. Only a small fraction of the total sediment subducted at the Aleutian trench is required to furnish the excess elements in Aleutian arc magmas. Ba and {sub 10}Be data indicate that this small fraction includes a contribution from the youngest subducted sediment. The second type of recycling, lower crustal recycling, involves crystal cumulates of both arc and oceanic crustal origin, and residues from crustal melting within arc crust. Unlike the silicic sediments, recycled lower crust is mafic to ultramafic in composition. Trace element analyses of xenoliths representing Aleutian arc lower crust are presented. Recycling by delamination of lower crust and attached mantle lithosphere may occur following basalt eclogite phase transformations that are facilitated by terrane suturing events that weld oceanic island arcs to the continents. The relative importance of upper and lower crustal recycling exerts a primary control on continental crustal composition.

  10. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  11. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    PubMed

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  12. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy".

  13. Plasma power recycling at the divertor surface

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Xian -Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2016-12-03

    With a divertor made of solid materials like carbon and tungsten, plasma ions are expected to be recycled at the divertor surface with a time-averaged particle recycling coefficient very close to unity in steady-state operation. This means that almost every plasma ion (hydrogen and helium) will be returned to the plasma, mostly as neutrals. The power flux deposited by the plasma on the divertor surface, on the other hand, can have varying recycling characteristics depending on the material choice of the divertor; the run-time atomic composition of the surface, which can be modified by material mix due to impurity migrationmore » in the chamber; and the surface morphology change over time. In general, a high-Z–material (such as tungsten) surface tends to reflect light ions and produce stronger power recycling, while a low-Z–material (such as carbon) surface tends to have a larger sticking coefficient for light ions and hence lower power recycling. Here, an explicit constraint on target plasma density and temperature is derived from the truncated bi-Maxwellian sheath model, in relation to the absorbed power load and power recycling coefficient at the divertor surface. Lastly, it is shown that because of the surface recombination energy flux, the attached plasma has a sharper response to power recycling in comparison to a detached plasma.« less

  14. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites. PMID:24288478

  15. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  16. Experimental study of two material decomposition methods using multi-bin photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Kevin C.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Gilat Schmidt, Taly

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors with multi-bin pulse height analysis (PHA) are capable of extracting energy dependent information which can be exploited for material decomposition. Iterative decomposition algorithms have been previously implemented which require prior knowledge of the source spectrum, detector spectral response, and energy threshold settings. We experimentally investigated two material decomposition methods that do not require explicit knowledge of the source spectrum and spectral response. In the first method, the effective spectrum for each energy bin is estimated from calibration transmission measurements, followed by an iterative maximum likelihood decomposition algorithm. The second investigated method, first proposed and tested through simulations by Alvarez, uses a linearized maximum likelihood estimator which requires calibration transmission measurements. The Alvarez method has the advantage of being non-iterative. This study experimentally quantified and compared the material decomposition bias, as a percentage of material thickness, and standard deviation resulting from these two material decomposition estimators. Multi-energy x-ray transmission measurements were acquired through varying thicknesses of Teon, Delrin, and neoprene at two different flux settings and decomposed into PMMA and aluminum thicknesses using the investigated methods. In addition, a series of 200 equally spaced projections of a rod phantom were acquired over 360°. The multi-energy sinograms were decomposed using both empirical methods and then reconstructed using filtered backprojection producing two images representing each basis material. The Alvarez method decomposed Delrin into PMMA with a bias of 0.5-19% and decomposed neoprene into aluminum with a bias of less than 3%. The spectral estimation method decomposed Delrin into PMMA with a bias of 0.6-16% and decomposed neoprene into aluminum with a bias of 0.1-58%. In general, the spectral estimation method resulted in

  17. The Effectiveness of the Curriculum Biography of the Prophet in the Development of Social Intelligence Skills of Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khateeb, Omar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find out how the effectiveness of the curriculum biography of the Prophet in the development of social intelligence skills of Al-Hussein Bin Talal University students and the study sample consisted of 365 students from Al-Hussein Bin Talal University for the first semester 2014-2015 students were selected in accessible manner.…

  18. Cooperative commercial recycling programs for small business

    SciTech Connect

    Tennes, A.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes a pilot commercial recycling program implemented in Illinois from June 1994 through June 1995. The Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) was responsible for program development, implementation and education, solicitation of proposals and funding, and procurement of equipment. Despite poor program continuation response by merchants, the pilot was considered successful in diverting a significant amount of material from landfill and demonstrating that routing density, materials standardization, and container sharing can provide cost-effective commercial recycling. A similar program implemented by SWANCC is also described, which incorporates a committment from volunteer Environmental Control Commission members to actively encourage businesses to continue recycling.

