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Sample records for recycling tritium contaminated

  1. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  2. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-07-15

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

  4. First measurements of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Adler, H.; Budny, R.V.; Kamperschroer, J.; Johnson, L.C.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    The first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma were made on TFTR using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The T{sub {alpha}} emission line is partially blended with the D{sub {alpha}} line (deuterium-alpha), commonly used in edge plasma diagnostics, and the contributions of H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, and T{sub {alpha}}, are separated by spectral analysis. The data are a measure of the fueling of the plasma by tritium accumulated in the TFTR limiter, as well as the amount of neutral tritium generated by charge exchange of plasma ions. The T{alpha} line first became detectable in a high power, tritium only, neutral beam injection discharge at the level of T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}}+D{sub {alpha}}+T{sub {alpha}}) = 2%. Subsequently this ratio has increased to as high as 7.5%. Data on the time evolution of the T{sub {alpha}} emission during a single discharge and over a series of tritium and deuterium discharges are presented.

  5. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Stotler, D. P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (Tα) emission from a fusion plasma are presented. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the Hα, Dα, Tα spectrum in the current D-T experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D, and T are separated by spectral analysis. The Tα line was measurable at concentrations Tα /(Hα+Dα+Tα) down to 2%.

  6. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  8. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  9. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Michel, R.L.; Radyk, J.C.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Mayers, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphitebased solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse?? & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments.

  10. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  11. Tritium contamination in the environment. January 1970-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, tritium bioaccumulation, tritium genotoxicity, tritium transport through the food chain, tritium presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and tritium buildup in the soil. Regulations on the permissible tritium levels discharged into the environment are described. (Contains 153 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Walker, T. B.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; DelCul, Guillermo Daniel

    2016-08-31

    This report is issued as the first revision to FCRD-MRWFD-2016-000297. Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when the solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using non-radioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.

  13. Capture of Tritium Released from Cladding in the Zirconium Recycle Process

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Barry B.; Walker, T. B.; Bruffey, S. H.; DelCul, Guillermo Daniel

    2016-08-31

    Zirconium may be recovered from the Zircaloy® cladding of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for recycle or to reduce the quantities of high-level waste destined for a geologic repository. Recovery of zirconium using a chlorination process is currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The approach is to treat the cladding with chlorine gas to convert the zirconium in the alloy (~98 wt % of the alloy mass) to zirconium tetrachloride. A significant fraction of the tritium (0–96%) produced in nuclear fuel during irradiation may be found in zirconium-based cladding and could be released from the cladding when the solid matrix is destroyed by the chlorination reaction. To prevent uncontrolled release of radioactive tritium to other parts of the plant or to the environment, a method to recover the tritium may be required. The focus of this effort was to (1) identify potential methods for the recovery of tritium from the off-gas of the zirconium recycle process, (2) perform scoping tests on selected recovery methods using nonradioactive gas simulants, and (3) select a process design appropriate for testing on radioactive gas streams generated by the engineering-scale zirconium recycle demonstrations on radioactive used cladding.

  14. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  15. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  16. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  17. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, K.W,; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-07-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling.

  18. Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J.

    2008-07-15

    Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

  19. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 155 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system.

  6. Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric Paul

    2000-09-01

    DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

  7. Dismantling of the PETRA glove box: tritium contamination and inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.

    2015-03-15

    The PETRA facility is the first installation in which experiments with tritium were carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. After completion of two main experimental programs, the decommissioning of PETRA was initiated with the aim to reuse the glove box and its main still valuable components. A decommissioning plan was engaged to: -) identify the source of tritium release in the glove box, -) clarify the status of the main components, -) assess residual tritium inventories, and -) de-tritiate the components to be disposed of as waste. Several analytical techniques - calorimetry on small solid samples, wipe test followed by liquid scintillation counting for surface contamination assessment, gas chromatography on gaseous samples - were deployed and cross-checked to assess the remaining tritium inventories and initiate the decommissioning process. The methodology and the main outcomes of the numerous different tritium measurements are presented and discussed. (authors)

  8. Effects of tritium contamination in the FED/INTOR reactor hall

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the constraints imposed on the FED/INTOR fusion plants by tritium contamination in the reactor hall. Limitations imposed by gamma-radiation levels and the maintenance philosophy adopted were included. The cost (capital and operation) required to maintain 5, 50, and 500 ..mu..Ci/m/sup 3/ was evaluated. Three different maintenance strategies (unsuited worker, suited worker and robotics) were suited to determine if tritium contamination placed a constraint on reactor availability.

  9. Concentration and removal of tritium and/or deuterium from water contaminated with tritium and/or deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Narula, Poonam M.

    2001-01-01

    Concentration of tritium and/or deuterium that is a contaminant in H.sub.2 O, followed by separation of the concentrate from the H.sub.2 O. Employed are certain metal oxo complexes, preferably with a metal from Group VIII. For instance, [Ru.sup.IV (2,2',6',2"-terpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)(O)](ClO.sub.4).sub.2 is very suitable.

  10. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-07-15

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of {approx}200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues.

  11. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    PubMed

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of < 1% w/w is required, and difficulty was encountered in reaching this target. The reuse of the sludge in asphalt paving mixtures was therefore considered as an alternative. Standard tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  12. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen".

  13. Measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas as an indicator of tritium groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Khris B; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C; McMahon, William J; Poreda, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The focus of this study was to define the shape and extent of tritium groundwater contamination emanating from a legacy burial ground and to identify vadose zone sources of tritium using helium isotopes (3He and 4He) in soil gas. Helium isotopes were measured in soil-gas samples collected from 70 sampling points around the perimeter and downgradient of a burial ground that contains buried radioactive solid waste. The soil-gas samples were analyzed for helium isotopes using rare gas mass spectrometry. 3He/4He ratios, reported as normalized to the air ratio (RA), were used to locate the tritium groundwater plume emanating from the burial ground. The 3He (excess) suggested that the general location of the tritium source is within the burial ground. This study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of the 3He method for application to similar sites elsewhere within the DOE weapons complex.

  14. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    PubMed

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement.

  15. Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Michel, R.L.; Halford, K.J.; Radyk, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant-based techniques were tested for field-scale evaluation of tritium contamination adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of tritium in plant water, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict and map subsurface contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into tritium migration pathways and processes. Plant sampling [creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] required one-fifth the time of soil water vapor sampling. Plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a separation distance of 380 m; measurement uncertainty accounted for <0.1% of the total variability in the data. Regression equations based on plant tritium explained 96 and 90% of the variation in root-zone and sub-root-zone soil water vapor concentrations, respectively. The equations were combined with kriged plant-water concentrations to map subsurface contamination. Mapping showed preferential lateral movement of tritium through a dry, coarse-textured layer beneath the root zone, with concurrent upward movement through the root zone. Analysis of subsurface fluxes along a transect perpendicular to the LLRW facility showed that upward diffusive-vapor transport dominates other transport modes beneath native vegetation. Downward advective-liquid transport dominates at one endpoint of the transect, beneath a devegetated road immediately adjacent to the facility. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document large-scale subsurface vapor-phase tritium migration from a LLRW facility. Plant-based methods provide a noninvasive, cost-effective approach to mapping subsurface tritium migration in desert areas.

  16. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F. ); Hocking, E.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy's increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations.

  17. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy`s increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations.

  18. Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study.

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Karin, Theodora

    2004-01-01

    Rebel, Karin, T. 2004. Using trees to remediate tritium contaminated groundwater: a modeling and tracer study. Ph.D Dissertation. Cotnell University. Ithaca, New York. 174 pp. Abstract: We have developed a spatially explicit model of water and tritium fluxes in the vadose zone in order to simulate water uptake and subsurface lateral movement in coniferous and mixed hardwood - coniferous forests on Coastal Plain soils of the southern United States. These Coastal Plain soils are characteristically sand overlying slowly permeable clays found at depths of 30 to 200 cm, and can form temporarily saturated, unconfined aquifers. Ten hectares of the modeled watershed was periodically irrigated with tritium enriched water. We used the tritium enriched water as a tracer to validate the model. The model was used to optimize irrigation, to evaluate the amount of tritium entering the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration and to quantify water and tritium fluxes in texture contrast soils. Using tritium as a tracer, we have studied how tree species and canopy position effect water and solutes uptake from different parts of the soil profile. We clipped branches to obtain leaf water from over-and understory laurel oak (Quercus Laurifolia) and over- and understory pine (Pinus elliottii and Pinus taeda), which was then analyzed for tritium. We found that for early successional trees (Pinus spp.) and trees in the overstory proportionally more water was taken up from deeper in the soil compared to the hardwoods or trees in the understory, which took up proportionally more water from the soil surface. These differences are important for understanding competition for resources within a forest and in predicting the hydrologic response to forest management practices such as thinning.

  19. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    SciTech Connect

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  20. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-10-18

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS.

  1. Economics and risks of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.L.; Ayers, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    As Decontamination and Decommissioning activities proceed within the DOE complex, tremendous volumes of both radioactively contaminated and non-contaminated concrete will be processed for disposal. Current practice is to decontaminate the concrete, dispose of the contamination at LLW facilities and ship the concrete rubble to C & D landfills for disposal. This study evaluates the economic, health and safety, legal, and social aspects of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete. Probabilistic models were used to estimate costs and risks. The model indicates that the radioactively contaminated concrete can be recycled at the same or lower cost than current or alternative practices. The risks associated with recycling were consistently less than or equal to the other alternatives considered.

  2. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  3. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  4. Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

  5. Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics.

    PubMed

    Wong, M H; Chui, V W

    1990-03-01

    The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

  6. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  7. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  8. RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  9. Treatment and recycle of high explosive contaminated water

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    A polysulfone ultrafilter membrane having a 0.04-{micro}m pore opening has been used to filter high explosive contaminated water. The water is being recycled for the coolant used during the machining of high explosive billets. High explosive contaminated wastewater is generated from the machining of high explosives at Pantex Plant. The water is used as the coolant during the machining operation. Typically, the water flow rate is from 2 to 3 gallons per minute. The water must be tempered to about room temperature so that it does not affect the dimensions of the explosive piece being machined. In normal operations, the wastewater and cuttings are allowed to flow to a centralized collection system. The solid explosives are separated from the water using a filtration and recycle system. The wastewater is collected in an air agitated receiving tank or sump. It is pumped from the sump to a settling cone where the solid particles are decanted off of the bottom. The overflow from the cone is collected in another tank and then pumped through two cyclone separators operated in series. This water is also collected in a holding tank prior to final filtration through a 25-{micro}m filter. The effluent from the particle filter flows through two activated carbon filters operated in series prior to being discharged to a drainage ditch. This results in an average discharge of about 2,000 gallons per operating day from Building 11-50.

  10. Reconstruction of tritium release history from contaminated groundwater using tree ring analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, R.M.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Hall, G.

    1995-10-01

    The history of tritium releases to the groundwater from buried waste was reconstructed through dendrochronology. Wood from dated tree rings was sectioned from a cross-section of a tree that was thought to tap the groundwater. Cellulose was chemically separated from the wood. The cellulose was combusted and the water of combustion collected for liquid scintillation counting. The tritium concentration in the rings rose rapidly after 1972 which was prior to the first measurements made in this area. Trends in the tritium concentration of water outcropping to the surface are similar to the trends in tritium concentration in tree rings. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  11. In-Situ Imaging and Quantification of Tritium Surface Contamination via Coherent Fiber Bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Stewart J. Zweben

    2001-11-12

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has developed a method of imaging tritium on in-situ surfaces for the purpose of real-time data collection. This method expands upon a previous tritium imaging concept, also developed at PPPL. Enhancements include an objective lens coupled to the entry aperture of a coherent fiber optic (CFO) bundle, and a relay lens connecting the exit aperture of the fiber bundle to an intensifier tube and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The system has been specifically fabricated for use in determining tritium concentrations on first wall materials. One potential complication associated with the development of D-T [deuterium-tritium] fueled fusion reactors is the deposition of tritium (i.e., co-deposited layer) on the surface of the primary wall of the vacuum vessel. It would be advantageous to implement a process to accurately determine tritium distribution on these inner surfaces. This fiber optic imaging device provides a highly practical method for determining the location, concentration, and activity of surface tritium deposition. In addition, it can be employed for detection of tritium ''hot-spots'' and ''hide-out'' regions present on the surfaces being imaged.

  12. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  13. Recycling of contaminated soils by the AMREC cold-mix, asphalt-emulsion process

    SciTech Connect

    Camougis, G.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the management of contaminated soils by recycling with a cold-mix, asphalt-emulsion process developed by the American Reclamation Corporation (AmRec). This is a soil recycling/reuse process in which soils contaminated with petroleum products and other contaminants can be processed into asphalt products with beneficial uses. Most of the discussion will center on soils contaminated with petroleum products. However, the recycling of soils with other contaminants (e.g., heavy metals) will also be discussed. AmRec has produced approximately 500,000 tons of asphalt products with recycled materials. These products have been used beneficially in roadways, access roads, parking areas and landfills throughout the northwest.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of contamination by alloying elements in aluminum recycling.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Takeda, Osamu; Miki, Takahiro; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2010-07-15

    In previous studies on the physical chemistry of pyrometallurgical processing of aluminum scrap, only a limited number of thermodynamic parameters, such as the Gibbs free energy change of impurity reactions and the variation of activity of an impurity in molten aluminum, were taken into account. In contrast, in this study we thermodynamically evaluated the quantitative removal limit of impurities during the remelting of aluminum scrap; all relevant parameters, such as the total pressure, the activity coefficient of the target impurity, the temperature, the oxygen partial pressure, and the activity coefficient of oxidation product, were considered. For 45 elements that usually occur in aluminum products, the distribution ratios among the metal, slag, and gas phases in the aluminum remelting process were obtained. Our results show that, except for elements such as Mg and Zn, most of the impurities occurred as troublesome tramp elements that are difficult to remove, and our results also indicate that the extent to which the process parameters such as oxygen partial pressure, temperature, and flux composition can be changed in aluminum production is quite limited compared to that for iron and copper production, owing to aluminum's relatively low melting point and strong affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the control of impurities in the disassembly process and the quality of scrap play important roles in suppressing contamination in aluminum recycling.

  15. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  16. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  17. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  18. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium.

    PubMed

    Hill, R L; Johnson, J R

    1993-12-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane.

  19. Metabolism and dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.L.; Johnson, J.R. )

    1993-12-01

    This document was prepared as a review of the current knowledge of tritium metabolism and dosimetry. The physical, chemical, and metabolic characteristics of various forms of tritium are presented as they pertain to performing dose assessments for occupational workers and for the general public. For occupational workers, the forms of tritium discussed include tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, skin absorption from elemental tritium gas-contaminated surfaces, organically bound tritium in pump oils, solvents and other organic compounds, metal tritides, and radioluminous paints. For the general public, age-dependent tritium metabolism is reviewed, as well as tritiated water, elemental tritium gas, organically bound tritium, organically bound tritium in food-stuffs, and tritiated methane. 106 refs.

  20. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  1. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  2. Methods to reduce bacterial contamination of recycling cooling systems of a CHPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasov, S. M.; Vlasova, A. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial contamination of circulating and make-up water of the nonconjugated recycling cooling system with evaporative cooling towers of thermal power plants is studied. The nonconjugated recycling cooling system of Naberezhnochelninskaya CHP Plant was selected as the object of study. It was found that circulating water of recycling cooling is highly contaminated with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. At the same time, make-up water for the cooling system from the Kama River is moderately polluted with anaerobic bacteria. Measurements of biological contamination in different parts of the recycling cooling system showed that populations of colonies of microorganisms abruptly decreases in turbine condensers, which is probably indicative of their death and deposition on the heat transfer surface of the condenser. Calculation using a special program showed that biological contamination of the recycling cooling system poses the greatest risks for clogging of the equipment (seven points on a nine-point scale), its corrosion (two points), and damage to the health of personnel (two points). Rapid development of aerobic bacteria apparently occurs under elevated temperature and intense aeration of water in the cooling tower. It is suggested to periodically monitor the recycling cooling system for biological pollution and to set a timetable for bactericidal treatment of circulating water depending on the level of its bacterial contamination.

  3. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  4. Potential reuse of petroleum-contaminated soil: A directory of permitted recycling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, S.; Wolf, G.; Avery, M.; Nash, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group of owners, or a large multinational corporation. They may need a starting point in their search for an appropriate solution, such as recycling. The report provides initial assistance in two important areas. First it discusses four potential recycling technologies that manufacture marketable products from recycled petroleum-contaminated soil: the hot mix asphalt process, the cold mix asphalt system, cement production, and brick manufacturing. The report also presents the results of a project survey designed to identify recycling facilities. It lists recycling facilities alphabetically by location within each state, organized by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region. The report also includes detailed addresses, recycling locations, telephone numbers, and contacts for these facilities. The scope of the project limits listings to fixed facilities or small mobile facility owners that recycle soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products into marketable commodities. It does not address site-specific or commercial hazardous waste remediation facilities.

  5. Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    1988-10-01

    ;Contents: The Problem; What`s In Our Trash; Where Does Trash Go; Where Does Our Trash Go; The Solution; What Is Recycling; Why Should We Recycle; A National Goal of 25%; What Can We Recycle; What Do We Do With Our Recyclables.

  6. New data on the level of contamination with tritium aerosol fallout in the nearest influence zone of the mining-chemical combine of the Rosatom State Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, L. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of tritium aerosol transport on radioactive contamination on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region influenced by the mining-chemical combine of the Rosatom State Corporation was studied. Snow cover, foliage, and needles collected at various distances from the mining-chemical combine were selected as the object of this study. A new methodology of liquid extraction from plant material (leaves and needles) was worked out. As a result, the maximal concentrations of tritium (15 kBk/m3 in snow, 11 and 15 Bk/m2 for leaves and pine-tree needles, respectively) were determined. However, the results obtained are not anomalous. Consequently, contamination with tritium may not be accounted for entirely due to the low concentrations.

  7. Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas as an Indicator of Tritium Contamination Near the 618-11 Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, J. C.; Poreda, Robert

    2004-10-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory sampled and analyzed soil gas for helium-3 and helium-4 concentrations from the vicinity of the 618-11 burial ground. The results of the measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost-effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the 618-11 burial ground.

  8. Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.

    1993-09-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

  9. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling.

    PubMed

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-11-15

    This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag phase (between approximately one and three decades) before the presence of chemicals in paper products could be considered insignificant. While improved decontamination may appear to be an effective way of minimizing chemicals in products, this may also result in lower production yields. Optimized waste material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material cycles. The results clearly indicate that mass-based recycling targets are not sufficient to ensure high quality material recycling.

  10. The use of tritium content as an indicator of the groundwater contamination by sanitary landfills leachates in the region of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, J V; Mingote, R M; Baptista, M B; Oliveira, D M; Lima, F P

    2008-01-01

    Tritium content in the leachate of sanitary landfills, in concentrations well above those observed in global precipitation, can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of the contamination of groundwater in piezometers of the landfills and in neighbouring tubular wells. This possibility was first investigated in Brazil for sanitary landfills in the region of Belo Horizonte City. Tritium levels together with the content of metals present in water and the measurement of soil electrical conductivity, proved to be valuable for these studies and also as a tracer for hydrodynamic studies of the surface water in the Ressaca creek.

  11. Full-scale experimental facility for the development technologies for the reprocessing of tritium contaminated light and heavy water wastes by CECE process and cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Trenin, V.D.; Alekseev, I.A.; Karpov, S.P.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Konoplev, K.A.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Uborski, V.V.; Voronina, T.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of the formation and accumulation of the tritiated heavy and light water wastes produced under operation of the various nuclear facilities is considered. It is shown that the tritium contaminated wastes may have a wide spectrum of isotope concentrations of H:D:T and correlation one with other. Reprocessing of these wastes is expensive matter due to the small tritium concentration respectfully to other hydrogen isotopes and as well as the small value of separation factor. It requires the development of the versatile technology. The description of the full scale experimental facility constructed at PNPI is given. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The effect of release liner materials on adhesive contaminants, paper recycling and recycled paper properties

    Treesearch

    Richard Venditti; Richard Gilbert; Andy Zhang; Said Abubakr

    2000-01-01

    Release liner waste material is found in post-consumer waste streams and is also a significant component of the preconsumer waste stream generated in the manufacturing of adhesive products. To date, very little has been reported pertaining to the behavior of release liner in paper recycling. In this study, the effect of the release liner material on the behavior of...

  13. Lead contamination around a kindergarten near a battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Sheng Jang; Yaw-Huei Hwang; Zueng-Sang Chen

    1992-07-01

    Lead poisoning has been noticed for more than a thousand years. Increased lead absorption and/or impaired neurobehavioral function among children who lived nearby lead smelters were reported in many different countries. In November of 1987, a worker from a lead battery recycling smelter suffered from anemia and bilateral weakness of his extremities. He was diagnosed as lead poisoning at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A subsequent epidemiological survey of the workers from this recycling smelter showed that 31 out of 64 who came for a medical examination suffered from lead poisoning. Since there was a kindergarten next to the factory, we performed this study to determine whether there was an increased lead absorption among children of the exposed kindergarten and its association with the extent of air and soil pollution in the surrounding area. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Identification of suspected hazardous chemical contaminants in recycled pastry packaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    The safe use of recycled paper and cardboard material for food packaging applications is     an important area of investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine which hazardous chemi- cal pollutants were found in paper and cardboard samples used for pastry packaging, and to measure the migration of pollutants over time into the pastries. In this study, the presence of some organic pollutants in common confectionery packaging, and the effects of storage time and type of pastry on pollutant migration, were investigated. The results of the study indicate that harmful compounds such as benzophenone, pentachlorophenol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate are present at high concentrations in most recycled boxes used for pastry packaging. Since the migration of some of the hazardous compounds from the packaging materials into the pastries under normal conditions was indicated, it is recommended that the procedure for preparing pastry packaging materials should be reconsidered and improved.

