Bars-Cortina, David; Macià, Alba; Iglesias, Ignasi; Romero, Maria Paz; Motilva, Maria José
This study is an exhaustive chemical characterization of the phenolic compounds, triterpenes, and organic and ascorbic acids in red-fleshed apple varieties obtained by different breeding programs and using five traditional and new white-fleshed apple cultivars as reference. To carry out these analyses, solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) were used. The results showed that the red-fleshed apples contained, in either the flesh or peel, higher amounts of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid), anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-galactoside), dihydrochalcones (phloretin xylosyl glucoside), and organic acids (malic acid) but a lower amount of flavan-3-ols than the white-fleshed apples. These quantitative differences could be related to an up-regulation of anthocyanins, dihydrochalcones, and malic acid and a down-regulation of flavan-3-ols (anthocyanin precursors) in both the flesh and peel of the red-fleshed apple varieties. The reported results should be considered preliminary because the complete phytochemical characterization of the red-fleshed apple cultivars will be extended to consecutive harvest seasons.
Girschik, Lachlan; Jones, Joanna E; Kerslake, Fiona L; Robertson, Mark; Dambergs, Robert G; Swarts, Nigel D
Varietal base ciders were produced from three varieties of dessert apples ('Pink Lady®', 'Royal Gala' and 'Red Delicious') at pre-commercial, commercial and post-commercial harvest timings. Rapid analytical methods were used to categorise the base ciders, and data analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The titratable acidity of apple must was significantly higher for the pre-commercial harvest fruit for both the 'Royal Gala' and 'Red Delicious' varieties. The base cider phenolic content was highest in the pre-commercial harvest fruit for all varieties. 'Red Delicious' had the highest total phenolics as determined by spectral analysis and supported by the classification provided by the PCA analysis. The spectral fingerprints of the ciders showed two main peaks at approximately 280nm and 320nm indicating phenolic concentrations. Studies analysing characteristics of dessert apple varieties with relevance for cider production will allow for informed decision making for both apple producers and cider makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zubaidah, E.; Yurista, S.; Rahmadani, N. R.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage with the addition of kombucha starter also called SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture Of Bacteria and Yeast). The purpose of this research was to know the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of kombucha from various varieties of apple kombucha. The study used Randomized Block Design (RAK) with one factor of apple varieties (Anna, Fuji, Granny Smith, Manalagi, Red Delicious, Rome Beauty, Royal Gala). Each treatment was repeated three times. Data was analyzed with ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The best treatment was selected using Multiple Attribute method. Data of hedonic test was analysed using Friedman Test. The best treatment was obtained on Fuji varieties of kombucha apple with the characteristics as follows: total acid 1.33%; pH 2.95; Total phenol 268.57 μg/ml GAE; Total sugar 6.74%; Antibacterial activity against S.aureus 21.30 mm; Antibacterial activity E.coli 21.20 mm; Antioxidant activity 35.62%; Organoleptic aroma 3.55, taste 3.3; Color 3.4 (on a scale of 1-5)
Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian
The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.
Miller, P.M.; Rich, S.
Exposure to high rates of ozone for 3 days produced grey to brown pitted areas around lenticles of Cortland, Red Rome, and McIntosh apples, but not on Red Delicious or Golden Delicious apples. These pits were 1 to 2 mm in diameter with a corky area extending 1 mm into the flesh. Neither light nor relative humidity influenced occurrence of the injury.
Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Putterill, Jo; Stevenson, David E; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Allan, Andrew C
Anthocyanin concentration is an important determinant of the colour of many fruits. In apple (Malus × domestica), centuries of breeding have produced numerous varieties in which levels of anthocyanin pigment vary widely and change in response to environmental and developmental stimuli. The apple fruit cortex is usually colourless, although germplasm does exist where the cortex is highly pigmented due to the accumulation of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. From studies in a diverse array of plant species, it is apparent that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the level of transcription. Here we report the transcript levels of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in a red-fleshed apple compared with a white-fleshed cultivar. We also describe an apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10, that is similar in sequence to known anthocyanin regulators in other species. We further show that this transcription factor can induce anthocyanin accumulation in both heterologous and homologous systems, generating pigmented patches in transient assays in tobacco leaves and highly pigmented apple plants following stable transformation with constitutively expressed MdMYB10. Efficient induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in transient assays by MdMYB10 was dependent on the co-expression of two distinct bHLH proteins from apple, MdbHLH3 and MdbHLH33. The strong correlation between the expression of MdMYB10 and apple anthocyanin levels during fruit development suggests that this transcription factor is responsible for controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple fruit; in the red-fleshed cultivar and in the skin of other varieties, there is an induction of MdMYB10 expression concurrent with colour formation during development. Characterization of MdMYB10 has implications for the development of new varieties through classical breeding or a biotechnological approach. PMID:17181777
Sanoner, P; Guyot, S; Marnet, N; Molle, D; Drilleau, J P
The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.