  19. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of MSE`s Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less.

  20. Recycling Endosomes Supply AMPA Receptors for LTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mikyoung; Penick, Esther C.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Kauer, Julie A.; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2004-09-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane for LTP. Stimuli that triggered LTP promoted not only AMPA receptor insertion but also generalized recycling of cargo and membrane from endocytic compartments. Thus, recycling endosomes supply AMPA receptors for LTP and provide a mechanistic link between synaptic potentiation and membrane remodeling during synapse modification.

  1. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  2. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]<150 ppm) and thus low calculated zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrnsat). Within the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak, TzrnTi values are predominantly at or below average Tzrnsat, and there is no apparent correlation between age and TzrnTi. At temperatures appropriate for granodiorite/tonalite melt generation (at or above biotite dehydration; >825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically <200 ppm and frequently 100-150 ppm for individual large intrusions or intrusive suites). We infer from this that [Zr] in anatectic melts is probably not limited by zircon supply and is primarily controlled by melting parameters. Comparison of the data from TIS with one of these intrusions, the smaller but otherwise

  3. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  4. A chromosome bin map of 2148 expressed sequence tag loci of wheat homoeologous group 7.

    PubMed

    Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Lazo, G R; Hegstad, J; Wentz, M J; Kianian, P M A; Simons, K; Gehlhar, S; Rust, J L; Syamala, R R; Obeori, K; Bhamidimarri, S; Karunadharma, P; Chao, S; Anderson, O D; Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Gill, B S; Linkiewicz, A M; Ratnasiri, A; Dubcovsky, J; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Miftahudin; Ross, K; Gustafson, J P; Radhawa, H S; Dilbirligi, M; Gill, K S; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N L V; Greene, R A; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; Sorrells, M E; Feril, O; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Conley, E J; Anderson, J A; Choi, D W; Fenton, D; Close, T J; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Kianian, S F

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a high-density chromosome bin map of homoeologous group 7 in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), to identify gene distribution in these chromosomes, and to perform comparative studies of wheat with rice and barley. We mapped 2148 loci from 919 EST clones onto group 7 chromosomes of wheat. In the majority of cases the numbers of loci were significantly lower in the centromeric regions and tended to increase in the distal regions. The level of duplicated loci in this group was 24% with most of these loci being localized toward the distal regions. One hundred nineteen EST probes that hybridized to three fragments and mapped to the three group 7 chromosomes were designated landmark probes and were used to construct a consensus homoeologous group 7 map. An additional 49 probes that mapped to 7AS, 7DS, and the ancestral translocated segment involving 7BS also were designated landmarks. Landmark probe orders and comparative maps of wheat, rice, and barley were produced on the basis of corresponding rice BAC/PAC and genetic markers that mapped on chromosomes 6 and 8 of rice. Identification of landmark ESTs and development of consensus maps may provide a framework of conserved coding regions predating the evolution of wheat genomes.

  5. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    DOE PAGES

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons betweenmore » multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.« less

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) from Tanjung Bin Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzati Raihan Ramzi, Nurul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Zulkhairi Maarof, Mohamad; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) obtained from Tanjung Bin Power Plant Station and compare them with the characteristics of natural river sand (as a replacement of fine aggregates). Bottom ash is the by-product of coal combustion during the electricity generating process. However, excess bottom ash production due to the high production of electricity in Malaysia has caused several environmental problems. Therefore, several tests have been conducted in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottom ash such as specific gravity, density, particle size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in the attempt to produce sustainable material from waste. The results indicated that the natural fine aggregate and coal bottom ash have very different physical and chemical properties. Bottom ash was classified as Class C ash. The porous structure, angular and rough texture of bottom ash affected its specific gravity and particle density. From the tests, it was found that bottom ash is recommended to be used in concrete as a replacement for fine aggregates.