  15. Aluminum recycling from reactor walls: A source of contamination in a-Si:H thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Longeaud, C.; Ray, P. P.; Bhaduri, A.; Daineka, D.; Johnson, E. V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, the authors investigate the contamination of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with aluminum recycled from the walls and electrodes of the deposition reactor. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared under various conditions by a standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in two reactors, the chambers of which were constructed of either aluminum or stainless steel. The authors have studied the electronic properties of these thin films and have found that when using an aluminum reactor chamber, the layers are contaminated with aluminum recycled from the chamber walls and electrode. This phenomenon is observed almost independently of the deposition conditions. The authors show that this contamination results in slightly p-doped films and could be detrimental to the deposition of device grade films. The authors also propose a simple way to control and eventually suppress this contamination.

  16. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  17. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  18. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  19. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  20. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  1. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  2. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  3. Effectiveness of passivation techniques on hydrogen desorption in a tritium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Steven Michael

    2009-11-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is used as a fuel in fusion reactors, a booster material in nuclear weapons and as a light source in commercial applications. When tritium is used in fusion reactors, and especially when used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons, purity is critical. For U.S. Department of Energy use, tritium is recycled by Savannah River Site in South Carolina and is processed to a minimum purity of 99.5%. For use elsewhere in the country, it must be shipped and stored, while maintaining the highest purity possible. As an isotope of hydrogen it exchanges easily with the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. Stainless steel bottles are used to transport and store tritium. Protium, present in air, becomes associated in and on the surface of stainless steel during and after the manufacture of the steel. When filled, the tritium within the bottle exchanges with the protium in and on the surface of the stainless steel, slowly contaminating the pure tritium with protium. The stainless steel is therefore passivated to minimize the protium outgrowth of the bottles into the pure tritium. This research is to determine how effective different passivation techniques are in minimizing the contamination of tritium with protium. Additionally, this research will attempt to determine a relationship between surface chemistry of passivated steels and protium contamination of tritium. The conclusions of this research found that passivated bottles by two companies which routinely provide passivated materials to the US Department of Energy provide low levels of protium outgrowth into pure tritium. A bottle passivated with a material to prevent excessive corrosion in a highly corrosive environment, and a clean and polished bottle provided outgrowth rates roughly twice those of the passivated bottles above. Beyond generally high levels of chromium, oxygen, iron and nickel in the passivated bottles, there did not appear to be a strong correlation

  4. Recycled Fiber Properties as Affected by Contaminants and Removal Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Five materials were applied to either a kraft pulp furnish or to a kraft paper and were removed by conventional removal processes. Uncontaminated... kraft paper subjected to the same removal processes determined that the process, not the contaminant, was responsible for changes in sheet properties

  5. Washing of metal contaminated soil with EDTA and process water recycling.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-10-15

    We demonstrate here, in a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using the base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, of recycling process water as part of a novel remediation technology for multi-metal contaminated soils. In the first batch, 60 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil removed 72, 27, and 71% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, from soil contaminated with 5329±685, 3401±193, and 35±6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. In the subsequent four batches, we demonstrated that up to 88% of EDTA was recycled from each batch, with the potential to extract up to 98, 94, and 109% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, that the fresh EDTA extracted. Accumulation of salts in the process water through multiple remediation batches/recycles was prevented by CaSO(4) precipitation. Recycled process water toxicity testing indicated no significant effect on plant seed germination but some inhibition of root elongation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods to estimate the transfer of contaminants into recycling products - A case study from Austria.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Julika; Allesch, Astrid; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke

    2017-08-30

    Recycling of waste materials is desirable to reduce the consumption of limited primary resources, but also includes the risk of recycling unwanted, hazardous substances. In Austria, the legal framework demands secondary products must not present a higher risk than comparable products derived from primary resources. However, the act provides no definition on how to assess this risk potential. This paper describes the development of different quantitative and qualitative methods to estimate the transfer of contaminants in recycling processes. The quantitative methods comprise the comparison of concentrations of harmful substances in recycling products to corresponding primary products and to existing limit values. The developed evaluation matrix, which considers further aspects, allows for the assessment of the qualitative risk potential. The results show that, depending on the assessed waste fraction, particular contaminants can be critical. Their concentrations were higher than in comparable primary materials and did not comply with existing limit values. On the other hand, the results show that a long-term, well-established quality control system can assure compliance with the limit values. The results of the qualitative assessment obtained with the evaluation matrix support the results of the quantitative assessment. Therefore, the evaluation matrix can be suitable to quickly screen waste streams used for recycling to estimate their potential environmental and health risks. To prevent the transfer of contaminants into product cycles, improved data of relevant substances in secondary resources are necessary. In addition, regulations for material recycling are required to assure adequate quality control measures, including limit values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Fate and Transport of Tritium Contaminated Groundwater from the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Dresel, P EVAN.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Peterson, R E.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-10-12

    Tritium transport simulations were conducted to model the mechanisms associated with dilution, dispersion, and radioactive decay that attenuate the 618-11 Burial Ground tritium plume and limit the risk associated with exposure to the Columbia River and Energy Northwest water supply wells. A comparison of simulated and observed tritium concentrations at two downgradient monitoring wells indicated that the model was a reasonable representation of the tritium concentrations immediately downgradient of the site (699-13-3A) and near the leading edge of the plume (699-13-0A). This good match increased confidence in the conceptual model, its numeric implementation, and ultimately the validity of predictive simulations of tritium fate and transport. Three release scenarios were investigated to measure the impact of the tritium plume at primary receptor locations under different conditions. The three cases were 1) a pulse release of tritium from the burial ground that was the best fit between observed and simulated tritium concentrations; 2) a continuing, decaying source beneath the burial ground through 2015, the milestone for source removal under the River Corridor Closure Contract; and 3) a pulse release as in the best fit case but at twice the concentration. For the best fit case, the model predicts that the maximum tritium concentration will decline to below the drinking water standard by 2031 For the other two release scenarios, maximum tritium concentrations declined to below the drinking water standard by 2040 and 2037, respectively. Tritium from the 618-11 burial ground is not expected to migrate to the Columbia River or to the Energy Northwest water supply wells at concentrations that would pose a significant risk.

  8. Evaluation of the Fate and Transport of Tritium Contaminated Groundwater from the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Dresel, P Evan; Freeman, Eugene J.; Peterson, R E.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-08-08

    Tritium transport simulations were conducted to model the mechanisms associated with dilution, dispersion, and radioactive decay that attenuate the 618-11 tritium plume and limit the risk associated with exposure to the Columbia River and Energy Northwest water supply wells. A comparison of simulated and observed tritium concentrations at two downgradient monitoring wells indicated that the model was a reasonable representation of the tritium concentrations immediately downgradient of the site (699-13-3A) and near the leading edge of the plume (699-13-0A). This good match increased confidence in the conceptual model, its numeric implementation, and ultimately, the validity of predictive simulations of tritium fate and transport. Three release scenarios were investigated to measure the impact of the tritium plume at primary receptor locations under different conditions. The three cases were (1) a pulse release of tritium from the burial ground that was the best fit between observed and simulated tritium concentrations; (2) a continuing, decaying source beneath the burial ground through 2015, the milestone for source removal under the River Corridor Closure Contract; and (3) a pulse release as in the best fit case but at twice the concentration. For the best fit case, the model predicts that the maximum tritium concentration will decline to below the drinking water standard by 2031 For the other two release scenarios, maximum tritium concentrations declined to below the drinking water standard by 2040 and 2037, respectively. Tritium from the 618-11 burial ground is not expected to migrate to the Columbia River or to the Energy Northwest water supply wells at concentrations that would pose a significant risk.

  9. Tritium retention in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Mueller, D.; Walters, R. T.; TFTR Team; Causey, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Hirooka, J.

    1996-11-01

    The large tritium inventories projected for ITER pose an important constraint in the design of plasma facing components and the selection of first wall materials. Three years of deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR has provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium retention in a tokamak environment. More than 18 kCi of tritium has been injected into the torus via neutral beam injection and gas puffs and approximately half of this amount was retained in the vacuum vessel.(C.H. Skinner et al.), PPPL 3172 (Jan 1995). Tritium has been successfully removed by glow discharges, exposure to room air and other techniques and it is not a constraint on continued operations. A vacuum opening is scheduled for September 1996 and we plan to extract samples of tritiated carbon dust and flakes from the limiter and vacuum vessel for elemental and chemical analysis. We will present the TFTR experience in tritium recycling, retention and removal and its implications for ITER.

  10. Establishing a Quality Control Program: Ensuring Safety From Contamination for Recycled Metered-Dose Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Kurt; Knapp, Donnet; Snyder, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recycling metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) is an effective method to conserve medications resulting in significant cost savings to the hospital. A noted limitation in some reports is the potential for cross-contamination. Objective: To implement a quality control program to monitor and validate the safety of recycled MDIs for institutional reuse. Methods: A quality control program was conducted from December 2012 to May 2013. At a 257-bed acute care facility, MDIs are administered to a single patient using a patient-specific valved holding chamber and then returned to the pharmacy for cleaning with 70% isopropyl alcohol prior to re-dispensing to a new patient. Ten percent of MDIs from 3 categories were categorized: prior to pharmacy cleaning, after pharmacy cleaning, and new/unused control group each month. The mouthpiece and canister spray tip from each MDI were tested. Any bacterial growth was documented. A secondary test was conducted to ensure that artificially contaminated MDIs could be cleaned with current cleaning procedures. Cost savings measures were also quantified. Results: There was no bacterial growth on the 17 recycled MDIs cultured prior to the cleaning process. Bacteria did not grow on any of the 33 recycled MDIs cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol. Likewise, in the control group of 33 new/unused control MDIs, there was no bacterial growth. No bacteria growth was found after cleaning each artificially contaminated MDI. Total drug cost savings during the study period was approximately $130,000. Conclusions: Establishing a strict quality control program is paramount to validating a safe and effective recycled MDI procedure. PMID:24958955

  11. Tritium confinement in a new tritium processing facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Owen, J.H.; Hsu, R.H.; Hashinger, R.F.; Ward, D.E.; Bandola, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new tritium processing facility, named the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF), has been completed and is being prepared for startup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The RTF has the capability to recover, purify and separate hydrogen isotopes from recycled gas containers. A multilayered confinement system is designed to reduce tritium losses to the environment. This confinement system is expected to confine and recover any tritium that might escape the process equipment, and to maintain the tritium concentration in the nitrogen glovebox atmosphere to less than 10{sup {minus}2} {mu}Ci/cc tritium.

  12. Tritium confinement in a new tritium processing facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Owen, J.H.; Hsu, R.H.; Hashinger, R.F.; Ward, D.E.; Bandola, P.E.

    1991-12-31

    A new tritium processing facility, named the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF), has been completed and is being prepared for startup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The RTF has the capability to recover, purify and separate hydrogen isotopes from recycled gas containers. A multilayered confinement system is designed to reduce tritium losses to the environment. This confinement system is expected to confine and recover any tritium that might escape the process equipment, and to maintain the tritium concentration in the nitrogen glovebox atmosphere to less than 10{sup {minus}2} {mu}Ci/cc tritium.

  13. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  14. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kyere, Vincent Nartey; Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

  15. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  16. How Will Copper Contamination Constrain Future Global Steel Recycling?

    PubMed

    Daehn, Katrin E; Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2017-06-06

    Copper in steel causes metallurgical problems, but is pervasive in end-of-life scrap and cannot currently be removed commercially once in the melt. Contamination can be managed to an extent by globally trading scrap for use in tolerant applications and dilution with primary iron sources. However, the viability of long-term strategies can only be evaluated with a complete characterization of copper in the global steel system and this is presented in this paper. The copper concentration of flows along the 2008 steel supply chain is estimated from a survey of literature data and compared with estimates of the maximum concentration that can be tolerated in steel products. Estimates of final steel demand and scrap supply by sector are taken from a global stock-saturation model to determine when the amount of copper in the steel cycle will exceed that which can be tolerated. Best estimates show that quantities of copper arising from conventional scrap preparation can be managed in the global steel system until 2050 assuming perfectly coordinated trade and extensive dilution, but this strategy will become increasingly impractical. Technical and policy interventions along the supply chain are presented to close product loops before this global constraint.

  17. Recycling of EDTA solution after soil washing of Pb, Zn, Cd and As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-02-01

    Soil washing with EDTA is known to be an effective means of removing toxic metals from contaminated soil. A practical way of recycling of used soil washing solution remains, however, an unsolved technical problem. We demonstrate here, in a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using acid precipitation to recover up to 50% of EDTA from used soil washing solution obtained after extraction of Pb (5330 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3400 mg kg(-1)), Cd (35 mg kg(-1)) and As (279 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil. Up to 100% of EDTA residual in the washing solution and 100%, 97%, 98% and 100% of initial Pb, Zn, Cd and As concentration in the solution, respectively, were removed in an electrolytic cell using a graphite anode. We employed the recovered EDTA and treated washing solution to prepare recycled soil washing solution with the same potential for extracting toxic metals from soil as the original. The efficiency of soil washing depends on the EDTA concentration. Using twice recycled 30 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, we removed 44%, 20%, 53% and 61% of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively, from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of tritium: characteristics, sources, and problems.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Momoshima, N

    1993-12-01

    Tritium has certain characteristics that present unique challenges for dosimetry and health-risk assessment. For example, in the gas form, tritium can diffuse through almost any container, including those made of steel, aluminum, and plastics. In the oxide form, tritium can generally not be detected by commonly used survey instruments. In the environment, tritium can be taken up by all hydrogen-containing molecules, distributing widely on a global scale. Tritium can be incorporated into humans through respiration, ingestion, and diffusion through skin. Its harmful effects are observed only when it is incorporated into the body. Several sources contribute to the inventory of tritium in our environment. These are 1) cosmic ray interaction with atmospheric molecules; 2) nuclear reactions in the earth's crust; 3) nuclear testing in the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s; 4) continuous release of tritium from nuclear power plants and tritium production facilities under normal operation; 5) incidental releases from these facilities; and 6) consumer products. An important future source will be nuclear fusion facilities expected to be developed for the purpose of electricity generation. The principal health physics problems associated with tritium are 1) the determination of the parameters for risk estimation with further reduction of their uncertainties (e.g., relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate dependency); 2) risk estimation from complex exposures to tritium in gas form, tritium in oxide form, tritium surface contamination, and other tritium-contaminated forms, with or without other ionizing radiations and/or nonionizing radiations; 3) the dose contributions of elemental tritium in the lung and from its oxidized tritium in the gastrointestinal tract; 4) prevention of tritium (in oxide form) intake and enhancement of tritium (oxide form) excretion from the human body; 5) precise health effects information for low-level tritium exposure; and 6) public

  19. Novel EDTA and process water recycling method after soil washing of multi-metal contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2012-01-30

    The development of EDTA-based soil washing technologies is hampered by the lack of treatment methods of the spent solution, particularly when multi-metal contaminated soils have to be remediated. Extraction of Pb (5329 mg kg(-1)), Zn (3401 mg kg(-1)), Cd (35 mg kg(-1)) and As (279 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil with 60 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil removed 72%, 27%, 71%, and 80% of contaminants, respectively. We demonstrate here, on a laboratory scale experiment, the feasibility of using acid precipitation with HCl and H(2)SO(4), coupled to initial alkaline Fe removal, to recover up to 88% of EDTA from a spent soil washing solution containing 11,578 mg L(-1) of EDTA and 1109, 267, 7.1 and 64 mg L(-1) of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively. An electrochemical advanced oxidation process with a graphite anode was subsequently used to degrade 99.9% of the remaining EDTA in the spent washing solution and remove 99.7% Pb, 100% Zn, 96.6% Cd and 100% of As as (electro)precipitate. The cleansed process water obtained after electrochemical treatment was then used to prepare recycled washing solution by re-dissolving the recovered/recycled part of the EDTA. Washing solutions prepared from recycled EDTA had the same potential to extract Pb, Zn, Cd and As from soil as washing solution prepared from fresh EDTA of the same molarity. The novel recycling method is simple and robust and enables reuse of both EDTA and process water in a closed process loop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  1. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980`s The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America`s first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing `elephant trunks` in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and {Delta} pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs.

  2. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.

  3. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  4. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  5. Recycling of lower continental crust through foundering of cumulates from contaminated mafic intrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism is presented for recycling of lower continental material back into the mantle. Picritic magmas, possible parental to volumious continental volcanics such as the Karoo and Deccan, became trapped at the Moho, where they interacted with and become contaminated by lower crustal materials. Upon crystallization, the magmas differentiated into lower ultramafic cumulate zones and upper gabbroic-anorthositic zones. The ultramafic cumulates are denser than underlying mantle and sink, carrying lower crustal components as trapped liquid, as xenoliths or rafts, and as constituents of cumulate minerals. This model provides a potentially significant crust-mantle differentiation mechanism, and may also represent a contributing factor in crustal recycling, possibly important in producing some OIB reservoirs.

  6. Electrochemical EDTA recycling after soil washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen

    2011-08-30

    Recycling of chelant decreases the cost of EDTA-based soil washing. Current methods, however, are not effective when the spent soil washing solution contains more than one contaminating metal. In this study, we applied electrochemical treatment of the washing solution obtained after EDTA extraction of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil. A sacrificial Al anode and stainless steel cathode in a conventional electrolytic cell at pH 10 efficiently removed Pb from the solution. The method efficiency, specific electricity and Al consumption were significantly higher for solutions with a higher initial metal concentration. Partial replacement of NaCl with KNO(3) as an electrolyte (aggressive Cl(-) are required to prevent passivisation of the Al anode) prevented EDTA degradation during the electrolysis. The addition of FeCl(3) to the acidified washing solution prior to electrolysis improved Zn removal. Using the novel method 98, 73 and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, were removed, while 88% of EDTA was preserved in the treated washing solution. The recycled EDTA retained 86, 84 and 85% of Pb, Zn and Cd extraction potential from contaminated soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimated Release of Tritium from 232-F Concrete Rubble

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.

    2003-08-07

    This report describes an estimate of the release of tritium from contaminated concrete from the demolition of the old 232-F Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site. The estimate uses data from the scientific literature and information about tritium migration in concrete developed during studies of tritium in concrete at SRS.

  8. Short-range transport of contaminants released from e-waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Bai, Jinmei; Li, Yetian; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y; You, Jing

    2011-04-01

    The transport behaviors of a suite of contaminants released from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling operations, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals, were evaluated by analyzing the contaminant residues in surface soils sampled in the surrounding area of an e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in the soil samples ranged from 0.565 to 2908 ng g(-1) dw and from 0.267 to 1891 ng g(-1) dw, respectively, while soil residues were 0.082-2.56, 3.22-287, and 16.3-162 μg g(-1) dw for Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in soil decreased with increasing distance from the source of pollution, indicating possible PBDE and PCB contamination in the surrounding areas due to the short-range transport of these compounds from the e-waste recycling site. Although no significant difference in the short-range transport potential among PBDE and PCB congeners was observed, reductions in concentrations of the highly-brominated-BDEs and highly-chlorinated-CBs were slightly quicker than those of their less-halogen-substituted counterparts. Conversely, heavy metals showed the lowest transport potential due to their low vapor pressure, and results showed metals would remain near the pollution source instead of diffusing into the surrounding areas. Finally, mass inventories in areas near the e-waste site were 0.920, 0.134, 0.860, 4.68, 757, and 673 tons for BDE209, PBDEs (excluding BDE209), PCBs, Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively.

  9. Tritium trick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. V.; Zukas, E. G.; Eash, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    Large controlled amounts of helium in uniform concentration in thick samples can be obtained through the radioactive decay of dissolved tritium gas to He3. The term, tritium trick, applies to the case when helium, added by this method, is used to simulate (n,alpha) production of helium in simulated hard flux radiation damage studies.

  10. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  11. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  12. Tritium monitor and collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.D.; Wickham, K.L.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Grafwaller, E.G.; Maltrud, H.R.; Bourne, G.L.

    1991-03-26

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next online getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  13. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  14. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  15. Electrochemical EDTA recycling with sacrificial Al anode for remediation of Pb contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-08-01

    Recycling chelant is a precondition for cost-effective EDTA-based soil remediation. Extraction with EDTA removed 67.5% of Pb from the contaminated soil and yielded washing solution with 1535 mg L(-1) Pb and 33.4 mM EDTA. Electrochemical treatment of the washing solution using Al anode, current density 96 mA cm(-2) and pH 10 removed 90% of Pb from the solution (by electrodeposition on the stainless steel cathode) while the concentration of EDTA in the treated solution remained the same. The obtained data indicate that the Pb in the EDTA complex was replaced by electro-corroded Al after electro-reduction of the EDTA and subsequently removed from the solution. Additional soil extraction with the treated washing solution resulted in total removal of 87% of Pb from the contaminated soil. The recycled EDTA retained the Pb extraction potential through several steps of soil extraction and washing solution treatment, although part of the EDTA was lost by soil absorption.

  16. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses.

  17. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  18. Atmospheric tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

  19. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment.

  20. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.L.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  1. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  2. Imaging spectroscopy based strategies for ceramic glass contaminants removal in glass recycling.