Chagné, David; Carlisle, Charmaine M; Blond, Céline; Volz, Richard K; Whitworth, Claire J; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C; Crowhurst, Ross N; Allan, Andrew C; Espley, Richard V; Hellens, Roger P; Gardiner, Susan E
Background Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG) 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species. PMID:17608951
Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona
In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases.
Garratt, M. P. D.; Breeze, T. D.; Boreux, V.; Coston, D. J.; Jenner, N.; Dean, R.; Westbury, D. B.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Potts, S. G.
Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology. PMID:27152628
Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Boreux, V; Fountain, M T; McKerchar, M; Webber, S M; Coston, D J; Jenner, N; Dean, R; Westbury, D B; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G
Insect pollination underpins apple production but the extent to which different pollinator guilds supply this service, particularly across different apple varieties, is unknown. Such information is essential if appropriate orchard management practices are to be targeted and proportional to the potential benefits pollinator species may provide. Here we use a novel combination of pollinator effectiveness assays (floral visit effectiveness), orchard field surveys (flower visitation rate) and pollinator dependence manipulations (pollinator exclusion experiments) to quantify the supply of pollination services provided by four different pollinator guilds to the production of four commercial varieties of apple. We show that not all pollinators are equally effective at pollinating apples, with hoverflies being less effective than solitary bees and bumblebees, and the relative abundance of different pollinator guilds visiting apple flowers of different varieties varies significantly. Based on this, the taxa specific economic benefits to UK apple production have been established. The contribution of insect pollinators to the economic output in all varieties was estimated to be £92.1M across the UK, with contributions varying widely across taxa: solitary bees (£51.4M), honeybees (£21.4M), bumblebees (£18.6M) and hoverflies (£0.7M). This research highlights the differences in the economic benefits of four insect pollinator guilds to four major apple varieties in the UK. This information is essential to underpin appropriate investment in pollination services management and provides a model that can be used in other entomolophilous crops to improve our understanding of crop pollination ecology.
Leforestier, Diane; Ravon, Elisa; Muranty, Hélène; Cornille, Amandine; Lemaire, Christophe; Giraud, Tatiana; Durel, Charles-Eric; Branca, Antoine
Unraveling the genomic processes at play during variety diversification is of fundamental interest for understanding evolution, but also of applied interest in crop science. It can indeed provide knowledge on the genetic bases of traits for crop improvement and germplasm diversity management. Apple is one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions, having both great economic and cultural values. Sweet dessert apples are used for direct consumption, while bitter cider apples are used to produce cider. Several important traits are known to differentiate the two variety types, in particular fruit size, biennial versus annual fruit bearing, and bitterness, caused by a higher content in polyphenols. Here, we used an Illumina 8k SNP chip on two core collections, of 48 dessert and 48 cider apples, respectively, for identifying genomic regions responsible for the differences between cider and dessert apples. The genome-wide level of genetic differentiation between cider and dessert apples was low, although 17 candidate regions showed signatures of divergent selection, displaying either outlier FST values or significant association with phenotypic traits (bitter versus sweet fruits). These candidate regions encompassed 420 genes involved in a variety of functions and metabolic pathways, including several colocalizations with QTLs for polyphenol compounds. PMID:26240603
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in accordance...