  7. Time-bin-encoding-based remote states generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers through noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shi-Lei; Chen, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2015-02-01

    We design proposals to generate a remote Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and a W state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators (MTRs) through noisy channels by utilizing time-bin encoding processes and fast-optical-switch-based polarization rotation operations. The polarization and phase noise induced by noisy channels generally affect the time of state generation but not its success probability and fidelity. Besides, the above proposals can be generalized to n-qubit between two or among n remote nodes with success probability unity under ideal conditions. Furthermore, the proposals are robust for regular noise-changeable channels for the n-node case. This method is also useful in other remote quantum information processing tasks through noisy channels. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264042, 61465013, 11465020, and 11165015), the Program for Chun Miao Excellent Talents of Jilin Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 201316), and the Talent Program of Yanbian University of China (Grant No. 950010001).

  8. Taking Halo-Independent Dark Matter Methods Out of the Bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2014-10-30

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  9. Taking Halo-independent dark matter methods out of the bin

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew E-mail: ykahn@mit.edu

    2014-10-01

    We develop a new halo-independent strategy for analyzing emerging DM hints, utilizing the method of extended maximum likelihood. This approach does not require the binning of events, making it uniquely suited to the analysis of emerging DM direct detection hints. It determines a preferred envelope, at a given confidence level, for the DM velocity integral which best fits the data using all available information and can be used even in the case of a single anomalous scattering event. All of the halo-independent information from a direct detection result may then be presented in a single plot, allowing simple comparisons between multiple experiments. This results in the halo-independent analogue of the usual mass and cross-section plots found in typical direct detection analyses, where limit curves may be compared with best-fit regions in halo-space. The method is straightforward to implement, using already-established techniques, and its utility is demonstrated through the first unbinned halo-independent comparison of the three anomalous events observed in the CDMS-Si detector with recent limits from the LUX experiment.

  10. Protein Folding Mechanism of the Dimeric AmphiphysinII/Bin1 N-BAR Domain.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Tobias; Balbach, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The human AmphyphisinII/Bin1 N-BAR domain belongs to the BAR domain superfamily, whose members sense and generate membrane curvatures. The N-BAR domain is a 57 kDa homodimeric protein comprising a six helix bundle. Here we report the protein folding mechanism of this protein as a representative of this protein superfamily. The concentration dependent thermodynamic stability was studied by urea equilibrium transition curves followed by fluorescence and far-UV CD spectroscopy. Kinetic unfolding and refolding experiments, including rapid double and triple mixing techniques, allowed to unravel the complex folding behavior of N-BAR. The equilibrium unfolding transition curve can be described by a two-state process, while the folding kinetics show four refolding phases, an additional burst reaction and two unfolding phases. All fast refolding phases show a rollover in the chevron plot but only one of these phases depends on the protein concentration reporting the dimerization step. Secondary structure formation occurs during the three fast refolding phases. The slowest phase can be assigned to a proline isomerization. All kinetic experiments were also followed by fluorescence anisotropy detection to verify the assignment of the dimerization step to the respective folding phase. Based on these experiments we propose for N-BAR two parallel folding pathways towards the homodimeric native state depending on the proline conformation in the unfolded state.

  11. Michael Jackson, Bin Laden and I: functions of positive and negative, public and private flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.

  12. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns.

  13. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  14. Extrasynaptic vesicle recycling in mature hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2011-11-08

    Fast neuronal signalling relies on highly regulated vesicle fusion and recycling at specialized presynaptic terminals. Recently, examples of non-classical neurotransmission have also been reported, where fusion of vesicles can occur at sites remote from conventional synapses. This has potentially broad biological implications, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here we show that a complete vesicle recycling pathway can occur at discrete axonal sites in mature hippocampal neurons and that extrasynaptic fusion is a robust feature of native tissue. We demonstrate that laterally mobile vesicle clusters trafficking between synaptic terminals become transiently stabilized by evoked action potentials and undergo complete but delayed Ca(2+)-dependent fusion along axons. This fusion is associated with dynamic actin accumulation and, subsequently, vesicles can be locally recycled, re-acidified and re-used. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural work demonstrates that extrasynaptic fusion sites can have apposed postsynaptic specializations, suggesting that mobile vesicle recycling may underlie highly dynamic neuron-neuron communication.