    PubMed

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The presence of ceramic glass contaminants in glass recycling plants reduces production quality and increases production costs. The problem of ceramic glass inspection is related to the fact that its detectable physical and pictorial properties are quite similar to those of glass. As a consequence, at the sorting plant scale, ceramic glass looks like normal glass and is detectable only by specialized personnel. In this paper an innovative approach for ceramic glass recognition, based on imaging spectroscopy, is proposed and investigated. In order to define suitable inspection strategies for the separation between useful (glass) and polluting (ceramic glass) materials, reference samples of glass and ceramic glass presenting different colors, thicknesses, shapes and manufacturing processes have been selected. Reflectance spectra have been obtained using two equipment covering the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges (400-1000 and 1000-1700 nm). Results showed as recognition of glass and ceramic glass is possible using selected wavelength ratios, in both visible and near infrared fields.

  3. Solvent recycle/contaminant reduction testing - Phase I, Task 3. Topical progress report, June 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. This report describes the solvent recyle test program for EDTA/ammonium carbonate solvent.

  4. Assessment of the application of bioanalytical tools as surrogate measure of chemical contaminants in recycled water.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Laingam, Somprasong; Prochazka, Erik; Froscio, Suzanne; Trinh, Trang; Chapman, Heather F; Humpage, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The growing use of recycled water in large urban centres requires comprehensive public health risk assessment and management, an important aspect of which is the assessment and management of residual trace chemical substances. Bioanalytical methods such as in vitro bioassays may be ideal screening tools that can detect a wide range of contaminants based on their biological effect. In this study, we applied thirteen in vitro assays selected explicitly for their ability to detect molecular and cellular effects relevant to potential chemical exposure via drinking water as a means of screening for chemical contaminants from recycled water at 9 Australian water reclamation plants, in parallel to more targeted direct chemical analysis of 39 priority compounds. The selected assays provided measures of primary non-specific (cytotoxicity to various cell types), specific (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and endocrine receptor-mediated effects) and reactive toxicity (mutagenicity and genotoxicity), as well as markers of adaptive stress response (modulation of cytokine production) and xenobiotic metabolism (liver enzyme induction). Chemical and bioassay analyses were in agreement and complementary to each other: the results show that source water (treated wastewater) contained high levels of biologically active compounds, with positive results in almost all bioassays. The quality of the product water (reclaimed water) was only marginally better after ultrafiltration or dissolved air floatation/filtration, but greatly improved after reverse osmosis often reducing biological activity to below detection limit. The bioassays were able to detect activity at concentrations below current chemical method detection limits and provided a sum measure of all biologically active compounds for that bioassay, thus providing an additional degree of confidence in water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems.

  6. Assessment of end of life disposal, tritium recovery and purification strategies for radioluminescent lights

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F. ); Ellefson, R.E. EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH ); Carden, H.S. Quill Associates, Dayton, OH )

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this joint assessment by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and EG G Mound Applied Technologies is to identify and examine options for disposal of aged-out RL lights based on current technology, and for the possible recovery and purification of tritium from the lights and disposal of the resulting contaminated remnants. The focus of the assessment is on the waste disposal and tritium recycling issues that will evolve with use of advanced RL lighting technology and that are relevant to industrial suppliers and to civilian, military, and other government users. The scope of work also includes identification of the potential financial benefits and risks of recycle versus direct disposal. 5 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Assessment of end of life disposal, tritium recovery and purification strategies for radioluminescent lights

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Ellefson, R.E. |; Carden, H.S. |

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this joint assessment by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies is to identify and examine options for disposal of aged-out RL lights based on current technology, and for the possible recovery and purification of tritium from the lights and disposal of the resulting contaminated remnants. The focus of the assessment is on the waste disposal and tritium recycling issues that will evolve with use of advanced RL lighting technology and that are relevant to industrial suppliers and to civilian, military, and other government users. The scope of work also includes identification of the potential financial benefits and risks of recycle versus direct disposal. 5 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  9. Organic contaminants in sewage sludge (biosolids) and their significance for agricultural recycling.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R

    2009-10-13

    Organic chemicals discharged in urban wastewater from industrial and domestic sources, or those entering through atmospheric deposition onto paved areas via surface run-off, are predominantly lipophilic in nature and therefore become concentrated in sewage sludge, with potential implications for the agricultural use of sludge as a soil improver. Biodegradation occurs to varying degrees during wastewater and sludge treatment processes. However, residues will probably still be present in the resulting sludge and can vary from trace values of several micrograms per kilogram up to approximately 1 per cent in the dry solids for certain bulk chemicals, such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, which is widely used as a surfactant in detergent formulations. However, the review of the scientific literature on the potential environmental and health impacts of organic contaminants (OCs) in sludge indicates that the presence of a compound in sludge, or of seemingly large amounts of certain compounds used in bulk volumes domestically and by industry, does not necessarily constitute a hazard when the material is recycled to farmland. Furthermore, the chemical quality of sludge is continually improving and concentrations of potentially harmful and persistent organic compounds have declined to background values. Thus, recycling sewage sludge on farmland is not constrained by concentrations of OCs found in contemporary sewage sludges. A number of issues, while unlikely to be significant for agricultural utilization, require further investigation and include: (i) the impacts of chlorinated paraffins on the food chain and human health, (ii) the risk assessment of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a bulk chemical present in large amounts in sludge, (iii) the microbiological risk assessment of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms in sewage sludge and sludge-amended agricultural soil, and (iv) the potential significance of personal-care products (e.g. triclosan), pharmaceuticals

  10. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  11. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food.

  12. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  13. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  14. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  15. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  16. The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

  17. Comparison of alternative remediation technologies for recycled gravel contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Huang, Sheng; Zhen, Guangyin; Deng, Guannan; Xie, Tian; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of different remediation methods on heavy metals contaminated recycled gravel, three immobilization agents (monopotassium phosphate, lime, nano-iron) and two mobilization agents (glyphosate, humic acid (HA)) were studied and compared. Results indicated that nano-iron powder was found to be more effective to immobilize Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. Meanwhile, glyphosate presents a higher mobilization effect than HA with removal rates of about 66.7% for Cd, more than 80% for Cr, Cu and Zn, and the highest removal percentage of 85.9% for Cr. After the mobilization by glyphosate, the leaching rates of Zn, Cu and Cr were about 0.8%, and below 0.2% for Pb and Cd. The leaching rates after nano-iron powder treatment were 1.18% for Zn, 0.96% for Cr, 0.61% for Cu, 0.45% for Pb and Cd not detected. The formation and disappearance of metal (Zn/Cu/Cr/Pb/Cd) compounds were firmly confirmed through X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on crystalline phases and morphological surface structures.

  18. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  20. Tritium profiles in snowpacks.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Davis, P; Workman, W

    2010-10-01

    The release of tritiated water (HTO) to the atmosphere during the winter can contribute significantly to snow contamination and to water-soil-plant contamination after the spring thaw. The dose significance of such a release depends on the persistence of tritiated water in the snowpack, which is primarily controlled by the HTO diffusion process in snow and the rate of re-emission into the atmosphere from the snowpack surface. Monitoring data collected after an acute winter release at Chalk River Laboratories and data obtained in winter over a chronically contaminated area were analyzed to estimate the diffusion coefficient of HTO in the snowpack. Under conditions of cold and dry snow, the diffusion coefficient lay in the range 1-2x10(-10)m(2)s(-1), an order of magnitude lower than diffusion in water but an order of magnitude higher than self-diffusion in ice. These results confirm the theoretical predictions (Bales, 1991). Values up to six times higher were found for warmer periods and just before spring melt, when other processes contribute to profile evolution. The low diffusion rate of tritium in cold, dry snow means that tritium remains in the snowpack throughout the winter, to be released during spring thaw to potentially contaminate surface water, soil and crops. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  2. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  3. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  4. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  5. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  6. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers

    PubMed Central

    Almuktar, Suhad A.A.A.N.; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:26861370

  7. The threshold of regulation and its application to indirect food additive contaminants in recycled plastics.

    PubMed

    Bayer, F L

    1997-01-01

    Recycled plastics have been used in food-contact applications since 1990 in various countries around the world. To date, there have been no reported issues concerning health or off-taste resulting from the use of recycled plastics in food-contact applications. This is due to the fact that the criteria that have been established regarding safety and processing are based on extremely high standards that render the finished recycled material equivalent in virtually all aspects to virgin polymers. The basis for this conclusion is detailed in this document.

  8. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  9. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  10. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  11. Pilot-scale washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and process water recycling.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2013-03-01

    Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated garden soil (5249, 3348 and 20.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) rich with fines and organic matter was washed with a solution of 120 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil in a pilot-scale remediation plant operating in a batch (60 kg of soil) mode. After soil washing, the solid phase and used washing solution were separated in a chamber filter press. A base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) was used to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling from used washing solution and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, for cleansing and recycling the process water, which was used for rinsing the soil solid phase in the press. On average (5 batches), 75%, 26% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, was removed from the soil, 71% of EDTA was recycled and no waste water was generated. The variable costs of the novel remediation process (materials, energy but not labour) amounted to 66 € t(-1) of remediated soil. The results of the pilot-scale testing indicate that scaling-up the process to a commercial level is technically and economically feasible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  13. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  14. PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Conradson, S. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion.

  15. CHARACTERIZING TRITIUM WASTE USING HELIUM RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.W.; McMahon, W.J.; Borghese, J.V.; Olsen, K.B.

    2003-02-27

    When routine sampling revealed greatly elevated tritium levels (3.14 x 105 Bq/L [8.5-million pCi/liter]) in the groundwater near a solid waste landfill at the Hanford Site, an innovative technique was used to assess the extent of the plume. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios, relative to ambient air-in-soil gas samples, were used to identify the tritium source and initially delineate the extent of the groundwater tritium plume. This approach is a modification of a technique developed in the late 1960s to age-date deep ocean water as part of the GEOSECS ocean monitoring program. Poreda, et al. (1) and Schlosser, et al. (2) applied this modified technique to shallow aquifers. A study was also conducted to demonstrate the concept of using helium-3 as a tool to locate vadose zone sources of tritium and tracking groundwater tritium plumes at Hanford (3). Seventy sampling points were installed around the perimeter and along four transects downgradient of the burial ground. Soil gas samples were collected, analyzed for helium isotopes, and helium-3/helium-4 ratios were calculated for these 70 points. The helium ratios indicated a vadose zone source of tritium along the northern edge of the burial ground that is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium ratios also indicate the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and that no up-gradient tritium sources are affecting the burial ground. Based on the helium ratio results, six downgradient groundwater sampling locations were identified to verify the tritium plume extent and groundwater tritium concentrations. The tritium results from the initial groundwater samples confirmed that elevated helium ratios were indicative of tritium contamination in the local groundwater. The measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost- effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the burial ground. Using this soil gas sampling approach, the

  16. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  17. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    SciTech Connect

    Joye, BROTHERTON

    2005-04-19

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The TEF includes processes, equipment and facilities capable of production-scale extraction of tritium while minimizing personnel radiation exposure, environmental releases, and waste generation.

  18. Procedures for a modified tritium trick-helium doping and residual tritium analysis of vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, D. W.; Braski, D. N.

    1985-05-01

    A modified tritium trick technique was used to implant three levels of 3He in V-15% Cr-5% Ti and Vanstar-7 specimens. The modifications include: (1) wrapping of the specimens with tantalum foil to minimize oxygen contamination and (2) tritiation treatment at 400°C to prevent vanadium tritide formation and to produce a 3He bubble distribution similar to that produced during elevated temperature irradiation. Preliminary results show that both modifications were successful. An electrochemical dissolution technique was developed to determine residual tritium levels in the vanadium alloys. Measured residual tritium levels after tritium removal were in the range of 500 to 1400 μCi/g (0.88 to 2.99 appm tritium in the alloy). Tritium solubilities in the alloys were calculated from the tritium decay time and the measured 3He content. Vanstar-7 specimens consistently absorbed about half as much tritium, and subsequently contained half as much 3He as V-15% Cr-5% Ti. Implanting 3He in vanadium alloys via the tritium trick offers a convenient technique to study the mechanism of helium embrittlement without irradiation and should provide a rapid screening method to help develop embrittlement-resistant vanadium alloys.

  19. Second national topical meeting on tritium technology in fission, fusion and isotopic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Barlit, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This conference presented information on the following topics: the development of a tritium dispersion code; global environmental transport models for tritium; HT/HTO conversion in mammals; tritium production, releases and population doses at nuclear power reactors; design of tritium processing facilities and equipment for aqueous and gaseous streams; tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals; the determination of deuterium and tritium in effluent wastewater by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; tritium surface contamination: process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant; recent developments in magnetically coupled vane pumps for tritium service; recovery and storage of tritium by Zr-V-Fe getter; gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters; isotope effects and helium retention behavior in vanadium tritide; interaction of hydrogen isotopes with stainless steel 316 L; and the interaction of polyethylene and tritium gas as monitored by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. 60Co contamination in recycled steel resulting in elevated civilian radiation doses: causes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chang, W P; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-09-01

    Since late 1992, more than 100 building complexes containing public and private schools and nearly 1,000 apartments have been identified in Taiwan with elevated levels of gamma-radiation from construction steel contaminated with 60Co. Due to improper handling of 60Co contaminated scrap steel in late 1982 and 1983, contaminated construction materials have been widely distributed throughout the country. These contaminated construction materials have generated elevated radiation exposures to members of the public in Taiwan. As of early 1996, more than 4,000 people, including young students, have been identified as receiving more than 1 mSv y(-1) above the local background for up to 12 y. This report provides a detailed discussion of the sources of the 60Co contamination in construction steel, its discovery in the building complexes, and preliminary evaluation and remediation activities.

  1. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  2. Tritium in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, L.S.; Kosteski, T.; O`Leary, S.K.; Gaspari, F.; Zukotynski, S.; Kherani, N.P.; Shmadya, W.

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary results on infrared and luminescence measurements of tritium incorporated amorphous silicon are reported. Tritium is an unstable isotope that readily substitutes hydrogen in the amorphous silicon network. Due to its greater mass, bonded tritium is found to introduce new stretching modes in the infrared spectrum. Inelastic collisions between the beta particles, produced as a result of tritium decay, and the amorphous silicon network, results in the generation of excess electron-hole pairs. Radiative recombination of these carriers is observed.

  3. Soil matrix tracer contamination and canopy recycling did not impair ¹³CO₂ plant-soil pulse labelling experiments.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Matthias; Sturm, Patrick; Knohl, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    When conducting (13)CO(2) plant-soil pulse labelling experiments, tracer material might cause unwanted side effects which potentially affect δ(13)C measurements of soil respiration (δ(13)C(SR)) and the subsequent data interpretation. First, when the soil matrix is not isolated from the atmosphere, contamination of the soil matrix with tracer material occurs leading to a physical back-diffusion from soil pores. Second, when using canopy chambers continuously, (13)CO(2) is permanently re-introduced into the atmosphere due to leaf respiration which then aids re-assimilation of tracer material by the canopy. Accordingly, two climate chamber experiments on European beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica L.) were conducted to evaluate the influence of soil matrix (13)CO(2) contamination and canopy recycling on soil (13)CO(2) efflux during (13)CO(2) plant-soil pulse labelling experiments. For this purpose, a combined soil/canopy chamber system was developed which separates soil and canopy compartments in order to (a) prevent diffusion of (13)C tracer into the soil chamber during a (13)CO(2) canopy pulse labelling and (b) study stable isotope processes in soil and canopy individually and independently. In combination with laser spectrometry measuring CO(2) isotopologue mixing ratios at a rate of 1 Hz, we were able to measure δ(13)C in canopy and soil at very high temporal resolution. For the soil matrix contamination experiment, (13)CO(2) was applied to bare soil, canopy only or, simultaneously, to soil and canopy of the beech trees. The obtained δ(13)C(SR) fluxes from the different treatments were then compared with respect to label re-appearance, first peak time and magnitude. By determining the δ(13)C(SR) decay of physical (13)CO(2) back-diffusion from bare soils (contamination), it was possible to separate biological and physical components in δ(13)C(SR) of a combined flux of both. A second pulse labelling experiment, with chambers permanently enclosing the canopy

  4. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  5. A Zn2GeO4-ethylenediamine hybrid nanoribbon membrane as a recyclable adsorbent for the highly efficient removal of heavy metals from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Zou, Rujia; Zhang, Zhenyu; Song, Guosheng; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Jianmao; Hu, Junqing

    2011-10-14

    Zn(2)GeO(4)-ethylenediamine (ZGO-EDA) hybrid nanoribbons have been synthesized on a large-scale and directly assembled to membranes, which exhibit an excellent recyclability, high selectivity, and good thermal stability for highly efficient removal of heavy metal ions, i.e., Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2+), from contaminated water.

  6. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  7. Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area.

    PubMed

    Jun-hui, Zhang; Hang, Min

    2009-06-15

    Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37 mg kg(-1)), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (209.85 mg kg(-1)). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24-77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.

  8. Heavy metal contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Changjiang; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment samples decreased downstream of Lianjiang River from Guiyu to the estuary at Haimen Bay. Temporally, heavy metal concentrations in the surface water were high in the rainy season and low in the dry season. In particular, concentrations of Cu from surface water in the Guiyu area were 2.4 to 131 times the reference background concentration, followed in descending order by Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As. However, when compared with China's Environmental Quality Standard, Cd was considered the most harmful element, followed by Hg, Pb, and Cu. Concentrations of Cu in sediment samples in the Guiyu area were 3.2 to 429 times the reference background concentration, followed by Ni, Hg, Pb, Cd, and As. Our findings suggested that high concentrations of heavy metal observed in Guiyu, Lianjiang River and the Haimen Bay could be attributed to the direct effects of e-waste recycling in Guiyu.

  9. The use of dynamic modeling in assessing tritium phytoremediation

    Treesearch

    Karin T. Rebel; Susan J. Riha; John C. Seaman; Clinton d. Barton

    2005-01-01

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritiumcontaminated groundwater released to the surface along seeps in the hillside is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies over the contaminated groundwater. Management of the application of tritium-...

  10. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  11. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  12. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  13. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

  14. Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1996-06-01

    During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

  15. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  16. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  17. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  18. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  19. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  20. Recycling of transformer oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using catalytic hydrodechlorination.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Min; Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oil was carried out in a batch mode to detoxify PCBs and to recycle the treated oil. Various metal supported catalysts, including 0.98 wt% Pt, 0.79 wt% Pd and 12.8 wt% Ni on gamma -alumina (gamma -Al(2)O(3)) support, and 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) support were used for the hydrodechlorination. Metal particle size of the Pt catalyst was 2.0 nm and metal particle sizes of the Pd and Ni catalysts were in the range of 6.4-6.9 nm. Various supercritical fluids, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), supercritical propane (scPropane), supercritical dimethyl ether (scDME) and supercritical isobutane (scIsobutane) were used as reaction media. PCBs conversion, dechlorination degree of PCBs, was measured using gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The hydrodechorination degree increased in the order Ni > Pd > Pt, possibly due to higher metal loading and larger metal size of the Ni catalysts. At temperatures below 175 degrees C, scCO(2) was effective as the reaction media for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of PCBs in the presence of the transformer oil. However, PCBs conversion decreased significantly when the hydrodechlorination was carried out in a homogeneous phase with using scPropane, scDME or scIsobutane as a reaction medium. This was attributed to dilution effect of the supercritical fluids. Molecular weights of the transformer oils before and after the catalytic hydrodechlorination were analyzed using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular weight of the treated oil with 100 % PCBs conversion did not change after the catalytic hydrodechlorination at 200 degrees C. This process has proven to be effective to detoxify PCBs containing transformer oil and to recycle the treated oil.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S. )

    1993-12-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs.

  3. Bio-based coatings as potential barriers to chemical contaminants from recycled paper and board for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Guazzotti, V; Marti, A; Piergiovanni, L; Limbo, S

    2014-01-01

    Partition and diffusion experiments were carried out with paper and board samples coated with different biopolymers. The aim was to evaluate the physicochemical behaviour and barrier properties of bio-coatings against migration of typical contaminants from recycled paper packaging. Focus was directed towards water-based, renewable biopolymers, such as modified starches (cationic starch and cationic waxy starch), plant and animal proteins (gluten and gelatine), poured onto paper with an automatic applicator. Additionally, a comparison with polyethylene-laminated paper was performed. Microstructural observations of the bio-coated paper allowed the characterisation of samples. From the partitioning studies, considerable differences in the adsorption behaviour of the selected contaminants between bio-coated or uncoated paper and air were highlighted. For both the polar and non-polar compounds considered (benzophenone and diisobutyl phthalate, respectively), the lowest values of partition coefficients were found when paper was bio-coated, making it evident that biopolymers acted as chemical/physical barriers towards these contaminants. These findings are discussed considering the characteristics of the tested biopolymers. Diffusion studies into the solid food simulant poly 2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide, also known as Tenax(®), confirmed that all the tested biopolymers slowed down migration. The Weibull kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data to compare migration from paper and bio-coated paper. Values found for β, an index determining the pattern of curvature, ranged from 1.1 to 1.7 for uncoated and polyethylene paper, whereas for bio-coated papers they ranged from 2.2 to 4.9, corresponding to the presence of an evident lag phase due to barrier properties of the tested bio-coatings.