Liu, Yulian; Che, Fei; Wang, Lixin; Meng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Zhengyang
In the present study, evolution of apple color (L* and a/b), the accumulation of anthocyanins and the activity of the related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-Glucose: flavonoid-3-O-galactosyl transferase (UFGT), were investigated in bagged non-red apple cultivars ('Granny Smith' and 'Golden Delicious') and red apple cultivars ('Starkrimon' and 'Pink Lady'). Young fruits were bagged 40-45 days after flowering (DAF), and fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Starkrimon' were uncovered and exposed to light 120 DAF, while those of 'Granny Smith' and 'Pink Lady' were exposed for 160 DAF. Results showed that cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal) was the most abundant anthocyanin in both non-red and red cultivars. Level of anthocyanins was higher in 'Granny Smith' than in 'Golden Delicious', indicating that red color was easier to develop in green cultivar 'Granny Smith' than in yellow cultivar 'Golden Delicious' after bag removal. The cy3-gal accumulation of non-red cultivars tested was not significantly correlated with PAL, CHI and DFR activity, but was significantly correlated with UFGT activity. During the reddening of non-red apples, UFGT may be the more important factor in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.
Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Yutang
To characterize and classify apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin on the basis of their polyphenol composition, the polyphenolic profiles of 58 apple juice samples belonging to 5 apple varieties and from 6 regions in Shaanxi province of China were assessed. Fifty-one of the samples were from protected designation of origin (PDO) districts. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and to a Q Exactive quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Chemometric techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on polyphenolic profiles of the samples to develop discrimination models. SLDA achieved satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, providing respectively 98.3 and 91.2% success rate in terms of prediction ability. This result demonstrated that polyphenols could served as characteristic indices to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices.
Mimmo, Tanja; Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Capici, Calogero; Tagliavini, Massimo; Cesco, Stefano; Scampicchio, Matteo
The awareness of customers of the origin of foods has become an important issue. The growing demand for foods that are healthy, safe and of high quality has increased the need for traceability and clear labelling. Thus, this study investigates the capability of C and N stable isotope ratios to determine the geographical origin of several apple varieties grown in northern Italy. Four apple varieties (Cripps Pink, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith) have been sampled in orchards located in the Districts of Bolzano, Ferrara, Verona and Udine (northern Italy). Carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of the whole apple fruits and three sub-fractions (peel, pulp and seed) have been determined simultaneously by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values of apples and apple sub-fractions, such as peel, seed and pulp, were significantly affected by the geographical origin and the fruit variety. The four varieties could be distinguished to a certain extent only within each district. A 99% correct identification of the samples according to their origin was, however, achieved by cross validation with the 'leave-one-out' method. This study proves the potential of stable isotopes to discriminate the geographical origin of apples grown in orchards located only a few hundreds of kilometres apart. Stable isotopes were also able to discriminate different apple varieties, although only within small geographical areas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rad, Amir H K; Falahi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad
Apple is one of the fruits that has beneficial effects on human healthy diet and life. The aim of this study is to determine some physical, mineral and organic acids composition of apple cultivars grown in different locations throughout Lorestan province. Apple cultivars had been harvested from different locations throughout Lorestan province of Iran. Analyses for 3 elements (Iron, Zinc, and calcium) were conducted by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus was measured by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Sodium and Potassium were measured by the flame photometer. Organic acids were determined by Titration method using NaOH and phenolphethalein indicator. Weight was measured by scale based on 0.1 g and length and diameters were measured by caliper. The mean weight of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apples was 173.7 g and 146.7 g, respectively. The amount of iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium for the red variety was 0.24, 0.14, 28, 8.9, 4.7 and 63.8 respectively; values for the Golden variety were 0.23, 0.14, 27.9, 8.8, 4.5, and 66.3 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively. The amount of ascorbic acid, malic acid, and citric acid for Golden delicious was 9.09, 0.27 and 0.28, respectively; for Red delicious apples, the amount was 9.47, 0.26 and 0.28 mg/100 g, respectively. Acidities for Golden delicious and Red delicious were 3.7 and 4, respectively. One hundred gram of apple fruit grown in Lorestan would provide 3% of iron, 1.5% of zinc, 2.8% of calcium and 1.4% of potassium requirements. The amount of organic acid in apples of Lorestan province was lower than some other countries.
Napolitano, Aurora; Cascone, Annunziata; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Scalfi, Luca; Di Vaio, Claudio; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo
Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide. It is available on the market for the whole year being a major source of dietary polyphenols. Several studies suggested that apple polyphenols could play a role in prevention of degenarative diseases. The action of these compounds has been partially ascribed to their antioxidative ability, and fruit antioxidants profile is influenced by apple variety and by the postharvest storage. In this work, the polyphenols composition of the flesh of four apple varieties cultivated in southern Italy were investigated by HPLC, and a flow injection MS/MS procedure to quantify cholorogenic acid and catechins was set up. Phenolic composition and the radical scavenging activity were monitored during a postharvest storage of four months. The quantification by flow injection procedure gives results comparable to those obtained by HPLC, and the increase of the antioxidant activity during storage correlated with an increase of the concentration of catechin and phloridzin. This trend is particularly evident for the variety "Annurca" which is a typical product cultivated in the area around Naples. The genetic characteristics of the Annurca variety together with the anticipated harvest time and the peculiar postharvest conditions are likely responsible for this increase of the antioxidant activity. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society
Boniecki, P.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Zbytek, Z.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Lewicki, A.