  15. Reuse and Recycling Opportunities and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn which about deconstruction, and which materials are good candidates for reuse and recycling during the pre-demolition planning.  Learn more about how to make the site sustainable after demolition.

  16. Technology development for lunar base water recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review previous and ongoing work in aerospace water recycling and identify research activities required to support development of a lunar base. The development of a water recycle system for use in the life support systems envisioned for a lunar base will require considerable research work. A review of previous work on aerospace water recycle systems indicates that more efficient physical and chemical processes are needed to reduce expendable and power requirements. Development work on biological processes that can be applied to microgravity and lunar environments also needs to be initiated. Biological processes are inherently more efficient than physical and chemical processes and may be used to minimize resupply and waste disposal requirements. Processes for recovering and recycling nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur also need to be developed to support plant growth units. The development of efficient water quality monitors to be used for process control and environmental monitoring also needs to be initiated.

  17. Fermilab Recycler damper requirements and design

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Tupikov, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The design of transverse dampers for the Fermilab Recycler storage ring is described. An observed instability and analysis of subsequent measurements where used to identify the requirements. The digital approach being implemented is presented.

  18. Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross/Saltcake

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.

  19. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  20. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  1. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, K.W,; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-07-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling.

  2. Recycle with Heating: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, A.; Mason, G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an apparatus (built from domestic plumbing pipes and fittings) that uses only water and electricity (as consumables) to investigate basic mass and heat balances in a system with recycle. Also describes experiments using the apparatus. (JN)

  3. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  4. A mechanism for crustal recycling on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.; Bindschadler, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Entrainment of lower crust by convective mantle downflows is proposed as a crustal recycling mechanism on Venus. The mechanism is characterized by thin sheets of crust being pulled into the mantle by viscous flow stresses. Finite element models of crust/mantle interaction are used to explore tectonic conditions under which crustal entrainment may occur. The recycling scenarios suggested by the numerical models are analogous to previously studied problems for which analytic and experimental relationships assessing entrainment rates have been derived. We use these relationships to estimate crustal recycling rates on Venus. Estimated rates are largely determined by (1) strain rate at the crust/mantle interface (higher strain rate leads to greater entrainment); and (2) effective viscosity of the lower crust (viscosity closer to that of mantle lithosphere leads to greater entrainment). Reasonable geologic strain rates and available crustal flow laws suggest entrainment can recycle approximately equal 1 cu km of crust per year under favorable conditions.

  5. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and...

  6. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and...

  7. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and...

  8. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and...

  9. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  10. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered.

  11. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    PubMed

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  12. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    PubMed

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  13. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  14. Utility Plastic Recycling, Inc.: Closing the loop in-house

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, S.

    1995-07-01

    Despite current favorable markets, ``closing the loop`` in recycling can remain a vexing problem. New York City`s Utility Plastic Recycling, Inc., has eliminated some of the guesswork by manufacturing recycled products on the premises of its materials recovery facility (MRF). Utility Plastic is a member of the Waste Management of New York (WMNY) family of companies that also includes JLJ Recycling, Commercial Recycling Technology, and Evergreen Recycling. The company is a third-generation firm that began commercially recycling glass and cardboard collected from the Knickerbocker Brewery in 1928. WMNY`s service in every aspect of recycling -- including program planning and implementation, collection, processing, manufacturing, and marketing -- makes them one of the first true close-loop recyclers. Processing almost half of the recyclables in New York City`s residential program, in addition to materials collected from several suburban communities and thousands of commercial contracts, also makes them one of the largest.

  15. Pavement recycling. Executive summary and report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) initiated Demonstration Project 39 (DP 39) Recycling Asphalt Pavements in June 1976. The project showed that asphalt pavement recycling was a technically viable rehabitation technique, and it was estimated that the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) would amount to approximately 15 percent of the total hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production by the mid-1980s. It was expected that most of the asphalt pavement removed would be reused in new pavement construction or overlays.

  16. Used oil recycling: Closing the loop

    SciTech Connect

    Arner, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recycling and re-refining of used oil. Recommended best management practices to encourage the safe management, collection, recovery and purchasing of this resource are identified. Management practices address handling, separating, and specifications. Other topics outlined include collection methods, market research, state studies and programs, environmental and economic factors of recycling, re-refining, and oil filters. References, studies, regulations, and other sources of information are noted in the bibliography.