  4. Heavy metals contamination levels at the Coast of Aliağa (Turkey) ship recycling zone.

    PubMed

    Neşer, Gökdeniz; Kontas, Aynur; Unsalan, Deniz; Uluturhan, Esin; Altay, Oya; Darılmaz, Enis; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Tekoğul, Nermin; Yercan, Funda

    2012-04-01

    Aliağa Bay is one of the most important maritime zones of Turkey where shipping activity, shipbreaking industry, steel works and petrochemical complexes exist together. Concentrations of heavy metals and organic carbon in sediment of the Aliağa Bay were investigated to evaluate an environmental risk assessment from metals contamination in 2009-2010. Comparison of the metal concentrations with average shale and Mediterranean background levels revealed that most of the samples from the Aliağa were polluted with Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni. It was found that Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni levels in Aliağa Bay exceeded the PEL values. Sediments, contaminated with Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni were considered as heavily polluted per the SQG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Labunska, Iryna; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Tao, Fang; Wang, Mengjiao; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study reports concentrations and human dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as selected "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organochlorine pesticides, in ten staple food categories. Samples were sourced from areas in Taizhou City, eastern China, where rudimentary recycling and disposal of e-waste is commonplace, as well as from nearby non-e-waste impacted control areas. In most instances, concentrations in foods from e-waste recycling areas exceeded those from control locations. Concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TBP) in samples from e-waste sites were 3.09-62.2ng/g and 0.81-16.3ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively; exceeding consistently those in foods acquired from control sites by an order of magnitude in many cases. In contrast, while concentrations of HBCD in some foods from e-waste impacted areas exceed those from control locations; concentrations in pork, shrimp, and duck liver are higher in control samples. This highlights the potential significance of non-e-waste sources of HBCD (e.g. building insulation foam) in our study areas. While concentrations of DDT in all foods examined except pork were higher in e-waste impacted samples than controls; our exposure estimates were well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 0.01mg/kgbw/day derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Concentrations of ΣPCBs resulted in exposures (650 and 2340ng/kgbw/day for adults and children respectively) that exceed substantially the Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for ΣPCBs of 20ng/kgbw/day derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Moreover, when expressed in terms of dioxin-like toxicity equivalency based on the four dioxin-like PCBs monitored in this study (DL-PCBs) (PCB-105, 118, 156, and 167); concentrations in e-waste impacted foods exceed limits set by the European Union in

  6. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  7. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  8. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  9. Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

    2003-02-26

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

  10. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening dioxin soil contamination by uncontrolled combustion during informal recycling in slums.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M

    2008-11-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly.

  12. Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-09-01

    It is expected that tritium pretreatment will be required in future reprocessing plants to prevent the release of tritium to the environment (except for long-cooled fuels). To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified. Tritium in light water reactor (LWR) fuel is dispersed between the fuel matrix and the fuel cladding, and some tritium may be in the plenum, probably as tritium labelled water (THO) or T2O. In a standard processing flowsheet, tritium management would be accomplished by treatment of liquid streams within the plant. Pretreating the fuel prior to dissolution to release the tritium into a single off-gas stream could simplify tritium management, so the removal of tritium in the liquid streams throughout the plant may not be required. The fraction of tritium remaining in the cladding may be reduced as a result of tritium pretreatment. Since Zircaloy® cladding makes up roughly 25% by mass of UNF in the United States, processes are being considered to reduce the volume of reprocessing waste for Zircaloy® clad fuel by recovering the zirconium from the cladding for reuse. These recycle processes could release the tritium in the cladding. For Zircaloy-clad fuels from light water reactors, the tritium produced from ternary fission and other sources is expected to be divided between the fuel, where it is generated, and the cladding. It has been previously documented that a fraction of the tritium produced in uranium oxide fuel from LWRs can migrate and become trapped in the cladding. Estimates of the percentage of tritium in the cladding typically range from 0–96%. There is relatively limited data on how the tritium content of the cladding varies with burnup and fuel history (temperature, power, etc.) and how pretreatment impacts its release. To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding

  13. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  14. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  15. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  16. Cost analysis for recycling of contaminated stainless steel for use as HLW canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Rizkalla, E.J.; Bailey, M.; Moore, R.S.; D`Ambrosia, J.

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Management evaluated the relative costs of utilizing radioactively contaminated stainless steel (RCSS) from out-of-service heat exchangers to fabricate high-level waste (HLW) canisters for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE-SRS, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), the Office of Science and Technology, and the Office of Environmental Restoration participated in and/or assisted the cost analysis effort. The analysis focused on the relative costs to the overall EM Program of two options which have been identified as plausible under this scenario: (1) disposal of the heat exchangers as low-level waste (LLW) in the E-Area vaults at Savannah River and purchase of non-RCSS canisters for DWPF; and (2) processing the heat exchangers into HLW canisters. Two alternatives within Option 2 were considered, one using the current HLW canister design and one using a new, two-plate design. The results of this cost analysis indicate that it is reasonable to expect that the total cost to DOE of utilizing SS heat exchangers from Savannah River to fabricate HLW canisters for DWPF may be less than or equal to the total cost of procuring HLW canisters fabricated from Virgin SS and disposing of the heat exchangers as LLW. On this basis, it would appear reasonable for DOE to pursue obtaining vendor bids for supplying RCSS HLW canisters in order to determine the best-value approach for DOE.

  17. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  18. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination.

  19. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  20. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  1. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  2. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  3. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  4. Experimental quantification of radiocesium recycling in a coniferous tree after aerial contamination: Field loss dynamics, translocation and final partitioning.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Y; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Hurtevent, P

    2016-09-01

    After foliar interception of radioactive atmospheric fallout by forest trees, the short-term recycling dynamics of radiocesium from the tree to the soil as well as within the tree is a primary area of uncertainty in the modeling of the overall cycle. The partitioning of radiocesium transfers in a spruce tree exposed to aerial deposits was investigated during one growth season to reveal the dynamics and significance of underlying processes. The rate of radiocesium loss resulting from foliage leaching (wash-off) was shown to have a functional dependence on the frequency of rainy episodes in a first early stage (weathering 60% of initial contamination during 70 days) and on the amount of precipitation in a second stage (weathering 10% of initial deposits during the following 80 days). A classical single exponential decay model with offset and continuous time as predictor lead to a removal half-life t1/2 of intercepted radiocesium of 25 days. During the growth season, the similar pattern of the internal (134)Cs content in new shoots and initially contaminated foliage confirmed that radiocesium was readily absorbed from needle surfaces and efficiently translocated to growing organs. In the crown, a pool of non-leachable (134)Cs (15-30%) was associated with the abiotic layer covering the twigs and needle surfaces. At the end of the growth season, 30% of the initial deposits were relocated to different tree parts, including organs like stemwood (5%) and roots (6%) not directly exposed to deposition. At the scale of the tree, 84% of the residual activity was assimilated by living tissues which corresponds to a foliar absorption rate coefficient of 0.25 year(-1) for modeling purposes. According to the significant amount of radiocesium which can be incorporated in tree through foliar uptake, our results support the hypothesis that further internal transfers could supply the tree internal cycle of radiocesium extensively, and possibly mask the contribution of root uptake for

  5. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  6. Heavy metal and persistent organic compound contamination in soil from Wenling: an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou area, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Shi, Dezhi; Cheema, Sardar A; Khan, Muhammad I; Zhang, Congkai; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-01-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate the levels and sources of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg and As) and persistent organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils taken from Wenling, an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou, China. The results suggested that most heavy metals exceeded the respective Grade II value of soil quality standards from State Environmental Protection Administration of China and also exceeded the Dutch optimum values. Total PAHs in soil ranged from 371.8 to 1231.2 microg/kg, and relatively higher PAHs concentrations were found in soils taken from simple household workshops. PCBs were detectable in all samples with total concentrations ranging from 52.0 to 5789.5 microg/kg, which were 2.1-232.5 times higher than that from the reference site (24.9 microg/kg). Results of this study suggested soil in the Wenling e-waste recycling area were heavily contaminated by heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs. Furthermore, compared with large-scale plants, simple household workshops contributed more heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs pollution to the soil environment, indicating that soil contamination from e-waste recycling in simple household workshops should be given more attention.

  7. Tritium dose criteria and radiological impact of a tritium plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    1993-06-01

    Radiation safetry criteria adopted in Russia (in the former USSR) distinguish five classes of tritium compounds. The lowest permissible tritium concentration in the air is set for insoluble tritium compounds (3.105 times lower than that for HT). Russia's criteria for tritiated radioactive waste are outlined. It is explained why the tritium weighting factor of two is used as a basis for the tritium dose criteria development in this country. The ecological situation nearby a large tritium processing plant is considered. Amounts of tritiated waste produced at the plant, sources of tritium effluents, tritium content in the air, water, snow, soil and vegetation as well as HTO sorption parameters of various food products are reported. On the basis of HTO near-surface concentrations in the air and public doses measured 3 km away from the plant stack, the tritium dose factor was calculated.

  8. Tritium dose criteria and radiological impact of a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbasov, B.N.

    1993-06-01

    Radiation safety criteria adopted in Russia (in the former USSR) distinguish five classes of tritium compounds. The lowest permissible tritium concentration in the air is set for insoluble tritium compounds (3 [times] 10[sup 5] times lower than that for HT). Russia's criteria for tritiated radioactive waste are outlined. It is explained why the tritium weighting factor of two is used as a basis for the tritium dose criteria development in this country. The ecological situation nearby a large tritium processing plant is considered. Amounts of tritiated waste produced at the plant, sources of tritium effluents, tritium content in the air, water, snow, soil and vegetation as well as HTO sorption parameters of various food products are reported. On the basis of HTO near-surface concentrations in the air and public doses measured 3 km away from the plant stack, the tritium dose factor was calculated.

  9. Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.; Bowser, R.P.; Hedley, W.H.; Kissner, T.J.; Lamberger, P.H.; Morgan, F.G.; Van Patten, J.F.; Williams, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) will be a system for the continuous processing of tritium containing gases collected from various operations at Mound. The basis of the system operation will be the oxidation of elemental hydrogen isotopes and organic molecules at elevated temperatures on precious metal catalyst beds, and the adsorption of the resulting oxide (water) on molecular sieve dryers. The TERF will be expected to handle from 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies of tritium per year in the process gas stream and release no more than 200 curies per year to the atmosphere. Consequently, the TERF will need to convert and capture tritium at low concentrations in gas efficiently and reliably. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  11. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  12. Reemission of Tritium from Tritium-Sorbed Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Xiaohua; Cheng Guijun

    2005-07-15

    In handling of tritium-containing waste gas, tritium is oxidized to tritiated water and immobilized in a molecular sieve (MS), which is then disposed of as solid radioactive waste. So reemission of tritium from tritium-sorbed molecular sieve is concerned for tritium waste disposal. 4A, 5A and 10X MS were chosen for the tritium reemission test. The tritium-containing MS samples with specific activity of 3 GBq/g were prepared and the reemission coefficients of tritium from the three types of MS were determined. The effects of storage conditions of the MS on the reemission of tritium were examined. The results show that during two months of storage period, the reemission coefficients of 4A, 5A and 10X MS are (1.9{approx}5.5) x 10{sup -6} d{sup -1}.g{sup -1}. Among them, 5A MS has the largest reemission coefficient and 4A MS the smallest. The tritium released from tritium-sorbed MS is mostly in the form of HTO, only less than 1.2% of the tritium is in the form of HT. The atmosphere for storing tritium-sorbed MS has rather effect on reemission of tritium. The reemission coefficient in argon is lower than that in Ar+2%H{sub 2}.

  13. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  14. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  15. Uptake of tritium by plants from atmosphere and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1991-01-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by plants was examined under field conditions when tritium was available to leaves from only the atmosphere and when tritium was available from both the soil (root uptake) and the atmosphere. Maple, oak, and elm trees, planted in clean soil, were transported to a tritium-contaminated forest, where the atmospheric tritium concentration was elevated, to examine HTO uptake by tree leaves when the source was only in the atmosphere. The results partially agreed with a diffusion model of tritium uptake by plants. Discrepancies found between predicted and measured leaf HTO/air HTO ratios should be attributed to the existence of some isolated water, which is isolated from the transpiration stream in the leaves, that was not available for rapid turnover. The uptake of tritium by trees, when the source was both in the soil and atmosphere, was also examined using deciduous trees (maple and elm) resident to the tritium-contaminated forest. The results were in agreement with a prediction model.

  16. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  17. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  18. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  19. Organic contaminants and heavy metals in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China: Spatial characteristics and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Mei-Huan; Tan, Xiao; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-06-01

    The concentrations of several organic contaminants (OCs) and heavy metals were measured in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China to illustrate the spatial characteristics of these pollutants and to further evaluate human exposure risks. The median concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs) were 38.6-3560, 2360-30,100, 665-2720, and 19.5-1860ng/g, while the median concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn were 2.46-40.4, 206-1380, 217- 1200, 25.3-134, and 176-212μg/g in indoor dust. The levels of all pollutants, except Zn, in dust from the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than those from the other areas. Cd, Pb, and most OCs exhibited similar pollution patterns in the three areas, indicating that e-waste recycling activities are the major pollution source. In contrast, Cu, Cr, Zn, and penta-BDE are likely derived from household products in the rural and urban areas. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE, and DPs were 0.15-163, 3.97-1470, 1.26-169, and 0.11-134ng/kg bw/day for toddlers and adults. The highest EDIs of BDE 209 and Pb in toddlers in the e-waste recycling area were 16% and 18 times higher than the reference doses, indicating the high exposure risk of these pollutants in the e-waste recycling area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative tritium imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youle, Ian Stuart

    1999-12-01

    Tritium Imaging electrostatically focuses secondary electrons produced at a surface by beta-particles from tritium in the material form an image of the tritiated areas. It has hitherto been essentially a qualitative technique. The research described here examines quantitative aspects of the process. Of particular importance is the effect of depth of tritium on image intensity. For imaging purposes, tritium must obviously be nearer the surface than the maximum range of a beta particle, (about 2.6mum in graphite, and less in heavier materials). Numerical simulation, however, indicates that sensitivity falls off very rapidly with depth, dropping by 50% within the first 100nm. Simulations also indicate that for all but the shallowest tritium, imaging sensitivity drops exponentially with depth. This is experimentally investigated by implanting specimens with tritium ions of a known energy to give a calculated depth distribution. The surfaces of the specimens are sputtered to change the depth distribution, and the sample is imaged at various stages in the process. The evolution of the image intensity of the sputtered region is compared to the predictions of the numerical model. This technique was partially successful in graphite, but not in aluminum, due to the mobility of tritium in aluminum, and the modification of the aluminum surface by oxidation. Imaging was used to explore the nature of these modifications. In other experiments, tritiated graphite specimens were coated with aluminum, and the image intensity was measured as a function of coating thickness. As the tritium was fixed in atomic traps in the graphite, and the aluminum coatings could be assumed to be unoxidized at the time of deposition, problems previously encountered in aluminum were avoided. In these experiments, image intensity decreased exponentially with coating thickness, as predicted by the mathematical models, although slightly less rapidly than expected. It is also demonstrated that for many

  1. Hazardous lead-contaminated soil treatment: Lead recovery and recycling of 150,000 tons of soil at the Longue Pointe site

    SciTech Connect

    Holbein, B.E.; Hall, D.W.; MacDonald, M.W.; Hulley, I.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Longue Pointe site is in Montreal, Canada and involves the treatment of approximately 115,000 tonnes of soil (dry) containing hazardous quantities of Ph (2,000 to 30,000 ppm), making this the largest soil treatment project of its kind in North America. The site had become contaminated through both automotive battery recycling operations which contributed substantial coarse Ph contamination and a secondary lead smelter which contributed extensive fine lead fly ash contamination. The soil is also a high clay matrix (50% clay of size < 5 {micro}m) and approximately 80% of the lead resides in this fine soil fraction. Conventional soil washing/volume reduction was thus shown to have very limited utility. The authors are currently operating an 800 tons per day treatment plant on the site which provides recovery of coarse lead by advanced soil washing and gravity separation techniques and extraction and recovery of fine lead by hydrometallurgical techniques. Recovered lead products are recycled in the base metal industry whereas treated soil with residual concentrations of < 500 ppm or < 900 ppm Ph (area dependent) is reused as backfill on the site. The site is bordered by residential areas and is enjoying continued use for military activities. The project has demonstrated the merits of full treatment and reuse of treated soil.

  2. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  3. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer coefficients in animal products.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Crout, N M; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N A; Peterson, S R; Van Hees, M

    2001-12-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant originating from the nuclear industry, and its behaviour in the environment is controlled by that of hydrogen. Animal food products represent a potentially important source of tritium in the human diet and a number of transfer coefficient values for tritium transfer to a limited number of animal products are available. In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. A novel aspect of the approach is that tritium transfer can be predicted for any animal product for which the required metabolic input parameters are available. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available independent data. Agreement is good (R2=0.97) with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants. This may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that tritium transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, diet digestibility etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is inappropriate. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values from the estimated transfer coefficients which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to their respective concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to metabolic variation and may be more useful radioecological parameters than transfer coefficients. For tritiated water the concentration ratio shows little variation between animal products ranging from 0.59 to 0.82. In the case of organically bound tritium the concentration ratios vary between animal products

  4. Tritium confinement, retention, and releases at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Besserer, U.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the tritium confinement concept and the tritium retention systems at TLK. A description of the AMOR facility for the regeneration of the HTO loaded molecular sieve beds and the operational experience gained from the regeneration of molecular sieve beds (up to 20 times each) is also presented. Finally tritium releases over this period to the environment will also be given. (authors)

  5. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-10-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFTR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory. The system was commissioned and tested in 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and effluent gases from the tokamak. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  7. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems.

  8. Measurement of tritium penetration through concrete material covered by various paints coating

    SciTech Connect

    Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Kurata, R.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    The present study aims at obtaining fundamental data on tritium migration in porous materials, which include soaking effect, interaction between tritium and cement paste coated with paints and transient tritium sorption in porous cement. The amounts of tritium penetrated into or released from cement paste with epoxy and urethane paint coatings were measured. The tritium penetration amounts were increased with the HTO (tritiated water) exposure time. Time to achieve a saturated value of tritium sorption was more than 60 days for cement paste coated with epoxy paint and with urethane paint, while that for cement paste without any paint coating took 2 days to achieve it. The effect of tritium permeation reduction by the epoxy paint was higher than that of the urethane. Although their paint coatings were effective for reduction of tritium penetration through the cement paste which was exposed to HTO for a short period, it was found that the amount of tritium trapped in the paints became large for a long period. Tritium penetration rates were estimated by an analysis of one-dimensional diffusion in the axial direction of a thickness of a sample. Obtained data were helpful for evaluation of tritium contamination and decontamination. (authors)

  9. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  10. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  11. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  12. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  13. Tritium in waters of international importance in 1981-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.V.; Blinov, V.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Il'in, L.I.; Tishkov, V.P.

    1988-03-01

    A study has been carried out on the radiation situation with respect to tritium in the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea and in the Soviet section of the Danube in the period of 1981-1984. Pollution of the Baltic during this period turned out to be quite constant and coincident with the tritium level of the preceding five years. Concentrations increased slightly in the Gulf of Riga and in a number of rivers flowing into the Baltic (Daugava, Pirita, etc.). In the same period the tritium contamination of Danube water was 2-3 times greater that of the Baltic. The tritium content of the Baltic was calculated: its average value in the period 1981-1984 was 1.56 x 10/sup 17/ Bq.

  14. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Treesearch

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  15. Milestone report - M4FT-14OR0302102b - Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Surry-2 Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified.To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding will behave during processing, scoping tests are being performed to determine the tritium content in the cladding pre- and post-tritium pretreatment. A sample of Surry-2 pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding was heated to 1100–1200°C to oxidize the zirconium and release all of the tritium in the cladding sample. The tritium content was measured to be ~240 µCi/g. Cladding samples were heated to 500ºC, which is within the temperature range (480 - 600ºC) expected for standard air tritium pretreatment systems, and to a slightly higher temperature (700ºC) to determine the impact of tritium pretreatment on tritium release from the cladding. Heating at 500°C for 24 hr removes ~0.2% of the tritium from the cladding, and heating at 700°C for 24 hr removes ~9%. Thus, a significant fraction of the tritium remains bound in the cladding and must be considered in operations involving cladding recycle.

  16. Immobilization of metals in contaminated soil from E-waste recycling site by dairy-manure-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiliang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Liu, Minchao; Wu, Yingxin; Yuan, Zhihui

    2017-08-24

    E-waste is a growing concern around the world and varieties of abandoned E-waste recycling sites, especially in urban area, need to remediate immediately. The impacts of dairy-manure-derived biochars (BCs) on the amelioration of soil properties, the changes in the morphologies as well as the mobility of metals were studied to test their efficacy in immobilization of metals for a potential restoration of vegetation landscape in abandoned E-waste recycling site. The amendment with BCs produced positive effects on bioavailability and mobility reduction for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu depending on BC ratio and incubation time. The BCs promoted the transformation of species of heavy metals to a more stable fraction, and the metals concentrations in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure extract declined significantly, especially Pb and Cu. Besides, the BCs ameliorated the substrate with increasing the soil pH, cations exchangeable capacity and available phosphorous, which suggested BC as a potential amendment material for abandoned E-waste recycling sites before restoration of vegetation landscape. Generally, the BC modified by alkaline treatment has a higher efficacy, probably due to increase of specific surface area and porosity as well as the functional groups after alkaline treatment.

  17. Tritium Concentrations in the Savannah River, Clyo, Georgia, 1966-1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R. L.