This paper seeks to present methods of neural image analysis aimed at estimating the maturity state of selected varieties of apples which are popular in Poland. An identification of the degree of maturity of selected varieties of apples has been conducted on the basis of information encoded in graphical form, presented in the digital photos. The above process involves the application of the BBCH scale, used to determine the maturity of apples. The aforementioned scale is widely used in the EU and has been developed for many species of monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants. It is also worth noticing that the given scale enables detailed determinations of development stage of a given plant. The purpose of this work is to identify maturity level of selected varieties of apples, which is supported by the use of image analysis methods and classification techniques represented by artificial neural networks. The analysis of graphical representative features based on image analysis method enabled the assessment of the maturity of apples. For the utilitarian purpose the "JabVis 1.1" neural IT system was created, in accordance with requirements of the software engineering dedicated to support the decision-making processes occurring in broadly understood production process and processing of apples.
Malik, Agnieszka; Kiczorowska, Bozena; Zdyb, Justyna
Fruits and vegetables are essential sources of many nutritive substances which are necessary for normal function of the organism. One of the mostly consumed fruits in many European countries, including Poland is apples. The prohealthy properties of apples are associated with the contents of polyphenolic compounds, thus including in parts phenolic acids which have antioxidant properties. The concentration of these compounds depends on many factors such as variety climate and soil conditions, maturity as well as agro technical operations. The aim of this investigation was to compare the concentrations of phenolic acids and epicatechin in the varieties of apple Champion and Jonica, which were collected from different orchards around Lublin. The phenolic compounds were assayed using a Symmetry column carrier RP-C18 (Waters) integrated with a high pressure liquid chromatography apparatus. The dominant phenolic acids found in the Champion variety was chlorogenic acid, whereas in the Jonica variety, chlorogenic and homovanilic acids were the dominate once. The highest concentrations of chlorogenic acid was detected in the pulp of an apple (Jonica variety) collected from the orchards around the cities of Puławy and Lublin, whereas homovanilic acid was the highest in the other samples collected from the orchards in the vicinity of Stryjno and Góry Markuszowskie. Among the Jonica and Champion varieties of apples collected from various orchards in the vicinity of Lublin, the highest content of epicatechin (13,12 mg/kg) was found in the pulps of Champions variety collected in Puławy. In general, the Champion variety was the best source of phenolic acids and epicatechin compared to the Jonica variety independent of the harvest zone.
Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol
Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.
Takos, Adam M.; Jaffé, Felix W.; Jacob, Steele R.; Bogs, Jochen; Robinson, Simon P.; Walker, Amanda R.
Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of flowers and fruits. In apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), several steps of the anthocyanin pathway are coordinately regulated, suggesting control by common transcription factors. A gene encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor was isolated from apple (cv Cripps' Pink) and designated MdMYB1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene encodes an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators in other plants. The expression of MdMYB1 in both Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and cultured grape cells induced the ectopic synthesis of anthocyanin. In the grape (Vitis vinifera) cells MdMYB1 stimulated transcription from the promoters of two apple genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes. In ripening apple fruit the transcription of MdMYB1 was correlated with anthocyanin synthesis in red skin sectors of fruit. When dark-grown fruit were exposed to sunlight, MdMYB1 transcript levels increased over several days, correlating with anthocyanin synthesis in the skin. MdMYB1 gene transcripts were more abundant in red skin apple cultivars compared to non-red skin cultivars. Several polymorphisms were identified in the promoter of MdMYB1. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker designed to one of these polymorphisms segregated with the inheritance of skin color in progeny from a cross of an unnamed red skin selection (a sibling of Cripps' Pink) and the non-red skin cultivar Golden Delicious. We conclude that MdMYB1 coordinately regulates genes in the anthocyanin pathway and the expression level of this regulator is the genetic basis for apple skin color. PMID:17012405
Würdig, Juliane; Flachowsky, Henryk; Höfer, Monika; Peil, Andreas; Eldin Ali, Mohammed Ali Mohammed Saad; Hanke, Magda-Viola
Red fruit flesh is a desirable trait in apple breeding, because red-fleshed apples are a novelty and therefore considered to be more attractive to consumers and contain more health beneficial compounds. The red fruit flesh coloration is based on an increased level of cyanidin 3-galactoside, an anthocyanin whose biosynthesis is regulated by the MYB-type transcription factors MdMYB10 or MdMYB110a, respectively. A repeated segment in the MdMYB10 promoter allele R6 results in a gain-of-function mutation visible as red pigmentation of fruit skin and flesh and all vegetative tissues. Red-fleshed apple genotypes containing this R6 allele belong to the type 1 red-fleshed apple, which is known to be linked to some negative traits like astringent taste and internal flesh browning disorder. In type 2 red-fleshed apples the fruit flesh coloration is not inevitably linked with skin and leaf color. This red-fleshed apple phenotype, which is a result of increased expression of MdMYB110a, seems to be more useful for breeding, but it can be found rather seldom. In the present study 357 Malus accessions of the German Malus Germplasm Collection were evaluated for red fruit flesh coloration and the presence of the MdMYB10 R1 (not mutated) and R6 promoter alleles. Among them a total of 40 accessions were identified which contain the R6 allele. 37 accessions showed a red coloration of the fruit flesh. All these accessions belong to type 1 red-fleshed apple. No type 2 red-fleshed apple could be found. Three accessions with R6 allele had non-red-fleshed apples. 312 other non-red-fleshed accessions contained only the R1 allele. Five non-red-fleshed accessions contained a new promoter allele with an unexpected size of ~1 kbp. Sequencing of this allele detected the insertion of a non-autonomous apple transposon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K
Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency
Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)
Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong
Apple juice is a complex mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components. To develop discrimination models on the basis of the volatile composition for an efficient classification of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin, chromatography volatile profiles of 50 apple juice samples belonging to 6 varieties and from 5 counties of Shaanxi (China) were obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography. The volatile profiles were processed as continuous and nonspecific signals through multivariate analysis techniques. Different preprocessing methods were applied to raw chromatographic data. The blind chemometric analysis of the preprocessed chromatographic profiles was carried out. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) revealed satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, provided respectively 100% and 89.8% success rate in terms of prediction ability. Finally, the discriminant volatile compounds selected by SLDA were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy was able to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices involving only a reduced number of discriminate retention times selected by the stepwise procedure. This result encourages the similar procedures to be considered in quality control of apple juices. This work presented a method for an efficient discrimination of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin using HS-SPME-GC-MS together with chemometric tools. Discrimination models developed could help to achieve greater control over the quality of the juice and to detect possible adulteration of the product. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Eisenmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Mona; Weinert, Christoph H.; Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Silber, Mara; Rist, Manuela J.; Luy, Burkhard; Muhle-Goll, Claudia
Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars. PMID:27657148
Eisenmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Mona; Weinert, Christoph H; Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Silber, Mara; Rist, Manuela J; Luy, Burkhard; Muhle-Goll, Claudia
Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars.
Legay, Sylvain; Cocco, Emmanuelle; André, Christelle M; Guignard, Cédric; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea
Russeting is characterized by a particular rough and brown phenotype, which is mainly due to the accumulation of suberin in the inner part of the epidermal cell walls. In our previous bulk transcriptomic analysis, comparing fully russeted, and waxy apple varieties, showed, in apple fruit skin, a massive decreased expression of cutin, wax and some pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis genes in the russeted varieties, with an expected concomitant enhanced expression of the suberin biosynthetic genes. In the present work, we performed a deep investigation of the aliphatic composition of the cutin, suberin, waxes, and triterpenes in the waxy and russeted patches of the semi-russeted apple variety "Cox Orange Pippin." A targeted gene expression profiling was performed to validate candidate genes which were identified in our previous work and might be involved in the respective metabolic pathways. Our results showed that a decrease of cuticular waxes, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, accompanied by an accumulation of alkyl-hydroxycinamates and betulinic acid, occurs in the russeted patches. The suberin monomer composition is characterized by specific occurrence of 20, 22, and 24 carbon aliphatic chains, whereas cutin is mainly represented by common C16 and C18 aliphatic chains. This work depicts, for the first time in apple, the complex composition of suberin, cutin, waxes and triterpenes, and confirms the strong interplay between these epidermal polymers in apple fruit skin.
Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro
Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".
Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Danman; Han, Yuepeng; Khan, M Awais; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S
Although the mechanism of light regulation of color pigmentation of apple fruit is not fully understood, it has been shown that light can regulate expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway by inducing transcription factors (TFs). Moreover, expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may be coordinately regulated by multiple TFs. In this study, fruits on trees of apple cv. Red Delicious were covered with paper bags during early stages of fruit development and then removed prior to maturation to analyze the transcriptome in the exocarp of apple fruit. Comparisons of gene expression profiles of fruit covered with paper bags (dark-grown treatment) and those subjected to 14 h light treatment, following removal of paper bags, were investigated using an apple microarray of 40,000 sequences. Expression profiles were investigated over three time points, at one week intervals, during fruit development. Overall, 736 genes with expression values greater than two-fold were found to be modulated by light treatment. Light-induced products were classified into 19 categories with highest scores in primary metabolism (17%) and transcription (12%). Based on the Arabidopsis gene ontology annotation, 18 genes were identified as TFs. To further confirm expression patterns of flavonoid-related genes, these were subjected to quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using fruit of red-skinned apple cv. Red Delicious and yellow-skinned apple cv. Golden Delicious. Of these, two genes showed higher levels of expression in 'Red Delicious' than in 'Golden Delicious', and were likely involved in the regulation of fruit red color pigmentation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Francini, Alessandra; Romeo, Stefania; Cifelli, Mario; Gori, Daniele; Domenici, Valentina; Sebastiani, Luca
Dry and fresh apples have been studied monitoring their polyphenolic profiles through 1 H NMR, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content. Six ancient and underutilized apple varieties (Mantovana, Mora, Nesta, Cipolla, Ruggina, Sassola) and a commercial one (Golden Delicious) were dried with an air-drying system at 45°C for 19h. Although some of their polyphenol constituents were lost during drying, the antioxidant capacity of some apple varieties remained higher compared to Golden Delicious. This result is very important for ancient and underutilized varieties that are not consumed on large scale as fresh product since they have low attractiveness, due to their ugly appearance. Combining quantitative NMR spectroscopy with principal component analysis we have identified and quantified several polyphenols (such as catechin, epicathechin, and chlorogenic acid) that are important to establish the nutraceutical value of the different investigated apple varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Legay, Sylvain; Cocco, Emmanuelle; André, Christelle M.; Guignard, Cédric; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea
Russeting is characterized by a particular rough and brown phenotype, which is mainly due to the accumulation of suberin in the inner part of the epidermal cell walls. In our previous bulk transcriptomic analysis, comparing fully russeted, and waxy apple varieties, showed, in apple fruit skin, a massive decreased expression of cutin, wax and some pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis genes in the russeted varieties, with an expected concomitant enhanced expression of the suberin biosynthetic genes. In the present work, we performed a deep investigation of the aliphatic composition of the cutin, suberin, waxes, and triterpenes in the waxy and russeted patches of the semi-russeted apple variety “Cox Orange Pippin.” A targeted gene expression profiling was performed to validate candidate genes which were identified in our previous work and might be involved in the respective metabolic pathways. Our results showed that a decrease of cuticular waxes, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, accompanied by an accumulation of alkyl-hydroxycinamates and betulinic acid, occurs in the russeted patches. The suberin monomer composition is characterized by specific occurrence of 20, 22, and 24 carbon aliphatic chains, whereas cutin is mainly represented by common C16 and C18 aliphatic chains. This work depicts, for the first time in apple, the complex composition of suberin, cutin, waxes and triterpenes, and confirms the strong interplay between these epidermal polymers in apple fruit skin. PMID:29018466
Walia, Mayanka; Kumar, Shiv; Agnihotri, Vijai K