  17. Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

    2005-12-01

    The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

  18. Ash recycling - the coming of age!

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.M.; Roffman, H.K.; Roethel, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    A major concern of the Waste-To-Energy (WTE) industry is ash disposal and the uncertainty of controlled long term ash management. Ash management costs have risen steadily over the last ten years making it the fastest rising cost segment of the WTE industry. The challenge of how to curb the rising cost while maintaining the protection of human health and the environment has been accomplished by responsibly recycling the ash on a commercial basis. American Ash Recycling Corp. (AAR), utilizing the Duos Engineering (USA), Inc. patent pending ash recycling technology, has promoted ash recycling on a commercial basis in the United States. An important product of the processing and recycling of non-hazardous municipal waste combustor (MWC) ash is Treated Ash Aggregate (TAA). Additionally, ferrous and non-ferrous metals are recovered and unburned materials removed and returned to the WTE facility for re-combustion. The TAA is sized and then treated by the WES-PHix{reg_sign} immobilization process in order to reduce the potential solubility and environmental availability of the metal constituents of the MWC ash. The TAA is available for commercial use in such applications as an aggregate substitute in roadway materials, asphalt and concrete applications, as structural fill, and as landfill cover. Commercial and technical considerations that must be addressed before ash can be beneficially recycled are: permitting requirements, physical and chemical characteristics, potential end uses, environmental concerns (product safety), product market development, and economic viability. True recycling only occurs if all of these considerations can be addressed. This paper presents the details of AAR`s most recent experience in the development of an ash recycling facility in the State of Maine and the associated beneficial use of the TAA product. Each of the considerations listed above are discussed with a special focus on the permitting process.

  19. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J.; Murray, P.

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  20. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  1. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.F.; Miller, R.N.

    1986-09-02

    A process is described for solvent refining coal to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream by forming a slurry of finely divided coal and a process solvent therefor, which process comprises the steps of: (1) contacting the slurry with a hydrogen-rich gas; (2) heating the slurry in the presence of the hydrogen-rich gas. (3) permitting the heated slurry to react and to dissolve at least some of the coal. (4) adding fresh hydrogen as required to form a liquefied coal slurry; (5) passing the liquefied coal slurry to a separator in which a vapor product stream and a condensed product stream are separated; (6) passing the condensed product stream to a vacuum distillation still; (7) removing from the vacuum distillation still a residual bottoms product, wherein the residual bottoms product from the still is mixed with a suitable extractions solvent and is passed to supercritical extraction system to separate an asphaltene-rich stream comprised of pentane solubles and benzene solubles from a preasphaltene-rich stream which includes solids residue material, the preasphaltene-rich stream comprised of benzene insolubles, pyridine solubles, pyridine insolubles and ash; (8) recycling at least a portion of the preasphaltene-rich stream together with the solid residue material as process solvent, with less than 10 percent of the process solvent comprising asphaltenes; (9) withdrawing the asphaltene-rich stream and passing the asphaltene-rich stream to a solvent recovery system to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream and an extraction solvent stream.

  2. Recycling of aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshinori; Izawa, Norihisa; Kuramasu, Yukio

    1999-03-01

    Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was separated from the alumina short fiber-reinforced composites. The separation ratio of the matrix from the SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite was low and about 20 vol pct. The separation mechanism was discussed thermodynamically using interface free energies. Since the flux/fiber interface energy is smaller than the aluminum/fiber interface energy, the replacement of aluminum with fluxes in composites takes place easily. Gases released by the decomposition of fluxes act an important role in pushing out the molten matrix metal from the composite. The role was confirmed by the great amount cavity formed in the composite after the matrix metal flowed out.