    2001-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has maintained a monitoring network for tritium distributions in river water and precipitation for the past forty years. Among the locations routinely sampled is the Savannah River near Clyo, Georgia. Sampling began in the early 1960s at the Clyo, Georgia site and has continued to the present. The weighted average of the tritium concentration in river water decreased from a high of almost 4000 tritium units (TU) in 1966 to a low of 305 TU in 1997. Tritium concentrations in this river differ from concentrations in other rivers due to tritium released by a Department of Energy site in South Carolina where weapons-grade nuclear material is routinely processed and handled. Tritium has been released by this facility, either as a liquid or gas, and some of it has reached the Savannah River. The impact of this tritium can be seen by comparing tritium data from the Savannah River water with that of water from the Neuse River, which lies in North Carolina but has a similar environmental tritium input function. Tritium concentrations in Neuse River water were less than 300 TU in 1966 and are approximately 10 TU at the present time. Thus, tritium concentrations in the Savannah River water are 20-50 times higher than ambient concentrations. The excess flux of tritium to the Atlantic Ocean from the Savannah River system can be calculated using these data. Using flow rates from the USGS and measured tritium concentrations, approximately 145 grams (g) of tritium were exported to the Atlantic Ocean by the Savannah River system during the period 1966-1997. The expected flux, if no contamination had occurred, is approximately 5 g of tritium, indicating that approximately 28 times more tritium has been exported to the ocean than expected under ambient conditions. Approximately 3.5 kilograms (kg) of tritium is present on the Earth's surface due to natural processes, and about 800 kg were produced by nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s

  18. Tritium safety study using Caisson Assembly (CATS) at TPL/JAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Shu, W.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium confinement is required as the most important safety Junction for a fusion reactor. In order to demonstrate the confinement performance experimentally, an unique equipment, called CATS: Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study, was installed in Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and operated for about 10 years. Tritium confinement and migration data in CATS have been accumulated and dynamic simulation code was accumulated using these data. Contamination and decontamination behavior on various materials and new safety equipment functions have been investigated under collaborations with a lot of laboratories and universities. (authors)

  19. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  20. Universal tritium transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-07-15

    At the Savannah River Site and throughout the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) tritium is measured using Ion or Kanne Chambers. Tritium flowing through an Ion Chamber emits beta particles generating current flow proportional to tritium radioactivity. Currents in the 1 x 10{sup -15} A to 1 x 10{sup -6} A are measured. The distance between the Ion Chamber and the electrometer in NNSA facilities can be over 100 feet. Currents greater than a few micro-amperes can be measured with a simple modification. Typical operating voltages of 500 to 1000 Volts and piping designs require that the Ion Chamber be connected to earth ground. This grounding combined with long cable lengths and low currents requires a very specialized preamplifier circuit. In addition, the electrometer must be able to supply 'fail safe' alarm signals which are used to alert personnel of a tritium leak, trigger divert systems preventing tritium releases to the environment and monitor stack emissions as required by the United States federal Government and state governments. Ideally the electrometer would be 'self monitoring'. Self monitoring would reduce the need for constant checks by maintenance personnel. For example at some DOE facilities monthly calibration and alarm checks must be performed to ensure operation. NNSA presently uses commercially available electrometers designed specifically for this critical application. The problems with these commercial units include: ground loops, high background currents, inflexibility and susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) which includes RF and Magnetic fields. Existing commercial electrometers lack the flexibility to accommodate different Ion Chamber designs required by the gas pressure, type of gas and range. Ideally the electrometer could be programmed for any expected gas, range and high voltage output. Commercially available units do not have 'fail safe' self monitoring capability. Electronics used to measure extremely low current

  1. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  2. Behaviour of tritium in the vacuum vessel of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Miya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Torikai, Y.; Saito, M.; Alimov, V.

    2015-03-15

    The disassembly of the JT-60U torus started in 2010 after 18 years of deuterium plasma operations. The vessel is made of Inconel 625. Therefore, it was very important to study the hydrogen isotope (particularly tritium) behavior in Inconel 625 from the viewpoint of the clearance procedure. Inconel 625 specimen was exposed to the D{sub 2} (92.8 %) - T{sub 2} (7.2 %) gas mixture at 573 K for 5 hours. The tritium release from the specimen at 298 K was controlled for about 1 year. After that a part of tritium remaining in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K. Other part of tritium trapped in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, the amount of desorbed tritium was about 99% during 1 year. It was considered that the tritium in Inconel 625 was released easily.

  3. Modeled concentrations in rice and ingestion doses from chronic atmospheric releases of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.R.; Davis, P.A.

    2000-05-01

    The expansion of nuclear power programs in Asia has stimulated interest in the improved modeling of concentrations of tritium in rice, a staple crop grown throughout the far east. Normally, the specific activity model is used to calculate concentrations of tritium in the tissue water of edible plants to assess ingestion dose from chronic releases. However, because rice, like other grains, has much lower water content than most crops, the calculation must also account for organically bound tritium. This paper reviews ways to calculate steady-state concentrations of tritium in rice, including the methods of Canadian and US regulatory models, and the assumptions behind them. Concentrations in rice and resulting ingestion doses are compared for the various methods, and equations for calculating concentrations are recommended. The regulatory models underestimate doses received from ingestion of rice contaminated with tritium since they do not account explicitly for organically bound tritium. The importance of including organically bound tritium is illustrated in a comparison of doses from rice, leafy vegetables and milk for an Asian diet. Dose factors from tritium for these foods are estimated to be 135, 47, and 20 nSv y{sup {minus}1}/(Bq m{sup {minus}3}), respectively. Assuming known air concentrations, tritium concentrations in rice, calculated with the recommended equations, are uncertain by less than a factor 2 when tritium concentrations in the rice paddy water are known, and by less than a factor of 2.3 when concentrations in paddy water are unknown.

  4. Hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling area, using nanoscale zerovalent iron and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ronglang; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-04-01

    Soil pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising from the crude disposal and recycling of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) is a serious issue, and effective remediation technologies are urgently needed. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and bimetallic systems have been shown to promote successfully the destruction of halogenated organic compounds. In the present study, nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by chemical deposition were used to remove 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl from deionized water, and then applied to PCBs contaminated soil collected from an e-waste recycling area. The results indicated that the hydrodechlorination of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and Pd loading was beneficial to the hydrodechlorination process. It was also found that the removal efficiencies of PCBs from soil achieved using Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were higher than that achieved using nZVI and that PCBs degradation might be affected by the soil properties. Finally, the potential challenges of nZVI application to in situ remediation were explored.

  5. Evaluation of sub-critical water as an extraction fluid for model contaminants from recycled PET for reuse as food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Santos, Amélia S F; Agnelli, José A M; Manrich, Sati

    2010-04-01

    Recycling of plastics for food-contact packaging is an important issue and research into meaningful and cost-effective solutions is in progress. In this paper, the use of sub-critical water was evaluated as an alternative way of purifying poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes for direct food contact applications. The effects of temperature, pressure and flow rate were assessed on the extraction efficiency of two of the most challenging classes of contaminants (toluene and benzophenone) from PET by sub-critical water using a first-order fractional experimental design. Extraction yield was quantified using GC/FID. The most important parameter was flow rate, indicating that the decrease in sub-critical water polarity with temperature was insufficient to eliminate partition effects. Temperature was also important, but only for the optimization of toluene extraction. These results may be explained by the poor solubility of higher molar mass compounds in sub-critical water compared to lower molar mass compounds under the same conditions, and the small decrease in dielectric constant with temperature under the experimental conditions evaluated. As cleaning efficiency is low and PET is very susceptible to hydrolysis, which limits the use of higher temperatures vis-à-vis physical recycling, the proposed extraction is unsuitable for a standalone super-clean process but may be a step in the process.

  6. SiOx layer as functional barrier in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles against potential contaminants from post-consumer recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Welle, Frank; Franz, Roland

    2008-06-01

    The barrier effect of a silicon oxide (SiOx) coating on the inner surface of PET bottles, in terms of the ability to reduce the migration of post-consumer compounds from the PET bottle wall into food simulants (3% acetic acid and 10% ethanol), was investigated. The barrier effect was examined by artificially introducing model substances (surrogates) into the PET bottle wall to represent a worst-case scenario. Test bottles with three different spiking levels up to approximately 1000 mg kg(-1) per surrogate were blown and coated on the inner surface. The SiOx-coated bottles and the non-coated reference bottles were filled with food simulants. From the specific migration of the surrogates with different bottles wall concentrations, the maximum surrogate concentrations in the bottle wall corresponding to migration of 10 microg l(-1) were determined. It was shown that the SiOx coating layer is an efficient barrier to post-consumer compounds. The maximum bottle wall concentrations of the surrogates corresponding to migration of 10 microg l(-1) were in the range of 200 mg kg(-1) for toluene and approximately 900 mg kg(-1) for benzophenone. Consequently, the SiOx coating allows use of conventionally recycled post-consumer PET flakes (without a super-clean recycling process) for packaging aqueous and low alcoholic foodstuffs (under cold-fill conditions) and protects food from migration of unwanted contaminants from post-consumer PET.

  7. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  8. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  9. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream.

  10. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase-2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter approximately 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  11. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  12. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  13. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. UK contractors' experience of management of tritium during decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Tommy; Stevens, Keith; Heaney, John; Murray, Alan; Warwick, Phil; Croudace, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analysis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling techniques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future management of tritiated waste. (authors)

  15. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  16. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  17. Recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  18. The use of dynamic modeling in assessing tritium phytoremediation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Karin T.; Riha; S.J.; Seaman, J.C.; Barton, C.D.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT - To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritiumcontaminated groundwater released to the surface along seeps in the hillside is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies over the contaminated groundwater. Management of the application of tritium-contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intra-annual and interannual variability in precipitation in this region. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies. The model was parameterized using soil-water content data measured at 18 sites for the first year of the project and evaluated using tritium activity measurements made at the same 18 sites over 2.5 yr. The model was then used to evaluate several irrigation strategies. The 25-yr efficiencies (tritium transpired/tritiumapplied) of the irrigation strategies were related to the quantity of irrigation water applied. There was a strong (r2 = 0.99) negative linear relationship between irrigation water applied and efficiency. When a quasi-steady state has been reached in the system, the annual efficiencies of all the irrigation strategies were negatively correlated with annual rainfall. Quantification of these relationships allows irrigation managers to choose irrigation strategies based on desired long-term system efficiency, which differ with climate and irrigation strategy.

  19. Recent Developments in Magnetically Coupled Vane Pumps for Tritium Service

    SciTech Connect

    Capuder, F. C.; Quigley, L. T.; Baker, C. K.

    1985-04-01

    Despite advances in shaft sealing, a totally reliable shaft seal for two-stage vane pumps has never been developed. Therefore, the magnetically coupled vane pump drive was developed to solve the critical problem of tritium leakage at the shaft seals of vane pumps. As a result, radioactive contamination of the work area and loss of valuable material can now be prevented.

  20. Utilization of recycled charcoal as a thermal source and adsorbent for the treatment of PCDD/Fs contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Iwasaki, Kanae; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2012-07-30

    A novel heat treatment process in which charcoal was used as both a thermal source and an adsorbent was investigated as a low-cost method for removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from solids. Three laboratory scale experiments involving various ratios of charcoal to contaminated sediment and air superficial velocities were performed. The results indicated that the total and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs decreased significantly in the treated sediment of all runs with removal efficiencies greater than 96% and 90%, which resulted in residual concentrations below the Japanese standard limit of 0.15ng-TEQg(-1). The charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio and air superficial velocity were determinant factors controlling the PCDD/Fs concentrations and homologue profiles in effluent. As the air superficial velocity increased and charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio decreased, more PCDD/Fs were released from the sediment as fly ash, making them less likely to remain in the treated sediment. These phenomena were likely a result of the vapor pressure of PCDD/Fs, contact time with effluent gas and amount of PCDD/Fs adsorbed by charcoal. The developed process would promise an alternative to a conventional remediation process for PCDD/Fs contaminated solids.

  1. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

  2. Ex-ante fate assessment of trace organic contaminants for decision making: a post-normal estimation for sludge recycling in Reunion.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Tom; Bravin, Matthieu N; Dumoulin, François; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The environmental fate of organic waste-derived trace organic contaminants is a recent focus of research. Public awareness of this issue and concern about the potential risks are increasing, partly as a result of this research. Knowledge remains sparse but, due to growing waste volumes and contaminant concentrations, situations are arising where decisions are urgently needed and the stakes are high. We present an approach to provide stakeholders with the soundest possible information on relevant risks in specific situations where local experimental data are scarce or inexistent. With accuracy taking precedence over precision in such situations, the quantitative fate assessment aspect of the approach considers uncertainty at all levels in order to estimate best-to-worst-case (cumulative uncertainty) fuzzy fate ranges. The approach was applied to conditions that prevail on the island of Réunion. Contrasting possible organic residue recycling scenarios are considered in which trace organic contaminants originate either from pig slurry or sewage sludge. The stakeholders' concerns targeted are leaching, soil persistence and crop (sugarcane) shoot translocation. The fate assessment results in soil removal dynamics that vary over a wide range, even for a particular chemical in a particular scenario. For 3 out of 27 chemicals residual soil concentrations after one sugarcane crop cycle could possibly exceed the 100 ng/g dry weight mass fraction range, only in a worst case situation. Substances predicted to be of the highest mobility (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) might produce appreciable leaching only in the event of substantial rainfall shortly after a high rate decadal application. And only the higher bound sugarcane shoot concentration estimates of 17 α-ethinylestradiol and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate are significant.

  3. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  4. Effects of Tritium in Elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    2003-03-04

    A number of elastomers, used as flange gaskets in the piping system of the Savannah River Plant tritium facilities, are being examined to identify those compounds more radiation-resistant that the currently specified Buna-N rubber and to study the mechanism of tritium radiation damage. This paper discusses this study.

  5. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  6. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  7. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  8. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Gentile, C.; Anderson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grains of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes- the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the US Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described.

  9. Using thermal evolution profiles to infer tritium speciation in nuclear site metals: an aid to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E; Kim, Daeji

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the association and retention of tritium in metals has significance in nuclear decommissioning programs and can lead to cost benefits through waste reduction and recycling of materials. To develop insights, a range of metals from two nuclear sites and one non-nuclear site were investigated which had different exposure histories. Tritium speciation in metals was inferred through incremental heating experiments over the range of 20-900 °C using a Raddec Pyrolyser instrument. Systematic differences in thermal desorption profiles were found for nonirradiated and irradiated metals. In nonirradiated metals (e.g., stainless steel and copper), it was found that significant tritium had become incorporated following prolonged exposure to tritiated water vapor (HTO) or tritium/hydrogen gas (HT) in nuclear facilities. This externally derived tritium enters metals by diffusion with a rate controlled by the metal composition and whether the surface of the metal had been sealed or coated prior to exposure. The tritium is normally trapped in hydrated oxides lying along grain boundaries. In irradiated metals, an additional type of tritium can form internally through neutron capture reactions. The amount formed depends on the concentration and distribution of trace lithium and boron in the metal as well as the integrated neutron flux. Liberating this kind of tritium typically requires temperatures above 800 °C. The pattern of tritium evolution derived from simple thermal desorption experiments allows reliable inferences to be drawn on the likely origin, location, and phases that trap tritium. Any weakly bound tritium liberated at temperatures of ~100 °C is indicative of mostly HTO interactions in the metal. Any strongly bound tritium liberated over the range of 600-900 °C is indicative of neutrogenic tritium formed via neutron capture by trace Li and B. Neutron capture by lithium is likely to be more significant than for boron based on lithium's higher trace

  10. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  11. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  12. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  13. Development of a Tritium Extruder for ITER Pellet Injection

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Gouge; P.W. Fisher

    1998-09-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process of "isotopic fueling" in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge. This repeating single-stage pneumatic pellet injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter -7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; and evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets per extrusion have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. Initially, deuterium pellets 7.5 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length were produced-the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 10% density perturbation to ITER. Subsequently, the extruder nozzle was modified to produce pellets that are almost 7.5-mm right circular

  14. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  15. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  16. Utility considerations for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.M.; Bockhold, G. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The Southern Nuclear Company has a long-standing commitment to nuclear power and is interested in pursuing the possible use of one of its existing commercial reactors as an alternative for reinitiating the production of tritium to support the nation`s defense program requirements. We understand that Congress and the administration agree on the need to replenish the nation`s supply of tritium and that a number of production options are under consideration. This paper discusses the financial considerations, legal and regulatory considerations for the production of tritium utilizing a commercial power reactor.

  17. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  18. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  19. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  20. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls.

  1. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  2. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  3. Tritium transport around nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sweet, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The transport and cycling of tritium around nuclear facilities is reviewed with special emphasis on studies at the Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina. These studies have shown that the rate of deposition from the atmosphere, the site of deposition, and the subsequent cycling are strongly influenced by the compound with which the tritium is associated. Tritiated hydrogen is largely deposited in the soil, while tritiated water is deposited in the greatest quantity in the vegetation. Tritiated hydrogen is converted in the soil to tritiated water that leaves the soil slowly, through drainage and transpiration. Tritiated water deposited directly to the vegetation leaves the vegetation more rapidly after exposure. Only a small part of the tritium entering the vegetation becomes bound in organic molecules. However, it appears tht the existence of soil organic compounds with tritium concentrations greater than the equilibrium concentration in the associated water can be explained by direct metabolism of tritiated hydrogen in vegetation.

  4. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  5. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B. ); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  6. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  7. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  8. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers

    PubMed Central

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M.; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  9. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    PubMed

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  10. Tritium permeation through steam generator tubing of helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, M.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The potential sources of tritium contamination of the helium-coolant of ceramic breeder blankets have been evaluated in a previous paper for the specific case of the European BIT DEMO blanket. This evaluation associated with a rough assessment of the permeability to tritium of the tubing of helium-heated steam generators confirmed that the control of tritium losses to the steam circuit is a critical issue for this class of blanket requiring developments in three areas: (1) permeation barriers, (2) tritium recovery processes maintaining a very low concentration in tritiated species in the coolant, and (3) methods for controlling the chemistry of the coolant. Consequently, in order to define the specifications of these developments, a detailed evaluation of the permeability to tritium of helium-heated steam generators (SGs) was performed, which will be reported in this paper. This study includes the definition of the thermal-hydraulic operating conditions of the SGs through thermodynamic cycle calculations, and its thermal-hydraulic design. The obtained geometry, area and temperature profiles along the tubes are then used to estimate, based on relevant permeability data, the tritium permeation through the SG as a function of the composition in tritiated species of the coolant. The implications of these results, in terms of requirements for the considered tritium control methods, will also be discussed on the basis of expected limits in tritium release to the steam circuit.

  11. A Study on the Tritium Behavior in the Rice Plant after a Short-Term Exposure of HTO

    SciTech Connect

    Yook, D-S.; Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y-H.

    2002-02-26

    In many Asian countries including Korea, rice is a very important food crop. Its grain is consumed by humans and its straw is used to feed animals. In Korea, there are four CANDU type reactors that release relatively large amounts of tritium into the environment. Since 1997, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out the experimental studies to obtain domestic data on various parameters concerning the direct contamination of plant. In this study, the behavior of tritium in the rice plant is predicted and compared with the measurement performed at KAERI. Using the conceptual model of the soil-plant-atmosphere tritiated water transport system which was suggested by Charles E. Murphy, tritium concentrations in the soil and in leaves to time were derived. If the effect of tritium concentration in the soil is considered, the tritium concentration in leaves is described as a double exponential model. On the other hand if the tritium concentration in the soil is disregarded, the tritium concentration in leaves is described by a single exponential term as other models (e.g. Belot's or STAR-H3 model). Also concentration of organically bound tritium in the seed is predicted and compared with measurements. The results can be used to predict the tritium concentration in the rice plant at a field around the site and the ingestion dose following the release of tritium to the environment.

  12. Refractory recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Oxnard, R.T. )

    1994-10-01

    Businesses are run by profit and opportunity. Businesses will not recycle or reduce waste unless it is profitable, mandatory or perceived to be either in the future. Pressure from investors, government, consumers and accountants will increase the importance of recycling of refractories. The history and trends of refractory recycling and a method for auditing waste is discussed in this article.

  13. An Estimate of the History of Tritium Inventory in Wood Following Irrigation with Tritiated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E.

    2001-06-15

    Some of the groundwater and surface water at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with tritium as a legacy of nuclear materials production. An analysis of tritium remediation alternatives suggests that the most practical remediation alternative is to change in the path of tritium exposure to the public. Calculations based on many years of experience at the Savannah River Site indicate that a 40 percent reduction in dose can be achieved by releasing tritiated water to the atmosphere, as water vapor, as opposed to allowing it to flow off site in surface water streams.

  14. Design manual for a well-logging probe capable of measuring tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Menninga, C.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this instrument is to measure the concentration of tritium in situ in a well or bore hole. The instrument is designed to detect tritium at concentrations as low as terrestrial surface background. The instrument can sample air or water, and purify the sample from other radioactive nuclides and from chemical contaminants. The instrument will operate satisfactorily in the presence of a moderate gamma-ray background.

  15. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  16. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Irving P.; Marling, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  17. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  18. Tritium oxidation in atmospheric transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, P.Y.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    This study has been performed in support of the DOE/AL Tritium Limits Working Group (TLWG). The goal of the TLWG is to provide a technical basis for nuclear facility tritium limits based on test data, accident experience, and sound analytical modeling. Measured Tritiated water/tritium (HTO/HT) have shown that an HTO/HT conversion ratio of 0.01 would bound all the measured data by a factor of 2 to 500 for a downwind distance of up to 15 km. The 99.7% HTO/HT quantile is 6.1 x 10{sup -3}. Use of the HTO/HT ratio of 0.01 with site-specific or conservative meteorological data for three Los Alamos tritium facilities would bound the doses calculated based on the dose factors derived from sophisticated tritium transport codes with conservative meteorological and physical conditions. As a result, the proposed methodology, i.e. use of an HFO/HT conversion ratio of 0.01 with site-specific meteorological data or conservative meteorological data would provide an upper bound for off-site doses, and is recommended.

