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Sample records for recycling evaporator overheads

  1. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  2. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  3. Report on Analyses of WAC Samples of Evaporator Overheads - 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L

    2005-03-18

    In November and December of 2004, the Tank Farm submitted annual samples from 2F, 2H and 3H Evaporator Overhead streams for characterization to verify compliance with the new Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and to look for organic species. With the exception of slightly high ammonia in the 2F evaporator overheads and high radiation control guide number for the 3H and 2F evaporator overhead samples, all the overheads samples were found to be in compliance with the Effluent Treatment Facility WAC. The ammonium concentration in the 2F-evaporator overhead, at 33 mg/L, was above the ETF waste water collection tank (WWCT) limits of 28 mg/L. The RCG Number for the 3H and 2F evaporator samples at, respectively, 1.38E-02 and 8.24E-03 were higher than the WWCT limit of 7.69E-03. The analytical detection limits for americium-241 and radium-226 in the evaporator samples were not consistently met because of low WWCT detection limits and insufficient evaporator samples.

  4. DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M

    2005-04-30

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream

  5. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Shielded Cells Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T. L.; Herman, D. T.; Stone, M.E

    2005-07-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of evaporation of actual Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) recycle material. Samples of the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) were transferred from DWPF to the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Shielded Cells and blended with De-Ionized (DI) water and a small amount of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product. A total of 3000 mL of this feed was concentrated to approximately 90 mL during a semi-batch evaporation test of approximately 17 hours. One interruption occurred during the run when the feed tube developed a split and was replaced. Samples of the resulting condensate and concentrate were collected and analyzed. The resulting analysis of the condensate was compared to the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits for the F/H Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). Results from the test were compared to previous testing using simulants and OLI modeling. Conclusions from this work included the following: (1) The evaporation of DWPF recycle to achieve a 30X concentration factor was successfully demonstrated. The feed blend of OGCT and SMECT material was concentrated from 3000 mL to approximately 90 mL during testing, a concentration of approximately 33X. (2) Foaming was observed during the run. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam was added seven times throughout the run at 100 parts per million (ppm) per addition. The addition of this antifoam was very effective in reducing the foam level, but the impact diminished over time and additional antifoam was required every 2 to 3 hours during the run. (3) No scale or solids formed on the evaporator vessel, but splatter was observed in the headspace of the evaporator vessel. No scaling formed on the stainless steel thermocouple. (4) The majority of the analytes met the F/H ETP WAC. However, the detection limits for selected species (Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-240, Am-243, and Cm-244) exceeded the ETP WAC limits. (5) I

  6. Characterization results for the October 2015-Tank for farm 3H evaporator overhead examples

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J. C.

    2016-01-28

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 3H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on October 13, 2015. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  7. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J. C.

    2016-05-09

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  8. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  9. Characterization Results for the 2014 HTF 3H & 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A.

    2015-05-11

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H and 2H evaporator overhead samples for 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  10. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J. C.

    2016-09-28

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits. Revision 1 of this document corrects the cumulative beta count initially reported for 90Sr content with the sole 90Sr count obtained after recharacterization of the sample. The initial data was found to be a cumulative beta count rather than the 90Sr count requested.

  11. Failure of Vapor Overheads Discharge Line for a Radioactive Waste Evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    2004-01-20

    A 2-inch schedule 40 steel core pipe in an evaporator overheads discharge line broke at several locations downstream from a section of the line where it bridges a road. Fish mouth openings that developed along the pipe seams were initiated at lack of fusion defects in the pipe welds. A vacuum created in the piping upstream of the breaks prevented full drainage of the water upon shut down of the pump. Freezing of water in the pipe (the line was not heat traced) and water hammer effects occurring with pump restart could each contribute to the extensive deformation and tearing observed at the breaks. Both the weld flaws and the over pressure contributed to the outcome. All pipe was replaced and a vacuum break was installed to eliminate the problem.

  12. Characterization of Samples from the 3H Evaporator System Including Effects of Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-05-15

    Analysis of several series of samples from the 3H Evaporator System have been completed. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of 3H operation including recycle of concentrated supernate from Tank 30H into the sludge layer of Tank 32H.

  13. Evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis with WRF: A regional precipitation recycling study for West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Knoche, Richard; Wei, Jianhui; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional precipitation recycling is the measure of the contribution of local evaporation E to local precipitation. This study provides a set of two methods developed in the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model system for investigating regional precipitation recycling mechanisms: (1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water species originating from evaporation in a source region, ie E-tagging, and (2) three-dimensional budgets of total and tagged atmospheric water species. These methods are used to quantify the effect of return flow and non-well vertical mixing neglected in the computation of the bulk precipitation recycling ratio. The developed algorithms are applied to a WRF simulation of the West African Monsoon 2003. The simulated region is characterized by vertical wind shear condition, i.e. southwesterlies in the low levels and easterlies in the mid-levels, which favours return flow and non-well vertical mixing. Regional precipitation recycling is investigated in 100x100 and 1000x1000 km2 areas. A prerequisite condition for evaporated water to contribute to the precipitation process in both areas is that it is lifted to the mid-levels where hydrometeors are produced. In the 100x100 (1000x1000) km2 area the bulk precipitation recycling ratio is 0.9 (7.3) %. Our budget analysis reveals that return flow and non-well vertically mixed outflow increase this value by about +0.2 (2.9) and +0.2 (1.6) %, respectively, thus strengthening the well-known scale-dependency of regional precipitation recycling.

  14. Evaporation of Pretreated Hanford Tank AW-101 Sample Mixed with Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2004-03-01

    This task was undertaken to provide validation data for the Treated Feed Evaporator flowsheet and operating conditions using Hanford Tank 241-AW-101 pretreated waste blended with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant(RPP-WTP) waste recycles. This task provided the first opportunity to compare performance of blended actual treated waste to the performance of blended treated waste simulants and recycle simulants. Specific objectives were: (1) determining the effect of plant recycles; (2) developing solubility data, as well as chemical and physical property data; and (3) evaluating antifoam effectiveness. The treated AW-101 sample was produced from the composite effluent of Ion Exchange testing carried out at Savannah River Technical Center. The design basis operating conditions were validated. Blended solutions of pretreated Hanford Tank 241-AW-101 and simulated SBS A2 recycle boiled at expected RPP-WTP flowsheet conditions: 60 mm Hg and 50 degrees Celsius. As expected, boiling point increased with concentration. Specifically, the 35:65 blend of AW-101 to SBS A2 at 7.5 M sodium had boiling points of 53 degrees Celsius at 60 mm Hg and 59 degrees Celsius at 80 mm Hg. These were 6 to 7 degrees Celsius higher than those estimated by an OLI model. Precipitation of solids in the AW-101/SBS A2 matrix began between 8.7 M and 10.4 Msodium. No problematic or excessive solids were observed. Therefore, SBS recycles are not expected to have any adverse effect on the evaporation process in the RPP-WTP.

  15. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard

    2015-04-01

    Many numerical studies have shown that the West African monsoon is highly sensitive to the state of the land surface. It is however questionable to which extend a local change of land surface properties would affect the local climate, especially with respect to precipitation. This issue is traditionally addressed with the concept of precipitation recycling, defined as the contribution of local surface evaporation to local precipitation. For this study the West African monsoon has been simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using explicit convection, for the domain (1°S-21°N, 18°W-14°E) at a spatial resolution of 10 km, for the period January-October 2013, and using ERA-Interim reanalyses as driving data. This WRF configuration has been selected for its ability to simulate monthly precipitation amounts and daily histograms close to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. In order to investigate precipitation recycling in this WRF simulation, surface evaporation tagging has been implemented in the WRF source code as well as the budget of total and tagged atmospheric water. Surface evaporation tagging consists in duplicating all water species and the respective prognostic equations in the source code. Then, tagged water species are set to zero at the lateral boundaries of the simulated domain (no inflow of tagged water vapor), and tagged surface evaporation is considered only in a specified region. All the source terms of the prognostic equations of total and tagged water species are finally saved in the outputs for the budget analysis. This allows quantifying the respective contribution of total and tagged atmospheric water to atmospheric precipitation processes. The WRF simulation with surface evaporation tagging and budgets has been conducted two times, first with a 100 km2 tagged region (11-12°N, 1-2°W), and second with a 1000 km2 tagged region (7-16°N, 6°W -3°E). In this presentation we will investigate hydro

  16. Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples

    SciTech Connect

    TERRI, FELLINGER

    2004-12-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

  17. Evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis with WRF: A regional precipitation recycling study for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Knoche, Richard; Wei, Jianhui; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-03-01

    Regional precipitation recycling is the measure of the contribution of local evaporation E to local precipitation. This study provides a set of two methods developed in the Weather Research and Forecasting WRF model system for investigating regional precipitation recycling mechanisms: (1) tracking of tagged atmospheric water species originating from evaporation in a source region, ie E-tagging, and (2) three-dimensional budgets of total and tagged atmospheric water species. These methods are used to quantify the effect of return flow and nonwell vertical mixing neglected in the computation of the bulk precipitation recycling ratio. The developed algorithms are applied to a WRF simulation of the West African Monsoon 2003. The simulated region is characterized by vertical wind shear condition, i.e., southwesterlies in the low levels and easterlies in the mid-levels, which favors return flow and nonwell vertical mixing. Regional precipitation recycling is investigated in 100 × 100 and 1000 × 1000 km2 areas. A prerequisite condition for evaporated water to contribute to the precipitation process in both areas is that it is lifted to the mid-levels where hydrometeors are produced. In the 100 × 100 (1000 × 1000) km2 area the bulk precipitation recycling ratio is 0.9 (7.3) %. Our budget analysis reveals that return flow and nonwell vertically mixed outflow increase this value by about +0.2 (2.9) and +0.2 (1.6) %, respectively, thus strengthening the well-known scale-dependency of regional precipitation recycling.

  18. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  19. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  20. Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    1988-10-01

    ;Contents: The Problem; What`s In Our Trash; Where Does Trash Go; Where Does Our Trash Go; The Solution; What Is Recycling; Why Should We Recycle; A National Goal of 25%; What Can We Recycle; What Do We Do With Our Recyclables.

  1. OVERHEAD PROJECTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARTSELL, HORACE C.; VEENENDAAL, W.L.

    THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR WAS DESIGNED TO FILL A RECOGNIZED NEED IN VISUAL COMMUNICATION. IT IS A TRANSPARENT, STILL PROJECTOR CAPABLE OF ENLARGING UP TO 10" X 10" TRANSPARENCIES. BY LOCATING THE PROJECTOR AT THE FRONT OF THE CLASSROOM ITS USE MAY BE MULTIPLIED. THE SIZE OF THE MATERIAL CAN BE EASILY AND QUICKLY CHANGED, SHAPES CAN BE…

  2. RECYCLING NICKEL ELECTROPLATING RINSE WATERS BY LOW TEMPERATURE EVAPORATION AND REVERSE OSMOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperat...

  3. Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high performance NSTX H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maingi, R.; Osborne, T. H.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Canik, J. M.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation variation on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning ('dose') was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced Dα emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τE and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observed elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. This indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.

  4. Fractionation of dissolved organic matter in mature landfill leachate and its recycling by ultrafiltration and evaporation combined processes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Dong; Yue, Dong-Bei; Zhu, Yi; Nie, Yong-Feng

    2006-08-01

    XAD resin procedure was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) of a mature leachate collected from a municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing, China. The fulvic acids fraction dominated in collected leachate, accounting for 64% of DOM as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and a high concentration of humic substances (HS) with a value of 441 mg l(-1) was found in the leachate. Molecular size distribution of DOM was also done by using batch ultrafiltration (UF) technique. Two major parts of the molecules of DOM were distributed in the regions of smaller than 1 kDa and 1-3.5 kDa, containing 45% and 43% of DOM as DOC, respectively. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to investigate and to develop an overall concept for mature leachate recycling based on UF and evaporation combined processes. Separation factor (SF) was applied to evaluate separation efficiency of UF. The data indicate that SF is strongly correlated with concentration factor. Second retentate from two-stage UF contained relatively high amount of DOM comprising 91% of HS and an insignificant concentration of heavy metals. The SF value for two-stage UF was more than 10. These results demonstrate that two-stage UF could effectively separate and refine HS in mature leachate from inorganic components. For achieving the main requirements as a fertilizer product, second retentate was further concentrated by evaporation, and contents of organic matter and dry-solids were obtained 13 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. This study confirmed the feasibility of recycling HS from mature leachate.

  5. Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

    1993-08-01

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

  6. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  7. A positive altitude gradient of isotopes in the precipitation over the Tianshan Mountains: Effects of moisture recycling and sub-cloud evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yanlong; Pang, Zhonghe

    2016-11-01

    A negative stable isotope-altitude gradient is commonly observed on the windward side of a mountain. However, after the precipitation passes over a mountain range to the leeward side, the altitude effect becomes ambiguous as a result of an orographic rain shadow in addition to other complex processes such as sub-cloud evaporation and additional moisture mixing. In this study, we found a positive precipitation δ18O-altitude gradient with a value of 0.12‰/100 m in the Urumqi River catchments on the leeward side of the Tianshan Mountains through an analysis of water isotopes sampled in this region. Processes including both sub-cloud evaporation and moisture recycling were found to be responsible for the positive gradient. A simple model was built to analyze the observations quantitatively. We defined the difference of the recycled (evaporated) fraction as the recycled (evaporated) fraction at the lower station minus the fraction at the higher station. The model showed that the δ18O-altitude gradient rises by 0.28‰/100 m with the difference of the recycled fraction increasing by 1%/100 m, and declining by 0.15‰/100 m with the difference of the evaporated fraction increasing by 1%/100 m. The effect of moisture recycling is more significant than that of sub-cloud evaporation on the leeward side of the Tianshan Mountains; therefore, the precipitation in the Tianshan Mountains has a positive δ18O-altitude gradient. The model also explains the distribution of water isotope data points in the δ2H-δ18O figure of Northwest China: while the data points of the mountainous water isotopes are located above the local meteoric water line (LMWL) because of moisture recycling, most data points of basin water isotopes are located below the LMWL because of evaporation. Accordingly, we concluded that the stable isotope-altitude gradient on the leeward side of a mountain is very sensitive to local atmospheric processes; an inference that should be taken into consideration while

  8. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    PubMed

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources.

  9. Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high performance NSTX H-mode discharges.

    DOE PAGES

    Maingi, R.; Osborne, T. H.; Bell, M. G.; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation variation on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning (‘dose’) was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced Dα emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τE and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observedmore » elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. As a result, this indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.« less

  10. Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high performance NSTX H-mode discharges.

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R.; Osborne, T. H.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Canik, J. M.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation variation on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning (‘dose’) was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced Dα emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τE and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observed elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. As a result, this indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.

  11. Dependence of Recycling and Edge Profiles on Lithium Evaporation in High Triangularity, High Performance NSTX H-mode Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R; Osborne, T H; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boyle, D P; Canik, J M; Dialla, A; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation scan on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning ('dose') was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced D[sub]α emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τ[sub]E and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observed elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. This indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are two demonstrations for teaching chemistry using the overhead projector. Included are "Oxidation of Cyclohexanol--An Amoebalike Reaction," and "A Diels-Alder Reaction for the Overhead Projector." Materials and procedures are detailed. (CW)

  14. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  15. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2

  16. Overhead Image Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Vatsavai, Raju; Bright, Eddie A

    2008-01-01

    Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.

  17. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes several chemistry demonstrations that use an overhead projector. Some of the demonstrations deal with electrochemistry, and another deals with the reactions of nonvolatile immiscible liquid in water. (TW)

  18. Anania Shirakatsi's Overheads System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eynatyan, Julieta

    2014-10-01

    A review of Anania Shirakatsi's overheads system is given based on his chronological works. Lunar, solar and lunisolar calendars are discussed. Anania Shirakatsi is presented as having an important role in the establishment of the Armenian unique chronology.

  19. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are demonstrations of the optical activity of two sugar solutions, and the effects of various substituents on acid strength using an overhead projector. Materials and procedures for each demonstration are discussed. (CW)

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  1. Controlled Crystal Grain Growth in Mixed Cation-Halide Perovskite by Evaporated Solvent Vapor Recycling Method for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Numata, Youhei; Kogo, Atsushi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-07

    We developed a new and simple solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing (VA) procedure which can reduce grain boundaries in a perovskite film for fabricating highly efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By recycling of solvent molecules evaporated from an as-prepared perovskite film as a VA vapor source, named the pot-roast VA (PR-VA) method, finely controlled and reproducible device fabrication was achieved for formamidinium (FA) and methylammonium (MA) mixed cation-halide perovskite (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15. The mixed perovskite was crystallized on a low-temperature prepared brookite TiO2 mesoporous scaffold. When exposed to very dilute solvent vapor, small grains in the perovskite film gradually unified into large grains, resulting in grain boundaries which were highly reduced and improvement of photovoltaic performance in PSC. PR-VA-treated large grain perovskite absorbers exhibited stable photocurrent-voltage performance with high fill factor and suppressed hysteresis, achieving the best conversion efficiency of 18.5% for a 5 × 5 mm(2) device and 15.2% for a 1.0 × 1.0 cm(2) device.

  2. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  3. 15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Overhead camshaft engine

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, M.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an overhead camshaft engine comprising: a cylinder block; a cylinder head; a fastening member for fastening the cylinder head to the cylinder block; a valve reciprocally mounted in the cylinder head; and a camshaft rotatably mounted over the cylinder head to control reciprocation of the valve; the camshaft being so arranged, with respect to a plan view, as to lap in part over the fastening member and formed with a peripheral cut at a portion where it laps over the fastening member to facilitate insertion and removal of the fastening member.

  5. Overhead-valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tamba, S.; Miyake, H.; Fukui, N.

    1987-05-05

    An overhead valve engine is described comprising: push rod receiving bores, at least one of the push rod receiving bores being maintained in communication at one end with a crank chamber and at an opposite end with a rocker arm chamber and at least one other push rod receiving bore being maintained in communication with the rocker arm chamber; push rods contained within push rod receiving bores; and a breather chamber in communication with at least one other push rod receiving bore in the vicinity of a camshaft.

  6. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  7. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  8. Measurement of SIFT operating system overhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, D. L.; Butler, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The overhead of the software implemented fault tolerance (SIFT) operating system was measured. Several versions of the operating system evolved. Each version represents different strategies employed to improve the measured performance. Three of these versions are analyzed. The internal data structures of the operating systems are discussed. The overhead of the SIFT operating system was found to be of two types: vote overhead and executive task overhead. Both types of overhead were found to be significant in all versions of the system. Improvements substantially reduced this overhead; even with these improvements, the operating system consumed well over 50% of the available processing time.

  9. Spectroscopy on the Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Any overhead projector easily can be converted into a simple spectrometer by placing a piece of diffraction grating over the projecting lens. A detailed description of the apparatus and suggested spectroscopy experiments are included. Demonstrations can utilize solutions of cobalt chloride, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or…

  10. Creating Great Overheads with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribas, Cyndy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Steps in preparing effective overhead projector transparencies for college instruction are outlined, using the PowerPoint program for Windows. They include thinking analogically in translating from concept to visual form; using the features of the presentation program to create a polished product; and assuring readability (visibility, typeface…

  11. Spectroscopy on the Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Any overhead projector easily can be converted into a simple spectrometer by placing a piece of diffraction grating over the projecting lens. A detailed description of the apparatus and suggested spectroscopy experiments are included. Demonstrations can utilize solutions of cobalt chloride, potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, or…

  12. Creating Great Overheads with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribas, Cyndy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Steps in preparing effective overhead projector transparencies for college instruction are outlined, using the PowerPoint program for Windows. They include thinking analogically in translating from concept to visual form; using the features of the presentation program to create a polished product; and assuring readability (visibility, typeface…

  13. Coupling Stable Water Isotopes in Vapor and Precipitation to Raindrop Size Distributions at a Mid-latitude Tall-tower Site to Evaluate the Role of Rain Evaporation in Boundary Layer Moisture Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, A.; Noone, D.

    2016-12-01

    The continental boundary layer moisture balance plays an important role in regulating water and energy exchange between the surface and the atmosphere, yet the mechanisms associated with moistening and drying are both poorly observed and modeled. Stable water isotope ratio measurements can provide insights into air mass origins, convection dynamics and mechanisms dominating atmosphere-land surface water fluxes. Profiles can be exploited to improve estimates of boundary layer moistening associated with evaporation of falling precipitation and contributions from surface evapotranspiration. We present two years of in situ tower-based measurements of isotope ratios of water vapor and precipitation (δD and δ18O) and raindrop size distributions from the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall-tower site in Erie, Colorado. Isotope vapor measurements were made at 1 Hz with a full cycle from the surface to 300 meters recorded every 80 minutes. At the surface and 300m, water samples were collected during precipitation events and raindrop sizes were measured continuously using Parsivel instruments. We use this unique suite of measurements and, in particular, exploit the differences between the surface and 300m observations to constrain the surface layer hydrological mass balance during and after rain events, and evaluate parameterization choices for rain evaporation and moisture recycling in current isotope-enabled climate models. Aggregate raindrop size measurements showed shifts from populations of smaller raindrops at 300m to larger raindrops at the surface, contrary to what is expected for rain evaporation. Convective storms resulted in more uniform signatures between the surface and 300m, as well as longer isotope equilibration and adjustment time scales, whereas low Dexcess signatures (<9 to negative) during stratiform drizzle events were indicative of a greater degree of rain evaporation. Our observational results suggest that water vapor-rain equilibration is

  14. Remote Overhead Video Extendable Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) production of nuclear materials utilizes a waste storage farm, for radioactive waste products. The operation of the waste farm requires manipulation of piping and vessels within below ground pump pits, by overhead crane. A resultant potential exists for personnel exposure to radiation when any direct viewing is used to control crane operations. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has developed a Remote Overhead Video Extendable Robot (ROVER) as a means of reducing the exposure of personnel to nuclear radiation in the waste storage farm. ROVER has been developed, and turned over to the plant area for usage over the pump pits. All operation and control of ROVER are from a remotely located Video Van, located well away from the potentially hazardous operations. 4 figs.