Malus domestica is the most widely cultivated fruit tree and is well known for its therapeutic value. Apple leaves are known to contain phenolic compounds but the nature of these has not been explored to the same extent as in apple fruit. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) quantification method has been developed. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activity of golden and royal apple leaves were evaluated. Four compounds, namely rutin, 3-hydroxyphloridzin, phloridzin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside were identified by UPLC. The separation was achieved in less than 7 min. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were found to be slightly higher in apple golden variety than royal variety. The IC50 values determined by the DPPH assay were 49.94 µg mL(-1) for golden apple leaves and 43.89 µg mL(-1) for royal apple leaves. IC50 values determined by the ABTS assay were 47.10 and 66.53 µg mL(-1) for golden and royal apple leaves, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined as 24.45 and 21.15 mg ascorbic acid g(-1) for golden and royal apple leaves, respectively, by using the FRAP assay. This study showed that apple leaves (both varieties) contain considerable amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids and are also a promising source of phloridzin. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Le Deun, Erell; Van der Werf, Remmelt; Le Bail, Gildas; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Sylvain
The pigments responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of apple juices have remained largely unknown up to now. Four French cider apple juices were produced in conditions similar to those used in the cider-making industry. The oxidized juices, characterized using the CIE L a b parameters, displayed various colors depending on the apple variety and native phenolic composition. HPLC-DAD-MS revealed contrasting pigment profiles related to oxidized tanning and nontanning molecules. The latter were divided into two groups according to their polarity and their visible spectra. With regard to phenolic classes, flavanol monomers and hydroxycinnamic acids played an essential role in the formation of oxidation products. Interestingly, dihydrochalcones appeared to include precursors of some yellow compounds. Indeed, the yellow pigment phloretin xyloglucoside oxidation product (PXGOPj), derived from phloretin xyloglucoside, was clearly identified in apple juices as a xyloglucose analogue of the yellow pigment phloridzin oxidation product (POPj), previously characterized in a model solution by Le Guernevé et al. (Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45 (35), 6673-6677).
Giomaro, Giovanna; Karioti, Anastasia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele
Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. CATECHINS, PROCYANIDINS, HYDROXYCINNAMIC ACIDS, FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES, DIHYDROCHALCONE GLYCOSIDES AND ONE ANTHOCYANIN: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple.
Bai, Jinhe; Hagenmaier, Robert D; Baldwin, Elizabeth A
Five experimental coatings with different resistance to gas exchange were used with freshly harvested and 20-week commercially stored apples of Delicious, Fuji, Braeburn, and Granny Smith varieties. The coated or noncoated apples were held at 20 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The gas partial pressures inside the fruits with the various coatings ranged from 1 to 25 kPa CO(2) and from 20 to 1 kPa O(2). Volatile evaporation rates were measured, as also were the volatiles compositions in the fruit. The coatings with intermediate gas resistance (carnauba-shellac mixture and candelilla) gave intermediate values of CO(2) and O(2) in the internal atmosphere in Delicious, Fuji, and Braeburn apples and the highest concentrations of butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate in the fruits. The coatings with the highest gas resistance (shellac and shellac-protein) caused high internal CO(2) and low O(2), resulting in anaerobic fermentation in Braeburn and Granny Smith apples and relatively high amounts of low-molecular-weight ethyl esters trapped within the fruit. A small portion of the alcohols were evaporated from fruits compared to esters, this attributed to their high Henry's law coefficients.
Xiang, Ya; Lai, Fangnong; He, Guifang; Li, Yapeng; Yang, Leilei; Shen, Wei; Huo, Heqiang; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Hongyi; Zhang, Yugang
Anthocyanins are the polyphenolic phytochemicals which have been shown to scavenge free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii) on reducing oxidative damage by Rosup in porcine granulosa cells (GCs) by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), content of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and the gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1. Apoptosis was determined with TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptosis-related proteins were quantified with Western blotting. The results indicate that Rosup increases oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species production in porcine GCs and the oxidative stress could be reduced by anthocyanins. The gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1 and the activities of these enzymes were increased when GCs were treated with anthocyanins and Rosup for 6 hours. Anthocyanins inhibit Rosup-induced apoptosis by increasing expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Collectively, anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples reduce oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in porcine GCs in vitro. This approach indicates that antioxidants might be developed from red-fleshed apples.