  19. Tritium and 14C background levels in pristine aquatic systems and their potential sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Claval, David; Cossonnet, Catherine; Zebracki, Mathilde; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Calmon, Philippe; Leclerc, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Tritium and (14)C are currently the two main radionuclides discharged by nuclear industry. Tritium integrates into and closely follows the water cycle and, as shown recently the carbon cycle, as does (14)C (Eyrolle-Boyer et al., 2014a, b). As a result, these two elements persist in both terrestrial and aquatic environments according to the recycling rates of organic matter. Although on average the organically bound tritium (OBT) activity of sediments in pristine rivers does not significantly differ today (2007-2012) from the mean tritiated water (HTO) content on record for rainwater (2.4 ± 0.6 Bq/L and 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq/L, respectively), regional differences are expected depending on the biomass inventories affected by atmospheric global fallout from nuclear testing and the recycling rate of organic matter within watersheds. The results obtained between 2007 and 2012 for (14)C show that the levels varied between 94.5 ± 1.5 and 234 ± 2.7 Bq/kg of C for the sediments in French rivers and across a slightly higher range of 199 ± 1.3 to 238 ± 3.1 Bq/kg of C for fish. This variation is most probably due to preferential uptake of some organic carbon compounds by fish restraining (14)C dilution with refractory organic carbon and/or with old carbonates both depleted in (14)C. Overall, most of these ranges of values are below the mean baseline value for the terrestrial environment (232.0 ± 1.8 Bq/kg of C in 2012, Roussel-Debet, 2014a) in relation to dilution by the carbonates and/or fossil organic carbon present in aquatic systems. This emphasises yet again the value of establishing regional baseline value ranges for these two radionuclides in order to account for palaeoclimatic and lithological variations. Besides, our results obtained from sedimentary archive investigation have confirmed the delayed contamination of aquatic sediments by tritium from the past nuclear tests atmospheric fallout, as recently demonstrated from data chronicles (Eyrolle

  20. Tritium removal and retention device. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.F.; Durigon, D.D.

    1981-07-21

    Apparatus comprising a two layered composite with an internal core of zirconium or zirconium alloy which retains tritium, and an adherent nickel outer layer which acts as a protective and selective window for passage of the tritium.

  1. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  2. Accelerator production of tritium plant design and supporting engineering development and demonstration work

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen with a half life of 12.3 years. Because it is essential for US thermonuclear weapons to function, tritium must be periodically replenished. Since K reactor at Savannah River Site stopped operating in 1988, tritium has been recycled from dismantled nuclear weapons. This process is possible only as long as many weapons are being retired. Maintaining the stockpile at the level called for in the present Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) will require the Department of Energy to have an operational tritium production capability in the 2005--2007 time frame. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator based system (APT), neutrons will be produced through high energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead. Those neutrons will be moderated and captured in {sup 3}He to make tritium. The APT plant design will use a 1,700 MeV linear accelerator operated at 100 mA. In preparation for engineering design, starting in October 1997 and subsequent construction, a program of engineering development and demonstration is underway. That work includes assembly and testing of the first 20 MeV of the low energy plant linac at 100 mA, high-energy linac accelerating structure prototyping, radiofrequency power system improvements, neutronic efficiency measurements, and materials qualifications.

  3. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  4. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  5. Tritium protection at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant produces tritium for the nation's defense. In addition to the planned production, unwanted tritium results from neutron irradiation of the heavy water moderator in the plant's reactors. During the past 30 years, continual improvements have been made in methods to protect the large workforce at the reactors and at the tritium facility from the potential hazards of tritium. This paper describes the current protection program.

  6. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  7. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating

  8. Measurement assurance program for LSC analyses of tritium samples

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-05-01

    Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) for Tritium is done on 600 to 800 samples daily as part of a contamination control program at the Savannah River Site`s Tritium Facilities. The tritium results from the LSCs are used: to release items as radiologically clean; to establish radiological control measures for workers; and to characterize waste. The following is a list of the sample matrices that are analyzed for tritium: filter paper smears, aqueous, oil, oily rags, ethylene glycol, ethyl alcohol, freon and mercury. Routine and special causes of variation in standards, counting equipment, environment, operators, counting times, samples, activity levels, etc. produce uncertainty in the LSC measurements. A comprehensive analytical process measurement assurance program such as JTIPMAP{trademark} has been implemented. The process measurement assurance program is being used to quantify and control many of the sources of variation and provide accurate estimates of the overall measurement uncertainty associated with the LSC measurements. The paper will describe LSC operations, process improvements, quality control and quality assurance programs along with future improvements associated with the implementation of the process measurement assurance program.

  9. Tritium control, October 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1986-01-28

    This semi-annual report was previously titled ''Tritium Waste Control''. The current title denotes the enlarged scope of the document, which now includes nonwaste related subjects such as tritium monitoring and improved tritium containment systems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  10. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. A remotely operated, field deployable tritium analysis system for surface and groundwater measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, P.R.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Collins, S.L.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M.P.; Peterson, R.

    1996-12-31

    A prototype system for the remote, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground waters has been developed at the Savannah River Site through the combined efforts of university, private industry, and government laboratory personnel under a project funded by the DOE/OTD. Using automated liquid scintillation counting techniques, the Field Deployable Tritium Analysis System (FDTAS) has been shown in laboratory and limited field tests to have sufficient sensitivity to measure tritium in water samples at environmental levels (10 Bq/L [{approximately}300 pCi/L] for a 100-minute count) on a near-real time basis. These limits are well below the EPA drinking water standard for tritium at 740 Bq/L (1) and lower than the normal upstream Savannah River tritium concentration of {approximately}40 Bq/L (2). The FDTAS consists of a fixed volume sampler (50 mL), an on-line water purification system, and a stop-flow liquid scintillation counter for detecting tritium in the purified sample. All operations are controlled and monitored by a remote computer using standard telephone line modem communications. The FDTAS offers a cost-effective alternative to the expensive and time-consuming methods of field sample collection and laboratory analyses for tritium in contaminated groundwater.

  12. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989; the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989 owing to a longer counting time in the liquid scintillation system. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contained less than 0.3 +/-0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. (USGS)

  13. Radiation and ecological aspects of tritium handling

    SciTech Connect

    Belovodskiy, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    Results of VNIIEF investigations into regularities of radioactive waste production in tritium handling (gaseous, liquid, solid wastes) as well as tritium and its oxide (HTO, DTO, TTO) migration in environmental objects (air, water, soil, vegetation) are presented. The doses of population exposure due to tritium release into the atmosphere have been determined. The dose factor being 2.2 E13 mrem{sup *}L/Ci/year. The constants of tritium oxide sorption by foods and the density of tritium fallout near the term source have been used to develop the conceptual international design of thermonuclear reactor (ITER).

  14. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  15. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total

  16. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of

  17. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (p<0.001), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  19. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van; Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  20. Technology for more profitable recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L. )

    1992-03-01

    Recycling has been part of the US heritage for more than a century. But in contrast to the country's earliest recycling - which was pursued simply because it made good money - today's movement is fueled primarily by environmental concerns. One result of this change in motivation is that modern recycling isn't always profitable. Sometimes the supply of collected materials far exceeds the demand, and with some substances even minor contamination can prohibit reuse. Now advanced technologies, including a number of electricity-based processes, are helping overcome market barriers. While technology alone can't solve all the problems of the recycling industry, researchers are confident that technological advancements will help pave the way to more profitable recycling.

  1. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  2. Applications developed for byproduct /sup 85/Kr and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the /sup 85/Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of /sup 85/Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of /sup 85/Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of /sup 85/Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-08-19

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10(-7) to 1.2 × 10(-5) (year(-1)) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10(-7) to 7.2 × 10(-6) (year(-1)) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities

  4. IN-LINE CHEMICAL SENSOR DEPLOYMENT IN A TRITIUM PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.; Wright, J.; Torres, R.; Peters, B.

    2013-10-02

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. Though new sensor technologies have been brought to various readiness levels, the TP has been reluctant to install technologies that have not been tested in tritium service. This gap between sensor technology development and incorporating new technologies into practical applications demonstrates fundamental challenges that exist when transitioning from status quo to state-of-the-art in an extreme environment such as a tritium plant. These challenges stem from three root obstacles: 1) The need for a comprehensive assessment of process sensing needs and requirements; 2) The lack of a pick-list of process-compatible sensor technologies; and 3) The need to test technologies in a tritium-contaminated process environment without risking production. At Savannah River, these issues are being addressed in a two phase project. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting roadmap links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. To provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment, an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box. This station was fabricated to TP process requirements and designed to handle high activity samples. The combination of roadmap and demonstration station provides the following assets: Creates a partnership between the process engineers and researchers for sensor selection, maturation, and insertion, Selects the right sensors for process conditions Provides a means for safely inserting new sensor technology into the process without risking production, and Provides a means to evaluate off normal occurrences where and when they occur

  5. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, E.T.

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  6. Tritium retention in jet cryopanel samples

    SciTech Connect

    Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. ); Mayaux, C.; Obert, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that tritium might exchange with water trapped in aluminum anodize cryopanels in JET prompted a test program at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, TSTA, Los Alamos, New Mexico. JET furnished two test pieces of cryopanel which were exposed to tritium at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature and 25 torr pressure for nearly two weeks. One specimen was removed and the retained tritium was measured. The second specimen was subjected to several increasing temperature vacuum bakeouts and the effectiveness of the bakeouts were inferred from the pressure history of the chamber. When the retained tritium in the second specimen was measured it was found that nearly 95% of the tritium, as measured in the first specimen, had been removed during the vacuum bakeouts. If the tritium retained in the cryopanel without bakeout were scaled to JET conditions according to a linear pressure time relationship, the tritium expected to become trapped in the JET cryopanels would be approximately 0.6 gram. Testing is currently underway at TSTA which will determine the tritium retention to be expected under more realistic JET operating conditions and which will assess the effectiveness of various bake or purge schemes in removing the trapped tritium. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  8. Estimation of Biological Effects of Tritium.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body. Furthermore, organically-bound tritium (OBT) stays in the body as parts of the molecules that comprise living organisms resulting in long-term exposure, and the chemical form of tritium should be considered. To evaluate the biological effect of tritium, the effect should be compared with that of other radiation types. Many studies have examined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium. Hence, we report the RBE, which was obtained with radiation carcinogenesis classified as a stochastic effect, and serves as a reference for cancer risk. We also introduce the outline of the tritium experiment and the principle of a recently developed animal experimental system using transgenic mouse to detect the biological influence of radiation exposure at a low dose/low dose rate.

  9. Ideas: Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  10. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    PubMed

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  11. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  12. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  13. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  14. The requirement for proper storage of nuclear and related decommissioning samples to safeguard accuracy of tritium data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daeji; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E

    2012-04-30

    Large volumes of potentially tritium-contaminated waste materials are generated during nuclear decommissioning that require accurate characterisation prior to final waste sentencing. The practice of initially determining a radionuclide waste fingerprint for materials from an operational area is often used to save time and money but tritium cannot be included because of its tendency to be chemically mobile. This mobility demands a specific measurement for tritium and also poses a challenge in terms of sampling, storage and reliable analysis. This study shows that the extent of any tritium redistribution during storage will depend on its form or speciation and the physical conditions of storage. Any weakly or moderately bound tritium (e.g. adsorbed water, waters of hydration or crystallisation) may be variably lost at temperatures over the range 100-300 °C whereas for more strongly bound tritium (e.g. chemically bound or held in mineral lattices) the liberation temperature can be delayed up to 800 °C. For tritium that is weakly held the emanation behaviour at different temperatures becomes particularly important. The degree of (3)H loss and cross-contamination that can arise after sampling and before analysis can be reduced by appropriate storage. Storing samples in vapour tight containers at the point of sampling, the use of triple enclosures, segregating high activity samples and using a freezer all lead to good analytical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  16. Electron scattering from polarized tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.

    1993-11-01

    the recent development of high-intensity gaseous targets of polarized hydrogen and deuterium raises the interesting possibility of developing a polarized tritium target that can operate in relatively high current electron beams. Here I discuss the feasibility of a measurement of the helicity-dependent asymmetry in {sup 3}{rvec H}({rvec e},e{prime}) inclusive quasielastic scattering with such a target.

  17. Plastic film recycling: A new beginning

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Only two years ago, plastic film recycling was considered an onerous task. Different resins had to be identified, colors had to be separated, and minute contaminants had to be weeded out almost by hand to produce a quality material. But the tide of plastic film recycling is changing now that new technologies have emerged and more organized collection infrastructure have been developed. Today, plastic film recycling maintains a lucrative market for those with the right combination of equipment and know-how.

  18. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  19. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  20. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  1. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  2. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  3. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data.

  4. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  5. Tritium Deposition in Pine Trees and Soil from Atmospheric Releases of Molecular Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-02-16

    Much of the tritium found in soil and leaf litter near a chemical separations facility is incorporated into soil organic matter in a stable non-exchangeable form. Formation of this ''bound'' tritium seems to result from the uptake of molecular tritium (HT) by living pine needles. Soil and litter microbes convert HT to HTO more rapidly, but no measurable organic tritium is formed. This report discusses this study.

  6. Modeling and analysis of tritium dynamics in a DT fusion fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, William

    1998-11-01

    A number of crucial design issues have a profound effect on the dynamics of the tritium fuel cycle in a DT fusion reactor, where the development of appropriate solutions to these issues is of particular importance to the introduction of fusion as a commercial system. Such tritium-related issues can be classified according to their operational, safety, and economic impact to the operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Given such key design issues inherent in next generation fusion devices using the DT fuel cycle development of appropriate models can then lead to optimized designs of the fusion fuel cycle for different types of DT fusion reactors. In this work, two different types of modeling approaches are developed and their application to solving key tritium issues presented. For the first approach, time-dependent inventories, concentrations, and flow rates characterizing the main subsystems of the fuel cycle are simulated with a new dynamic modular model of a fusion reactor's fuel cycle, named X-TRUFFLES (X-Windows TRitiUm Fusion Fuel cycLE dynamic Simulation). The complex dynamic behavior of the recycled fuel within each of the modeled subsystems is investigated using this new integrated model for different reactor scenarios and design approaches. Results for a proposed fuel cycle design taking into account current technologies are presented, including sensitivity studies. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed by examining various design options that could be used to minimize local and global tritium inventories. The second modeling approach involves an analytical model to be used for the calculation of the required tritium breeding ratio, i.e., a primary design issue which relates directly to the feasibility and economics of DT fusion systems. A time-integrated global tritium balance scheme is developed and appropriate analytical expressions are derived for tritium self-sufficiency relevant parameters. The easy exploration of the large

  7. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. A molecular dynamics study of diamond and graphite under tritium bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A. R.; Duffy, D. M.

    2011-11-15

    Carbon has proven to be a promising plasma facing material in tokamak reactors because of its high thermal conductivity and limited radiative cooling as a plasma contaminant. It is used in a range of forms, mostly graphitic or amorphous. Diamond, however, has superior thermal properties to other forms of carbon but has been largely overlooked due to fears of graphitisation. Tritium retention is, perhaps, the major disadvantage of using carbon as a plasma facing material in a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. Here, we use molecular dynamics to study the relative performance of diamond and graphite on exposure to tritium bombardment. We model the cumulative bombarded of diamond and graphitic surfaces with a high flux (10{sup 29} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) of low energy 15 eV tritium atoms. This was done for substrate temperatures in the range 300-2100 K. Below temperatures of graphitisation ({approx}1000 K) the diamond structure confined tritium to the upper surface, this inhibited further structural damage and resulted in lower total retention. The graphitic surface allowed for deeper tritium penetration and therefore greater retention. These results corroborate with recent experimental evidence.

  9. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  10. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1984-10-17

    This invention relates to the recovery of tritium from various tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium. More particularly, the invention relates to the recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium wherein the reaction is conducted in a reactor which permits the reaction to occur as a moving front reaction from the point where the tritium enters the reactor charged with uranium down the reactor until the uranium is exhausted.

  11. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  12. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  13. Storage and Assay of Tritium in STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; Robert J. Pawelko

    2004-09-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has recently been commissioned to investigate tritium-related safety questions for fusion and other technologies. The authorized inventory of tritium is 1.6 grams, the threshold quantity for nuclear facility classification. A key capability in successful operation of the STAR facility is the ability to receive, inventory, and dispense tritium to the various experiments underway there. The system central to that function is the Tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS). The SAS has four major functions: (1) receiving and holding tritium from shipping containers brought into the STAR facility, (2) assaying the amount of tritium in the SAS, (3) dispensing tritium to secondary beds or containers used for transferring it to the experimental systems in the STAR facility, and (4) purifying hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen species. To that may be added a fifth, optional function, isotopic separation of hydrogen isotopes using bed-to-bed transfer techniques. This paper documents the design and operation of the STAR SAS and the procedures used for tritium accountancy in the STAR facility.

  14. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  15. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  16. Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?

    PubMed

    Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking

  17. Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

  18. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  19. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    PubMed

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  20. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  1. Tritium deposition in pine trees and soil from atmospheric releases of molecular tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, C.W.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1984-05-01

    Much of the tritium found in soil and leaf litter near a chemical separations facility is incorporated into soil organic matter in a stable, nonexchangeable form. Formation of this ''bound'' tritium seems to result from the uptake of molecular tritium (HT) by living pine needles. A deposition velocity (V/sub d/) for HT of 1.2 x 10/sup -5/ cm/s was measured in pine needles. About 1% of the tritium deposited in this way is converted into organic matter. Soil and litter microbes convert HT to HTO more rapidly (V/sub d/ = 0.01 cm/s), but no measurable organic tritium is formed.

  2. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  3. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  4. Recycling Philology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Peggy A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that English teachers recycle philology as a field of study. Redefines the shape of philology in view of postmodern theories of signification. Considers concepts of hermeneutics in retheorizing the aims of philology. Shows how such philological investigation might be used in the classroom to study literary texts. (HB)

  5. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

  6. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  7. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  8. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed M; Tompson, Andrew F B; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-11

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  9. HYLIFE-II tritium management system

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The tritium management system performs seven functions: (1) tritium gas removal from the blast chamber, (2) tritium removal from the Flibe, (3) tritium removal from helium sweep gas, (4) tritium removal from room air, (5) hydrogen isotope separation, (6) release of non-hazardous gases through the stack, (7) fixation and disposal of hazardous effluents. About 2 TBq/s (5 MCi/day) of tritium is bred in the Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) molten salt coolant by neutron absorption. Tritium removal is accomplished by a two-stage vacuum disengager in each of three steam generator loops. Each stage consists of a spray of 0.4 mm diameter, hot Flibe droplets into a vacuum chamber 4 m in diameter and 7 m tall. As droplets fall downward into the vacuum, most of the tritium diffuses out and is pumped away. A fraction {Phi}{approx}10{sup {minus}5} of the tritium remains in the Flibe as it leaves the second stage of the vacuum disengager, and about 24% of the remaining tritium penetrates through the steam generator tubes, per pass, so the net leakage into the steam system is about 4.7 MBq/s (11 Ci/day). The required Flibe pumping power for the vacuum disengager system is 6.6 MW. With Flibe primary coolant and a vacuum disengager, an intermediate coolant loop is not needed to prevent tritium from leaking into the steam system. An experiment is needed to demonstrate vacuum disengager operation with Flibe. A secondary containment shell with helium sweep gas captures the tritium permeating out of the Flibe ducts, limiting leaks there to about 1 Ci/day. The tritium inventory in the reactor is about 190 g, residing mostly in the large Flibe recirculation duct walls. The total cost of the tritium management system is 92 M$, of which the vacuum disengagers cost = 56%, the blast chamber vacuum system = 15%, the cryogenic plant = 9%, the emergency air cleanup and waste treatment systems each = 6%, the protium removal system = 3%, and the fuel storage system and inert gas system each = 2%.

  10. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  11. Tritium analysis of irradiated burnable poison rods

    SciTech Connect

    D'Annucci, F.; Baro, G.; Pardue, E.B.S.; Rommelaere, W.

    1982-10-01

    To investigate the tritium content in the various components and to determine the /sup 10/B burnup, a postirradiation examination was carried out on three burnable poison rods that had been irradiated in the first cycle of the Oconee 2 Reactor. The results of the analysis reveal that the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C pellets retain the major portion (greater than or equal to99%) of all the tritium generated; only a very small quantity (less than or equal to0.5%) of the tritium produced is absorbed by the cladding and no tritium was detected in the plenum gas. Comparison of the average postirradiation /sup 10/B content with the preirradiation content indicates that almost all of the /sup 10/B has been consumed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated tritium content of an irradiated poison rod.

  12. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  13. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  14. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  15. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  16. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  17. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  18. Tritium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    with a velocity of 2200 m / s [1]. The cross section scales very accurately as 7 1/v for energies up to about 60 keV. Consequently, with careful selection...Fraction The probability that a triton injected into a reactor is burned in the reaction (1) before it escapes the confinement region in the case of MFE , or...vσ〉 = 3.68× 10−18 T 2/3 i exp ( − 19.94 T 1/3 i ) . (12) For a representative MFE ion temperature Ti = 20 keV, (13) we find from (12) that 〈vσ〉 = 3.22

  19. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  20. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  1. Transporter Development for the Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.