  15. Quantum compiling with low overhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Poulin, David

    2014-03-01

    I will present a scheme to compile complex quantum gates that uses significantly fewer resources than existing schemes. In standard fault-tolerant protocols, a magic state is distilled from noisy resources, and copies of this magic state are then assembled into produced complex gates using the Solovay-Kitaev theorem or variants thereof. In our approach, we instead directly distill magic states associated to complex gates from noisy resources, leading to a reduction of the compiling overhead of several orders of magnitude.

  16. Proximal Biceps in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Peter N; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    The proximal long head of the biceps tendon and its attachment at the superior glenoid tubercle and labrum are subject to a spectrum of disorders in overhead athletes. Biceps disorders are commonly characterized by intermittent anterior or deep-seated shoulder pain exacerbated by activity. Diagnosis is reached via various physical examination maneuvers; MRI can be uncertain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, targeted ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections, and supervised physical therapy are the mainstays of nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment, which remains controversial, provides reliable pain relief, restoration of function for activities of daily living, and low complication rates, but return to play can be unpredictable.

  17. Recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  18. Method of evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, Eugene R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquids, such as juices, milk, molten metal and the like are concentrated by forming uniformly-sized, small droplets in a precision droplet forming assembly and deploying the droplets in free fall downwardly as a central column within an evacuated column with cool walls. A portion of the solvent evaporates. The vapor flows to the wall, condenses, and usually flows down the wall as a film to condensate collector and drain. The vertical column of freely falling droplets enters the splash guard. The condensate can be collected, sent to other towers or recycled.

  19. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.012 Overhead allowance. (a) During the capital recovery period the overhead... allocable joint costs charged to the NPSL capital account, exclusive of costs specified in paragraph (c) of... joint costs charged to the NPSL capital account, exclusive of costs specified in paragraph (c) of this...

  20. Overhead tray for cable test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltz, K. T.

    1976-01-01

    System consists of overhead slotted tray, series of compatible adapter cables, and automatic test set which consists of control console and cable-switching console. System reduces hookup time and also reduces cost of fabricating and storing test cables.

  1. Overhead Door Company of Charleston Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overhead Door Company of Charleston (the Company) is located in North Charleston, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Isle of Palms, South Carolina.

  2. Clouds Sailing Overhead on Mars, Unenhanced

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-09

    Wispy clouds float across the Martian sky in this accelerated sequence of images from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. The rover's Navigation Camera (Navcam) took these eight images over a span of four minutes early in the morning of the mission's 1,758th Martian day, or sol (July 17, 2017), aiming nearly straight overhead. This sequence uses raw images, which include a bright ring around the center of the frame that is an artifact of sunlight striking the camera lens even though the Sun is not in the shot. A processed version removing that artifact and emphasizing changes between images is also available. The clouds resemble Earth's cirrus clouds, which are ice crystals at high altitudes. These Martian clouds are likely composed of crystals of water ice that condense onto dust grains in the cold Martian atmosphere. Cirrus wisps appear as ice crystals fall and evaporate in patterns known as "fall streaks" or "mare's tails." Such patterns have been seen before at high latitudes on Mars, for instance by the Phoenix Mars Lander in 2008, and seasonally nearer the equator, for instance by the Opportunity rover. However, Curiosity has not previously observed such clouds so clearly visible from the rover's study area about five degrees south of the equator. The Hubble Space Telescope and spacecraft orbiting Mars have observed a band of clouds to appear near the Martian equator around the time of the Martian year when the planet is farthest from the Sun. With a more elliptical orbit than Earth's, Mars experiences more annual variation than Earth in its distance from the Sun. The most distant point in an orbit around the Sun is called the aphelion. The near-equatorial Martian cloud pattern observed at that time of year is called the "aphelion cloud belt." These new images from Curiosity were taken about two months before aphelion, but the morning clouds observed may be an early stage of the aphelion cloud belt. An animation is available at https

  3. Clouds Sailing Overhead on Mars, Enhanced

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-09

    Wispy clouds float across the Martian sky in this accelerated sequence of enhanced images from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. The rover's Navigation Camera (Navcam) took these eight images over a span of four minutes early in the morning of the mission's 1,758th Martian day, or sol (July 17, 2017), aiming nearly straight overhead. They have been processed by first making a "flat field' adjustment for known differences in sensitivity among pixels and correcting for camera artifacts due to light reflecting within the camera, and then generating an "average" of all the frames and subtracting that average from each frame. This subtraction results in emphasizing any changes due to movement or lighting. The clouds are also visible, though fainter, in a raw image sequence from these same observations. On the same Martian morning, Curiosity also observed clouds near the southern horizon. The clouds resemble Earth's cirrus clouds, which are ice crystals at high altitudes. These Martian clouds are likely composed of crystals of water ice that condense onto dust grains in the cold Martian atmosphere. Cirrus wisps appear as ice crystals fall and evaporate in patterns known as "fall streaks" or "mare's tails." Such patterns have been seen before at high latitudes on Mars, for instance by the Phoenix Mars Lander in 2008, and seasonally nearer the equator, for instance by the Opportunity rover. However, Curiosity has not previously observed such clouds so clearly visible from the rover's study area about five degrees south of the equator. The Hubble Space Telescope and spacecraft orbiting Mars have observed a band of clouds to appear near the Martian equator around the time of the Martian year when the planet is farthest from the Sun. With a more elliptical orbit than Earth's, Mars experiences more annual variation than Earth in its distance from the Sun. The most distant point in an orbit around the Sun is called the aphelion. The near-equatorial Martian cloud pattern observed at

  4. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  5. Evaporating firewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2014-11-01

    In this note, we begin by presenting an argument suggesting that large AdS black holes dual to typical high-energy pure states of a single holographic CFT must have some structure at the horizon, i.e. a fuzzball/firewall, unless the procedure to probe physics behind the horizon is state-dependent. By weakly coupling the CFT to an auxiliary system, such a black hole can be made to evaporate. In a case where the auxiliary system is a second identical CFT, it is possible (for specific initial states) that the system evolves to precisely the thermofield double state as the original black hole evaporates. In this case, the dual geometry should include the "late-time" part of the eternal AdS black hole spacetime which includes smooth spacetime behind the horizon of the original black hole. Thus, if a firewall is present initially, it evaporates. This provides a specific realization of the recent ideas of Maldacena and Susskind that the existence of smooth spacetime behind the horizon of an evaporating black hole can be enabled by maximal entanglement with a Hawking radiation system (in our case the second CFT) rather than prevented by it. For initial states which are not finely-tuned to produce the thermofield double state, the question of whether a late-time infalling observer experiences a firewall translates to a question about the gravity dual of a typical high-energy state of a two-CFT system.

  6. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  7. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  8. Droplet evaporation with complexity of evaporation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Young; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet often exhibits a mixed evaporation mode, where the contact radius and the contact angle simultaneously vary with time. For sessile water droplets containing polymers with different initial polymer concentrations, we experimentally study their evaporation dynamics by measuring mass and volume changes. We show how diffusion-limited evaporation governs droplet evaporation, regardless of the complexity of evaporation behavior, and how the evaporation rate depends on the polymer concentration. Finally, we suggest a unified expression for a diffusion-limited evaporation rate for a sessile droplet with complexity in evaporation dynamics.

  9. Refractory recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Oxnard, R.T. )

    1994-10-01

    Businesses are run by profit and opportunity. Businesses will not recycle or reduce waste unless it is profitable, mandatory or perceived to be either in the future. Pressure from investors, government, consumers and accountants will increase the importance of recycling of refractories. The history and trends of refractory recycling and a method for auditing waste is discussed in this article.

  10. Streamer Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Nerney, S. F.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of heating near the top of streamers in ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models, where the plasma is weakly contained by the magnetic field. Heating causes slow opening of field lines and release of new solar wind. It was discovered in simulations and, due to the absence of loss mechanisms, the ultimate end point is the complete evaporation of the streamer. Of course streamers do not behave in this way because there are losses by thermal conduction and radiation. Physically, heating is also expected to depend on ambient conditions. We use our global MHD model with thermal conduction to examine the effect of changing the heating scale height. We also apply and extend an analytic model of streamers developed by Pneuman (1968) to show that steady streamers are unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than approximately 2 x 10(exp 6) K.

  11. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  12. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Ren, Shangping; Timm, Steven; Noh, Seo Young

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  13. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12045 - Overhead powerlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead powerlines. 56.12045 Section 56.12045 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  18. The Overhead Projector in the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchner, George

    The first section of this pamphlet illustrates and describes the overhead projector, and discusses several of its advantages over other projection devises, including its simplicity of operation, conservation of class time, dynamic effects, image size, etc. The second section describes in some detail materials and methods used to make visuals, then…

  19. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.955 Overhead... event of high wind or other adverse weather conditions which would make the work hazardous. (v... procedures, work from structures shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.955 - Overhead lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Power Transmission and Distribution § 1926.955 Overhead... event of high wind or other adverse weather conditions which would make the work hazardous. (v... procedures, work from structures shall be discontinued when adverse weather (such as high wind or ice...

  1. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  2. The Overhead Projector in the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchner, George

    The first section of this pamphlet illustrates and describes the overhead projector, and discusses several of its advantages over other projection devises, including its simplicity of operation, conservation of class time, dynamic effects, image size, etc. The second section describes in some detail materials and methods used to make visuals, then…

  3. Centripetal Force on an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Describes two simple demonstrations of an object moving in a straight line tangent to the circle if centripetal force is removed. Demonstrations use a pie plate and petri dish with ball bearings to illustrate the phenomena on an overhead projector. (LZ)

  4. Viewing Vertical Objects with an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of an overhead projector for the deflection of a vertical image to a screen. Describes three demonstrations: magnetizing of a steel ball bearing and paper clip; convection currents of a hot liquid within a cold liquid; and oscillation of concentrated salt solution into fresh water. (YP)

  5. Centripetal Force on an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Describes two simple demonstrations of an object moving in a straight line tangent to the circle if centripetal force is removed. Demonstrations use a pie plate and petri dish with ball bearings to illustrate the phenomena on an overhead projector. (LZ)

  6. Overhead Projection Cell for Streamline Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Harold M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of an overhead projection apparatus designed to demonstrate streamline flow of a liquid. The apparatus consists of a Plexiglass tank containing water in which plates forming the cell are submerged, a constant level reservoir, an overflow device and a system for marking the flow lines with a dye. (LC)

  7. Evaporation dehydrator

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, L.

    1985-08-06

    A method and apparatus for the treatment of oilfield heavy oil emulsions is provided. The method utilizes, in combination, the steps of evaporation, vapor/liquid separation, and solids settling to dehydrate, degassify and remove solids from the heavy oil emulsion and produce oil having less than 0.5% by volume basic solids and water. The apparatus comprises an insulated, horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Mounted in the upper end of the vessel chamber is an inclined, tubular member having a closed upper end and an open lower end. At its closed end, the member forms a receiving chamber. A mechanical foam breaker extends transversely across the interior of the tubular member, downstream of the chamber. A stack of angularly inclined, heated trays, arranged in zigzag fashion, are positioned beneath the tubular member, to provide an elongate flowpath. The lower end of the tubular member is positioned to feed onto the upper end of the first tray. The flowpath formed by the stack of trays terminates at a level above the bottom of the vessel, so that a quiescent settling sump is provided by the base of the vessel. The vessel includes a feed inlet opening into the receiving chamber, a vapor outlet leading from the top of said vessel, and liquid and solids outlets leading from the sump. A stream of pre-heated heavy oil emulsion is fed to the receiving chamber, wherein part of the contained water in the vapor form breaks out. The foaming stream is contained by the tubular member and is substantially disintegrated by the foam breaker. The stream then issues onto the upper end of the stack of trays and is heated as it passes as a shallow, broad layer over the trays, to gradually evaporate the remaining water from the emulsion and solids. The dehydrated solids are settled out in the sump, leaving oil containing less than 0.5% basic solids and water.

  8. Streamer Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

  9. The cost of recycling at the curb

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1993-10-01

    The cost for a truck and a crew to collect commingled residential recyclables five days a week is between $104,000 and $148,000 per year. Route cost does not include processing cost, revenue from the sale of recyclables, or the cost of containers. Per-ton costs vary depending on crew size, truck capacity, set-out rate, distance between stops, and other factors. On a typical suburban route, per-ton cost will probably be between $115 and $120 per ton. To gain better insight into the costs of collecting recyclables, NSWMA's Waste Recycles Council (WRC) decided to determine the yearly cost of operating a recycling collection route and then apply those costs to a typical suburban route, testing the effect of variations in crew size, truck size, and set-out rates. WRC members wanted to understand all the costs involved in collecting recyclables. They wanted a complete list of recycling collection costs. They also wanted to know which collection variables were the most important. This led to the decision to use the full-cost accounting methodology to allocate costs. All the operating and capital costs applicable to recycling including collection and processing equipment, labor, buildings, land, administration, and overhead would be included. Another reason for using full cost accounting is that several states require it for all solid waste management systems.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead & gantry cranes. 1926.1438 Section 1926.1438 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438 Overhead & gantry cranes. (a) Permanently installed overhead and gantry cranes. The requirements of § 1910...

  11. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  12. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead & gantry cranes. 1926.1438 Section 1926.1438 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438 Overhead & gantry cranes. (a) Permanently installed overhead and gantry cranes. The requirements of § 1910...

  14. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  15. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  16. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  17. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  18. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 57.16014 Section 57.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead & gantry cranes. 1926.1438 Section 1926.1438 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438 Overhead & gantry cranes. (a) Permanently installed overhead and gantry cranes. The requirements of § 1910...

  1. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  2. 30 CFR 56.16014 - Operator-carrying overhead cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operator-carrying overhead cranes. 56.16014 Section 56.16014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16014 Operator-carrying overhead cranes. Operator-carrying overhead cranes shall...

  3. 19 CFR 24.21 - Administrative overhead charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.21 Administrative overhead charges. (a) Reimbursable and overtime services. An additional charge for administrative overhead costs shall be collected....17 and 24.16, respectively, of this part. The cost of the charge for administrative overhead shall be...

  4. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which assure proper control and distribution of the overhead and indirect construction costs. ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907... REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.907 Overhead and indirect construction costs. (a) A...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  15. Evaporation mitigation using floating modular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. Mahmudul; Peirson, William Leslie; Neyland, Bryce M.; Fiddis, Nicholas McQuistan

    2015-11-01

    Reducing evaporation losses from open water storages is of paramount importance in the improvement of water security in arid countries, including Australia. Widespread adoption of evaporation mitigation techniques has been prevented by their high capital and maintenance or operating costs. The use of clean, floating recycled materials to mitigate evaporation technique has been investigated systematically at sites within both the coastal and semi-arid zones of Australia. Evaporation reduction systematically increases with the proportion of covered surface. Evaporation is reduced by 43% at coastal site and 37% at arid zone site at the maximum packing densities achievable for a single layer of floating devices. The study highlights the importance of both long-term investigations and the climatic influences in the robust quantification of evaporation mitigation. The effects of solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and relative humidity on the evaporation rate at both study sites have been determined in terms of both the classical Penman model and FAO Penman Monteith model with corresponding pan coefficients quantified. FAO Penman Monteith model better estimates evaporation from the open reference tank.

  16. Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

  17. A new method for overhead drilling.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Gibbons, Billy; Janowitz, Ira

    2009-12-01

    In the construction sector, overhead drilling into concrete or metal ceilings is a strenuous task associated with shoulder, neck and back musculoskeletal disorders due to the large applied forces and awkward arm postures. Two intervention devices, an inverted drill press and a foot lever design, were developed then compared to the usual method by construction workers performing their normal overhead drilling activities (n = 14). While the intervention devices were rated as less fatiguing than the usual method, their ratings on usability measures were worse than the usual method. The study demonstrates that the intervention devices can reduce fatigue; however, additional modifications are necessary in order to improve usability and productivity. Devices designed to improve workplace safety may need to undergo several rounds of field testing and modification prior to implementation.

  18. Waste Feed Evaporation: Physical Properties and Solubility Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-08-25

    Caustic adjustment of the UF recycle stream was required to prevent gel formation for the solutions tested. Actual amounts of caustic adjustment required will vary depending on the composition and volume ratios of the UF recycle. The concentration of recycles in the waste feed evaporator as required to blend with waste feed streams to provide a feed to the ultrafiltration process with a supernate specific gravity of 1.22 is feasible. No problems (such as severe foaming) were noted during the lab-scale testing that would preclude operation of the evaporator. The physical properties of the recycles and waste feed blends fit well to correlations based on sodium concentration and temperature. Evaporation of streams containing high levels of insoluble solids may lead to ''bumping'' or other undesirable behavior in the evaporator at insoluble solids. Sodium alumino-silicate solids were not noted in the evaporator feed or concentrate, but NAS did form in the blends of concentrated recycle and waste feeds. Strontium was found to precipitate during neutralization of the acid cleaning solution and remain precipitated during evaporation. Mercury was found to be significantly soluble in Envelope A simulants and the solubility of mercury increased during evaporation. No mercury was detected in the offgas system after evaporation using Envelope A simulants. Mercury was significantly less soluble in a simulant of AZ-102. Filtration of the Envelope A waste simulants was affected by the addition of recycle to the process, but the impact was primarily due to an increase in the amount of insoluble solids in the blended stream compared to the waste feed.

  19. Shoulder Injuries in the Overhead Throwing Athlete.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Ryan A; Lee, Simon; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-02-01

    The overhead pitching motion is a coordinated sequence of movements that subjects the shoulder to extreme forces. The ultimate goal of this complex, dynamic activity is to generate high ball velocity and accuracy. In doing so, repetitive throwing can cause adaptive and pathologic changes in the thrower's shoulder. This article reviews the relevant shoulder anatomy, the kinetic chain, and throwing mechanics, as well as common shoulder injuries and surgical options for the treating orthopedic surgeon.

  20. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  1. Ideas: Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  2. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  3. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  4. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  5. Claims for Unabsorbed Overhead on Defense Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    increase overhead costs" (7:20). In a concurring opinion, Administrative Judge Lieblich makes a couple of points very clear: (1) as far as this Board is...method of calculating these coats C7:13. Judge Lieblich than goes on to qualify his seemingly strong words about the "Eichleay" formula. He states...BCA, 83-2: 1-32 and (1-2 of Concurring opinio-f Judge Lieblich ) (17 February 1983). 8. Capital Electric co. vs. The United States, No. 83-965, CAFC: 1

  6. Diatom-inferred δ18O of a Bolivian paleolake during the last deglaciation (18.6-11.7 ka): impact of the paleolake evaporation and water recycling on the isotopic composition of Andean glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Sylvestre, Florence; Vimeux, Françoise; Black, Jessica; Paillès, Christine; Sonzogni, Corinne; Alexandre, Anne; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Bruneton, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    During the last deglaciation, on the Bolivian Altiplano (~16°S), a wide paleolake covering at least 51,000 km2, named lake Tauca reached its maximum highstand between 16.5 and 15 ka. Overlooking this site, an ice-core from the Sajama ice-cap (covering the last 25,000 years) evidenced an oxygen 18 isotopic excursion of +7‰ matching with the end of the Tauca phase, and more pronounced by about +5‰ compared with the neighboring Andean ice-cores isotopic records. Here we i) provide a new and original experimental use of lacustrine diatoms (n=21) at medium resolution (~300 years) together with ostracods (n=4) for isotopic δ18O paleolake water reconstruction (δ18Olake), ii) detail a simple hydro-isotopical model with constraints given by literature to explain the strong features in the δ18Olake signal and iii) explore whether the Tauca paleolake could contribute as a moisture source to precipitation at Sajama site when it disappears at 14.2 ka. Based on a new chronostratigraphy, the sedimentary sections cover lake Tauca phase (~18.7-14.1 ka) and lake Coipasa phase (~12.6-11.7 ka). On centuries time scale, strong features consistently appear in δ18Olake: an abrupt decrease during lake filling phases immediately followed by an increase during lake level stable phases. The highest variation occurred at ~15.9 ka with a δ18Olake fall of about ~14‰ concomitant with lake Tauca highstand, and followed by a δ18Olake increase of a similar amplitude four centuries later. We also show that this unexpected re-enrichment of δ18Olake can be partly explained with a simple hydro-isotopic model, based on Craig and Gordon's model, with coherent constraints by a re-equilibration of isotopic fluxes in lake steady-state. Based on an evaporative lake model and a simple water stable isotopic balance between two potential moisture sources for Sajama precipitation (eastward advected moisture and lake evaporation), we show that total or partial (from 5 to 60%) evaporation of the lake

  7. Shoulder Pain in the Overhead Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Seroyer, Shane T.; Nho, Shane J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of the overhead throwing athlete is among the more challenging aspects of orthopaedic sports medicine. Awareness and understanding of the throwing motion and the supraphysiologic forces to which the structures of the shoulder are subjected are essential to diagnosis and treatment. Pain and dysfunction in the throwing shoulder may be attributed to numerous etiologies, including scapular dysfunction, intrinsic glenohumeral pathology (capsulolabral structures), extrinsic musculature (rotator cuff), or neurovascular structures. Attention to throwing mechanics and appropriate stretching, strength, and conditioning programs may reduce the risk of injury in this highly demanding activity. Early discovery of symptoms, followed by conservative management with rest and rehabilitation with special attention to retraining mechanics may mitigate the need for surgical intervention. Prevention of injury is always more beneficial to the long-term health of the thrower than is surgical repair. An anatomic approach is used in this report, focusing on common etiologies of pain in the overhead thrower and emphasizing the clinical presentation and treatment. PMID:23015861

  8. Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L. )

    1995-03-01

    Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.

  9. Overhead analysis of universal concatenated quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberland, Christopher; Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the resource overhead of recently proposed methods for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using concatenated codes. Namely, we examine the concatenation of the 7-qubit Steane code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, which allows for the construction of the 49- and 105-qubit codes that do not require the need for magic state distillation for universality. We compute a lower bound for the adversarial noise threshold of the 105-qubit code and find it to be 8.33 ×10-6. We obtain a depolarizing noise threshold for the 49-qubit code of 9.69 ×10-4 which is competitive with the 105-qubit threshold result of 1.28 ×10-3 . We then provide lower bounds on the resource requirements of the 49- and 105-qubit codes and compare them with the surface code implementation of a logical T gate using magic state distillation. For the sampled input error rates and noise model, we find that the surface code achieves a smaller overhead compared to our concatenated schemes.