  3. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  4. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  5. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  6. Characterization of cold recycled asphalt mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tia, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this study, the long-term behavior of the cold-recycled asphalt mixtures was investigated through nine experimental designs. The scope of the study covered two types of pavement material, three levels of oxydized condition of the old binder and one type of virgin aggregate. The added softening agents included a high-float asphalt emulsion AE-150, a foamed asphalt, and the rejuvenating agents, Reclamite, Mobilsol and DUTREX 739. The Water Sensitivity Test was used to evaluate the resistance of the recycled mixes to water. The results of the study indicated that most of the rejuvenating action of the added binder on the old binder took place during the compaction process. The binders of the recycled mixes which underwent the initial softening during the compaction process generally increased in stiffness with increasing curing time. The results indicated that the gyratory stability index and the gyratory elasto-plastic index could be used to determine the optimum binder content of a recycled mix. However, they could not be used to estimate the resilient modulus or the Marshall stability of the mix.A higher compactive effort generally produced a higher resilient modulus and Marshall stability of the recycled mix. When the binder content is too high, a higher compactive effort generally produces a lower Hveem R-value.The structural performance of these recycled mixes was compared to that of an asphalt concrete using a linear elastic multilayer analysis.

  7. Maryland's program for buying recycled paper (innovations)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.

    1980-07-01

    Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent of the total paper purchases by 1978, 25 percent by 1981, and 40 percent by 1985. Since the passage of the law, the state has purchased 272,000 reams of recycled bond paper, 40,000 corrugated boxes, and 25,000 cases of recycled paper towels. State agencies have also purchased an additional 438,616 dollars of recycled towels, napkins, and toilet tissue. These purchases, totaling over 1.2 million dollars, have saved approximately 81 billion Btu's or enough home heating oil for 643 homes for a year. Over 1,700 tons of solid waste have been withheld from the Nation's solid waste stream. The recycled paper has generally been less expensive than virgin paper. All of these benefits have been achieved without loss of quality. Program implementation and problems are discussed.

  8. Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

    2000-04-28

    It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan.

  9. Constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Robert Aaron; Runge, Steven William; Moran, William Michael

    2004-11-01

    In Aplysia californica enterocytes, alanine-stimulated Na+ absorption increases both apical membrane exocytosis and fractional capacitance (fCa; a measure of relative apical membrane surface area). These increases are thought to reduce membrane tension during periods of nutrient absorption that cause the enterocytes to swell osmotically. In the absence of alanine, exocytosis and fCa are constant. These findings imply equal rates of constitutive endocytosis and exocytosis and constitutive recycling of the apical plasma membrane. Thus, the purpose of this study was to confirm and determine the relative extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes. Biotinylated lectins are commonly used to label plasma membranes and to investigate plasma membrane recycling. Of fourteen biotinylated lectins tested, biotinylated wheat germ agglutinin (bWGA) bound preferentially to the enterocytes apical surface. Therefore, we used bWGA, avidin D (which binds tightly to biotin), and the UV fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (AMCA)-conjugated avidin D to assess the extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling. A temperature-dependent (20 vs. 4 degrees C) experimental protocol employed the use of two tissues from each of five snails and resulted in a approximately 60% difference in apical surface fluorescence intensity. Because the extent of membrane recycling is proportional to the difference in surface fluorescence intensity, this difference reveals a relatively high rate of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.

  10. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments.

    PubMed

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  11. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    PubMed

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber.

  12. Economic Feasibility of Recycling Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-12-01

    The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. Taking into consideration the usage of valuable resources and the generation of emissions in the life cycle of photovoltaic technologies dictates proactive planning for a sound PV recycling infrastructure to ensure its sustainability. PV is expected to be a 'green' technology, and properly planning for recycling will offer the opportunity to make it a 'double-green' technology - that is, enhancing life cycle environmental quality. In addition, economic feasibility and a sufficient level of value-added opportunity must be ensured, to stimulate a recycling industry. In this article, we survey mathematical models of the infrastructure of recycling processes of other products and identify the challenges for setting up an efficient one for PV. Then we present an operational model for an actual recycling process of a thin-film PV technology. We found that for the case examined with our model, some of the scenarios indicate profitable recycling, whereas in other scenarios it is unprofitable. Scenario SC4, which represents the most favorable scenario by considering the lower bounds of all costs and the upper bound of all revenues, produces a monthly profit of $107,000, whereas the least favorable scenario incurs a monthly loss of $151,000. Our intent is to extend the model as a foundation for developing a framework for building a generalized model for current-PV and future-PV technologies.