    1998-12-17

    The Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) is planned for location at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy CLWR tritium production alternative. This new facility will rely on processes and equipment that are significantly different from those proven in the past or currently in use at SRS. For instance, the CLWR-TEF reference design employs remote modules to provide an inert processing atmosphere, secondary confinement for tritium and the primary confinement for particulate contamination. The primary component of this modular system is the Transporter. A Transporter mock-up was developed to demonstrate concept feasibility of the required processing functions (sealing, attachment/alignment and materials handling). The module design, the seal door selection, and the planned test program are discussed.

  2. Modelling of tritium transport in a pin-type solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    This study supplements a larger study of a solid breeder blanket design featuring lithium ceramic pins. This aspect of the study looks at tritium transport, release, and inventory within this blanket design. Li/sub 2/O and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ are the two primary candidates for ceramic solid breeders. ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ was chosen for this blanket design due to its higher structural stability. Analysis of tritium behavior in solid breeder blankets is of great importance due to its impact on several critical issues: the generation of an adequate amount of fusion fuel, the safety-related issue of keeping radioactive blanket inventories as low as possible, and the release, purge, and economical processing of the bred tritium without undue contamination of the coolant and other reactor structures.

  3. CALCULATION OF TRITIUM RETENTION AND RELEASE FROM COMPONENTS IN GROUT- SEGMENT 6 METALLIC WASTE FROM DEMOLISHED BUILDING 232-F

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2007-02-09

    The amount of tritium remaining within and the release rate out of stainless steel process waste from the 232-F Tritium Facility at SRS is calculated as a function of time using the historical exposure of pipe during operation of the facility (1955-1958) and its subsequent deactivation and lay-up. The solution and diffusion of tritium in the wall is the mechanism that governs both the tritium contamination of the pipe during operation and its gradual release after deactivation, including radioactive decay while in the metal. This analysis applies to Segment 6 of the so-called Components in Grout waste form. Results of these calculations will be used in the Groundwater Transport assessment, part of the analysis of the Components in Grout.

  4. Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1999-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore

  5. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  6. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  7. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  8. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  9. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  10. Tritium module for ITER/Tiber system code

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Willms, S.; Busigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium module was developed for the ITER/Tiber system code to provide information on capital costs, tritium inventory, power requirements and building volumes for these systems. In the tritium module, the main tritium subsystems/emdash/plasma processing, atmospheric cleanup, water cleanup, blanket processing/emdash/are each represented by simple scaleable algorithms. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructural evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible tritium

  12. Development of tritium technologies at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yim, S.P.; Yoon, C.; Lim, J.; Choi, W.; Ahn, H.; Kang, H.; Kim, I.; Paek, S.; Yunn, S.H.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    Korea has been operating a CANDU nuclear power plant since 1983. Tritium generated in the heavy water of the plant is removed by the Wolsong TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) and measurement campaigns of tritium near the power plant have shown the efficiency of the TRF system. The HANARO reactor uses heavy water as both reflector and moderator. In HANARO the tritiated water removal system consists of compressors, condensers, and adsorption beds. A tritium behavior analysis code (TRIBAC) for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is under development at KAERI. The TRIBAC computer software has been equipped with models for tritium production, purification, and leakage, as well as chemisorption and tritium behavior, in the hydrogen production system. Korea takes part into the ITER program and is responsible for the supply of an SDS (Tritium Storage and Delivery System). Within this program Korea has launched an experimental program to study the physico-chemical properties of metal and their hydrides in which hydrogen isotope gases can be stored and removed safely.

  13. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  14. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions.

  15. Tritium related safety considerations for mirror upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, S.K.

    1983-11-30

    One of the primary objectives of the MFTF-B upgrades is to demonstrate the technology of tritium breeding in a reactor-like configuration. This requires use and processing of tritium, involving an inventory of several hundred grams at the plant. This paper reviews the results of a preliminary assessment of the radiation hazard associated with the handling of tritium. The radiation dose consequences due to tritium release from normal operation and due to postulated accidents on plant personnel and the public were assessed. Maximum credible (probability < 10/sup -3/, but > 10/sup -7//yr) accidental releases were estimated to be 10 gm in the reactor building and 100 gm in the tritium-processing building. Higher probability (> 10/sup -3//yr) accidents or component failures would result in much smaller releases. In the reactor building, the most severe accident would result from the rupture of a plasma exhaust duct from the end cell or the tritium feed pipe to the neutral beam injector, accompanied by a fire. In the tritium processing building, the most severe accident would be the rupture of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) distillation columns and vacuum jackets accompanied by a fire.

  16. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  17. Pavement recycling catching on

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, G.

    1980-11-01

    The soaring costs of asphalt, aggregates, energy, and labor have revived interest in the recycling of old pavements and road bases. Two types of techniqueshot mix recycling and cold mix recycling are described and compared. The experiences of Wisconsin and Texas with pavement recycling are reviewed. Wisconsin uses the hot mix recycling, while Texas refurbishes its roads with the cold mix recycling. One contractor's doubts about surface recycling of pavements are outlined. (13 photos)

  18. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  19. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  20. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, S.A.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1982-10-21

    Apparatus and method are presented for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  1. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  2. Long-term tritium transport through field-scale compacted soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toupiol, C.; Willingham, T.W.; Valocchi, A.J.; Werth, C.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    A 13-year study of tritium transport through a field-scale earthen liner was conducted by the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine the long-term performance of compacted soil liners in limiting chemical transport. Two field-sampling procedures (pressure-vacuum lysimeter and core sampling) were used to determine the vertical tritium concentration profiles at different times and locations within the liner. Profiles determined by the two methods were similar and consistent. Analyses of the concentration profiles showed that the tritium concentration was relatively uniformly distributed horizontally at each sampling depth within the liner and thus there was no apparent preferential transport. A simple one-dimensional analytical solution to the advective-dispersive solute transport equation was used to model tritium transport through the liner. Modeling results showed that diffusion was the dominant contaminant transport mechanism. The measured tritium concentration profiles were accurately modeled with an effective diffusion coefficient of 6 ?? 10-4 mm2/s, which is in the middle of the range of values reported in the literature.

  3. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  4. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Contaminant pattern and bioaccumulation of legacy and emerging organhalogen pollutants in the aquatic biota from an e-waste recycling region in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jing; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-01

    Legacy pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and some emerging organhalogen pollutants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and dechlorane plus (DP), were detected in an aquatic food chain (invertebrates and fish) from an e-waste recycling region in South China. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs, PBDEs, and HBB were detected in more than 90% of the samples, with respective concentrations ranging from not detected (ND)-32,000 ng/g lipid weight, ND-850 ng/g lipid weight, 8 to 1,300 ng/g lipid weight, and 0.28 to 240 ng/g lipid weight. Pentabromotoluene, PBEB, BTBPE, and DP were also quantifiable in collected samples with a concentration range of ND-40 ng/g lipid weight. The elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the organisms, compared with those in non-e-waste regions in South China, suggest that these two kinds of pollutants derived mainly from e-waste recycling practices. Hexabromobenzene was significantly correlated with PBDEs, implying that HBB come from the release of e-waste along with PBDEs and/or the pyrolysis of BDE209. Most of the compounds whose trophic magnification factor (TMF) could be calculated were found to biomagnify (TMF > 1). Hexabromobenzene was also found, for the first time, to biomagnify in the present food web, with a TMF of 2.1. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  6. Electrolytic gettering of tritium from air

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Stevens, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have removed 90% of 1 part-per-million tritium gas in air of 25% to 35% humidity by the dc electrical action of the solid proton electrolyte hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP). Gettering takes 5 to 24 hours for a 1 cm/sup 2/ HUP disc at 2 to 4 V in a static, 1200 cc gas volume. Hydrogen gas may be used to flush captured tritium through the HUP. Liquid water leaches out the tritium but water vapor is ineffective. This technique promises an alternative to the conventional catalyst/zeolite method.

  7. Application of the ICRP clarification of the tritium metabolic model.

    PubMed

    Potter, Charles A

    2004-10-01

    In 2001, the International Commission on Radiological Protection published a clarification to the model for tritium metabolism. This clarification described the use of the gastrointestinal tract model, respiratory tract model, and transfer compartment in calculations of tritium metabolism. This information was used to derive intake retention fractions for tritium and tritium compounds including tritiated water, organically bound tritium, and tritides. In addition, dose coefficients were derived for tritide compounds including general categories described by the ICRP and some specific compounds.

  8. Investigation of tritium incorporation of tritium incorporation by means of excreted metabolites.

    PubMed

    Biró, T; Szilágyi, M

    1978-01-01

    The commonly accepted urine analysis by liquid scintillation method was applied for whole body dose estimating. After the separation of metabolite fractions the organically bound tritium in urine could be measured. Urine samples from workers repeatedly exposed to tritium incorporation during the chemical processing of various labeled compounds have been collected and analyzed. The time dependence of tritium activity in certain metabolites was found to be characteristic, significantly differing from the 3H concentration curve of the native or treated urine sample.

  9. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  10. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  11. 2001 Evaluation of Tritium Removal & Mitigation Technologies for Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    PENWELL, D.L.

    2001-06-01

    This report contains the 2001 biennial update evaluation of separation technologies and other mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed, and national and international experts in the field of tritium separation and mitigation techniques were consulted. Current state-of-the-art technologies to address the control of tritium in wastewaters were identified and are described. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement, Milestone M-29-O5H (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 1996). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated on a biennial basis to determine their feasibility for implementation for the control of Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwater to meet the US. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 0.02 {mu} Ci/l ({approx}2 parts per quadrillion [10{sup -15}]) and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy The objectives of this evaluation were to (1) status the development of potentially viable tritium separations technologies with regard to reducing tritium concentrations in current Hanford site process waters and existing groundwater to MCL levels and (2) status control methods to prevent the flow of tritiated water at concentrations greater than the MCL to the environment. Current tritium releases are in compliance with applicable US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Tri-Party Agreement. Advances in technologies for the separation of tritium from wastewater since the 1999 Hanford Site evaluation report include: (1) construction and testing of the Combined Industrial Reforming and Catalytic Exchange (CIRCE) Prototype Plant by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The plant has a stage that uses

  12. Tritium Release Estimate from CLWR-Tritium Extraction Facility Waste Overpack

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    2001-05-23

    Spent targets (Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods, TPBARs) from the Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site will be sent to waste disposal contained in a so-called ''overpack''. The tritium permeation rate through a welded stainless steel overpack was estimated using a finite difference computer program in a previous report. This report is an evaluation of tritium permeation through three additional overpack designs: (1) a stainless steel overpack sealed using a mechanical closure with a metal gasket, (2) a mild steel overpack with the same mechanical closure, and (3) an aluminum overpack sealed by welding.

  13. Tritium experiments on components for fusion fuel processing at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y. ); Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Under a collaborative agreement between US and Japan, two tritium processing components, a palladium diffuser and a ceramic electrolysis cell have been tested with tritium for application to a Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for plasma exhaust processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The fundamental characteristics, compatibility with tritium, impurities effects with tritium, and long-term behavior of the components, were studied over a three year period. Based on these studies, an integrated process loop, JAERI Fuel Cleanup System'' equipped with above components was installed at the TSTA for full scale demonstration of the plasma exhaust reprocessing.

  14. Recycling Lesson Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  15. Transport of Recycled Deuterium to the Plasma Core in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Skinner, C.H.; et al

    1997-10-01

    We report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)]. We have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. We find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer.

  16. Transport of recycled deuterium to the plasma core in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.; Strachan, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). They have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. They find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer.

  17. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  18. Tritium modeling/BEATRIX-II data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Attaya, H.; Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.

    1992-12-31

    Models have been developed to describe the tritium transport in Li{sub 2}O. The mechanisms considered are bulk diffusion, surface desorption, surface adsorption, and solubility. These models have been incorporated into the TIARA steady-state inventory code and the DISPL2 steady-state and transient code. Preliminary validation efforts have focused on the inventory and tritium release rate data from in-reactor, purge-flow tests VOM-15H, EXOTIC-2, CRITIC-1, and MOZART. The models and validation effort are reported in detail in ANL/FPP/TM-260. Since the BEATRIX-II data were released officially in November 1991, validation efforts have been concentrated on the tritium release rate data from the {open_quotes}isothermal{close_quotes} thin-ring sample. In this report, results are presented for the comparison of predicted long-time inventory changes (in response to temperature and hydrogen purge pressure changes) to values determined from the tritium release data.

  19. Mechanism of tritium diffusion in lithium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, R.; De Vita, A.; Heine, V.; Payne, M.C.

    1996-04-01

    Lithium oxide is a possible candidate for a breeder blanket material in fusion reactors. Tritium is generated in the material, which can be extracted and fed into the fusion reactor to help sustain the fusion reaction. Experimental studies have shown the extraction rate is controlled by diffusion of tritium in the bulk, but the exact mechanism is not clear. Here we present {ital ab} {ital initio} density functional calculations of the various diffusion pathways which have been suggested, including the diffusion of tritium as an interstitial and various vacancy assisted mechanisms. The activation energy has been calculated for each pathway, and by comparison with experimental results we have deduced which mechanism is most likely. This is shown to be a simple two-stage swapping of a lithium and tritium ion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  1. Tritium Inventory in ARIES-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2001-02-28

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machine, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve first wall temperatures up to 1000 C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  2. Tritium Inventory in Aries-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed

    2001-02-01

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machines, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve firs wall temperatures up to 1000°C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  3. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.M.; Williamson, A.S.

    1985-09-01

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water is comparable. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl exhibiting an abnormally high retention of free water because of a highly porous surface structure. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities.

  5. The Project 8 Radiofrequency Tritium Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Benjamin

    The Project 8 experiment aims to determine the electron neutrino mass by measuring the spectrum of tritium beta decay electrons near the 18.6 keV endpoint. Unlike past tritium experiments, which used electrostatic and magnetostatic spectrometers, Project 8 will detect decay electrons nondestructively via their cyclotron radiation emission in a magnetic field. An individual electron is expected to emit a detectable pulse of microwaves at a frequency which depends on the electron energy. Precise measurement of these pulse frequencies is a novel spectroscopy technique particularly well-suited for the high rate, high precision, low background needs of a tritium experiment. The collaboration is currently operating a prototype designed to detect single 83mKr conversion electron decays in an 0.9T magnetic field. We report on recent activities on the prototype, and on progress towards the design of a large tritium experiment with new neutrino-mass sensitivity.

  6. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  7. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  8. A search for neutrons and gamma rays associated with tritium production in deuterated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Lawson, D.R.; Packham, N.J.C.; Wass, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium activity has been measured in several Pd-Ni-D{sub 2}O electrolytic cells, as reported previously. At the present time 13 separate cells have shown tritium at 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} times the background level of the D{sub 2}O used in these experiments. The appearance of the activity in the electrolyte and in the gas phase occurs over a period of hours to a few days after remaining at or near the background level during 4--10 weeks of charging in 0.1 M LiOD, D{sub 2}O solution. The present paper deals with attempts to reproduce the tritium measurements and to establish the source, from either contamination or nuclear reaction. The sudden appearance of tritium activity in the cells requires the tritium to be loaded in a component prior to the beginning of cell operation in a contamination model. Release is assumed to be caused by deterioration of one of the materials used in the 0.1 M LiOD solution. In an extensive set of tests, no contamination has been found in the starting materials or in normal water blanks. Results for neutron and gamma-ray correlations have proved to be negative also. The limit set on the absence of 2.5 MeV neutrons for the t/n ration is 10{sup 7} from that expected in the d + d reaction, and 10{sup 3} for 14 MeV neutrons expected from the t + d secondary reaction. Similarly, Coulomb excitation gamma rays expected from the interaction of 3 MeV protons with Pd are found to be absent, which indicates that the d(d,p)t two-body reaction does not occur in the Pd electrode. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  10. Tritium and helium behavior in irradiated beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Lin, C.C. ); Baldwin, D.L. )

    1990-11-01

    Large quantities of Be (> 100 metric tons) are planned for use in the ITER blanket design to enhance tritium breeding and to act as a thermal barrier between coolant and breeder. Tritium retention/release and He-induced swelling are important issues in blanket design. The data base on tritium and helium behavior in Be is reviewed. New data on tritium retention/release and He bubble growth are presented for Be irradiated to 5 {times} 10{sup 22} n(E > 1 MeV)/cm{sup 2} at {approximately}75{degree}C and postirradiation-annealed for 700 hours at 500{degree}C. A model (diffusion/desorption) is proposed and tested against the data base to determine tritium diffusivity and the desorption rate constant. Similarly a model for He-induced swelling is developed and tested against the data base. The dependence of tritium retention and release on He content and impurities (e.g. BeO) is also explored. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  12. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  13. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  14. Plant-Based Plume-Scale Monitoring Reveals the Extents and Pathways of Tritium Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Michel, R. L.; Halford, K. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Abraham, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to detect contamination near radioactive-waste and other contaminated sites. Such methods should be capable of providing an early warning of contaminant releases and be accurate and robust enough for monitoring the long-term performance of waste-isolation facilities and remediation measures. Plant-based methods were developed adjacent to a closed low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of plant-water tritium, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict subsurface tritium contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into transport pathways and processes. Tritium was selected because it is a common radionuclide disposed at radioactive waste sites and it is a good tracer of water movement. Solar-distillation and solid-phase-extraction were used to collect and prepare plant (creosote bush, Larrea tridentata) foliage water for direct-scintillation counting. The maximum plant-water tritium concentration was 4,890 Bq/L; background values averaged 2.5 Bq/L. Geostatistical analysis showed that plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a distance of 380 m. Simple-contour and kriged maps of plant concentrations identified "hot spots" that were verified by soil-water-vapor measurements. Empirical linear relations between plant water and soil-water-vapor concentrations measured at the 0.5- and 1.5-m sampling depths were used to map the spatial distributions of root-zone and sub-root-zone tritium, respectively. Results showed that tritium migration away from the waste source primarily occurs in the gas phase with preferential transport through a dry, gravelly layer beneath the root zone, from which it moves upward and is subsequently released to the surface environment. Shallow and deep geologic units controlling preferential transport through the unsaturated zone were mapped by direct-current electrical

  15. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  16. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  17. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  18. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Robert L.

    2004-05-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  19. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Paul W.

    1997-05-01

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the United States' nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to ^3He at the rate of 5.5 percent per year, it must be replenished continously. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator, neutrons will be generated by high-energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead, moderated in light water, and captured in ^3He. The plant will be operational in 2007 at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. It will consist of a proton linear accelerator, tritium-production target/blankets, tritium-extraction, and conventional balance-of-plant systems. The accelerator will be a radio-frequency linac operating at 100 percent duty factor. It will have a combination of normal-conducting copper structures to accelerate a 100-mA beam to 217 MeV followed by superconducting niobium cavities to boost the beam energy to 1700 MeV. After acceleration, a high-energy transport system will expand the beam to a rectangular, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high distribution and deliver it to one of two identical target/blanket assemblies where tritium production and extraction will take place. Inside a target/blanket the proton beam will strike heavy-water cooled tungsten rods to produce neutrons. The tungsten will be surrounded by a decoupler consisting of aluminum tubes containing ^3He to reduce parasitic capture. Additional lead modules with aluminum tubes containing ^3He will lie outside the central region. The lead will produce additional neutrons from spallation and (n,xn) reactions. Light water coolant continuously circulated through the lead will moderate the neutrons to low energy, where they will be efficiently captured by ^3He gas to produce tritium. Tritium will be removed by continuous separation using permeation through a heated palladium-silver alloy membrane. Once separated, standard cryogenic distillation techniques will be used to isotopically purify the tritium. This presentation

  20. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium.

  1. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    PubMed

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  2. Tritium inventory measurements using calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kapulla, H.; Kraemer, R.; Heine, R. )

    1992-03-01

    In the past calorimetry has been developed as a powerful tool in radiometrology. Calorimetric methods have been applied for the determination of activities, half lives and mean energies released during the disintegration of radioactive isotopes. The fundamental factors and relations which determine the power output of radioactive samples are presented and some basic calorimeter principles are discussed in this paper. At the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) a family of 3 calorimeters has been developed to measure the energy release from radiative waste products arising from reprocessing operations. With these calorimeters, radiative samples with sizes from a few cm{sup 3} to 2 {center dot}10{sup 5} cm{sup 3} and heat ratings ranging from a few nW to kW can be measured. After modifications of tits inner part the most sensitive calorimeter among the three calorimeters mentioned above would be best suited for measuring the tritium inventory in T-getters of the Amersham-type.

  3. Results of observations of the tritium concentration in water fractions in the disposition regions of tritium laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, G.N.; Kuzmina, A.I.; Kolomiets, N.F.; Svarichevskaya, E.V.; Rogosin, V.N.; Svyatun, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper results of the long term of control of tritium concentration in the water fractions in the region close to the tritium laboratories of INR NAS of Ukraine are presented. The regular observations for the tritium concentration in the water fractions (thawed water of the snow cover, birch juice and sewer water) in the influence region of tritium laboratories shows small amount of tritium concentration in all kinds of investigated water fractions in comparison with the tritium concentration in the reper points. The proper connection of the levels of tritium concentration of the water samples with the quantity of the technology production is observed. In common, the tritium pollution on the territory of INR shows the tendency for a considerable decrease of the environmental pollution levels from year to year. It can be explained by the perfection of the production technology of tritium structures and targets as well as the rising of the qualification of the personnel. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  6. Information for establishing bioassay measurements and evaluations of tritium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, A.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes information and references used in developing regulatory guidance on programs for the bioassay of tritium as well as information useful in planning and conducting tritium bioassay programs and evaluating bioassay data. A review of literature on tritium radiobiology is included to provide a ready source of information useful for estimating internal doses of tritium and risks for the various tritium compounds and forms, including elemental (gaseous) tritium. Simplified and conservative dose conversion factors are derived and tabulated for easy reference in program planning, safety evaluations, and compliance determinations.