  10. Mechanics and pathomechanics in the overhead athlete.

    PubMed

    Kibler, W Ben; Wilkes, Trevor; Sciascia, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    Optimal performance of the overhead throwing task requires precise mechanics that involve coordinated kinetic and kinematic chains to develop, transfer, and regulate the forces the body needs to withstand the inherent demands of the task and to allow optimal performance. These chains have been evaluated and the basic components, called nodes, have been identified. Impaired performance and/or injury, the DTS, is associated with alterations in the mechanics that are called pathomechanics. They can occur at multiple locations throughout the kinetic chain. They must be evaluated and treated as part of the overall problem. Observational analysis of the mechanics and pathomechanics using the node analysis method can be useful in highlighting areas of alteration that can be evaluated for anatomic injury or altered physiology. The comprehensive kinetic chain examination can evaluate sites of kinetic chain breakage, and a detailed shoulder examination can assess joint internal derangement of altered physiology that may contribute to the pathomechanics. Treatment of the DTS should be comprehensive, directed toward restoring physiology and mechanics and optimizing anatomy. This maximizes the body’s ability to develop normal mechanics to accomplish the overhead throwing task.

  11. Recycling Philology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Peggy A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that English teachers recycle philology as a field of study. Redefines the shape of philology in view of postmodern theories of signification. Considers concepts of hermeneutics in retheorizing the aims of philology. Shows how such philological investigation might be used in the classroom to study literary texts. (HB)

  12. 23. OVERALL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS LOOKING NORTH, NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OVERALL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS LOOKING NORTH, NORTHEAST. NOTICE REDWOOD TANK PLATFORM LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. 9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  14. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  15. Evaporation mitigation by floating modular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. M.; Peirson, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged periods of drought and consequent evaporation from open water bodies in arid parts of Australia continue to be a threat to water availability for agricultural production. Over many parts of Australia, the annual average evaporation exceeds the annual precipitation by more than 5 times. Given its significance, it is surprising that no evaporation mitigation technique has gained widespread adoption to date. High capital and maintenance costs of manufactured products are a significant barrier to implementation. The use of directly recycled clean plastic containers as floating modular devices to mitigate evaporation has been investigated for the first time. A six-month trial at an arid zone site in Australia of this potential cost effective solution has been undertaken. The experiment was performed using clean conventional drinking water bottles as floating modules on the open water surface of 240-L tanks with three varying degrees of covering (nil, 34% and 68%). A systematic reduction in evaporation is demonstrated during the whole study period that is approximately linearly proportional to the covered surface. These results provide a potential foundation for robust evaporation mitigation with the prospect of implementing a cost-optimal design.

  16. Reducing space overhead for independendent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chung, Pi-Yu; Lin, In-Jen; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    The main disadvantages of independent checkpointing are the possible domino effect and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints. In most previous work, it has been assumed that only the checkpoints older than the current global recovery line can be discarded. Here, we generalize a notion of recovery line to potential recovery line. Only the checkpoints belonging to at least one of the potential recovery lines cannot be discarded. By using the model of maximum-sized antichains on a partially ordered set, an efficient algorithm is developed for finding all non-discardable checkpoints, and we show that the number of non-discardable checkpoints cannot exceed N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processors. Communication trace driven simulation for several hypercube programs is performed to show the benefit of the proposed algorithm for real applications.

  17. Manipulator system for constructing overhead distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, H.; Tsuchihashi, H.; Waki, S.; Mochizuki, K. ); Yamamoto, T.; Watanabe, H. ); Furukawa, H. )

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the manipulator for live-line construction of high-voltage overhead power transmission lines (line voltage 6.6 kV) that is being jointly developed by Tokyo Electric Power and other companies. It describes this system's development concept, makeup, functions, and design, as well as operability tests using actual-scale transmission line poles. In this research, development began in 1984. As the first step, a prototype model of a ground-mounted twin-arm manipulator was trial-manufactured in 1985. As the second step, in 1988 a truck-mounted system was developed in which the twin-arm manipulator was mounted on a cherrypicker vehicle. As the third step, a practical system was developed based on these results.

  18. Low-overhead accrual failure detector.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao; Dong, Jian; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Yang; Yang, Xiaozong

    2012-01-01

    Failure detectors are one of the fundamental components for building a distributed system with high availability. In order to maintain the efficiency and scalability of failure detection in a complicated large-scale distributed system, accrual failure detectors that can adapt to multiple applications have been studied extensively. In this paper, an new accrual failure detector--LA-FD with low system overhead has been proposed specifically for current mobile network equipment on the Internet whose processing power, memory space and power supply are all constrained. It does not rely on the probability distribution of message transmission time, or on the maintenance of a history message window. By simple calculation, LA-FD provides adaptive failure detection service with high accuracy to multiple upper applications. The related experiments and results have also been presented.

  19. Physical examination of the overhead athlete's shoulder.

    PubMed

    Sewick, Amy; Kelly, John D; Rubin, Ben

    2012-03-01

    Overhead athletes seek the services of an orthopedic surgeon because of pain and/or dysfunction. It is important to address the cause of the symptoms more so than the source of the patient's pain, so that treatment will eliminate the problem rather than merely ameliorate symptoms temporarily. In order to accomplish a thorough assessment of shoulder function, the examiner must expand his/her view from isolated assessment of the glenohumeral joint range of motion, stability, assessment of rotator cuff strength, palpation and provocative maneuvers, and add assessment of the shoulder in the context of the kinetic chain. The examination of the thrower's shoulder, coupled with a thorough history, will usually provide a solid functional diagnosis and provide a good idea as to the presence of structural damage. As a result, the value of rehabilitation and the benefit of surgical intervention are made more predictable.

  20. Pretreatment of coal and recycle oil for direct liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Winschel, R.A.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Burke, F.P.; Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P.

    1993-07-01

    A research and development program is being conducted by the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research, Sandia National Laboratories, LDP Associates and CONSOL Inc. to improve current coal liquefaction technology by physical and chemical pretreatments of the coal and recycle oil. These pretreatment steps include: (1) agglomeration of the coal with ash-containing recycle oil to simultaneously reject coal ash and recycle-oil ash, (2) fluid coking of the distillation bottoms (ash-purge) stream and recycle of the coker overhead, (3) dewaxing of the distillate portion of the recycle oil, and (4) low-severity hydrotreatment of the coker overhead and dewaxed oil using hydrogen from an in-situ water-gas shift reaction. These pretreatment steps will remove the ash and unconverted coal, reducing the ash load in the system and simultaneously recovering the maximum amount of organics. Dewaxing and hydrotreatment will yield a high-quality recycle oil distillate. These pretreatment steps are being evaluated technically and economically to develop an improved conceptual liquefaction process. The baseline process to which the improved process will be compared is the Two-Stage Liquefaction Process as it was practiced at the Wilsonville, AL, USA Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility.

  1. Pavement recycling catching on

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, G.

    1980-11-01

    The soaring costs of asphalt, aggregates, energy, and labor have revived interest in the recycling of old pavements and road bases. Two types of techniqueshot mix recycling and cold mix recycling are described and compared. The experiences of Wisconsin and Texas with pavement recycling are reviewed. Wisconsin uses the hot mix recycling, while Texas refurbishes its roads with the cold mix recycling. One contractor's doubts about surface recycling of pavements are outlined. (13 photos)

  2. Geography via the Overhead Projector: Do It This Way, 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Thomas D.

    This booklet is designed to assist teachers in their use of overhead projectors when teaching geography. With the overhead technique, relationships among patterns can be suggested bit by bit on inexpensive, easily prepared overlays that are projected to sizes appropriate for a particular instructional situation. A general discussion of the…

  3. 1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST SIDE OF OVERHEAD BOMB TRANSPORT RACK, WITH BUILDING 343 AT LEFT AND BUILDING 328 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Overhead Bomb Transport Rack, 1580 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 860 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 78 FR 77027 - Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 117, 161, and 164 46 CFR Part 4 Overhead Clearance (Air-Draft) Accidents... address the problem of overhead clearance (air-draft) accidents. In its petition, which calls for vessel masters to be provided with accurate vertical air draft information, a maritime organization has...

  5. Evaporation in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    'Normal evaporation' equations for predicting the compositional changes with time and temperature have been developed and correlated with actual experimental data. An evaporative congruent temperature is defined and used to explain, predict, or plan space experiments on anomalous constitutional melting (on cooling) or solidification (on heating). Uneven evaporation causes reactive jetting forces capable of initiating new convection currents, nongravitational accelerations, surface vibrations, or other disturbances. Applications of evaporation to space manufacturing are described concerning evaporative purification, surface cooling, specimen selection, particles splitting, freezing data interpretation, material loss and dimensional control, and surface contamination or compositional changes.

  6. Recycling Lesson Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  7. Overhead View of Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Planimetric (overhead view) map of the landing site, to a distance of 20 meters from the spacecraft. North is at the top in this and Plates 3-5. To produce this map, images were geometrically projected onto an assumed mean surface representing the ground. Features above the ground plane (primarily rocks) therefore appear displaced radially outward; the amount of distortion increases systematically with distance. The upper surfaces of the lander and rover also appear enlarged and displaced because of their height. Primary grid (white) is based on the Landing Site Cartographic (LSC) coordinate system, defined with X eastward, Y north, and Z up, and origin located at the mean ground surface immediately beneath the deployed position of the IMP camera gimbal center. Secondary ticks (cyan) are based on the Mars local level (LL) frame, which has X north, Y east, Z down, with origin in the center of the lander baseplate. Rover positions (including APXS measurements) are commonly reported in the LL frame. Yellow grid shows polar coordinates based on the LSC system. Cartographic image processing by U.S. Geological Survey.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  9. Overhead View of Area Surrounding Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Overhead view of the area surrounding the Pathfinder lander illustrating the Sojourner traverse. Red rectangles are rover positions at the end of sols 1-30. Locations of soil mechanics experiments, wheel abrasion experiments, and APXS measurements are shown. The A numbers refer to APXS measurements as discussed in the paper by Rieder et al. (p. 1770, Science Magazine, see image note). Coordinates are given in the LL frame.

    The photorealistic, interactive, three-dimensional virtual reality (VR) terrain models were created from IMP images using a software package developed for Pathfinder by C. Stoker et al. as a participating science project. By matching features in the left and right camera, an automated machine vision algorithm produced dense range maps of the nearfield, which were projected into a three-dimensional model as a connected polygonal mesh. Distance and angle measurements can be made on features viewed in the model using a mouse-driven three-dimensional cursor and a point-and-click interface. The VR model also incorporates graphical representations of the lander and rover and the sequence and spatial locations at which rover data were taken. As the rover moved, graphical models of the rover were added for each position that could be uniquely determined using stereo images of the rover taken by the IMP. Images taken by the rover were projected into the model as two-dimensional 'billboards' to show the proper perspective of these images.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Overhead View of Area Surrounding Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Overhead view of the area surrounding the Pathfinder lander illustrating the Sojourner traverse. Red rectangles are rover positions at the end of sols 1-30. Locations of soil mechanics experiments, wheel abrasion experiments, and APXS measurements are shown. The A numbers refer to APXS measurements as discussed in the paper by Rieder et al. (p. 1770, Science Magazine, see image note). Coordinates are given in the LL frame.

    The photorealistic, interactive, three-dimensional virtual reality (VR) terrain models were created from IMP images using a software package developed for Pathfinder by C. Stoker et al. as a participating science project. By matching features in the left and right camera, an automated machine vision algorithm produced dense range maps of the nearfield, which were projected into a three-dimensional model as a connected polygonal mesh. Distance and angle measurements can be made on features viewed in the model using a mouse-driven three-dimensional cursor and a point-and-click interface. The VR model also incorporates graphical representations of the lander and rover and the sequence and spatial locations at which rover data were taken. As the rover moved, graphical models of the rover were added for each position that could be uniquely determined using stereo images of the rover taken by the IMP. Images taken by the rover were projected into the model as two-dimensional 'billboards' to show the proper perspective of these images.

    NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. 2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERHEAD CHEMICAL PROCESS PIPING BETWEEN BUILDINGS 422, ON RIGHT, AND 431, ON LEFT. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: Tilted TOPS: Inclined Plane Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyea, Hubert N.

    1989-01-01

    The construction and uses of a device to facilitate the use of an overhead projector to show chemical reactions is presented. Materials and instructions for construction as well as reactor vessels are discussed. (CW)

  13. Childhood cancer and overhead powerlines: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, A.; Clayden, A. D.; Cartwright, R. A.; Cartwright, S. C.

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study has been carried out to examine the occurrence of childhood cancer in relation to the proximity of overhead power lines to a child's home address at birth and to the calculated magnetic field at the address. The study included 374 cases diagnosed in the Yorkshire Health Region between 1970 and 1979, together with 588 matched controls. Magnetic-field strengths at the birth addresses due to the load currents of overhead power lines were calculated on the basis of line-network maps and load records. The results indicate no association between the occurrence of childhood malignancies and either the proximity or the magnetic fields of overhead lines, although the statistical power of the study was limited by the small numbers of children living close to overhead power lines. PMID:2257204

  14. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: A Classroom Demonstration of Aliphatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perina, Ivo; Mihanovic, Branka

    1989-01-01

    Presents a halogen substitution of an alkane using a compartmentalized Petri dish or Conway dish on an overhead projector. Provides methodology and several modifications for different reactions. Uses hexane, methyl orange, bromine, and silver nitrate. (MVL)

  16. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR BUILDING TOP LEFT, OFFICE AND STOREROOM TOP CENTER, ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  17. 24. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, TOWARD WHERE ORE DELIVERY TRACK WOULD HAVE RUN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  18. OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS ORE BIN FOUNDATION AND CONDENSERS, TOWARD WHERE ORE DELIVERY TRACK WOULD HAVE RUN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  19. 22. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, CONDENSERS, CENTER, AND CIRCULAR REDWOOD TANK PLATFORMS, RIGHT, LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  20. GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERHEAD VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS, SHOWING ORE BIN, LEFT, CONDENSERS, CENTER, AND CIRCULAR REDWOOD TANK PLATFORMS, RIGHT, LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  1. 35. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. OVERHEAD VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE BIN LOOKING NORTHEAST. GENERATOR BUILDING TOP LEFT, OFFICE AND STOREROOM TOP CENTER, ROTARY KILN AND CONDENSER PLATFORM RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  2. 16. VIEW OF OVERHEAD DOOR TO HOP DRYER NO. 3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF OVERHEAD DOOR TO HOP DRYER NO. 3. ALL EIGHT HOP DRYERS ARE ON THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  3. 59. SECOND FLOOR, STEEL OVERHEAD CONVEYOR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK ABUTTING FOOTBRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. SECOND FLOOR, STEEL OVERHEAD CONVEYOR SUPPORT FRAMEWORK ABUTTING FOOTBRIDGE, BAY 18, TO SOUTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  4. Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground Bureau of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner with overhead crane in foreground - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. 9. VIEW SOUTH OF TURBINE ROOM INTERIOR, WITH OVERHEAD CRANE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH OF TURBINE ROOM INTERIOR, WITH OVERHEAD CRANE; ABANDONED ARMATURES IN CENTER FOREGROUND; BUS PANEL REMAINS AT LOWER RIGHT CENTER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  6. 7. VIEW SHOWING EAST ELEVATION OF OVERHEAD BRIDGE CONNECTING NAPPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SHOWING EAST ELEVATION OF OVERHEAD BRIDGE CONNECTING NAPPING BUILDING (LEFT) WITH CLOTH ROOM (RIGHT), LOOKING WEST - Massachusetts Mills, Cloth Room-Section 15, 95 Bridge Street, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  7. 12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Profile view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  8. Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail for refrigeration room. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OVERHEAD GARAGE DOOR. SHOWING THE LARGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE OVERHEAD GARAGE DOOR. SHOWING THE LARGE OPENING WITH CAST STONE SILL IN THE EXTERIOR GARAGE WALL AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 27. OVERHEAD TOILET, SHOWER, CHANGE ROOM STRUCTURE. VIEW TO NORTHNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. OVERHEAD TOILET, SHOWER, CHANGE ROOM STRUCTURE. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD RAIL CRANE IN BOX FLOOR MOLD AREA (WORKERS: DAN T. WELLS AND TRUMAN CARLISLE). - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: Tilted TOPS: Inclined Plane Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyea, Hubert N.

    1989-01-01

    The construction and uses of a device to facilitate the use of an overhead projector to show chemical reactions is presented. Materials and instructions for construction as well as reactor vessels are discussed. (CW)

  14. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: A Classroom Demonstration of Aliphatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perina, Ivo; Mihanovic, Branka

    1989-01-01

    Presents a halogen substitution of an alkane using a compartmentalized Petri dish or Conway dish on an overhead projector. Provides methodology and several modifications for different reactions. Uses hexane, methyl orange, bromine, and silver nitrate. (MVL)

  16. Looking north toward unit 1 pump motor, overhead crane, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north toward unit 1 pump motor, overhead crane, and double folding doors on the north side of the building - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. 2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION - CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT (ABANDONED WEST LEG OF WYE AT SIXTH AVENUE AND PINE STREET) - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Trackage, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  18. 14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  19. 13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SHED, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND OVERHEAD DOOR MOUNTING, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Shed, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING EAST. THE OVERHEAD PIPES ARE FOR DISTRIBUTING STEAM FROM THE NEARBY HEATING PLANT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE COMPLEX. - New Haven Rail Yard, Oil Storage Building, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead leads to attic crawl space. Camera is pointed SW. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  4. 13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD CRANE SYSTEM EAST OF No. 1 PRESS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Ball mill area and second level entry with overhead crane in background - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Ore Dressing Pilot Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. 4. SOUTHWARD OVERHEAD VIEW OF INGOT TRANSFER TRACKS AND INGOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWARD OVERHEAD VIEW OF INGOT TRANSFER TRACKS AND INGOT BUGGY ADJACENT TO SOAKING PITS ON RIGHT, IN THE PRIMARY MILL BUILDING. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Primary Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERHEAD TRACK DIAGRAM, OPERATING LEVERS (BEING PULLED BY OPERATOR TOM HARTMAN), AND AUXILIARY TRACK DIAGRAM ABOVE DESK AT LEFT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  8. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

  9. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

  10. A combined study of heat and mass transfer in an infant incubator with an overhead screen.

    PubMed

    Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Wrobel, Luiz C

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the incubator. The present study investigates the effect of these modifications on the convective heat flux from the infant's body to the surrounding environment inside the incubator. A combined analysis of airflow and heat transfer due to conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation has been performed, in order to calculate the temperature and velocity fields inside the incubator before and after the design modification. Due to the geometrical complexity of the model, computer-aided design (CAD) applications were used to generate a computer-based model. All numerical calculations have been performed using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT, together with in-house routines used for managing purposes and user-defined functions (UDFs) which extend the basic solver capabilities. Numerical calculations have been performed for three different air inlet temperatures: 32, 34 and 36 degrees C. The study shows a decrease of the radiative and convective heat losses when the overhead screen is present. The results obtained were numerically verified as well as compared with results available in the literature from investigations of dry heat losses from infant manikins.

  11. Shoulder problems in overhead sports. Part I - biomechanics of throwing.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Piotr Krzysztof; Lubiatowski, Przemysław; Cisowski, Paweł; Grygorowicz, Monika; Łepski, Marcin; Długosz, Jan; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Dudziński, Witold; Nowak, Maciej; Romanowski, Leszek

    2014-05-15

    The article discusses the biomechanical processes that occur during an overhead throw. This activity is highly specialized and requires full and proper function from the shoulder joint. It consists of active and passive stabilization and synchronous work of the accelerating and decelerating muscles. The process of the overhead throw can be divided into several phases that differ from each other in biomechanical parameters and involvement of specific muscles.

  12. 16. THE INSTALLATION OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS ELIMINATED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THE INSTALLATION OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS ELIMINATED THE NEED TO LAY MOLDS OUT ON FLOORS AND HAND-POUR THEM. INSTEAD, WORKERS PULLED LARGE LADLES ALONG OVERHEAD RAILS AND FILLED CONVEYOR-DRIVEN MOLDS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A MOVING PLATFORM THAT TRAVELED AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE MOLD CONVEYOR, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Evaporation and NARS Nitric Acid Mass Balance Summary: 2000--2005

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Kreutzberg; R.L. Ames; K.M. Hansel

    2005-11-01

    A compilation of the historical nitric acid processing data for the evaporation and nitric acid recycle system (NARS) in TA-55 has provided general acid mass balance trends, as well as the location of missing information in both the evaporation system and NARS data logs. The data were accumulated during the calendar years 2000 to 2005. After making a number of processing assumptions, the empirical system information was used to create an interactive spreadsheet that predicts, with moderate accuracy, some of the various stream variables for the combined evaporation and acid recycle processes. Empirical data and interactive calculations were compared to an Aspen Plus{trademark} simulation of the process.

  14. Computer-based mechanical design of overhead lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinaru, D.; Bratu, C.; Dinu, R. C.; Manescu, L. G.