  13. Isotopic constraints on crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isotopic data on clastic and chemical sediments are used with the present-day age distribution of continental crustal rocks to estimate the rates of crustal accretion, growth and recycling throughout earth's history. A new method for interpreting Nd model ages on both chemical and clastic sediments is proposed. A general relationship is derived between the mean crustal residence time of material recycled from the crust to the mantle (i.e., sediments), the mean age of the crust, and the crustal growth and recycling rates. This relationship takes into account the fact that the age distribution of material in the continental crust is generally different from the age distribution of material recycled into the mantle. The episodic nature of the present-day age distribution in crustal rocks results in similar episodicity in the accretion and recycling rates. The results suggest that by about 3.8 Ga ago, about 40 percent of the present continental volume was present. Recycling rates were extremely high 3-4 Ga ago and declined rapidly to an insignificant value of about 0.1 cu km/a during most of the Phanerozoic. The Nd model age pattern on sediments suggests a fairly high rate of growth during the Phanerozoic.

  14. Molybdenum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blossom, John W.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum products recovered specifically for their high molybdenum content. In 1998, 8,000 metric tons (t) of molybdenum was estimated to have been recycled, and the recycling rate was calculated to be 33 percent, with recycling efficiency at about 30 percent.

  15. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of membrane remodeling by Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs family proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Chan; Haohua, Wen; Lanyuan, Lu; Jun, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Membrane curvature is no longer thought of as a passive property of the membrane; rather, it is considered as an active, regulated state that serves various purposes in the cell such as between cells and organelle definition. While transport is usually mediated by tiny membrane bubbles known as vesicles or membrane tubules, such communication requires complex interplay between the lipid bilayers and cytosolic proteins such as members of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) superfamily of proteins. With rapid developments in novel experimental techniques, membrane remodeling has become a rapidly emerging new field in recent years. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are important tools for obtaining atomistic information regarding the structural and dynamic aspects of biological systems and for understanding the physics-related aspects. The availability of more sophisticated experimental data poses challenges to the theoretical community for developing novel theoretical and computational techniques that can be used to better interpret the experimental results to obtain further functional insights. In this review, we summarize the general mechanisms underlying membrane remodeling controlled or mediated by proteins. While studies combining experiments and molecular dynamics simulations recall existing mechanistic models, concurrently, they extend the role of different BAR domain proteins during membrane remodeling processes. We review these recent findings, focusing on how multiscale molecular dynamics simulations aid in understanding the physical basis of BAR domain proteins, as a representative of membrane-remodeling proteins. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21403182) and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. CityU 21300014).

  16. Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation in Eastern China: Results from Bin and Bulk Microphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing; Morrison, H.; Chen, Hongbin; Zhou, Yuquan; Qian, Yun; Wang, Yuan

    2012-01-19

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a 3 spectral-bin microphysics ('SBM') and measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation 4 Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility field campaign in China (AMF-China), the authors 5 examine aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in the typical cloud regimes of the warm and cold 6 seasons in Southeast China: deep convective clouds (DCC) and stratus clouds (SC), 7 respectively. Comparisons with a two-moment bulk microphysics ('Bulk') are performed 8 to gain insights for improving bulk schemes in estimating AIE in weather and climate 9 simulations. For the first time, measurements of aerosol and cloud properties acquired in 10 China are used to evaluate model simulations to better understand AIE in China. It is 11 found that changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration significantly 12 change the timing of storms, the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation, the 13 frequency distribution of precipitation rate, as well as cloud base and top heights for the 14 DCC, but not for the SC. CCN increase cloud droplet number (Nc) and mass 15 concentrations, decrease raindrop number concentration (Nr), and delay the onset of 16 precipitation. It is indicated much higher Nc and the opposite CCN effects on convection 17 and heavy rain with Bulk compared to SBM stem from the fixed CCN prescribed in Bulk. 18 CCN have a significant effect on ice microphysical properties with SBM but not Bulk 19 and different condensation/deposition freezing parameterizations employed could be the 20 main reason. This study provided insights to further improve the bulk scheme to better 21 account for aerosol-cloud interactions in regional and global climate simulations, which 22 will be the focus for a follow-on paper.