  7. Recovery of tritium from a liquid lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from liquid lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium by thermal regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to study such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. Recent static sorption experiments have shown the effects of lithium temperature and possible impurities on the sorption of tritium. Diffusivity data, obtained from previous tritium recovery experiments, were evaluated to show the importance of the yttrium surface condition in controlling the release of tritium.

  8. The effect of coatings on retention and permeation in SS 316L APT tritium production tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, K. L.; Causey, R. A.; Cowgill, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) design calls for thousands of thin-walled tubes to be filled with 3He gas. The reaction of the spallation neutrons with this gas will result in the bombardment of the interior of these tubes with energetic tritons and protons. For APT to be able to meet its tritium production goals, it is necessary that the holdup of the tritium in the tube walls be minimized. To examine the tritium retention characteristics of stainless steel, one of the tube reference materials, accelerator implantation experiments were performed. In these experiments, deuterium was used in place of tritium to eliminate the problem of tritium contamination. Deuterons with energies up to 200 keV and protons with energies up to 600 keV were implanted into stainless steel (SS 316L) samples to fluences as high as 5 × 10 22 D/m 2 and 5 × 10 22 p/m 2. Thermal desorption spectroscopy showed that approximately 3% of the deuterium was retained within the sample. Approximately 0.5% of the deuterium permeated through to the back surface of the sample where a zirconium getter trapped the deuterium. The deuterium trapped in the zirconium layer was measured by nuclear reaction analysis. Eight-micron thick copper and nickel coatings were applied to the implantation side of the stainless steel substrate in an attempt to reduce the retention and permeation of the deuterium. The copper-coated stainless steel was not successful in reducing the retention and permeation, however the nickel coated stainless steel reduced both the retention and permeation substantially.

  9. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal contamination status of the soil-plant system and effects on the soil microbial community near a rare metal recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Ma, Tingting; Yuan, Cheng; Hou, Jinyu; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-09-01

    Four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), two metalloids (As and Sb) and two rare metals (In and Tl) were selected as target elements to ascertain their concentrations and accumulation in the soil-plant system and their effects on the structure of the soil microbial community in a typical area of rare metal smelting in south China. Twenty-seven soil samples 100, 500, 1000, 1500 and 3000 m from the smelter and 42 vegetable samples were collected to determine the concentrations of the target elements. Changes in soil micro-organisms were investigated using the Biolog test and 454 pyrosequencing. The concentrations of the eight target elements (especially As and Cd) were especially high in the topsoil 100 m from the smelter and decreased markedly with increasing distance from the smelter and with increasing soil depth. Cadmium bio-concentration factors in the vegetables were the highest followed by Tl, Cu, Zn, In, Sb, Pb, and then As. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in vegetables were 86.7, 100 and 80.0 %, respectively, over the permissible limits and possible contamination by Tl may also be of concern. Changes in soil microbial counts and average well colour development were also significantly different at different sampling distances from the smelter. The degree of tolerance to heavy metals appears to be fungi > bacteria > actinomycetes. The 454 pyrosequencing indicates that long-term metal contamination from the smelting activities has resulted in shifts in the composition of the soil bacterial community.

  11. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  12. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  13. Environmental monitoring for tritium at jet

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, A.C.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Patel, B.; Serio, L.

    1995-10-01

    JET progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring programme well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. Prior to the first JET tritium experiment (PTE) in 1991, an extensive programme was in place and agreed with the regulatory authority. This consisted of tritium in air, rain, ground and river water, and crops on and off the JET site. Air is sampled continuously and averaged monthly. Other samples are taken quarterly or, at an appropriate point in the growing season. The discharges of tritium from the JET stacks are monitored by on-line instrumentation and silica gel-based samplers. The performance of these is described and improvements arising from the PTE experience are discussed. In particular the implications of tritiated methane on sampling and analysis are considered. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and comparisons made with predictions from discharges made during the PTE and subsequent operations. The implications of washout on the site liquid discharge authorization is considered. From a comparison of observed and predicted concentrations, routine releases of tritium from JET will have insignificant environmental impact. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. FINAL REPORT FOR TRITIUM WATER MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.; Ferguson, B.; DiPrete, D.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this Plant Directed Research and Demonstration (PDRD) task was to develop a system to safetly analyze tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to liquid-scintillation counting. The proposed system determines tritium concentrations by measuring Bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions in liquid samples. Results show that, after a short counting period (30 seconds), detection limits are three orders of magnitude below the described concentration of tritiated water in the zeolite beds. Additionally, this report covers the analysis of process samples and the investigation of several cell window materials including beryllium, aluminum, and copper. Final tests reveal that alternate window materials and thicknesses can be used to obtain useful results. In particular, a window of stainless steel of moderate thickness (0.3 cm) can be used for counting relatively high levels of tritium.

  15. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting…

  16. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  17. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  18. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.; Foster, P.J.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  19. Organically bound tritium (OBT) for various plants in the vicinity of a continuous atmospheric tritium release.

    PubMed

    Vichot, L; Boyer, C; Boissieux, T; Losset, Y; Pierrat, D

    2008-10-01

    In order to quantify tritium impact on the environmental, we studied vegetation continuously exposed to a tritiated atmosphere. We chose lichens as bio-indicators, trees for determination of past tritium releases of the Valduc Centre, and lettuce as edible vegetables for dose calculation regarding neighbourhood. The Pasquill and Doury models from the literature were tested to estimate tritium concentration in the air around vegetable for distance from the release point less than 500 m. The results in tree rings show that organically bound tritium (OBT) concentration was strongly correlated with tritium releases. Using the GASCON model, the modelled variation of OBT concentration with distance was correlated with the measurements. Although lichens are recognized as bio-indicators, our experiments show that they were not convenient for environmental surveys because their age is not definitive. Thus, tritium integration time cannot be precisely determined. Furthermore, their biological metabolism is not well known and tritium concentration appears to be largely dependent on species. An average conversion rate of HTO to OBT was determined for lettuce of about 0.20-0.24% h(-1). Nevertheless, even if it is equivalent to values already published in the literature for other vegetation, we have shown that this conversion rate, established by weekly samples, varies by a factor of 10 during the different stages of lettuce development, and that its variation is linked to the biomass derivative.

  20. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. In-line chemical sensor deployment in a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.S.; Hope, D.T.; Torres, R.D.; Peters, B.; Tovo, L.L.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. The use of alternative sensing and detection technologies for in-line and real-time analysis would aid process control and optimization. The TP upgrading follows a 2-phase projects. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting road-map links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. In the second phase an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box in order to provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment.

  2. Validation of the RESRAD-RECYCLE computer code.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.-J.; Yu, C.; Williams, W. A.; Murphie, W.

    2002-02-01

    The RESRAD-RECYCLE computer code was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy. It was designed to analyze potential radiation exposures resulting from the reuse and recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap metal and equipment. It was one of two codes selected in an international model validation study concerning recycling of radioactively contaminated metals. In the validation study, dose measurements at various stages of melting a spent nuclear fuel rack at Studsvik RadWaste AB, Sweden, were collected and compared with modeling results. The comparison shows that the RESRAD-RECYCLE results agree fairly well with the measurement data. Among the scenarios considered, dose results and measurement data agree within a factor of 6. Discrepancies may be explained by the geometrical limitation of the RESRAD-RECYCLE's external exposure model, the dynamic nature of the recycling activities, and inaccuracy in the input parameter values used in dose calculations.

  3. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in

  4. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  5. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  6. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  7. Hydrogen isotope separation installation for tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Selivanenko, I.L.; Tenyaev, B.N.; Vedeneev, A.I.; Golubkov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    The separation of hydrogen isotopes in the hydrogen-palladium system in sectioned separation columns with the simulation of counter-current isotopic exchange is described. The separation efficiency of sectioned columns is investigated with the experimental installation as a function of various parameters. The separation of deuterium-tritium mixtures with high tritium concentrations is tested with the pilot installation operating at room temperature and atmospheric hydrogen pressure. Due to very high separation efficiency, flexibility and simplicity of operation separation installations with sectioned columns are ideally suitable for tritium laboratories and facilities dealing with separation of hydrogen isotopes. Estimation of applicability of sectioned columns for regeneration of exhaust gas in a fuel cycle of thermonuclear reactors, such as JET and ITER, shows the number of advantages of separation installations with sectioned columns. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid.

  9. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  10. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  11. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Romney, E.M.; Fujii, L.M.; Greger, P.D. ); Kendall, E.W.; Hunter, R.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated, therefore a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. Tritium transport to the atmosphere by plant transpiration was determined to have risen sharply with the passage of time, and is now occurring at the rate of about 6 curies per year. The tritium being released from this waste has not resulted in elevated tritium levels in the urine of people working directly on the trench cap. Air samplers placed around the perimeter of the Area 5 site show no higher tritium levels than the Nevada Test Site in general. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 meters below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period was found. No evidence of significant migration of tritium away from the overpack was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil was observed in a greater confinement disposal test. The movement was suspected largely to be the result of experimental anomalies and heat generated by other radionuclides present in the waste. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. No significant migration was found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. DECOMMISSIONING THE HIGH PRESSURE TRITIUM LABORATORY AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Peifer, M.J.; Rendell, K.; Hearnsberger, D.W.

    2003-02-27

    In May 0f 2000, the Cerro Grande wild land fire burned approximately 48,000 acres in and around Los Alamos. In addition to the many buildings that were destroyed in the town site, many structures were also damaged and destroyed within the 43 square miles that comprise the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A special Act of Congress provided funding to remove Laboratory structures that were damaged by the fire, or that could be threatened by subsequent catastrophic wild land fires. The High Pressure Tritium Laboratory (HPTL) is located at Technical Area (TA) 33, building 86 in the far southeast corner of the Laboratory property. It is immediately adjacent to Bandelier National Park. Because it was threatened by both the Cerro Grande fire in 2000, and the 16,000- acre Dome fire in 1996, the former tritium processing facility was placed on the list of facilities scheduled for Decontamination and Decommissioning under the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project. The work was performed through the Facilities and Waste Operations (FWO) Division and is integrated with other Laboratory D&D efforts. The primary demolition contractor was Clauss Construction of San Diego, California. Earth Tech Global Environmental Services of San Antonio, Texas was sub-contracted to Clauss Construction, and provided radiological decontamination support to the project. Although the forty-seven year old facility had been in a state of safe-shutdown since operations ceased in 1990, a significant amount of tritium remained in the rooms where process systems were located. Tritium was the only radiological contaminant associated with this facility. Since no specific regulatory standards have been set for the release of volumetrically contaminated materials, concentration guidelines were derived in order to meet other established regulatory criteria. A tritium removal system was developed for this project with the goal of reducing the volume of tritium concentrated in the concrete of the building

  13. An overview of organically bound tritium experiments in plants following a short atmospheric HTO exposure.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Strack, S; Atarashi-Andoh, M; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    The need for a less conservative, but reliable risk assessment of accidental tritium releases is emphasized in the present debate on the nuclear energy future. The development of a standard conceptual model for accidental tritium releases must be based on the process level analysis and the appropriate experimental database. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plants and the subsequent conversion into organically bound tritium (OBT) strongly depends on the plant characteristics, seasons, and meteorological conditions, which have a large variability. The present study presents an overview of the relevant experimental data for the short term exposure, including the unpublished information, also. Plenty of experimental data is provided for wheat, rice, and soybean and some for potato, bean, cherry tomato, radish, cabbage, and tangerine as well. Tritiated water (HTO) uptake by plants during the daytime and nighttime has an important role in further OBT synthesis. OBT formation in crops depends on the development stage, length, and condition of exposure. OBT translocation to the edible plant parts differs between the crops analyzed. OBT formation during the nighttime is comparable with that during the daytime. The present study is a preliminary step for the development of a robust model of crop contamination after an HTO accidental release.

  14. Tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Serpekian, T.; Buchkremer, H.P.; Fischmann, K.D.; Heinen, R.; Stover, D.

    1985-09-01

    The helium coolant of a high temperature nuclear power reactor (HTR) operating in the temperature region 570 to 1220 K has to be purified from impurities such as H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and CH/sub 4/. Also tritium has to be removed especially in the case of the process heat reactor to minimize contamination of product gases. Cerium misch metal was investigated as getter material at 570 K under near realistic conditions. The results show that this method can become an effective, alternative gas purification system. Carbon monoxide gives some concern if it is present in high concentrations by partially passivating the material. But the getter bed can easily be reactivated by a heating process. Measurements with tritium injection showed that not all tritium is being gettered. Probably some species (possibly CH/sub 3/T) are formed which are not as readily absorbed as tritium in form of T/sub 2/, HT or HTO. Work in this field is going on to clarify this effect.

  15. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  16. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole.

  17. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented.

  18. Tritium transport in lithium ceramics porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, S.W.; Ambrose, V.

    1991-12-31

    A random network model has been utilized to analyze the problem of tritium percolation through porous Li ceramic breeders. Local transport in each pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion-reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the porous medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. The model was then applied to an analysis of the relative contribution of diffusion and convective flow to tritium transport in porous lithium ceramics. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Tritium transport in lithium ceramics porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, S.W.; Ambrose, V.

    1991-01-01

    A random network model has been utilized to analyze the problem of tritium percolation through porous Li ceramic breeders. Local transport in each pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion-reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the porous medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. The model was then applied to an analysis of the relative contribution of diffusion and convective flow to tritium transport in porous lithium ceramics. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Problems and progress in tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.; Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; White, R.

    1988-04-01

    It has been nearly eight years since the group led by Lubimov first saw evidence for a finite neutrino mass in the tritium beta decay spectrum. Their measurement provided a great stimulus to the field; the number of experiments currently underway reflects the significance of their claim. The fact that further data are only now beginning to appear reflects the difficulty of this measurement. As an introduction to related papers in these proceedings, we briefly consider the key elements involved in neutrino-mass measurements using tritium beta decay and list the experiments currently underway in the field. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  1. A tritium target system for. mu. CF

    SciTech Connect

    Zmeskal, J.; Ackerbauer, P. . Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Sherman, R.H. ); Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C. ); Neumann, W. ); Bossy, H. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (

    1990-12-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for the safe handling of tritium as part of a series of muon-catalyzed fusion experiments. The equipment was designed to handle 100 kCi of tritium. The main parts of this system are the oil-free high vacuum and transfer system, and the quadrupole mass analyzer for a direct determination of the target content. The system was used successfully for five continuous periods of operation of over one month each. A new target system was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for ultimate use at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to investigate the high temperature and high pressure region. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Safety management of a modern tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grief, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper sets out some of the important elements of the Safety Management system in place for the Tritium Facility at AWE. It does not intend to cover all aspects; it gives some brief background information on the overall safety objectives, but concentrates more on local management issues and systems used to control the operation at the Facility level. Any modern Safety system for a Facility using a potentially hazardous and mobile species such as tritium must be designed to minimise its impact on the environment and to provide a safe working regime for its staff. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Results of the fourth quarter tritium survey of the F- and H-Area seeplines: March--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1993-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Four Mile Creek seepline down gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH for the seepline water. Measurements from the fourth quarter survey (March/April 1993) showed lower tritium and conductivity measurements and higher pH values (pH 5--6) than measurements from previous studies. The results of the first four quarterly surveys suggest that infiltration of rainfall may be diluting and flushing the contaminants from the groundwater system. More measurements are needed to confirm these trends.

  4. Results of the second quarter tritium survey of the F- and H-Area seeplines, September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) established a quarterly monitoring program of the Four Mile Creek seepline down gradient from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. The program surveys and tracks changes in tritium, specific conductivity, and pH for the seepline water. Measurements from the second quarter survey (September 1992) showed lower tritium and conductivity measurements and more natural pH values (pH 5--6) than measurements from previous studies. The results of the first two quarterly surveys suggest that infiltration of rainfall may be diluting and flushing the contaminants from the groundwater system. More measurements are needed to confirm these trends.

  5. Improving information recognition and performance of recycling chimneys.

    PubMed

    Durugbo, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and improve how recyclers (individuals carrying out the task of recycling) make use of visual cues to carryout recycling tasks in relation to 'recycling chimneys' (repositories for recycled waste). An initial task analysis was conducted through an activity sampling study and an eye tracking experiment using a mobile eye tracker to capture fixations of recyclers during recycling tasks. Following data collection using the eye tracker, a set of recommendations for improving information representation were then identified using the widely researched skills, rules, knowledge framework, and for a comparative study to assess the performance of improved interfaces for recycling chimneys based on Ecological Interface Design principles. Information representation on recycling chimneys determines how we recycle waste. This study describes an eco-ergonomics-based approach to improve the design of interfaces for recycling chimneys. The results are valuable for improving the performance of waste collection processes in terms of minimising contamination and increasing the quantity of recyclables.

  6. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  7. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  8. Consumer Education: The Key to Successful Plastics Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Alan; Moore, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Examines consumer education strategies for decreasing contamination in plastics collected for recycling. Discusses research that suggests the problem may not be consumers ignoring rules but rather that consumers appear to be adhering diligently to rules of their own invention. (LZ)

  9. HANDBOOK: RECYCLING AND REUSE OF MATERIAL FOUND ON SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides assistance in identifying potential recycling technologies for a wide variety of contaminants and matrices. Personnel at Superfund and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action sites face the challenge of selecting remedial options for...

  10. Consumer Education: The Key to Successful Plastics Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Alan; Moore, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Examines consumer education strategies for decreasing contamination in plastics collected for recycling. Discusses research that suggests the problem may not be consumers ignoring rules but rather that consumers appear to be adhering diligently to rules of their own invention. (LZ)

  11. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  12. Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Boyd W.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

  13. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  14. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  15. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  16. Tritium management and removal at Ontario Hydro's nuclear generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmi, F.

    1988-09-01

    Tritium of the heavy water systems of Ontario Hydro's Nuclear Generating Stations presents a radiological hazard both to station personnel and to the environment. Careful design of equipment, containment and the use of personal protective equipment reduces but does not remove the hazard. To deal more effectively with the problem, Ontario Hydro plants to remove the tritium in a new facility currently under construction. Accordingly, the management of tritium, by the selective use of the tritium removal facility, will play an important role in reducing the tritium hazards at the stations. This paper describes the models and management techniques used.

  17. Preliminary results on tritium in Surveyor 3 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    Painted aluminum samples taken from Surveyor 3 were examined for possible tritium implanted by the solar wind. There was found to be a correlation of tritium content with exposure to sunlight. The amount of tritium in sample 1011,2 nearly perpendicular to the lunar surface exceeded the amount expected from the tritium content of lunar rock 12002 by at least a factor of 3. It is concluded that if there is tritium implanted by solar wind on lunar rocks, it is not retained by them.

  18. Tritium time series in precipitation of Rm. Valcea, Romania.

    PubMed

    Varlam, Carmen; Duliu, Octavian G; Faurescu, Ionut; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, Denisa

    2016-01-01

    Following tritium concentration records in precipitation for the period 1999-2013 and tritium concentration behaviour during this period for the Ramnicu Valcea (Rm. Valcea) location, the tritium level of individual precipitations of the late spring and summer for the 2009-2013 period was investigated. Despite good correlation between monthly mean tritium concentrations and monthly mean precipitations over the 15-year period of observations (Pearson coefficient 0.87), the individual precipitations had no linear correlation between the tritium concentration and the amount of precipitation.

  19. Fracture toughness properties of welded stainless steels for tritium service

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    1994-10-01

    Studies to determine tritium exposure effects on the properties of welded steels are being conducted. In this investigation, the effects of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) Incoloy 903 were. Fracture toughness measurements were conducted for tritium-exposed samples in the as-forged condition and compared with welded samples. Tritium-exposed HERF Incoloy 903 had fracture toughness values that were 33% lower than those for unexposed HERF Incoloy 903. Tritium-exposed welded samples had fracture toughness values that were just 8% of the unexposed HERF alloys and 28% of unexposed welded alloys.

  20. The Use of Hydraulic Head and Atmospheric Tritium to Identify Presence of Fractures in Clayey Aquitards: Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, E. A.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Surficial clayey aquitards can provide underlying aquifers with strong protection from contamination if vertically connected open fractures are absent. Hence, methods are needed to identify such contaminant pathways. An existing two-dimensional model for steady-state groundwater flow and solute transport (FRACTRAN) was used for cross-sectional simulations to assess the prospects for using field measurements of hydraulic head and atmospheric (i.e. bomb) tritium in surficial aquitards to determine presence and nature of hydraulically connected fractures. Simulations for a 15-m thick horizontal aquitard, with shallow water table and downward groundwater flow, show that field measurements of head and tritium at points appropriately spaced along a horizontal line at the lower part of the aquitard provide unique insight since they offer the highest chance for detecting vertical fractures. Simulations represented sets of predominant vertical and horizontal fractures of uniform aperture (25 æm) and variable length. The simulations focused on fracture-network features assigned based on the literature of field investigations. The horizontal profiles show peaks and troughs for head, and always peaks for tritium concentrations at fracture localities. Use of only head or tritium alone may locate fractures, but may not discover whether each fracture is connected to the ground surface or aquifer top, or both. On the other hand, the coupled patterns of head and tritium can be used to identify fractures more accurately. For example, a head trough and a tritium sharp peak represent a fully penetrating fracture, while a head peak and a rounded-tip tritium peak represent a partially penetrating fracture. Moreover, these two are easily differentiated from an embedded fracture that is represented by a relatively small head trough and a short sharp tritium peak. The method of monitoring along a horizontal line was applied to the conceptual 15-m thick aquitard imitating horizontal