    2016-02-01

    Beside the performance, the safety level according to the actual standards is a compulsory condition for distribution grids’ operation. Some of the measures leading to improvement of the overhead lines reliability ask for installations’ modernization. The constraints imposed to the new lines components refer to the technical aspects as thermal stress or voltage drop, and look for economic efficiency, too. The mechanical sizing of the overhead lines is after all an optimization problem. More precisely, the task in designing of the overhead line profile is to size poles, cross-arms and stays and locate poles along a line route so that the total costs of the line's structure to be minimized and the technical and safety constraints to be fulfilled.The authors present in this paper an application for the Computer-Based Mechanical Design of the Overhead Lines and the features of the corresponding Visual Basic program, adjusted to the distribution lines. The constraints of the optimization problem are adjusted to the existing weather and loading conditions of Romania. The outputs of the software application for mechanical design of overhead lines are: the list of components chosen for the line: poles, cross-arms, stays; the list of conductor tension and forces for each pole, cross-arm and stay for different weather conditions; the line profile drawings.The main features of the mechanical overhead lines design software are interactivity, local optimization function and high-level user-interface

  15. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  16. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  17. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  18. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  19. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  20. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  1. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  2. Precipitation Recycling in the NASA GEOS Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried; Molod, Andrea; Takacs, Lawrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of precipitation recycling can improve the understanding of regional hydrologic anomalies, especially their evolution and maintenance. Diagnostic models of the recycling of precipitation and are applied to 15 years of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System (DAS). Recycled precipitation is defined as the fraction of precipitation within a given region that originated as surface evaporation from the same region. The focus of the present work is on the interannual variability of the central United States hydrologic cycle and precipitation recycling. The extreme years of 1988 (drought) and 1993 (flood) are compared with the 15 year base period mean annual cycle. The results indicate that recycling ratio (the amount of precipitation with a local source relative to the total precipitation) is greater in 1988 than both the base period mean and the 1993 season (with 1993 recycling ratio less than the mean). On the other hand, both the summers of 1988 and 1993 show less total recycled precipitation than the mean. The results also show that precipitation recycling may have been more important in the spring of 1993, when the region was primed for flooding, than the summer, when the sever flooding occurred. The diagnostic approaches to precipitation recycling suffer from some weaknesses. Numerical simulations and assimilation using passive tracers have the potential to provide more accurate calculations of precipitation recycling and the remote sources of water. This ability is being incorporated into the latest GEOS data assimilation system, and some preliminary results will be presented.

  3. Asymmetric resting scapular posture in healthy overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Sakiko; Myers, Joseph B; Wassinger, Craig A; Daniel Ricci, R; Lephart, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    Observation of the scapular posture is one of the most important components of the physical examination in overhead athletes. Postural asymmetry is typically considered to be associated with injuries. However, asymmetry in the overhead athlete's scapula may be normal due to the dominant use of the limb. To quantify the differences in resting scapular posture between the dominant and nondominant sides in 3 groups of healthy overhead athletes (baseball pitchers, volleyball players, and tennis players) using an electromagnetic tracking device. Cross-sectional design. University-based biomechanics laboratory. A total of 43 players participated, including 15 baseball pitchers, 15 volleyball players, and 13 tennis players. All participants were healthy college-aged men. Bilateral 3-dimensional scapular kinematics with the arm at rest were measured using an electromagnetic tracking device. Bilateral scapular position and orientation were measured. Between-groups and between-sides differences in each variable were analyzed using separate analyses of variance. In tennis players, the scapula was more protracted on the dominant side than on the nondominant side (P < .05). In all overhead athletes, the dominant-side scapula was more internally rotated (P = .001) and anteriorly tilted (P = .001) than the nondominant-side scapula was. The dominant-side scapula of the overhead athletes was more internally rotated and anteriorly tilted than the nondominant-side scapula. The dominant-side scapula of the tennis players was more protracted than that on the nondominant side. Clinicians evaluating overhead athletes need to recognize that scapular posture asymmetry in unilateral overhead athletes may be normal. Our results emphasize the importance of the baseline evaluation in this population in order to accurately assess pathologic change in bilateral scapular positions and orientations after injury.

  4. Asymmetric Resting Scapular Posture in Healthy Overhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Oyama, Sakiko; Myers, Joseph B; Wassinger, Craig A; Daniel Ricci, R; Lephart, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    Context: Observation of the scapular posture is one of the most important components of the physical examination in overhead athletes. Postural asymmetry is typically considered to be associated with injuries. However, asymmetry in the overhead athlete's scapula may be normal due to the dominant use of the limb. Objective: To quantify the differences in resting scapular posture between the dominant and nondominant sides in 3 groups of healthy overhead athletes (baseball pitchers, volleyball players, and tennis players) using an electromagnetic tracking device. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: University-based biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 43 players participated, including 15 baseball pitchers, 15 volleyball players, and 13 tennis players. All participants were healthy college-aged men. Intervention(s): Bilateral 3-dimensional scapular kinematics with the arm at rest were measured using an electromagnetic tracking device. Main Outcome Measure(s): Bilateral scapular position and orientation were measured. Between-groups and between-sides differences in each variable were analyzed using separate analyses of variance. Results: In tennis players, the scapula was more protracted on the dominant side than on the nondominant side (P < .05). In all overhead athletes, the dominant-side scapula was more internally rotated (P  =  .001) and anteriorly tilted (P  =  .001) than the nondominant-side scapula was. Conclusions: The dominant-side scapula of the overhead athletes was more internally rotated and anteriorly tilted than the nondominant-side scapula. The dominant-side scapula of the tennis players was more protracted than that on the nondominant side. Clinicians evaluating overhead athletes need to recognize that scapular posture asymmetry in unilateral overhead athletes may be normal. Our results emphasize the importance of the baseline evaluation in this population in order to accurately assess pathologic change in

  5. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Adamson, D. J.; King, W. D.

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  6. User-Assisted Store Recycling for Dynamic Task Graph Schedulers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet Can; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Gagan; Ren, Bin

    2016-12-28

    The emergence of the multi-core era has led to increased interest in designing effective yet practical parallel programming models. Models based on task graphs that operate on single-assignment data are attractive in several ways: they can support dynamic applications and precisely represent the available concurrency. However, they also require nuanced algorithms for scheduling and memory management for efficient execution. In this paper, we consider memory-efficient dynamic scheduling of task graphs. Specifically, we present a novel approach for dynamically recycling the memory locations assigned to data items as they are produced by tasks. We develop algorithms to identify memory-efficient store recycling functions by systematically evaluating the validity of a set of (user-provided or automatically generated) alternatives. Because recycling function can be input data-dependent, we have also developed support for continued correct execution of a task graph in the presence of a potentially incorrect store recycling function. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our approach to automatic store recycling incurs little to no overheads, achieves memory usage comparable to the best manually derived solutions, often produces recycling functions valid across problem sizes and input parameters, and efficiently recovers from an incorrect choice of store recycling functions.

  7. Flash evaporator systems test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A flash evaporator heat rejection system representative of that proposed for the space shuttle orbiter underwent extensive system testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to determine its operational suitability and to establish system performance/operational characteristics for use in the shuttle system. During the tests the evaporator system demonstrated its suitability to meet the shuttle requirements by: (1) efficient operation with 90 to 95% water evaporation efficiency, (2) control of outlet temperature to 40 + or - 2 F for partial heat load operation, (3) stability of control system for rapid changes in Freon inlet temperature, and (4) repeated dormant-to-active device operation without any startup procedures.

  8. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN SHOULDER EXAMINATION OF THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Examination of the shoulder complex has long been described as challenging. This is particularly true in the examination of the overhead athlete who has structural differences when compared to a shoulder patient who is a non‐athlete. Complexity with the examination is due to unique biomechanical and structural changes, multiple joint articulations, multiple pain patterns, and the potential of injury to structures both inside (intra‐articular) and outside (extra‐articular) the glenohumeral joint. Repetitive stresses placed on the shoulders of overhead athletes may affect range of motion, strength, scapular position, and ultimately, the integrity of soft tissue and bony structures in any of the joints that comprise the shoulder complex. Furthermore, many shoulder examination tests thought to be unique to a single structure, joint, or condition can be positive in multiple conditions. The examination of the overhead athletes shoulder, coupled with a thorough medical history will provide a solid foundation to allow a functional physical therapy diagnosis and provide clues as to the presence of the lesion (s) causing disability. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to assist the reader to understand the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete, which will lead to a more accurate and reproducible evaluation of athletes who sustain injuries while participating in overhead sports. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175138

  9. A Reference Model for Virtual Machine Launching Overhead

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hao; Ren, Shangping; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Timm, Steven; Bernabeu, Gerard; Chadwick, Keith; Noh, Seo-Young

    2016-07-01

    Cloud bursting is one of the key research topics in the cloud computing communities. A well designed cloud bursting module enables private clouds to automatically launch virtual machines (VMs) to public clouds when more resources are needed. One of the main challenges in developing a cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on system operational data obtained from FermiCloud, a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows, the VM launching overhead is not a constant. It varies with physical resource utilization, such as CPU and I/O device utilizations, at the time when a VM is launched. Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launching overhead reference model is needed. In this paper, we first develop a VM launching overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud. Second, we apply the developed reference model on FermiCloud and compare calculated VM launching overhead values based on the model with measured overhead values on FermiCloud. Our empirical results on FermiCloud indicate that the developed reference model is accurate. We believe, with the guidance of the developed reference model, efficient resource allocation algorithms can be developed for cloud bursting process to minimize the operational cost and resource waste.

  10. Ergonomic Assessment of Floor-based and Overhead Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert; Lowe, Brian; Werren, Dwight; Parsons, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Manual full-body vertical lifts of patients have high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Two primary types of battery-powered lift assist devices are available for these tasks: floor-based and overhead-mounted devices. Studies suggest that the operation of floor-based devices may require excessive pushing and pulling forces and that overhead-mounted devices are safer and require lower operating forces. This study evaluated required operating hand forces and resulting biomechanical spinal loading for overhead-mounted lifts versus floor-based lifts across various floor surfaces and patient weight conditions. We did not examine differences in how operators performed the tasks, but rather focused on differences in required operating forces and estimated biomechanical loads across various exposure conditions for a typical operator. Findings show that the floor-based lifts exceeded recommended exposure limits for pushing and pulling for many of the floor/weight conditions and that the overhead-mounted lifts did not. As expected, forces and spinal loads were greater for nonlinoleum floor surfaces compared with linoleum floors. Based on these findings, it is suggested that overhead-mounted devices be used whenever possible, particularly in instances where carpeted floors would be encountered. PMID:26550545

  11. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  12. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance.

  13. Modeling Spatial Dependencies in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique spatial characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and spatial arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the spatial context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the spatial context. Our third approach is based on grouping spatially connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the spatial context in overhead imageries.

  14. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  15. Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Boyd W.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

  16. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  17. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  18. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  19. Challenges in metal recycling.

    PubMed

    Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

    2012-08-10

    Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions that could improve recycling rates are increased collection rates of discarded products, improved design for recycling, and the enhanced deployment of modern recycling methodology. As a global society, we are currently far away from a closed-loop material system. Much improvement is possible, but limitations of many kinds--not all of them technological--will preclude complete closure of the materials cycle.

  20. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  1. Evaporation from microreservoirs.

    PubMed

    Lynn, N Scott; Henry, Charles S; Dandy, David S

    2009-06-21

    As a result of very large surface area to volume ratios, evaporation is of significant importance when dealing with lab-on-a-chip devices that possess open air/liquid interfaces. For devices utilizing a reservoir as a fluid delivery method to a microfluidic network, excessive evaporation can quickly lead to reservoir dry out and overall device failure. Predicting the rates of evaporation from these reservoirs is difficult because the position of the air/liquid interface changes with time as the volume of liquid in the reservoir decreases. Here we present a two-step method to accurately predict the rates of evaporation of such an interface over time. First, a simple method is proposed to determine the shape of an air/liquid meniscus in a reservoir given a specific liquid volume. Second, computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to calculate the instantaneous rate of evaporation for that meniscus shape. It is shown that the rate of evaporation is strongly dependent on the overall geometry of the system, enhanced in expanding reservoirs while suppressed in contracting reservoirs, where the geometry can be easily controlled with simple experimental methods. Using no adjustable parameters, the model accurately predicts the position of the inner moving contact line as a function of time following meniscus rupture in poly(dimethylsiloxane) reservoirs, and predicts the overall time for the persistence of liquid in those reservoirs to within 0.5 minutes. The methods in this study can be used to design holding reservoirs for lab-on-a-chip devices that involve no external control of evaporation, such that evaporation rates can be adjusted as necessary by modification of the reservoir geometry.

  2. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  3. Evaporation from microreservoirs†

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, N. Scott; Henry, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of very large surface area to volume ratios, evaporation is of significant importance when dealing with lab-on-a-chip devices that possess open air/liquid interfaces. For devices utilizing a reservoir as a fluid delivery method to a microfluidic network, excessive evaporation can quickly lead to reservoir dry out and overall device failure. Predicting the rates of evaporation from these reservoirs is difficult because the position of the air/liquid interface changes with time as the volume of liquid in the reservoir decreases. Here we present a two-step method to accurately predict the rates of evaporation of such an interface over time. First, a simple method is proposed to determine the shape of an air/liquid meniscus in a reservoir given a specific liquid volume. Second, computational fluid dynamics simulations are used to calculate the instantaneous rate of evaporation for that meniscus shape. It is shown that the rate of evaporation is strongly dependent on the overall geometry of the system, enhanced in expanding reservoirs while suppressed in contracting reservoirs, where the geometry can be easily controlled with simple experimental methods. Using no adjustable parameters, the model accurately predicts the position of the inner moving contact line as a function of time following meniscus rupture in poly(dimethylsiloxane) reservoirs, and predicts the overall time for the persistence of liquid in those reservoirs to within 0.5 minutes. The methods in this study can be used to design holding reservoirs for lab-on-a-chip devices that involve no external control of evaporation, such that evaporation rates can be adjusted as necessary by modification of the reservoir geometry. PMID:19495463

  4. Ulnar collateral ligament in the overhead athlete: a current review.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey; Chronister, Justin; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R

    2014-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are most commonly reported in baseball players (particularly in pitchers) but have also been observed in other overhead athletes including javelin, softball, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and gymnastics. Partial injuries have been successfully treated with appropriate nonoperative measures but complete tears and chronic injuries have shown less benefit from conservative measures. In these cases, surgical reconstruction has become the treatment modality for overhead athlete who wishes to continue to play. This article discusses the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL as related to the pathophysiology of overhead throwing, as well as the important clinical methods needed to make accurate and timely diagnosis. It also gives an updated review of the current clinical outcomes and complications of surgical reconstruction.

  5. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  6. Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic & Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jim, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the growing environmental education movement and what constitutes good education about recycling and the environment. Lists characteristics of environmental education resources and examines criticism of environmental education and recycling education. Cites 19 references. (LZ)

  7. Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLago, Louise Furia

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

  8. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  9. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  10. Footprint of recycled water subsidies downwind of Lake Michigan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continental evaporation is a significant and dynamic flux within the atmospheric water budget, but few methods provide robust observational constraints on the large-scale hydroclimatological and hydroecological impacts of this ‘recycled-water’ flux. We demonstrate a geospatial analysis that provides...

  11. The Sustainability of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juniper, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

  12. The Sustainability of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juniper, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

  13. European update on recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1993-10-01

    This article discusses the current status of recycling of automobiles in Europe based on a report compiled by Euromotor Reports and also discusses the move toward designing automobiles for disassembly to aid in the recycling process. Plastics and rubber are the emphasis of the report along with copper and aluminum. Problem areas in recycling or dismantling are also discussed.

  14. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  15. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  16. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  17. Delayed coking process with hydrotreated recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Becraft, L.; Kegler, W.; Sooter, M.

    1980-07-22

    A delayed coking process is described in which a liquid hydrocarbonaceous premium coke feedstock selected from the group consisting of thermal tar, pyrolysis tar, decant oil from a catalytic cracking operating and mixtures thereof combined with petroleum resid in an amount of up to 50 weight percent is heated in a coker furnace and then fed to a delayed coking drum, and in which overhead vapors from said coking drum are passed to a coker fractionator where they are separated into light hydrocarbon products and recycle gas oil, and in which said recycle gas oil is combined with said feedstock and returned directly to said coking furnace, the improvement wherein said recycle gas oil is hydrotreated after being separated from said light hydrocarbon products and prior to being combined with said feedstock and returned directly to said coking furnace and wherein the coke product from said delayed coking drum has a cte of less than 5.0x10/sup -7//sup 0/C.

  18. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  19. 18. PRIOR TO THE USE OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PRIOR TO THE USE OF CONVEYORS AND OVERHEAD RAILS, MOLDERS, USUALLY AFRICAN-AMERICAN, HAD TO INDIVIDUALLY HAND FILL MOLDS LAID OUT ON THE FLOOR, SUCH AS THESE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY IN 1923. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEW DEVICE FOR OVERHEAD DRILLING

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David M.; Star, Demetra; Gibbons, Billy; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Drilling overhead into concrete is a strenuous task that is associated with shoulder, arm, neck and back musculoskeletal disorders due to the forceful and awkward aspects of the work. This common task is done to hang pipes, ducts and trays and is performed by construction workers in the electrical, pipe fitting, sheet metal, ironwork and carpentry trades. In this project, alternative devices for overhead drilling were developed in order to reduce the high shoulder loads. The design premise for the alternative devices was adopted from interventions developed on construction sites. These devices were evaluated for usability, productivity, and fatigue in two rounds of testing by 30 construction workers performing their usual overhead drilling. After each round of testing the device designs were modified based on feedback. The final design was associated with much less arm fatigue but similar productivity compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. The feedback, design suggestions and field testing by experienced construction workers was vital to the successful development of these devices. Field testing were done with real tasks, in diverse field settings, with subjects familiar with the task. Multiple rounds of field testing and redesign can significantly improve the safety and usability of new tools. Having experienced workers accessing the new tools can help with determining if and how a new tool is compatible and beneficial to current work practices. PMID:19079737

  1. A Simple Polarimeter and Experiments Utilizing an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, H. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although polarimeters that illustrate rotation of plane-polarized light by chiral solutions have been previously described, the polarimeter described in this paper has certain advantages when used in conjunction with an overhead projector. Instructions for constructing this polarimeter and its use in demonstrating the optical activity of sugars…

  2. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D

    2005-02-04

    Locating specific 3D objects in overhead images is an important problem in many remote sensing applications. 3D objects may contain either one connected component or multiple disconnected components. Solutions must accommodate images acquired with diverse sensors at various times of the day, in various seasons of the year, or under various weather conditions. Moreover, the physical manifestation of a 3D object with fixed physical dimensions in an overhead image is highly dependent on object physical dimensions, object position/orientation, image spatial resolution, and imaging geometry (e.g., obliqueness). This paper describes a two-stage computer-assisted approach for locating 3D objects in overhead images. In the matching stage, the computer matches models of 3D objects to overhead images. The strongest degree of match over all object orientations is computed at each pixel. Unambiguous local maxima in the degree of match as a function of pixel location are then found. In the cueing stage, the computer sorts image thumbnails in descending order of figure-of-merit and presents them to human analysts for visual inspection and interpretation. The figure-of-merit associated with an image thumbnail is computed from the degrees of match to a 3D object model associated with unambiguous local maxima that lie within the thumbnail. This form of computer assistance is invaluable when most of the relevant thumbnails are highly ranked, and the amount of inspection time needed is much less for the highly ranked thumbnails than for images as a whole.

  3. Overhead Projector Spectrum of Polymethine Dye: A Physical Chemistry Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu

    1995-01-01

    Encourages the incorporation into lecture of live experiments that can be predicted or interpreted with abstract models. A demonstration is described where the position of the predominant peak of 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine iodide is measured in class using an overhead projector spectrometer, then predicted using the model of a particle in a…

  4. 12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY; NOTE THE RAISED CONCRETE PLATFORMS FOR WORKERS; VISCERA TABLE HAS BEEN REMOVED - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STOCK YARD LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING OVERHEAD YARD CRANE RAIL, THE MALLEABLE CUPOLAS AND EMISSION RECOVERY SYSTEM, OLD SHED ROOF THAT COVERED THE EARLIER MALLEABLE CUPOLA CHARGING CRANE, MALLEABLE FOUNDRY, AND POLLUTION CONTROL BAGHOUSE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  8. 19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior view showing flight simulator partition and rear overhead door, dock no. 493. View to south. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Nose Docks, On either side of Hangar Access Apron at Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Swing-out rail system separates overhead crane rails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitkin, R. G.

    1966-01-01

    Swing-out rail system separates and reconnects the overhead traveling crane rails of a building to provide for the passage of a thick concrete radiation shield sliding door through the rails. In the swing-out position, the rail cantilevered from an axial shaft.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1438 - Overhead & gantry cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1438... equipment when used in construction and permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same...

  11. Orbiter View of Curiosity From Nearly Straight Overhead

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-31

    Details such as the shadow of the mast on NASA Mars rover Curiosity appear in an image taken Aug. 17, 2012, by the HiRISE camera on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, from more directly overhead than previous HiRISE images of Curiosity.

  12. 13. Emplacement no. 2, overhead view of counterweight well, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Emplacement no. 2, overhead view of counterweight well, showing channel for gun motor cable and bolt plates upon which base ring of gun carriage was mounted - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  13. Simulation of Centrifugal Forces on an Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buvari, A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of images on an overhead projector to explain concepts like centrifugal force and Cariolis force in such a way that students can realize that they are pseudo-forces, i.e., observations arising only from referring phenomena to an accelerating reference system. (MLH)

  14. A Simple Polarimeter and Experiments Utilizing an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, H. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although polarimeters that illustrate rotation of plane-polarized light by chiral solutions have been previously described, the polarimeter described in this paper has certain advantages when used in conjunction with an overhead projector. Instructions for constructing this polarimeter and its use in demonstrating the optical activity of sugars…

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEW DEVICE FOR OVERHEAD DRILLING.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David M; Star, Demetra; Gibbons, Billy; Barr, Alan; Janowitz, Ira

    2007-11-01

    Drilling overhead into concrete is a strenuous task that is associated with shoulder, arm, neck and back musculoskeletal disorders due to the forceful and awkward aspects of the work. This common task is done to hang pipes, ducts and trays and is performed by construction workers in the electrical, pipe fitting, sheet metal, ironwork and carpentry trades. In this project, alternative devices for overhead drilling were developed in order to reduce the high shoulder loads. The design premise for the alternative devices was adopted from interventions developed on construction sites. These devices were evaluated for usability, productivity, and fatigue in two rounds of testing by 30 construction workers performing their usual overhead drilling. After each round of testing the device designs were modified based on feedback. The final design was associated with much less arm fatigue but similar productivity compared to the usual method for overhead drilling. The feedback, design suggestions and field testing by experienced construction workers was vital to the successful development of these devices. Field testing were done with real tasks, in diverse field settings, with subjects familiar with the task. Multiple rounds of field testing and redesign can significantly improve the safety and usability of new tools. Having experienced workers accessing the new tools can help with determining if and how a new tool is compatible and beneficial to current work practices.