  17. Segmented targeted least squares estimator for material decomposition in multi bin PCXDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbhandary, Paurakh L.; Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    We present a fast, noise-efficient, and accurate estimator for material separation using photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) with multiple energy bin capability. The proposed targeted least squares estimator (TLSE) improves a previously proposed A-Table method by incorporating dynamic weighting that allows noise to be closer to the Cramér- Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) throughout the operating range. We explore Cartesian and average-energy segmentation of the basis material space for TLSE, and show that iso-average-energy contours require fewer segments compared to Cartesian segmentation to achieve similar performance. We compare the iso-average-energy TLSE to other proposed estimators - including the gold standard maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and the A-Table1 - in terms of variance, bias and computational efficiency. The variance and bias of this estimator between 0 to 6 cm of aluminum and 0 to 50 cm of water is simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Iso-average energy TLSE achieves an average variance within 2% of CRLB, and mean of absolute error of (3.68 +/- 0.06) x 10-6 cm. Using the same protocol, MLE showed variance-to- CRLB ratio and average bias of 1.0186 +/- 0.0002 and (3.10 +/- 0.06) x 10-6 cm, respectively, but was 50 times slower in our simulation. Compared to the A-Table method, TLSE gives a more homogenous variance-to-CRLB profile in the operating region. We show that variance-to-CRLB for TLSE is lower by as much as ~36% than A-Table method in the peripheral region of operation (thin or thick objects). The TLSE is a computationally efficient and fast method for implementing material separation technique in PCXDs, with performance parameters comparable to the MLE.

  18. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 32: Level-3 SeaWiFS data products. Spatial and temporal binning algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Acker, James G. (Editor); Campbell, Janet W.; Blaisdell, John M.; Darzi, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The level-3 data products from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) are statistical data sets derived from level-2 data. Each data set will be based on a fixed global grid of equal-area bins that are approximately 9 x 9 sq km. Statistics available for each bin include the sum and sum of squares of the natural logarithm of derived level-2 geophysical variables where sums are accumulated over a binning period. Operationally, products with binning periods of 1 day, 8 days, 1 month, and 1 year will be produced and archived. From these accumulated values and for each bin, estimates of the mean, standard deviation, median, and mode may be derived for each geophysical variable. This report contains two major parts: the first (Section 2) is intended as a users' guide for level-3 SeaWiFS data products. It contains an overview of level-0 to level-3 data processing, a discussion of important statistical considerations when using level-3 data, and details of how to use the level-3 data. The second part (Section 3) presents a comparative statistical study of several binning algorithms based on CZCS and moored fluorometer data. The operational binning algorithms were selected based on the results of this study.

  19. Atomic density effects on temperature characteristics and thermal transport at grain boundaries through a proper bin size selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Truong Quoc; Barisik, Murat; Kim, BoHung

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the proper characterization of temperature profiles across grain boundaries (GBs) in order to calculate the correct interfacial thermal resistance (ITR) and reveal the influence of GB geometries onto thermal transport. The solid-solid interfaces resulting from the orientation difference between the (001), (011), and (111) copper surfaces were investigated. Temperature discontinuities were observed at the boundary of grains due to the phonon mismatch, phonon backscattering, and atomic forces between dissimilar structures at the GBs. We observed that the temperature decreases gradually in the GB area rather than a sharp drop at the interface. As a result, three distinct temperature gradients developed at the GB which were different than the one observed in the bulk solid. This behavior extends a couple molecular diameters into both sides of the interface where we defined a thickness at GB based on the measured temperature profiles for characterization. Results showed dependence on the selection of the bin size used to average the temperature data from the molecular dynamics system. The bin size on the order of the crystal layer spacing was found to present an accurate temperature profile through the GB. We further calculated the GB thickness of various cases by using potential energy (PE) distributions which showed agreement with direct measurements from the temperature profile and validated the proper binning. The variation of grain crystal orientation developed different molecular densities which were characterized by the average atomic surface density (ASD) definition. Our results revealed that the ASD is the primary factor affecting the structural disorders and heat transfer at the solid-solid interfaces. Using a system in which the planes are highly close-packed can enhance the probability of interactions and the degree of overlap between vibrational density of states (VDOS) of atoms forming at interfaces, leading to a reduced ITR. Thus, an

  20. Recycling of treated wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Fansham, P.

    1995-11-01

    There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.