  16. The Overhead System: Production, Implementation and Utilization. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard E.; Pearson, Jerry D.

    This handbook is designed to help three groups: the administrator who does not have the services of a media specialist, the media specialist who wishes to expand his knowledge or skills, and the classroom teacher who recognizes the value of the overhead as a teaching tool and is looking for practical assistance. Guidelines are provided in 11…

  17. GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM, LOOKING EAST. NOTE OVERHEAD BRIDGE CRANE RIDING ON STEEL RAILS SUPPORTED BY WOODEN BEAMS AND CYCLONE CLASSIFIER IN CENTER. AT RIGHT IS TOP PORTION OF FLASH FLOTATION CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  18. MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOBILE LADLES, ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS, ARE FILLED AT EITHER THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY BULL LADLE OR ELECTRIC FURNACE BEFORE THEY TRANSPORT MOLTEN IRON TO MOLDS PREPARED BY DISAMATIC MOLDMAKING MACHINE OR ON ONE OF THE CONVEYORS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. The Overhead Projector and the Teacher of English in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funck, Elvio Antonio

    This paper presents arguments for the consistent use of modern audiovisual aids in English classes, not as a complementary device, but as a fundamental aid. The intention of the thesis is to: (1) show that the overhead projector can be used to help students develop the four language skills; and (2) encourage English teachers, particularly in…

  20. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  1. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-13 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of south span Pratt through trusses, south portal of north span, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  3. Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to the northwest detailing four overhead rolling doors on the northeast elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  4. Overhead Projector Demonstrations: Some Ideas from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine chemistry demonstrations that can be done using an overhead projector. Includes demonstrations on common ion effect, crystal formation from supersaturated solutions, making iron positive with nitric acid, optical activity, carbon dioxide in human breath, amphoteric hydroxides, the surface tension of mercury, and natural acid-base…

  5. 13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of overhead (fill) conveyor gallery bridge extending through tops of tanks just below roofs. Grain tripper straddles belt conveyor at mid-view. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  6. 5. Overhead trackandpulley system used to haul materials stored in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Overhead track-and-pulley system used to haul materials stored in stock bins under Jones Street to the Tender Frame Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Tender Frame Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. Communication overhead on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Intel iPSC-860 hypercube in order to evaluate the overhead of interprocessor communication. It is demonstrated that: (1) contrary to popular belief, the distance between two communicating processors has a significant impact on communication time, (2) edge contention can increase communication time by a factor of more than 7, and (3) node contention has no measurable impact.

  8. Evaporatively driven morphological instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Style, Robert W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2007-07-01

    Simple observations of evaporating solutions reveal a complex hierarchy of spatiotemporal instabilities. We analyze one such instability suggested by the qualitative observations of Du and Stone and find that it is driven by a variant of the classical morphological instability in alloy solidification. In the latter case a moving solid-liquid interface is accompanied by a solutally enriched boundary layer that is thermodynamically metastable due to constitutional supercooling. Here, we consider the evaporation of an impure film adjacent to a solid composed of the nonvolatile species. In this case, constitutional supercooling within the film is created by evaporation at the solution-vapor interface and this drives the corrugation of the solid-solution interface across the thickness of the film. The principal points of this simple theoretical study are to suggest an instability mechanism that is likely operative across a broad range of technological and natural systems and to focus future quantitative experimental searches.

  9. Prevalence of Scapular Dyskinesis in Overhead and Nonoverhead Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Matthew B.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Liberman, Shari R.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scapular dyskinesis, or abnormal dynamic scapular control, is a condition that is commonly associated with shoulder pathology but is also present in asymptomatic individuals. Literature varies on whether it represents a cause or symptom of shoulder pathology, but it is believed to be a risk factor for further injury. Clinical identification focuses on visual observation and examination maneuvers. Treatment of altered scapular motion has been shown to improve shoulder symptoms. It is thought to be more common in overhead athletes due to their reliance on unilateral upper extremity function but the incidence within nonoverhead athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: Overhead athletes will have a greater prevalence of scapular dyskinesis when compared with nonoverhead athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: After PROSPERO registration, a systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines through the PubMed database looking for studies published before October 2014. All studies containing the search terms scapular, scapulothoracic, dyskinesis, dyskinesia, shoulder athlete, or overhead athlete were included. Studies that did not include prevalence data for scapular dyskinesis were excluded. Study methodological quality was evaluated using the modified Coleman methodology score. Descriptive statistics and 2-proportion 2-tailed z-tests were used to compare the reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis between overhead and nonoverhead athletes. Results: Twelve studies were analyzed including 1401 athletes (1257 overhead and 144 nonoverhead; mean age, 24.4 ± 7.1 years; 78% men). All the studies were evidence level 2 (33%) or level 3 (67%). The reported prevalence of scapular dyskinesis was significantly (P < .0001) higher in overhead athletes (61%) compared with nonoverhead athletes (33%). Conclusion: Scapular dyskinesis was found to have a greater reported prevalence (61%) in overhead athletes compared with nonoverhead athletes

  10. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  11. Moeglichkeiten individualisierter Arbeit mit Hilfe des Overhead-Projektors (Possibilities for Individualized Work with the Aid of the Overhead Projector)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budde, Ulrich

    1975-01-01

    Individualized work in teaching English is highly desirable, and the overhead projector is particularly useful in such work. Three examples of its possibilities are given: Dialog treatment, working with basic ("kernel") texts, and comparison of the simple present, simple past and present perfect tenses. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Geochemistry: Evaporating planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Edward D.

    2017-09-01

    Two studies show that evaporation of molten rock was intrinsic to the formation of Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System, suggesting that violent collisions played a key part in the formation process. See Letters p.507 & p.511

  13. Evaporation into Couette Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    v Yi Statistical analysis dependent variable Greek Symbols 13 Contact angle of sessile drop a Concentration thickness A Evaporated vapor penetration...31 5 FIGURES 1. Configuration of Three Sessile Drops ............................................. 10 2. Sketch of...Droplet Geometry ............................................................. 11 3. Shape Factor as a Function of Contact Angle

  14. Laser Evaporation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    concentrated aqua regia and hydrochloric energy ions. The minimum pulsed evaporation rate which acid, respectively. The metallic films capped by cw laser...Force Office of Scientific Research or the U.S. Government. 17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessarl and identif by block

  15. Deuterium excess in precipitation of Alpine regions - moisture recycling.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Klaus; Kralik, Martin; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Scheifinger, Helfried; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The paper evaluates long-term seasonal variations of the deuterium excess (d-excess = delta(2)H - 8. delta(18)O) in precipitation of stations located north and south of the main ridge of the Austrian Alps. It demonstrates that sub-cloud evaporation during precipitation and continental moisture recycling are local, respectively, regional processes controlling these variations. In general, sub-cloud evaporation decreases and moisture recycling increases the d-excess. Therefore, evaluation of d-excess variations in terms of moisture recycling, the main aim of this paper, includes determination of the effect of sub-cloud evaporation. Since sub-cloud evaporation is governed by saturation deficit and distance between cloud base and the ground, its effect on the d-excess is expected to be lower at mountain than at lowland/valley stations. To determine quantitatively this difference, we examined long-term seasonal d-excess variations measured at three selected mountain and adjoining valley stations. The altitude differences between mountain and valley stations ranged from 470 to 1665 m. Adapting the 'falling water drop' model by Stewart [J. Geophys. Res., 80(9), 1133-1146 (1975).], we estimated that the long-term average of sub-cloud evaporation at the selected mountain stations (altitudes between about 1600 and 2250 m.a.s.l.) is less than 1 % of the precipitation and causes a decrease of the d-excess of less than 2 per thousand. For the selected valley stations, the corresponding evaporated fraction is at maximum 7 % and the difference in d-excess ranges up to 8 per thousand. The estimated d-excess differences have been used to correct the measured long-term d-excess values at the selected stations. Finally, the corresponding fraction of water vapour has been estimated that recycled by evaporation of surface water including soil water from the ground. For the two mountain stations Patscherkofel and Feuerkogel, which are located north of the main ridge of the Alps, the

  16. Ten Suggestions and One Commandment: Using Overhead Projectors in Geography Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1985-01-01

    Suggestions for effective use of overhead projectors include making images large, preparing standard base maps, making lettering clear, presenting only one idea per overhead, keeping things simple, using only half a page for each image, using the overhead as a chalkboard, using color thoughtfully, making symbols bold, and anticipating emergencies.…

  17. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with substantial...

  18. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  19. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with substantial...

  20. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  1. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with substantial...

  2. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  3. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with substantial...

  4. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  5. 30 CFR 57.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 57... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16015 - Work or travel on overhead crane bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. 56... Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16015 Work or travel on overhead crane bridges. No person shall work from or travel on the bridge of an overhead crane unless the bridge is provided with substantial...

  7. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  8. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  9. Electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic risk factor: overhead work.

    PubMed

    Kinali, Gulsah; Kara, Sadık; Yıldırım, Mustafa Selman

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Repetitive upper extremity exercises result in overuse injuries. However, it is challenging to identify the specific causative movements. This study evaluated the effects of different shoulder positions on grip and electrophysiological activity of upper extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects ranging from 18 and 30 years of age were analyzed. Surface electromyography and hand grip strength were measured during a range of shoulder exercises and numerous signal processing methods were applied. [Results] The maximum electromyographic activity intensity was observed in the wrist extensors at various angles. Deltoid activity rose significantly during shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Overhead work causes shoulder muscle fatigue and prevents effective hand function, which affects occupational health and efficiency. Overhead work involves a hazardous position and decreases efficiency. Ergonomic solutions should be developed to prevent muscle fatigue and decreased grip force.

  10. Electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic risk factor: overhead work

    PubMed Central

    Kinali, Gulsah; Kara, Sadık; Yıldırım, Mustafa Selman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Repetitive upper extremity exercises result in overuse injuries. However, it is challenging to identify the specific causative movements. This study evaluated the effects of different shoulder positions on grip and electrophysiological activity of upper extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects ranging from 18 and 30 years of age were analyzed. Surface electromyography and hand grip strength were measured during a range of shoulder exercises and numerous signal processing methods were applied. [Results] The maximum electromyographic activity intensity was observed in the wrist extensors at various angles. Deltoid activity rose significantly during shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Overhead work causes shoulder muscle fatigue and prevents effective hand function, which affects occupational health and efficiency. Overhead work involves a hazardous position and decreases efficiency. Ergonomic solutions should be developed to prevent muscle fatigue and decreased grip force. PMID:27390448

  11. On-line corrosion control in refinery overhead systems

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, L.A.

    1995-11-01

    Corrosion is one of the great causes of accidents and economic losses in petroleum and petrochemical industries. Crude unit overheads are one of the most corrosion affected parts and large amounts of work and money has been spent on its control and prevention. Thus, new materials, inhibitors and monitoring techniques are constantly under testing in order to improve corrosion prevention and plant reliability. Expert Systems are a rising technology in industrial process monitoring and problem diagnosing. This sort of computer program is developed trying to simulate the human expert intelligent behavior in the task of solving a specific problem. The crude units overhead corrosion control is a hard and time consuming task that seems to be a fruitful field to expert systems application.

  12. Reducing the overhead for quantum computation when noise is biased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Paul; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Poulin, David

    2015-12-01

    We analyze a model for fault-tolerant quantum computation with low overhead suitable for situations where the noise is biased. The basis for this scheme is a gadget for the fault-tolerant preparation of magic states that enable universal fault-tolerant quantum computation using only Clifford gates that preserve the noise bias. We analyze the distillation of |T > -type magic states using this gadget at the physical level, followed by concatenation with the 15-qubit quantum Reed-Muller code, and comparing our results with standard constructions. In the regime where the noise bias (rate of Pauli Z errors relative to other single-qubit errors) is greater than a factor of 10, our scheme has lower overhead across a broad range of relevant noise rates.

  13. MICROINSTABILITY OF THE SHOULDER IN THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses and extreme ranges of motion observed within the athlete’s shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. While gross instability of the shoulder is possible, microinstability is seen far more frequently and is associated with a variety of different pathologies, including rotator cuff tendonitis, internal impingement, and labral lesions. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of this type of athlete and the demands placed upon the static stabilizing structures during the act of throwing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these principles and incorporate them into in a multi‐phase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both non‐operatively and postoperatively. PMID:24175140

  14. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  15. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida shred a disposed hard drive in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  16. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida accept items donated by employees in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  17. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  18. 4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridgeleft side) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overhead view showing the 1927 bridge (narrow bridge-left side) and 1959 bridge (right side) across Carquinez Strait. Town of Crockett is on south bank (bottom of image). C&H sugar factory is along the strait to the east (right) side of the 1959 bridge. The toll plaza is at the top of the image on the 1959 bridge side. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Glutinous Water. Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces from Fire Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) Most of the water used in firefighting is not only...Naval Research Laboratory AD-A277 280 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--94-7431 DTIC S ELECTE MAR 24 19941 Glutinous Water F Protecting Vertical...TYPE AND DATES COVERED February 28, 1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Glutinous Water Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces From Fire

  20. Overhead-Performance Tradeoffs in Distributed Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-26

    comparison, we have included a trendline for the rate distortion function plus a bit. Key Publications & Abstracts • B. D. Boyle , J. M. Walsh, and S. Weber...IID. • Jie Ren, Bradford Boyle , Gwanmo Ku, Steven Weber, John MacLaren Walsh, Overhead Performance Tradeoffs A Resource Allocation Perspective, IEEE...Bradford D. Boyle , Jie Ren, John MacLaren Walsh, and Steven Weber, Interactive Scalar Quantization for Distributed Extremization, IEEE Trans. Signal

  1. Passive optical sensor for lightning detection on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Florídia, C.; Bezerra, E. L.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the results of a passive optical sensor for monitoring lightning strikes on overhead power lines, which can also be used for several other applications. The optic sensor is very simple and cheap and basically consists in the use of an antenna connected directly to a semiconductor laser. No batteries and solar panels are necessary to implement this sensing system in power lines towers. It was tested in laboratory and showed a good performance.

  2. An estimation of lightning insulation level of overhead distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, P.B.; Grzybowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Ross, E.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops a practical procedure for determining the total insulation strength of multiple or composite insulations most commonly used in the design of overhead distribution lines. Laboratory test data were obtained on a wide range of combinations and configurations utilizing porcelain, polymer and fiberglass insulators as well as wood poles and wood crossarms. Data were obtained for both dry and wet conditions with positive and negative polarities of the impulses.

  3. Contract Overhead Reduction Across the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    strategy, a business adds a portion or representative share of overhead costs to the sales price of items or overall price of services in order to...exceeding specified standards or goals.”5 There are two broad category types of contracts – fixed price and cost reimbursement contracts. In the first...category, in the cases of a product having stable build characteristics, well-known supply chains, or a longer history of product pricing , then the

  4. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  5. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida look over appliances donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  6. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign tells NASA Kennedy Space Center employees they have come to the right place to donate items for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  7. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida set up giveaway items and sort through donations for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  8. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida sort through items donated for reuse or recycling in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  9. Modeling the Virtual Machine Launching Overhead under Fermicloud

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele; Wu, Hao; Ren, Shangping; Timm, Steven; Bernabeu, Gerard; Noh, Seo-Young

    2014-11-12

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for scientific workflows. The Cloud Bursting module of the FermiCloud enables the FermiCloud, when more computational resources are needed, to automatically launch virtual machines to available resources such as public clouds. One of the main challenges in developing the cloud bursting module is to decide when and where to launch a VM so that all resources are most effectively and efficiently utilized and the system performance is optimized. However, based on FermiCloud’s system operational data, the VM launching overhead is not a constant. It varies with physical resource (CPU, memory, I/O device) utilization at the time when a VM is launched. Hence, to make judicious decisions as to when and where a VM should be launched, a VM launch overhead reference model is needed. The paper is to develop a VM launch overhead reference model based on operational data we have obtained on FermiCloud and uses the reference model to guide the cloud bursting process.

  10. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    PubMed

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems.

  11. Process and apparatus for recycling organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, J.A.; Perreault, I.

    1982-09-28

    This defines a process and an apparatus to treat wet organic wastes, such as manures, to protect the environment and to recycle the solid content in the form of a soil conditioner or fertilizer. This process and apparatus are made to remove the bad smell and to separate the solid content in a very dry form, adapted to be readily bagged. This process and apparatus are characterized by an efficient conveying and concurrent agitation of the organic wastes in an evaporation furnace and in combination with use of the combustion gases for heat exchange heating of the fluidizing content of the wet organic wastes.

  12. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  13. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  14. Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  15. Evaporation of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavelier, Alain

    2011-09-01

    Among the five hundreds extrasolar planets known, almost 30% orbit closer than 0.1 AU from their parent star. We will review the observations and the corresponding models of the evaporation of these "Hot-exoplanets". The observations started with the discovery made with HST that the planet orbiting HD209458 has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations obtained with STIS and ACS and most recently with COS confirm the escape of the gas. And, even more, atomic oxygen, ionized carbon and silicon have been shown to be present at very high altitude in the upper atmosphere. Observations of other targets like HD189733b and Wasp-12 show that evaporation is a general phenomenon which could contribute to the evolution of planets orbiting close to their parent stars. To interpret these observations, we developed models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths. Numerous models have also been published to investigate mechanisms which can lead to the estimated escape rate. In general, the high temperature of the upper atmosphere heated by the far and extreme UV combined with the tidal forces allow a very efficient evaporation of the upper atmosphere. We will review the different models and their implications, in particular in the light of the new Kepler results. Finally we will also present the latest observations of the gas escaping HD189833b. These observations have been obtained with the repaired HST/STIS.

  16. Plate tectonics: Crustal recycling evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magni, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.

  17. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  18. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  19. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  20. Design for aluminum recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes the increasing use of aluminum in automobiles and the need to recycle to benefit further growth of aluminum applications by assuring an economical, high-quality source of metal. The article emphasizes that coordination of material specifications among designers can raise aluminum scrap value and facilitate recycling. Applications of aluminum in automobile construction are discussed.

  1. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  2. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  3. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  4. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  5. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  6. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  7. Multi-Fluid Modeling of Low-Recycling Divertor Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, R. D.; Pigarov, A. Y.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Rensink, M. E.; Maingi, Rajesh; Skinner, C. H.; Stotler, D. P.; Bell, R. E.; Kugel, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    The low-recycling regimes of divertor operation in a single-null NSTX magnetic configuration are studied using computer simulations with the edge plasma transport code UEDGE. The edge plasma transport properties pertinent to the low-recycling regimes are demonstrated. These include the flux-limited character of the parallel heat transport and the high plasma temperatures with the flattened profiles in the scrape-off-layer. It is shown that to maintain the balance of particle fluxes at the core interface the deuterium gas puffing rate should increase as the divertor recycling coefficient decreases. The radial profiles of the heat load to the outer divertor plate, the upstream radial plasma profiles, and the effects of the cross-field plasma transport in the low-recycling regimes are discussed. It is also shown that recycling of lithium impurities evaporating from the divertor plate at high surface temperatures can reverse the low-recycling divertor operational regime to the high-recycling one and may cause thermal instability of the divertor plate. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  8. Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

    1999-07-01

    ``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

  9. Adult cancers near high-voltage overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Shaddick, Gavin; Douglass, Margaret; de Hoogh, Kees; Briggs, David J; Toledano, Mireille B

    2013-03-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields are designated as possibly carcinogenic in humans, based on an epidemiologic association with childhood leukemia. Evidence for associations with adult cancers is weaker and inconsistent. We conducted a case-control study to investigate risks of adult cancers in relation to distance and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields from high-voltage overhead power lines using National Cancer Registry Data in England and Wales, 1974-2008. The study included 7823 leukemia, 6781 brain/central nervous system cancers, 9153 malignant melanoma, 29,202 female breast cancer cases, and 79,507 controls frequency-matched on year and region (three controls per case except for female breast cancer, one control per case) 15-74 years of age living within 1000 m of a high-voltage overhead power line. There were no clear patterns of excess risk with distance from power lines. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex [except breast cancer], deprivation, rurality), for distances closest to the power lines (0-49 m) compared with distances 600-1000 m, odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.61-1.11; 66 cases) for malignant melanoma to 1.22 (0.88-1.69) for brain/central nervous system cancer. We observed no meaningful excess risks and no trends of risk with magnetic field strength for the four cancers examined. In adjusted analyses at the highest estimated field strength, ≥1000 nanotesla (nT), compared with <100 nT, ORs ranged from 0.68 (0.39-1.17) for malignant melanoma to 1.08 (0.77-1.51) for female breast cancer. Our results do not support an epidemiologic association of adult cancers with residential magnetic fields in proximity to high-voltage overhead power lines.

  10. Improved Overhead Accounting in the NLC Main Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.

    2004-06-10

    The NLC main linac contains 1,116 RF power units, of which 5% are considered ''spares'' for replacement of failed power units, make-up of the energy gain during an RF breakdown, and energy feedback. A more careful accounting for the effects of beam loading indicates that the NLC can operate with less BNS overhead and a smaller mean phase offset than was originally specified, and that as a consequence the total number of spares is actually about 7.9% of the total.

  11. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  12. SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohumeral instability and muscle imbalance. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of muscle imbalance in subacromial impingement in order to guide sports physical therapy evaluation and interventions. PMID:21655457

  13. 88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. Overhead view of clear air station site at early stage of construction. View is from south 30 degrees west showing DR 3 in foreground with DR 2 in middle and DR 1 out of view. Official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photographer, 5 October, 1959, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-27. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. Field evaluation of a modified intervention for overhead drilling.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Star, Demetra; Barr, Alan; Blanco, Marco Mendoza; Janowitz, Ira

    2010-04-01

    Drilling holes into concrete or metal ceilings is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in construction. The work is done overhead with rotary impact hammer drills that weigh up to 40 N. The task is associated with pain and musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist, forearm, shoulder, and back. The mechanism of injury is thought to be the high forces and non-neutral shoulder and wrist postures applied during drilling. Previously, we described a field study of a foot lever and inverted drill press intervention devices that received poor usability ratings compared with the usual method for overhead drilling based on problems with mobility and productivity. Using a participatory intervention model, feedback from construction workers (N = 13) was used to develop a new intervention design that incorporated a wheeled tripod base and a unique method of aligning the drilling column to vertical. A different group of construction workers (N = 23) evaluated usability and fatigue of the new device during their regular overhead drilling in comparison with the usual method. Four of 12 usability ratings were significantly better with the intervention device compared with the usual method. Subjective shoulder fatigue was less with the new intervention (1.1 vs. 3.3; scale 0 to 5; p < 0.001). This difference was supported by objective outcome measures; the mean hand forces during drilling were 26 N with the intervention compared with 245 N with the usual method. The percentage of time with the shoulder flexed or abducted to more than 60 degrees was less with the intervention compared with the usual method (21 vs. 40%; p = 0.007). There was significantly less head extension with the intervention compared with the usual method. There were no significant differences in overall productivity between the two methods. This study demonstrates that a new intervention device for overhead drilling has improved usability and subjective fatigue ratings compared with the usual method

  15. The impact of overhead lines for employees with stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrek, P.; Skowron, M.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of article is to discuss interaction between stents implanted in the body of worker and harmonic magnetic field in the vicinity of electric wires. In last decades, a growing proportion of people has any devices implanted, to list: cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter - defibrillators. Recommendations of International Commision on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and resctrictions imposed in different states, may exlude specific individuals from their duties. The autors focused on the situation, when the employee with stent, works in the immediate vicinity of overhead electric wires, cleaning with dry ice the electric insulators.

  16. Evaluation of Impingement Syndromes in the Overhead-Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Christopher M.; Coen, Michael J.; Screnar, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We outline impingement entities, describe the history and physical examination, and provide an overview of treatment beyond that routinely used in glenohumeral and scapulothoracic dysfunction. Background: In the athlete, pain and dysfunction due to excessive overhead use or abnormal positioning of the shoulder is common and can result from multiple etiologies, including impingement syndromes. Primary, secondary, internal, and coracoid impingement have all been described. Description: These entities will be discussed, including pathology, evaluation, and treatment. Clinical Advantages: Incorporating a systematic evaluation and treatment of impingement syndromes optimizes care for the patient with shoulder pain. PMID:16558643

  17. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  18. Evaporating metal nanocrystal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James C.; Zhao, Chenwei; Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with a self-ordered triangular array of nanopores provide the means to fabricate multiple forms of nano materials, such as nanowires and nanoparticles. This study focuses on nanostructures that emerge in thin films of metals thermally evaporated onto the surface of AAO. Previous work showed that films of different evaporated metals assume dramatically different structures, e.g. an ordered triangular array of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles forms for lead (Pb) while a polycrystalline nanohoneycomb structure forms for silver (Ag). Here, we present investigations of the effects of substrate temperature and deposition angle that reveal the processes controlling the nano particle array formation. Our findings indicate that arrays form provided the grain nucleation density exceeds the pore density and the atomic mobility is high enough to promote grain coalescence. They introduce a method for producing films with anisotropic grain array structure. The results provide insight into the influence of substrate nano-morphology on thin film growth energetics and kinetics that can be harnessed for creating films with other novel nano-structures.

  19. Evaporating metal nanocrystal arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James C; Zhao, Chenwei; Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J M; Valles, James M

    2017-03-10

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with a self-ordered triangular array of nanopores provide the means to fabricate multiple forms of nano materials, such as nanowires and nanoparticles. This study focuses on nanostructures that emerge in thin films of metals thermally evaporated onto the surface of AAO. Previous work showed that films of different evaporated metals assume dramatically different structures, e.g. an ordered triangular array of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles forms for lead (Pb) while a polycrystalline nanohoneycomb structure forms for silver (Ag). Here, we present investigations of the effects of substrate temperature and deposition angle that reveal the processes controlling the nano particle array formation. Our findings indicate that arrays form provided the grain nucleation density exceeds the pore density and the atomic mobility is high enough to promote grain coalescence. They introduce a method for producing films with anisotropic grain array structure. The results provide insight into the influence of substrate nano-morphology on thin film growth energetics and kinetics that can be harnessed for creating films with other novel nano-structures.

  20. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-02-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets.

  1. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  2. Evaporation of inclined water droplets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-02-16

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets.

  3. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  4. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  5. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    A sign points the way to the electronic waste collection site, where NASA Kennedy Space Center employees donated computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more. The two-day event was sponsored by Kennedy's Sustainability team.

  6. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Members of the Sustainability team at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida take a bin of disposed hard drives to be shredded in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  7. 2016 America's Recycle Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-15

    Computers, monitors, vacuum cleaners and other electronics have been donated by employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida in conjunction with America Recycles Day. America Recycles Day is a nationally recognized initiative dedicated to promoting recycling in the United States. Kennedy partnered with several organizations in order to donate as many of the items as possible to those who could use them the most in the Space Coast community. Space center personnel brought in electronic waste, gently used household goods, clothing and more.

  8. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  9. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  10. Modeling nanofluid sessile drop evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, William J.; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.

    2017-07-01

    Modeling predictions for the evaporation of nanofluid pinned sessile drops are reported. Drops of fluids containing suspended nanoparticles have reduced evaporation rates relative to their pure fluid counterparts due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles at the surface resulting in a reduction in available liquid at the drop surface for evaporation. The present model implements a mechanism for the reduction in the surface concentration of the evaporating liquid based on the fractal geometry of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoparticle packing near the drop pinned contact line results in regions where a maximum nanoparticle volume fraction is attained, leading to significant reductions in the evaporative mass flux. Model predictions for the evaporation rate of pure ethanol and ethanol containing suspended aluminum nanoparticles are compared to experiments from the literature with excellent agreement for the reduction in evaporation rate due to nanoparticle loading and in reasonable quantitative agreement for the evaporation rate. The maximum allowable nanoparticle volume fraction is shown to be an important parameter in governing the evaporation rate of nanofluid sessile drops.

  11. Steal Tree: Low-Overhead Tracing of Work Stealing Schedulers

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2013-06-16

    Work stealing is a popular approach to scheduling task-parallel programs. The flexibility inherent in work stealing when dealing with load imbalance results in seemingly irregular computation structures, complicating the study of its runtime behavior. In this paper, we present an approach to efficiently trace async-finish parallel programs scheduled using work stealing. We identify key properties that allow us to trace the execution of tasks with low time and space overheads. We also study the usefulness of the proposed schemes in supporting algorithms for data-race detection and retentive steal- ing presented in the literature. We demonstrate that the perturbation due to tracing is within the variation in the execution time with 99% confidence and the traces are concise, amounting to a few tens of kilobytes per thread in most cases. We also demonstrate that the traces enable significant reductions in the cost of detecting data races and result in low, stable space overheads in supporting retentive stealing for async-finish programs.

  12. Overhead cam shaft type V-engine cylinder block

    SciTech Connect

    Tominaga, N.; Kurai, N.; Ueno, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1987-01-06

    This patent describes an overhead camshaft type V-engine having V-shaped cylinders equipped with and overhead camshaft drive by a timing chain disposed and arranged on either side of the cylinders at a right angle to a crankshaft. The improvement comprises: a cylinder block; a timing chain passage in the cylinder block, the passage housing the timing chain movement in a plane of the chain. The passage includes a spacing on each side of a pair of runs of the chain, and in the plane, the spacing on each side of a pair of runs of the chain being substantially the same; the block further including a wall at least partially bounding the spacings and intersecting the plane. The wall has symmetrical wall openings therethrough symmetrically disposed on opposite sides of the chain and its plane, and opening into a respective substantially same spacing; a plurality of chain guide means, each mounted in a respective substantially same spacing; and tensioning means resiliently biasing one of the chain guide means toward and against a run of the chain to place the chain in tension, at least a portion of the tensioning means being mounted in one of the symmetrical wall openings adjacent to the respective run. The symmetry of the symmetrical wall openings enable the tensioning means to be positioned adjacent to either run, whereby the cylinder block may be used for diametrically opposite cylinders.

  13. Gamma-ray dose from an overhead plume

    DOE PAGES

    McNaughton, Michael W.; Gillis, Jessica McDonnel; Ruedig, Elizabeth; ...

    2017-05-01

    Standard plume models can underestimate the gamma-ray dose when most of the radioactive material is above the heads of the receptors. Typically, a model is used to calculate the air concentration at the height of the receptor, and the dose is calculated by multiplying the air concentration by a concentration-to-dose conversion factor. Models indicate that if the plume is emitted from a stack during stable atmospheric conditions, the lower edges of the plume may not reach the ground, in which case both the ground-level concentration and the dose are usually reported as zero. However, in such cases, the dose frommore » overhead gamma-emitting radionuclides may be substantial. Such underestimates could impact decision making in emergency situations. The Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP, was used to calculate the overhead shine dose and to compare with standard plume models. At long distances and during unstable atmospheric conditions, the MCNP results agree with the standard models. As a result, at short distances, where many models calculate zero, the true dose (as modeled by MCNP) can be estimated with simple equations.« less

  14. Vertical Jump Biomechanics Altered With Virtual Overhead Goal.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Hegedus, Eric J; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2017-04-01

    Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height: 163.2 ± 8.1 cm, weight 63.0 ± 7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of drop vertical jump with different goal conditions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions. Vertical jump height displacement was not different during VOG compared with POG. Greater hip extensor moment (P < .001*) and hip angular impulse (P < .004*) were found during VOG compared with POG. Subjects landed more erect with less magnitude of trunk flexion (P = .002*) during POG compared with VOG. A virtual target can optimize jump height and promote increased hip moments and trunk flexion. This may be a useful alternative to physical targets to improve performance during certain biomechanical testing, screening, and training conditions.

  15. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete’s Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard C.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint. PMID:23016113

  16. TAUOVERSUPERMON: LOW-OVERHEAD ONLINE PARALLEL PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect

    SOTTILE, MATTHEW JOSEPH; NATARAJ, AROON; MALONY, ALLEN; MORRIS, ALAN; SHENDE, SAMEER

    2007-01-30

    Online or Real-time application performance monitoring allows tracking performance characteristics during execution as opposed to doing so post-mortem. This opens up several possibilities otherwise unavailable such as real-time visualization and application performance steering that can be useful in the context of long-running applications. Two fundamental components that constitute such a performance monitor are the measurement and transport systems. The former captures performance metrics of individual contexts (processes, threads). The latter enables querying the parallel/distributed state from the different contexts and also allows measurement control. As HPC systems grow in size and complexity, the key challenge is to keep the online performance monitor scalable and low overhead while still providing a useful performance reporting capability. We adapt and combine two existing, mature systems - Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) and Supermon - to address this problem. Tau performs the measurement while Supermon is used to collect the distributed measurement state. Our experiments show that this novel approach of using a cluster-monitor, Supermon, as the transport for online performance data from Tau leads to very low-overhead application monitoring as well as other beneits unavailable from using a traditional transport such as NFS.

  17. Output gating performance overhead elimination for scan test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhag, Ashok Kumar; Ahlawat, Satdev; Shrivastava, Vivek; Choudhary, Rahul Raj

    2015-07-01

    Switching activity is much higher in test mode as compared to normal mode of operation which causes higher power dissipation, and this leads to several reliability issues. Output gating is proposed as a very effective low-power test technique, which is used to eliminate redundant switching activity in the combinational logic of circuit under test (CUT) during the shifting of test vectors in a scan chain. This method reduces the average power significantly, but it introduces performance overhead in normal mode of operation. In this work, a new output gating technique is proposed which eliminates redundant switching activity in combinational logic of CUT during shifting of test vectors without any negative impact on performance as compared to earlier proposed output gating techniques. The proposed design also improves the performance of the scan flop in functional mode with negligible area overhead incurred due to extra transistors. Experimental results show that our design has a more robust performance over wide range of capacitive load as compared to earlier designs.

  18. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  19. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  20. Fermilab recycler diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

  1. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  2. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  3. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  4. Development of sensorless easy-to-use overhead crane system via simulation based control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Yasutaka; Mori, Yoshihito; Wada, Masaomi; Kawajiri, Eisaku; Nouzuka, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the newly developed overhead crane which has a sensorless vibration control system. Generally, loads which are carried by the overhead cranes are easy to vibrate and only skilled people can operate the cranes. Therefore, a lot of studies have been done to solve this problem by using feedback control with vibration sensors. However vibration sensors often break down in severe industrial environment and more reliable control systems are required. For this reason, we have been developing sensorless control system for overhead cranes. In this paper, we firstly introduce basic idea of simulation based control which is called IDCS, then overview and modeling of the overhead crane is presented. Next, the control system design of the overhead crane is discussed, and experimental results are shown for real overhead crane with 2 axes.

  5. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L. R.

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  6. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  7. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Software in the DOE: The Hidden Overhead of''The Build''

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Epperly, T

    2002-02-28

    ''The Build'' is the infrastructure needed to convert software from source code to usable form. It is intimately tied to the software it supports, knowing about every file and automating every transformation needed to produce a working program. Every developer knows that a project spends some labor overhead on ''the build.'' How big is this hidden overhead? According to 34 scientific software developers we surveyed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs, among colleagues at other DOE labs, and a handful of academics the ''perceived'' overhead averages around 12%. Individual cases of 20% to 30% were not uncommon. In one project claiming a 20% overhead, we found supporting evidence by combing through their CVS repository.

  9. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  10. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Water Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuki; Usui, Kota; Bonn, Mischa

    2015-12-04

    Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor, and is a key step in Earth's water cycle. At the molecular level, evaporation requires breaking at least one very strong intermolecular bond between two water molecules at the interface. Despite the importance of this process the molecular mechanism by which an evaporating water molecule gains sufficient energy to escape from the surface has remained elusive. Here, we show, using molecular dynamics simulations at the water-air interface with polarizable classical force field models, that the high kinetic energy of the evaporated water molecule is enabled by a well-timed making and breaking of hydrogen bonds involving at least three water molecules at the interface, the recoil of which allows one of the molecules to escape. The evaporation of water is thus enabled by concerted, ultrafast hydrogen-bond dynamics of interfacial water, and follows one specific molecular pathway.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Microstructured Evaporators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibel, W.; Westermann, S.; Maikowske, S.; Brandner, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Microfluidic devices have become more and more popular over the last decades [1]. Cooling is a topic where microstructures offer significant advantages compared to conventional techniques due the much higher possible surface to volume ratios and short heat transfer lengths. By evaporating of a fluid in microchannels, compact, fast and powerful cooling devices become possible [2]. Experimental results for different designs of microstructured evaporators are presented here. They have been obtained either using water as evaporating coolant or the refrigerant R134a (Tetrafluoroethane). A new microstructured evaporator design consisting of bended microchannels instead of straight channels for a better performance is shown and compared to previous results [2] for the evaporation of R134a in straight microchannels.

  13. Measurement of evaporation from snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaser, G.

    1982-04-01

    As part of a combined study of the ice, water and energy balance of Hintereisferner (Ötztal Alps) evaporation from snow and ice is measured since 1978 at an altitudes of 3030 m. These measurements are performed with plexiglass lysimeters of 400 em2 surface area. Evaluation of meteorological records yield a good correlation of evaporation with the difference of vapor pressure of the air and of the surface, respectively, for various classes of wind speed. The daily variation displays maximum evaporation before noon, and condensation during the afternoon with a maximum two hours after sunset. There is a sharp reversal from condensation to evaporation around midnight. The mean evaporation of a 12-day period in July/August 1980 was 0.25 mm per day, with a peak of 2.0 mm per day.

  14. Molecular Mechanism of Water Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Yuki; Usui, Kota; Bonn, Mischa

    2015-12-01

    Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor, and is a key step in Earth's water cycle. At the molecular level, evaporation requires breaking at least one very strong intermolecular bond between two water molecules at the interface. Despite the importance of this process the molecular mechanism by which an evaporating water molecule gains sufficient energy to escape from the surface has remained elusive. Here, we show, using molecular dynamics simulations at the water-air interface with polarizable classical force field models, that the high kinetic energy of the evaporated water molecule is enabled by a well-timed making and breaking of hydrogen bonds involving at least three water molecules at the interface, the recoil of which allows one of the molecules to escape. The evaporation of water is thus enabled by concerted, ultrafast hydrogen-bond dynamics of interfacial water, and follows one specific molecular pathway.

  15. Forest evaporation models: relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maitre, D. C.; Versfeld, D. B.

    1997-06-01

    The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation on the water regime. The basis for this approach is (a) that growth rates are determined by water availability and limited by the maximum water extraction potential, and (b) that stand evaporation is proportional to biomass and biomass increment. The relationships between stand growth and evaporation were modelled for a set of catchment experiments where estimates of both growth and evaporation were available. The predicted mean evaporation, over periods of several years, was generally within 10% of the measured mean annual evaporation (rainfall minus streamflow) when the model from one catchment was applied to other catchments planted with the same species. The residual evaporation, after fitting the models, was correlated with rainfall: above-average rainfall resulted in above-average evaporation. This relationship could be used to derive estimates for dry and wet years. Analyses using the models provide additional evidence that Eucalyptus grandis may be depleting groundwater reserves in catchments where its roots can reach the water table. The models are designed to be integrated into a plantation management system which uses a geographic information system for spatial analysis and modelling. The use of readily available growth parameters as predictor variables may reduce our dependence on intricate process-based models. This is seen as an efficient way of extrapolating existing catchment data — reflecting the impacts of forestry on water supplies across a range of sites, climatic zones and species. This approach has the potential for further development, especially in dealing with low flows and faster growing species.

  16. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Samir A.; Rafeldt, Derek A.; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator. PMID:27827880

  17. Hydro-mechanical overhead for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrick, Z.S.; Price, R.B.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a hydro-mechanical overhead for a multi-cylinder four-cycle internal combustion engine having a camshaft, intake valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, exhaust valve pushtube means driven by the camshaft, at least one intake and exhaust valve for each cylinder of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engines and a piston for each cylinder of the engine. The process comprises an intake valve master piston means for each engine cylinder. Each intake valve master piston means is driven by one of the intake valve pushtube means. There is an exhaust valve master piston means for each engine cylinder, and each exhaust valve master piston means is driven by one of the exhaust valve pushtube means.

  18. Reducing the quantum-computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Poulin, David

    2015-04-01

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum-computing schemes, accurate transformations are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here we present a scheme that merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  19. Wearable IMU for Shoulder Injury Prevention in Overhead Sports.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, Samir A; Rafeldt, Derek A; Uhl, Timothy L

    2016-11-03

    Body-worn inertial sensors have enabled motion capture outside of the laboratory setting. In this work, an inertial measurement unit was attached to the upper arm to track and discriminate between shoulder motion gestures in order to help prevent shoulder over-use injuries in athletics through real-time preventative feedback. We present a detection and classification approach that can be used to count the number of times certain motion gestures occur. The application presented involves tracking baseball throws and volleyball serves, which are common overhead movements that can lead to shoulder and elbow overuse injuries. Eleven subjects are recruited to collect training, testing, and randomized validation data, which include throws, serves, and seven other exercises that serve as a large null class of similar movements, which is analogous to a realistic usage scenario and requires a robust estimator.

  20. Phase Sensitive Cueing for 3D Objects in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, D W; Eppler, W G; Poland, D N

    2005-02-18

    A 3D solid model-aided object cueing method that matches phase angles of directional derivative vectors at image pixels to phase angles of vectors normal to projected model edges is described. It is intended for finding specific types of objects at arbitrary position and orientation in overhead images, independent of spatial resolution, obliqueness, acquisition conditions, and type of imaging sensor. It is shown that the phase similarity measure can be efficiently evaluated over all combinations of model position and orientation using the FFT. The highest degree of similarity over all model orientations is captured in a match surface of similarity values vs. model position. Unambiguous peaks in this surface are sorted in descending order of similarity value, and the small image thumbnails that contain them are presented to human analysts for inspection in sorted order.

  1. COMPARISON OF SCAPULAR MUSCLE ACTIVATIONS DURING THREE OVERHEAD THROWING EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    Henning, Lisa; Plummer, Hillary; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2016-02-01

    With shoulder pain and injury on the rise in overhead athletes, clinicians are often examining preventative exercises to address functional abnormalities. Because shoulder impingement is prevalent in overhead athletes, much focus is on scapular stability and the function of the stabilizing force couple of the upper and lower trapezius and serratus anterior. The purpose of this study was to examine scapular muscle activation during a series of throws and holds (throwing without releasing) with two different ball weights (7oz and 12oz). It was hypothesized that the holds exercises would elicit greater activation of the scapular musculature than the throw, irrespective of ball weight. Case control laboratory study. Twenty-two NCAA Division I, right hand dominant, softball players (19.91 + 1.04 years; 169.24 + 7.36 cm; 72.09 + 10.61 kg) volunteered to participate. Surface EMG was utilized to measure muscle activity in the upper, middle and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles during three different throwing activities. MANOVA results revealed no significant differences in muscle activity between throwing conditions, F(16,82) = 1.02, p = 0.446, Wilks' Λ = 0.696, Cohen's d = 0.44 (7oz holds), 0.24 (12oz holds), power = 0.625. The results may provide some clinical insight in advocating the use of holds with different ball weights. The holds throw may be an effective step in shoulder strengthening that can more closely mimic the functional movement of throwing without the element of ball release. Level 3.

  2. Lake Evaporation: a Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amayreh, Jumah Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Reliable evaporation data are an essential requirement in any water and/or energy budget studies. This includes operation and management of both urban and agricultural water resources. Evaporation from large, open water surfaces such as lakes and reservoirs may influence many agricultural and irrigation decisions. In this study evaporation from Bear Lake in the states of Idaho and Utah was measured using advanced research instruments (Bowen Ratio and Eddy Correlation). Actual over-lake evaporation and weather data measurements were used to understand the mechanism of evaporation in the lake, determine lake-related parameters (such as roughness lengths, heat storage, net radiation, etc.), and examine and evaluate existing lake evaporation methods. This enabled the development of a modified and flexible model incorporating the tested methods for hourly and daily best estimates of lake evaporation using nearby simple land-based weather data and, if available, remotely sensed data. Average evaporation from Bear Lake was about 2 mm/day during the summer season (March-October) of this two-year (1993-1994) study. This value reflects the large amount of energy consumed in heating the water body of the lake. Moreover, evaporation from the lake was not directly related to solar radiation. This observation was clear during night time when the evaporation continued with almost the same rate as daytime evaporation. This explains the vital role of heat storage in the lake as the main driving energy for evaporation during night time and day time cloudy sky conditions. When comparing over-lake and nearby land-based weather parameters, land-based wind speed was the only weather parameter that had a significant difference of about 50% lower than over-lake measurements. Other weather parameters were quite similar. The study showed that evaporation from the lake can be accurately estimated using Penman-type equations if related parameters such as net radiation, heat storage, and

  3. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  4. Recycling in a megacity.

    PubMed

    Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

    2004-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage.

  5. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  6. Who owns the recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1994-05-01

    On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

  7. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  8. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  9. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  10. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  11. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix II(f) to Part 13 - Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead and Administrative Costs II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. II(F) Appendix II(F) to Part 13—Overhead and Administrative Costs Date: Select Only...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  15. A Guide to the Use of the Overhead Projector. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Henry

    A sequel to the booklet "A Review of the Different Types of Instructional Materials Available to Teachers and Lecturers," this booklet begins by discussing the main educational uses of the overhead projector and its various strengths and weaknesses. Basic guidelines for using the overhead projector effectively are then offered, which include ways…

  16. 75 FR 81661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Overhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Overhead and Gantry Cranes Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) hereby announces... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Overhead and Gantry Cranes Standard,'' to the Office of Management and... cranes standard specify requirements for: Marking the rated load of cranes; preparing certification...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial bulkhead or equivalent protection shall be provided above persons at work deepening a shaft....

  18. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial bulkhead or equivalent protection shall be provided above persons at work deepening a shaft....

  19. How To Prepare Effective Overhead Projector Presentations: One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audio-Visual Supply, East Rutherford, NJ.

    Designed to help create effective presentations, this guide describes the basic techniques and provides hints for producing professional, attention-getting overhead transparencies in a step-by-step procedure format. Eight topics are addressed in the guide: (1) eight steps to a successful meeting presentation; (2) advantages of overhead projection;…

  20. Simulation of Water Sources and Precipitation Recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model simulation for 1948-1997 of the water budgets for the MacKenzie, Mississippi and Amazon River basins is presented. In addition to the water budget, we include passive tracers to identify the geographic sources of water for the basins, and the analysis focuses on the mechanisms contributing to precipitation recycling in each basin. While each basin s precipitation recycling has a strong dependency on evaporation during the mean annual cycle, the interannual variability of the recycling shows important relationships with the atmospheric circulation. The MacKenzie River basin has only a weak interannual dependency on evaporation, where the variations in zonal moisture transport from the Pacific Ocean can affect the basin water cycle. On the other hand, the Mississippi River basin has strong interannual dependencies on evaporation. While the precipitation recycling weakens with increased low level jet intensity, the evaporation variations exert stronger influence in providing water vapor for convective precipitation at the convective cloud base. High precipitation recycling is also found to be partly connected to warm SSTs in the tropical Pacific Ocean. The Amazon River basin evaporation exhibits small interannual variations, so that the interannual variations of precipitation recycling are related to atmospheric moisture transport from the tropical south Atlantic Ocean. Increasing SSTs over the 50-year period are causing increased easterly transport across the basin. As moisture transport increases, the Amazon precipitation recycling decreases (without real time varying vegetation changes). In addition, precipitation recycling from a bulk diagnostic method is compared to the passive tracer method used in the analysis. While the mean values are different, the interannual variations are comparable between each method. The methods also exhibit similar relationships to the terms of the basin scale water budgets.

  1. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A growing sense of dissatisfaction over the waste of resources in traditional disposal methods has not yet overcome the economic barriers of recycling costs and the difficulties of marketing recycled materials. The author examines several waste-recovery technologies, such as incineration and waste-derived fuels, and the constraints which work against time. He describes two plants in the United Kingdom and the contributions of voluntary groups and charities. Many see heat-recovery from refuse incineration and the land made available by foregoing conventional landfills as the major advantages. The marketing challenge will require building a demand for the useful recovered elements of waste. 27 references, 86 figures, 52 tables. (DCK)

  2. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  3. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  4. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  5. Evaporative cooling: effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; den Hartog, Emiel; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar; Rossi, Rene M; Richards, Mark; Farnworth, Brian; Wang, Xiaoxin

    2013-03-15

    Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has found little use in recent literature. In this experiment a thermal manikin, (MTNW, Seattle, WA) was used to determine the effective cooling power of moisture evaporation. The manikin measures both heat loss and mass loss independently, allowing a direct calculation of an effective latent heat of evaporation (λeff). The location of the evaporation was varied: from the skin or from the underwear or from the outerwear. Outerwear of different permeabilities was used, and different numbers of layers were used. Tests took place in 20°C, 0.5 m/s at different humidities and were performed both dry and with a wet layer, allowing the breakdown of heat loss in dry and evaporative components. For evaporation from the skin, λeff is close to the theoretical value (2,430 J/g) but starts to drop when more clothing is worn, e.g., by 11% for underwear and permeable coverall. When evaporation is from the underwear, λeff reduction is 28% wearing a permeable outer. When evaporation is from the outermost layer only, the reduction exceeds 62% (no base layer), increasing toward 80% with more layers between skin and wet outerwear. In semi- and impermeable outerwear, the added effect of condensation in the clothing opposes this effect. A general formula for the calculation of λeff was developed.

  6. Horst Meyer and Quantum Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balibar, S.

    2016-11-01

    With their 1963 article in Cryogenics Horst Meyer and his collaborators triggered intense research activity on the evaporation of superfluid helium. Discussing this subject with him in 1975 was enlightening. Fifty years later, the analogy between the photoelectric effect and the evaporation of superfluid helium in the low temperature limit is not yet clear, although remarkable progress has been made in its observation and its understanding. This special issue of the Journal of Low Temperature Physics is an opportunity to recall the history of quantum evaporation, and to express my gratitude to Horst Meyer. It describes quickly most of the experimental and theoretical works which have been published on quantum evaporation during the last 50 years, but it is not a comprehensive review of this fascinating subject.

  7. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Rawlinson, K. Scott

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  8. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  9. Evaporation from open microchannel grooves.

    PubMed

    Kachel, Sibylle; Zhou, Ying; Scharfer, Philip; Vrančić, Christian; Petrich, Wolfgang; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2014-02-21

    The evaporation of water from open u-shaped microchannel grooves was investigated with particular emphasis on the roles of channel width and air flow conditions. Given the small dimensions of the microchannels, all measurements were conducted in a range where convection and diffusion are of equal importance and known correlations for the calculation of mass transfer coefficients cannot be applied. The evaporation rates were measured using a new optical method and a gravimetric method. Both measurement methods yielded mass transfer coefficients that are in agreement with each other. The observed relation between mass transfer coefficient, air velocity and channel width vastly differs from the predictions obtained from macroscopic structures. With respect to diagnostic devices we conclude that analyte concentration in an open microchannel groove strongly increases even within short times due to the evaporation process and we show that wider channels are more favourable in terms of minimizing the relative evaporation rate.

  10. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  11. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  12. [Soil evaporation under perforated plastic mulch].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Wenyan; Shao, Ming'an

    2005-03-01

    In arid and semiarid regions of northwestern China, where evaporation exceeds precipitation, perforated plastic mulches are widely used to decrease soil water evaporation. To determine the effects of various perforated plastic mulches on soil water evaporation after irrigation, a soil column experiment was conducted, which consisted of six mulches with different perforated rates and four levels of irrigation, and the soil water evaporation from each soil column was measured. The results showed that with 100% perforated mulch, the cumulative evaporation was 2.8-48.5 times higher than that of the control, and increased with increasing irrigation amount. There was a linear relationship between cumulative evaporation and time, which followed the Gardner's theory of bare soil evaporation. A three-factor (evaporation time, perforated rate and irrigation amount) function of cumulative evaporation and the functions of relative cumulative evaporation and cumulative evaporation per unit hole area film were established, which fitted the observed data very well.

  13. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  14. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  15. Recycling for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Melvin

    2012-02-01

    Melvin Hoare, Steve Rawlings and the CUGA consortium look forward to the potential offered by recycling the ˜30 m class antennas at Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, including a new deep-space tracking facility, research and training, and the possibility of enhancing the e-MERLIN array.

  16. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  17. The Recycle Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  18. Recycling, Rethinking, and Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William E.

    The issues and problems confronted by a professor of literature when asked to teach a technical writing course for engineers are related in this paper. The first section of the paper explains how the professor was "recycled" from a teacher of literature to a professor of technical writing at his college. The second section describes some of the…

  19. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  20. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  1. Recycling Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, Anne; And Others

    This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

  2. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  3. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  4. Teacher Values in Teaching Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joseph E.; Harako, Eiichiro Atom

    1994-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceived values about recycling and how their values then influence the teaching of recycling. Results suggest that the teachers surveyed have a strong supportive feeling toward recycling and consequently impose their values onto their students in the teaching/learning exchange. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/MDH)

  5. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  6. Refrigerator recycling and CFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

    1994-12-31

    Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

  7. Contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation in oases of arid central Asia: A stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Che, Yanjun; Chen, Fenli; Qiang, Fang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial moisture contributed by surface evaporation and transpiration, also known as recycled moisture, plays an important role in hydrological processes especially across arid central Asia. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes can be used for water budget analysis to calculate the contribution of recycled moisture to precipitation between two locations along the moisture flow. Based on a three-component isotopic mixing model, the moisture recycling in oasis stations of arid central Asia during summer months is assessed. At large oases of Urumqi, the proportional contribution of recycled moisture to local precipitation is approximately 16.2%, and the mean proportions of surface evaporation and transpiration are 5.9% ± 1.5% and 10.3% ± 2.2%, respectively. At small oases like Shihezi and Caijiahu the contribution of recycled moisture is less than 5%, and the proportion of surface evaporation is much less than that of transpiration. The vegetative cover in arid central Asia is generally sparse, but the evapotranspiration contribution to precipitation cannot be ignored at the widely distributed oases. The oasis effect shows great variability depending on locations and water availability for evapotranspiration.

  8. Method for reprocessing and recycling of aqueous rinsing liquids from car painting with water-based paints in automobile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Walter; Dinglreiter, Udo

    2011-08-01

    In the paint processes of modern car plants the paint to be applied on the car bodies change after every few numbers. In order to avoid intermixtures of different lacquers the application systems has to be cleaned before every change by means of a rinsing liquid. Water based lacquers require water based cleaning agents. For these rinsing waters a new recycling process based on an evaporation process, a fractionated condensation and an after treatment of the condensates is described. The compatibility of the recycled system for lacquers is investigated. After a test with ten recycling loops no accumulation of harmful substances occurs. In comparison to original agents the recycled rinsing liquids show comparable or better cleaning abilities. The comparison of the energy consumption and the disposal of CO2 and of volatile organic compounds between the application of fresh rinsing liquid with disposal after usage and recycled rinsing liquid show major advantages of the recycling process.

  9. On the importance of cascading moisture recycling in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Van der Ent, R. J.; Donges, J. F.; Heinke, J.; Sampaio, G.; Rammig, A.

    2014-06-01

    Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. Evapotranspiration from the Amazon river basin contributes to precipitation regionally and in the La Plata river basin. Here we present an in-depth analysis of South American moisture recycling. We quantify the importance of "cascading moisture recycling", which describes the exchange of moisture between the vegetation and the atmosphere through precipitation and re-evaporation cycles on its way between two locations on the continent. We use the Water Accounting Model 2-layers (WAM-2layers) forced by precipitation from TRMM and evapotranspiration from MODIS for the period 2001 until 2010 to construct moisture recycling networks. These networks describe the direction and amount of moisture transported from its source (evapotranspiration) to its destination (precipitation) in South America. Model-based calculations of continental and regional recycling ratios in the Amazon basin compare well with other existing studies using different datasets and methodologies. Our results show that cascading moisture recycling contributes about 10% to the total precipitation over South America and 17% over the La Plata basin. Considering cascading moisture recycling increases the total dependency of the La Plata basin on moisture from the Amazon basin by about 25% from 23 to 29% during the wet season. Using tools from complex network analysis, we reveal the importance of the south-western part of the Amazon basin as a key intermediary region for continental moisture transport in South America during the wet season. Our results suggest that land use change in this region might have a stronger impact on downwind rainfed agriculture and ecosystem stability than previously thought.

  10. Overhead camshaft engine valve train with slack take up means

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.

    1987-03-03

    A valve train of an overhead camshaft engine is described comprising: a valve stem; a valve operating cam; a rocker arm operatively engaged with the valve stem and the cam for transferring motion from the cam to the valve stem and having at a part where it is operatively engaged with the cam a hole; a tappet reciprocatingly mounted in the hole in a manner to define an oil pressure chamber variable in volume in accordance with actual movement of the tappet and having an end protruding from the rocker arm to contact the cam; a source of pressurized oil; passageway means for providing communication between the source of pressurized oil and the oil pressure chamber; check valve means operatively connected with the passageway means for preventing a return flow out of the oil pressure chamber; a spring disposed in the oil pressure chamber to urge the tappet in the direction causing the oil pressure chamber to increase in volume to thereby take up slack in the valve train; and an oil releasing passageway having one end opening directly into the uppermost part of the oil pressure chamber and another end opening to the outside of the rocker arm.

  11. Soft-light overhead illumination systems improve laparoscopic task performance.

    PubMed

    Takai, Akihiro; Takada, Yasutsugu; Motomura, Hideki; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of attached shadow cues for laparoscopic task performance. We developed a soft-light overhead illumination system (SOIS) that produced attached shadows on objects. We compared results using the SOIS with those using a conventional illumination system with regard to laparoscopic experience and laparoscope-to-target distances (LTDs). Forty-two medical students and 23 surgeons participated in the study. A peg transfer task (LTD, 120 mm) for students and surgeons, and a suture removal task (LTD, 30 mm) for students were performed. Illumination systems were randomly assigned to each task. Endpoints were: total number of peg transfers; percentage of peg-dropping errors; and total execution time for suture removal. After the task, participants filled out a questionnaire on their preference for a particular illumination system. Total number of peg transfers was greater with the SOIS for both students and surgeons. Percentage of peg-dropping errors for surgeons was lower with the SOIS. Total execution time for suture removal was shorter with the SOIS. Forty-five participants (69% in total) evaluated the SOIS for easier task performance. The present results confirm that the SOIS improves laparoscopic task performance, regardless of previous laparoscopic experience or LTD.

  12. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Keys, Patrick W.; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  13. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    PubMed

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  14. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  15. Fatigue during prolonged intermittent overhead work: reliability of measures and effects of working height.

    PubMed

    Sood, Deepti; Nussbaum, Maury A; Hager, Kris

    2007-04-01

    Shoulder pain is prevalent among industrial workers and existing evidence supports that overhead work is an important specific risk factor. Existing guidelines are limited, with overhead work typically recommended to be avoided, and research on overhead work has been mixed in terms of the effects of increasing arm reach. A laboratory-based simulation of overhead work was conducted, at three working heights, in order to facilitate improved guidelines and to identify potential non-linear effects of overhead work height. Several indicators of shoulder fatigue served as outcome measures and a preliminary study was performed to assess the reliability of several of these measures. Fatigue measures based on electromyography (EMG) generally had low reliability, whereas excellent reliability was exhibited for ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD). Consistent with this, no effects of overhead work height were found on EMG-based measures, yet clear non-linear effects were found on RPD and task performance. The source of the effects of work height appeared to be related to a combination of muscle activation levels and demands on precision/control at the highest location. These results support the utility of subjective measures for relatively low-level intermittent exertions and demonstrate increasingly detrimental fatigue and performance effects at extremes in reach during overhead work.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1003 Overhead...) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors, the... accidental upset. (2) Applicability. This standard applies to wheel-type agricultural and industrial...

  20. 78 FR 68477 - Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Overhead and Gantry Cranes; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Overhead and Gantry Cranes... Standard on Overhead and Gantry Cranes specify requirements for: Marking the rated load of cranes; and...

  1. Current Concepts in the Evaluation and Treatment of the Shoulder in Overhead Throwing Athletes, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Reinold, Michael M.; Gill, Thomas J.; Wilk, Kevin E.; Andrews, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The overhead throwing athlete is an extremely challenging patient in sports medicine. The repetitive microtraumatic stresses imposed on the athlete’s shoulder joint complex during the throwing motion constantly place the athlete at risk for injury. Treatment of the overhead athlete requires the understanding of several principles based on the unique physical characteristics of the overhead athlete and the demands endured during the act of throwing. These principles are described and incorporated in a multiphase progressive rehabilitation program designed to prevent injuries and rehabilitate the injured athlete, both nonoperatively and postoperatively. PMID:23015928

  2. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canpolat, Nurtaç

    2006-12-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written responses and to further probe their understandings of the questions asked in the test. The findings revealed a number of misconceptions, many of which have not been previously documented. The results have implications for tertiary level teaching suggesting that a substantial review of teaching strategies is needed.

  3. Evaporation from layered porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, N.; Lehmann, P.; Or, D.

    2010-06-01

    Evaporation rates from porous media may vary considerably due to changes in internal transport mechanisms and potential interruption of hydraulic continuity; both are influenced by media pore space properties. Evaporation behavior in layered porous media is affected by thickness and sequence of layering and capillary characteristics of each layer. We propose a composite characteristic length for predicting drying front depth at the end of a period with a high and constant drying rate (stage 1 evaporation) from layered porous media. The model was tested in laboratory experiments using Hele-Shaw cells filled with alternating layers of coarse and fine sands considering different combinations of thicknesses and positions. The presence of textural interfaces affects drying rate, modifies liquid phase configuration, and affects the dynamics of the receding drying front. Neutron radiography measurements were used to delineate dynamics of liquid phase distribution with high temporal and spatial resolution. Results show that air invading an interface between fine and coarse sand layers results in a capillary pressure jump and subsequent relaxation that significantly modify liquid phase distribution compared with evaporation from homogeneous porous media. Insights are potentially useful for designing mulching strategies and capillary barriers aimed at reducing evaporative losses.

  4. Correlation for Sessile Drop Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Christopher; Wassom, Gregory; Mandelkorn, Brenton; Nkinthorn, Chris

    2016-11-01

    To better understand how the evaporation of sessile drops and small puddles is controlled by the vapor phase transport mechanisms of mass diffusion and buoyancy-induced convection, the evaporation rates of eight liquids evaporating under a broad range of ambient conditions were correlated with physical and geometrical properties. Examination of the correlation provides valuable insight into how the roles of diffusive and convective transport change with physical and geometrical parameters. The correlation predicts measured evaporation rates to within a root-mean-square error of 7.3%. The correlation is composed of two terms, a term which provides the rate of evaporation under diffusion-only conditions, and a term which provides the influence of convection. This second term suggests the manner in which the processes of diffusion and convection are coupled. Both processes are dependent on the distribution of the vapor, through the molar concentration gradient for diffusion and through the mass density gradient for convection. The term representing the influence of convection is approximately inversely proportional to the square root of diffusivity, indicating the tendency of diffusive transport to reduce convection by making the vapor distribution more uniform. Financial support was provided by the ACS Petroleum Research Fund.

  5. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Schut, Marthe F. L.; Desarnaud, Julie; Prat, Marc; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls , but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, de-icing of airplanes, inkjet printing and coating applications. In many of these processes, a phase change happens within the drop because of solvent evaporation, temperature changes or chemical reactions, which consequently lead to liquid to solid transitions in the droplets. Here we show that crystallization patterns of evaporating of water drops containing dissolved salts are different from the stains reported for evaporating colloidal suspensions. This happens because during the solvent evaporation, the salts crystallize and grow during the drying. Our results show that the patterns of the resulting salt crystal stains are mainly governed by wetting properties of the emerging crystal as well as the pathway of nucleation and growth, and are independent of the evaporation rate and thermal conductivity of the substrates. PMID:26012481

  6. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  7. Solvent Recycling for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    alternatives to solvent cleaning. Typical equipment types that can be effectively cleaned with recycled solvents include spray guns paint hoses pumps...in place of solvent-based coatings; or equipment changes, such as the use of airless or HVLP systems to reduce paint consumption and overspray...Using mechanical cleaning methods instead of solvent cleaning Change from conventional painting to solventless processes such as thermal spray or powder

  8. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating

  9. Tubular sublimatory evaporator heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative refrigerator or cooler comprising a bundle of spaced, porous walled tubes closed at one of their ends and vented to a vacuum at the other end is disclosed. The tube bundle is surrounded by a water jacket having a hot water inlet distribution manifold and a cooled water outlet through a plenum chamber. Hot water is pumped into the jacket to circulate around the tubes, and when this water meets the vacuum existing inside the tubes, it evaporates thereby cooling the water in the jacket. If cooling proceeds to the point where water penetrating or surrounding all or part of the tubes freezes, operation continues with local sublimation of the ice on the tubes while the circulating water attempts to melt the ice. Both sublimation and evaporation may take place simultaneously in different regions of the device.

  10. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  11. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Carlos A.; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people’s head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation. PMID:28796177

  12. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over aluminum conductive strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125 C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements. However, information about the structural integrity of connectors cannot be obtained. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to create structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  13. Predicting ice accretion and alleviating galloping on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingliang

    2002-04-01

    Both the static and dynamic effects of an ice storm on an overhead power line are investigated fairly comprehensively in this thesis. To determine the static, extreme ice load as well as the combined ice and wind load, a systematic procedure is established based on extensive freezing rain experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation. On the other hand, a dynamic effect---galloping---is examined quite extensively with the objective of better understanding its behavior. A novel add-on device---the hybrid nutation damper (HND)---is proposed to control galloping. Its effectiveness is assessed numerically by using a modified, 3DOF based, galloping software. The present investigations lead to the following findings. (i) Goodwin's simple theoretical model surprisingly predicts, quite accurately, the temporally changing weight of not only a dry ice growth but also a wet ice growth for a fixed, unheated conductor sample. (ii) The maximum ice loading may vary significantly over a power line's planned lifetime because of the randomness of an ice storm and its characteristics as well as the uncertainty involved in identifying the extreme probability distribution of the ice loading. Consequently, backup protection is presently essential for a power line in an ice prone area. (iii) A conductor's torsional flexibility does not appear to affect the growth of the accreted ice weight but it modifies the ice shape significantly. (iv) Three representative ice shapes (a crescent, D-like and icicle pendant) can initiate galloping so that galloping may occur in any icing condition. (v) A noticeable swingback or twist appears to develop only when their respective natural frequencies coincide with the plunge's natural frequency. (vi) A hydraulic jump is the major source of energy dissipation in a nutation damper. A properly induced rotation can significantly enhance a nutation damper's performance. (vii) A hybrid nutation damper has been demonstrated to be a promising means of alleviating

  14. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  15. Headgear Accessories Classification Using an Overhead Depth Sensor.

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos A; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Losada-Gutierrez, Cristina; Marron-Romera, Marta; Mazo, Manuel; Luengo-Sanchez, Sara; Macho-Pedroso, Roberto

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we address the generation of semantic labels describing the headgear accessories carried out by people in a scene under surveillance, only using depth information obtained from a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera placed in an overhead position. We propose a new method for headgear accessories classification based on the design of a robust processing strategy that includes the estimation of a meaningful feature vector that provides the relevant information about the people's head and shoulder areas. This paper includes a detailed description of the proposed algorithmic approach, and the results obtained in tests with persons with and without headgear accessories, and with different types of hats and caps. In order to evaluate the proposal, a wide experimental validation has been carried out on a fully labeled database (that has been made available to the scientific community), including a broad variety of people and headgear accessories. For the validation, three different levels of detail have been defined, considering a different number of classes: the first level only includes two classes (hat/cap, and no hat/cap), the second one considers three classes (hat, cap and no hat/cap), and the last one includes the full class set with the five classes (no hat/cap, cap, small size hat, medium size hat, and large size hat). The achieved performance is satisfactory in every case: the average classification rates for the first level reaches 95.25%, for the second one is 92.34%, and for the full class set equals 84.60%. In addition, the online stage processing time is 5.75 ms per frame in a standard PC, thus allowing for real-time operation.

  16. Municipal solid waste recycling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C.

    1999-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

  17. Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood tanks seen in background - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, LOADING PLATFORM, AND BOILER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Detail, cyclops 15ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, cyclops 15-ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the length of the building - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. 15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE ORIGINAL 10-TON OVERHEAD NILES TRAVELING CRANE. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  1. Detail, 25ton overhead traveling crane built by The Craneveyor Corporation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, 25-ton overhead traveling crane built by The Craneveyor Corporation, Los Angeles, California - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

    2006-08-01

    Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

  3. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  4. Calculation of induced voltages on overhead lines caused by inclined lightning strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, A.

    1989-01-01

    Equations to calculate the inducing scalar and vector potentials produced by inclined return strokes are shown. Equations are also shown for calculating the induced voltages on overhead lines where horizontal components of inducing vector potential exist. The adequacy of the calculation method is demonstrated by field experiments. Using these equations, induced voltages on overhead lines are calculated for a variety of directions of return strokes.

  5. [Current concepts in the diagnosis and rehabilitation of the shoulder in overhead athletes].

    PubMed

    Gokeler, A; Lehmann, M; Knopf, E; Freiwald, J

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the general guidelines, including implementation of principles of motor learning in the course of the rehabilitation of the shoulder in overhead athletes. The focus is on treating the most common injury pattern of overhead athletes being rotator cuff pathology with secondary bursitis and finally microtraumatic instability. Specific criteria are discussed to determine when the athlete can return to unrestricted sport participation.

  6. Comparison of Civilian and Military Overhead Spending: Three Case Studies. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-17

    aDesignations used by the Defense Housing Management Systems Office. TABLE 4 CIVILIAN HOUSING MAINTENANCE SPENDING VS. AGEa (Single unit, owner occupied...I-t9 ONCOMlPARISON OF CIVILIRN iND MILITARY OVERHEAD SPENDING : ,l THREE CASE STUDIES.. (U) CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES RLEXADRIA YR NAVAL PLRNNING RND...ftFL RESEARCH MEMORANDUM 0 COMPARISON OF CIVILIAN AND MILITARY OVERHEAD SPENDING : I THREE CASE STUDIES Daniel B. Levine Colin P. Hammon DTIC ELECTE K

  7. Rate of runaway evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Groep, J. van de; Straten, P. van der; Vogels, J. M.

    2011-09-15

    Evaporative cooling is a process that is essential in creating Bose-Einstein condensates in dilute atomic gasses. This process has often been simulated based on a model using a truncated Boltzmann distribution. This model assumes that the energy distribution up to the threshold energy can still be described by a Boltzmann distribution: it assumes detailed balance up to the threshold energy. However, the evolution of the distribution function in time is not taken into account. Here we solve the kinetic Boltzmann equation for a gas undergoing evaporative cooling in a harmonic and linear trap in order to determine the evolution of the energy distribution. The magnitude of the discrepancy with the truncated Boltzmannmodel is calculated by including a polynomial expansion of the distribution function. We find that up to 35% fewer particles are found in the high-energy tail of the distribution with respect to the truncated Boltzmann distribution and up to 15% more collisions are needed to reach quantum degeneracy. Supported by a detailed investigation of the particle loss rate at different energies, we conclude that the limited occupation of high-energy states during the evaporation process causes the lowering of the evaporation speed and efficiency.

  8. Observations of Si field evaporation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Keith; Sebastian, Jason; Gerstl, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Field evaporation studies of crystalline <100> Si were performed in a three-dimensional atom-probe, which utilized a local electrode geometry. Several distinct phenomena were observed. Si field evaporation rates showed: (1) no measurable dependence on temperature below 110K, (2) an exponential dependence on evaporation rate as a function of temperature above 110K, and (3) no dependence on substrate doping (i.e., electrical conductivity) as high as 10 Omega cm in the temperature range of 40-150K. Two distinct evaporation modes were observed. The first was associated with approximately 1at% H+ in the mass spectrum. Negligible amounts of H were detected in the mass spectra of the second mode. When the pulse fraction (pf) was increased from 5% to 30%, the presence of H+ in the mass spectra, i.e. operation in the first mode, was associated with a degradation in mass resolution by as much as 80% for the 10 Omega cm Si samples. Conversely, no loss in mass resolution was detected for the approximately 0.001 Omega cm samples over the pf range studied.

  9. Leachate evaporation using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.M.; Grace, V.M.; Freivald, W.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a century-old technology with a new twist of using landfill gas as a fuel in an evaporation system. The system is designed to help landfills reduce the cost of leachate disposal while also destroying VOC emissions in an enclosed flare.

  10. Membrane evaporator/sublimator investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, J.; Ruder, J.; Strumpf, H.

    1974-01-01

    Data are presented on a new evaporator/sublimator concept using a hollow fiber membrane unit with a high permeability to liquid water. The aim of the program was to obtain a more reliable, lightweight and simpler Extra Vehicular Life Support System (EVLSS) cooling concept than is currently being used.

  11. Evaporation rate of nucleating clusters.

    PubMed

    Zapadinsky, Evgeni

    2011-11-21

    The Becker-Döring kinetic scheme is the most frequently used approach to vapor liquid nucleation. In the present study it has been extended so that master equations for all cluster configurations are included into consideration. In the Becker-Döring kinetic scheme the nucleation rate is calculated through comparison of the balanced steady state and unbalanced steady state solutions of the set of kinetic equations. It is usually assumed that the balanced steady state produces equilibrium cluster distribution, and the evaporation rates are identical in the balanced and unbalanced steady state cases. In the present study we have shown that the evaporation rates are not identical in the equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. The evaporation rate depends on the number of clusters at the limit of the cluster definition. We have shown that the ratio of the number of n-clusters at the limit of the cluster definition to the total number of n-clusters is different in equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. This causes difference in evaporation rates for these cases and results in a correction factor to the nucleation rate. According to rough estimation it is 10(-1) by the order of magnitude and can be lower if carrier gas effectively equilibrates the clusters. The developed approach allows one to refine the correction factor with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations.

  12. Functional Multijoint Position Reproduction Acuity in Overhead-Throwing Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Brady L; Uhl, Timothy L; Mattacola, Carl G; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Shapiro, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Context: Baseball players rely on the sensorimotor system to uphold the balance between upper extremity stability and mobility while maintaining athletic performance. However, few researchers have studied functional multijoint measures of sensorimotor acuity in overhead-throwing athletes. Objective: To compare sensorimotor acuity between 2 high-demand functional positions and among planes of motion within individual joints and to describe a novel method of measuring sensorimotor function. Design: Single-session, repeated-measures design. Setting: University musculoskeletal research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I baseball players (age = 20.8 ± 1.5 years, height = 181.3 ± 5.1 cm, mass = 87.8 ± 9.1 kg) with no history of upper extremity injury or central nervous system disorder. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured active multijoint position reproduction acuity in multiple planes using an electromagnetic tracking device. Subjects reproduced 2 positions: arm cock and ball release. We calculated absolute and variable error for individual motions at the scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joints and calculated overall joint acuity with 3-dimensional variable error. Results: Acuity was significantly better in the arm-cock position compared with ball release at the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints. We observed significant differences among planes of motion within the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints at ball release. Scapulothoracic internal rotation and glenohumeral horizontal abduction and rotation displayed less acuity than other motions. Conclusions: We established the reliability of a functional measure of upper extremity sensorimotor system acuity in baseball players. Using this technique, we observed differences in acuity between 2 test positions and among planes of motion within the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints. Clinicians may consider these

  13. Adaptations of the Shoulder to Overhead Throwing in Youth Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Astolfi, Matthew Michael; Struminger, Aaron H.; Royer, Todd D.; Kaminski, Thomas W.; Swanik,, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Context The high number of repetitions and high forces associated with overhead throwing lead to anatomical adaptations, such as humeral retrotorsion and posterior-capsule thickness, in elite and professional baseball athletes. However, little is known about the origin and progression of these changes that may account for the increasing trend of chronic shoulder injuries in youth baseball and precipitate subsequent pathologic conditions throughout a young athlete's lifetime. Objective To investigate the relationship of age and upper extremity dominance on humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, and glenohumeral range of motion. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory, local baseball fields, and training facilities. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-six boys (mean age = 10.94 ± 1.34 years, height = 151.31 ± 12.17 cm, mass = 42.51 ± 10.32 kg) ranging in age from 8 to 12 years and involved in organized youth baseball. Main Outcome Measure(s) Diagnostic ultrasound was used to determine humeral retrotorsion and posterior-capsule thickness. Glenohumeral internal rotation and external rotation were measured using a handheld inclinometer. We used 2 × 2 mixed-model analyses of variance to compare the influence of limb dominance and age on the dependent variables of humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, internal rotation, and external rotation. Results The dominant shoulders of youth throwers exhibited less glenohumeral internal rotation but greater humeral retrotorsion, posterior-capsule thickness, and glenohumeral external rotation than the nondominant shoulders. Dominant internal rotation was greater in the 8- to 10-year-old group than in the 11- to 12-year-old group, and results trended toward a difference (F1,33 = 4.12, P = .05). Correlations existed between humeral retrotorsion and range of motion (P < .05). Conclusions The structural adaptations in the dominant shoulders of younger baseball players were similar to

  14. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  15. Separation of boric acid from PWR waste by volatilization during evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeman, A.; Braet, J.; Smaers, F.; De Regge, P.

    1997-01-01

    SCK{circ}CEN has developed a process to separate boric acid during and/or after evaporation of the liquid waste from pressurized light-water reactors. The key goal is to achieve higher waste volume reduction factors, while maintaining low activity discharge limits. An additional goal is to obtain purified boric acid for recycling. The process is based on the volatility of boric acid in steam. The liquid waste is treated in a semicontinuous evaporator, which operates preferentially at a higher temperature than the present evaporators. The stream loaded with boric acid is fed to a column for fractional condensation with partial reflux. In this way, one obtains a highly concentrated waste that contains all the radioactive and chemical impurities and little boron, a concentrated boric acid solution which can be reused, as well as a highly decontaminated effluent without boron. In case replacement or adaptation of existing evaporators is less practical, one can adapt the process for the treatment of evaporator concentrates. After having been intensively tested at SCK{circ}CEN, the process has recently been demonstrated in a small pilot installation and with realistic liquid waste, at the nuclear power station in Doel, Belgium. The results corresponded to the theoretical predictions. After a transitional period, the boron concentration in the evaporator no longer increased and consequently did not limit the achievable waste volume reduction factor. The boric acid was recovered from the steam and during a supplementary treatment additional boric acid from the waste concentrate was recovered.

  16. Helium Removal and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S

    2004-03-15

    Removal of helium, the ash from the D-T-fusion reaction, from a burning plasma flame, is one of the critical issues for future thermonuclear burning plasma. Even in plasmas driven by additional heating to large Q-values this is a severe problem. Recombination of fuel and ash ions at plasma exposed surfaces, re-emission as neutral particles and subsequent pumping (''recycling'') provides, at least in principle, the mechanism to flush the plasma from its ash. However, plasma surface interaction has to be limited in order to protect vessel components from excessive thermal load, often a conflicting requirement.

  17. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  18. Changes in precipitation recycling over arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruolin; Wang, Chenghai; Wu, Di

    2016-11-01

    Changes of precipitation recycling (PR) in Northern Hemisphere from 1981 to 2010 are investigated using a water recycling model. The temporal and spatial characteristics of recycling in arid regions are analyzed. The results show that the regional precipitation recycling ratio (PRR) in arid regions is larger than in wet regions. PRR in arid regions has obvious seasonal variation, ranging from more than 25 % to less than 1 %. Furthermore, in arid regions, PRR is significantly negatively correlated with precipitation (correlation coefficient r = -0.5, exceeding the 99 % significance level). Moreover, the trend of PRR is related to changes in precipitation in two ways. PRR decreases with increasing precipitation in North Africa, which implies that less locally evaporated vapor converts into actual precipitation. However, in Asian arid regions, the PRR increases as precipitation reduces, which implies that more locally evaporated vapor converts into rainfall. Further, as PRR mainly depends on evapotranspiration, the PRR trend in Asian arid regions develops as temperature increases and more evaporated vapor enters the atmosphere to offset the reduced rainfall.

  19. Social-ecological resilience to changes in moisture recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Line; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Keys, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Scientists from the biophysical and social sciences often define resilience substantially different. Biophysical scientists primarily use resilience to understand how a system can return to an equilibrium following a perturbation, and social scientists use resilience to understand what enables, or disable, human development. In the Anthropocene, where social changes are causing both linear and nonlinear biophysical changes, with local or distant feedbacks on society, it is important to develop integrated definitions and analytical methods to analyze combined social-ecological interactions. There has been a growing amount of research in this field over the last decade, but with a primary focus on relatively small-scale regions or specific ecosystems. In this paper we review literature dealing with interdisciplinary aspects of resilience to global change and develop a conceptual framework for analyzing social-ecological resilience in relation to moisture recycling (i.e. where evaporation from land returns as precipitation on land). We first identify current social drivers of changes in evaporation (including e.g. large scale land and water acquisitions, and REDD+ programs). We then identify geographic regions where the effects of altered evaporation on moisture recycling can risk a) causing thresholds in specific biomes (such as between forests and savannas), or b) shifts in social systems (such as collapse of rainfed farming systems). We also identify institutional structures that enhance the capacity to enhance resilience through either dealing directly with drivers, or building adaptive capacity to changes in moisture recycling. We particularly stress the difference between regional feedbacks (where the consequences are felt in the same regions where decisions are made), and teleconnections, i.e. where local decision in one place is altering important drivers for distant social-ecological systems. Through this review we identify the characteristics of interlinked

  20. Closing the Loop: Recycling and Buying Recycled Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Eleanor J.; Weltman, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Purchasing recycled paper should be part of every school's solid-waste reduction efforts. Public purchasing can stimulate demand for collected materials and encourage industry to produce recycled products. Schools can form buying consortiums to reduce costs. Schools can also practice source reduction of waste. Lists information resources. (MLF)

  1. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  2. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.; Nash, C.; Mcclane, D.; McCabe, D.

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  3. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  4. Synthesis on evaporation partitioning using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Bogaard, Thom; Wenninger, Jochen; Jonson Sutanto, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Partitioning of evaporation into productive (transpiration) and non-productive evaporation (interception, soil evaporation) is of highest importance for water management practices, irrigation scheme design, and climate modeling. Despite this urge, the magnitude of the ratio of transpiration over total evaporation is still under debate and poorly understood due to measuring difficulties. However, with the current development in isotope measuring devices, new opportunities arise to untangle the partitioning of evaporation. In this paper we synthesize the opportunities and limitations using stable water isotopes in evaporation partitioning. We will analyze a set of field as well as laboratory studies to demonstrate the different evaporation components for various climate and vegetation conditions using stable isotopes 18O/16O and 2H/1H. Experimental data on evaporation partitioning of crops, grass, shrubs and trees are presented and we will discuss the specific experimental set-ups and data collection methods. The paper will be a synthesis of these studies.

  5. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  6. The surface temperature of free evaporating drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodulin, V. Y.; Letushko, V. N.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Sterlyagov, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    Complex experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes was performed at evaporation of free liquid drops. For theoretical calculation the emission-diffusion model was proposed. This allowed taking into account the characteristics of evaporation of small droplets, for which heat and mass transfer processes are not described in the conventional diffusion model. The calculation results of evaporation of droplets of different sizes were compared using two models: the conventional diffusion and emission-diffusion models. To verify the proposed physical model, the evaporation of droplets suspended on a polypropylene fiber was experimentally investigated. The form of droplets in the evaporation process was determined using microphotographing. The temperature was measured on the surfaces of evaporating drops using infrared thermography. The experimental results have showed good agreement with the numerical data for the time of evaporation and the temperature of evaporating drops.

  7. Analysis of energy use in tomato evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, T.; Conant, T.

    1980-01-01

    Field performance data for four tomato product evaporators are presented and analyzed. Steam and feed flow rates along with steam economies were measured and are compared to steady state theoretical evaporator models.

  8. CFC recycling system

    SciTech Connect

    Furmanek, D.J.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a method for recycling freon. It comprises attaching a freon removal valve to a freon supply located in an appliance such as an air conditioner, refrigerator, freezer or the like, positioning a substantially empty freon collecting vessel in gas flow relationship to the valve by providing the freon removal valve with a puncture needle extending upwardly and adapted to puncture a freon supply tubing in the appliance, below the puncture needle is positioned a spring means, and below the spring means is positioned a piercing means adapted to pierce a closure in the collecting vessel to thereby establish a gas passage means extending from the supply tube, through the needle, through the piercing means to the collecting vessel, collecting the freon thereby in the collecting vessel, providing a substantially gas-free sealing means on the collecting vessel to insure substantial total containment of the freon within the collecting vessel, and delivering the collecting vessel to a collection center for reuse and recycling of the freon.

  9. Recycling the news

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    With its infamous bureaucracy, legions of news organizations, and the prominence of the federal government, Washington, D.C., and its environs generate literally tons of paper every day. Paper represents almost 40% of the waste stream, according to the US EPA. The agency`s figures show that more than 80 million tpy of paper are generated, and with such a significant portion of this waste capable of being recycled, it is essential that the nation`s capital have enough paper recycling facilities. Capital Fiber (Springfield, VA.), a large-scale intermediate paper processing facility, is an example of one such facility. Its primary material is old newspapers (ONP), and its operations consist of receiving, sorting, and consolidating waste paper for baling and resale. The company is a joint venture between daily newspaper giant the Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), which owns 80%, and the Canusa Corp. (Baltimore), a waste paper brokerage firm, which owns the other 20% of Capitol Fiber. Capital Fiber`s Springfield facility handles nine grades of paper, including pre-consumer and post-consumer ONP, blank news (newspaper trimmings that have not been printed on), old corrugated containers (OCC), sorted white ledger and sorted office waste, and various wrappers, supermixes, and other mixed grades. Within each of these categories are various sub-grades of paper, and the facility also takes old telephone books, computer paper, and flyleaf, the extra tim cut from periodicals. But, not surprisingly, the predominant material is ONP.

  10. Isokinetic Scapular Muscle Performance in Overhead Athletes With and Without Impingement Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cools, Ann M; Witvrouw, Erik E; Mahieu, Nele N; Danneels, Lieven A

    2005-06-01

    Context: Overhead activities such as throwing, tennis, or volleyball place athletes at considerable risk for overuse injuries. A relationship between scapulothoracic muscle imbalance and shoulder pain has been suggested.Objective: To compare the isokinetic muscle performance of the scapular muscles between overhead athletes with impingement symptoms and uninjured overhead athletes and to identify strength deficits in the patient population.Design: A repeated-measures analysis of variance with 1 within-subjects factor (side) and 1 between-subjects factor (group) was used to compare strength values and agonist:antagonist ratios across sides and across groups.Setting: University laboratory.Patients or Other Participants: Thirty overhead athletes with chronic shoulder impingement symptoms and 30 overhead athletes without a history of shoulder pain.Intervention(s): A linear protraction-retraction movement in the scapular plane at 2 velocities (12.2 cm/s and 36.6 cm/s).Main Outcome Measure(s): Isokinetic strength values and protraction:retraction ratios for both velocities.Results: Overhead athletes with impingement symptoms showed decreased force output:body weight at both velocities in the protractor muscles on the injured side compared with the uninjured side (-13.7% at slow velocity, -15.5% at high velocity) and compared with the control group at high velocity (-20.7%). On both sides, the patient group had significantly lower protraction:retraction ratios than the control group, measured at slow velocity (nondominant = -11%, dominant = -13.7%).Conclusions: Overhead athletes with impingement symptoms demonstrated strength deficits and muscular imbalance in the scapular muscles compared with uninjured athletes.

  11. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Treesearch

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  12. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  13. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk. It...

  14. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  15. Training Governments to Buy Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

  16. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  17. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  18. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Treesearch

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  19. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  20. Automotive aluminum recycling in 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the aluminium recycling industry's ability to handle effectively the increased amounts of automotive aluminium scrap resulting from increased amounts of wrought and cast aluminium alloys in automobile manufacturing. This study takes a system-wide view of both volume and composition aspects of automotive aluminium recycling.