He, Guifang; Li, Yapeng; Yang, Leilei; Shen, Wei; Huo, Heqiang; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Hongyi
Anthocyanins are the polyphenolic phytochemicals which have been shown to scavenge free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of anthocyanins extracted from red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii) on reducing oxidative damage by Rosup in porcine granulosa cells (GCs) by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), content of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and the gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1. Apoptosis was determined with TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and apoptosis-related proteins were quantified with Western blotting. The results indicate that Rosup increases oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species production in porcine GCs and the oxidative stress could be reduced by anthocyanins. The gene expression of SOD1, CAT, GPX1 and the activities of these enzymes were increased when GCs were treated with anthocyanins and Rosup for 6 hours. Anthocyanins inhibit Rosup-induced apoptosis by increasing expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and suppressing the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Collectively, anthocyanins from red-fleshed apples reduce oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in porcine GCs in vitro. This approach indicates that antioxidants might be developed from red-fleshed apples. PMID:28850606
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.
Gunaratne, Anil; Wu, Kao; Li, Dongqin; Bentota, Amitha; Corke, Harold; Cai, Yi-Zhong
Proanthocyanidin-containing rice varieties have been rarely reported. Antioxidant capacity, major antioxidant components, and nutritional parameters of eight traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins grown in Sri Lanka were investigated. The tested traditional red varieties, on the average, had over sevenfold higher both total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content than three light brown-grained new-improved rice varieties. Major antioxidant phenolic compounds identified in this study included proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and γ-oryzanols (ferulic acid derivatives). Proanthocyanidins were detected only in the traditional red varieties, but not found in new-improved ones. Most traditional red varieties also contained significantly higher levels of protein with well balanced amino acids and higher contents of fat, fibre and vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) than the new-improved ones. Great variations in antioxidant capacity, major phenolics, and nutritional parameters were observed among different rice varieties. These Sri Lankan traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins may be used as important genetic sources for rice breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. Results Catechins, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides, dihydrochalcone glycosides and one anthocyanin: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. Conclusion This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple. PMID:25067944
Koutsos, Athanasios; Lima, Maria; Conterno, Lorenza; Gasperotti, Mattia; Bianchi, Martina; Fava, Francesca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Lovegrove, Julie A; Tuohy, Kieran M
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5.5-6.0, 37 °C) inoculated with feces from three healthy donors. Inulin and cellulose were used as a readily and a poorly fermentable plant fiber, respectively. Fecal microbiota composition was measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing (V3-V4 region) and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyphenol microbial metabolites were determined. The three apple varieties significantly changed bacterial diversity, increased Actinobacteria relative abundance, acetate, propionate and total SCFAs ( p < 0.05). Renetta Canada and Golden Delicious significantly decreased Bacteroidetes abundance and increased Proteobacteria proportion and bifidobacteria population ( p < 0.05). Renetta Canada also increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , butyrate levels and polyphenol microbial metabolites ( p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that apples, particularly Renetta Canada, can induce substantial changes in microbiota composition and metabolic activity in vitro, which could be associated with potential benefits to human health. Human intervention studies are necessary to confirm these data and potential beneficial effects.
Podbielska, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Zwolak, Aneta; Sadło, Stanisław
The supervised field trials were conducted in a commercial apple orchard in 2016. The trials were an attempt to determine a model for dissipation and toxicological evaluation of fluopyram, tebuconazole, captan, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI), pirimicarb, spirodiclofen, and boscalid residues detected in fruit of Red Jonaprince, Lobo, and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. The analysis also covered amounts of pesticides still present in remnants of calyx in Lobo and Gala varieties immediately before harvest. Laboratory samples of ripe apples were collected within 14 days of the treatment. Levels of pesticide residues detected in the samples changed at a constant exponential rate, and the residue levels found in ripe apples of Red Jonaprince, Gala, and Lobo varieties immediately before harvest were below maximum residue levels (MRL). Overall, captan residues in remnants of calyx were at a level of 22.3% for the Gala variety and 9.3% for the Lobo variety. Likewise, the long-term daily intake of the detected substances by a Polish adult consumer was low, ranging from 0.02% ADI for pirimicarb to 0.72% ADI for captan.
Bai, Songling; Tuan, Pham Anh; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya
Paper-bagging treatment can transform non-transcribed MdMYB1 - 2 and MdMYB1 - 3 alleles into transcribed alleles through epigenetic regulations, resulting in the red pigmentation of a normally non-red apple cultivar 'Mutsu.' Anthocyanin biosynthesis in apples is regulated by MdMYB1/A/10, an R2R3-Type MYB gene. 'Mutsu,' a triploid apple cultivar harboring non-transcribed MdMYB1-2 and MdMYB1-3 alleles, retains green skin color under field conditions. However, it can show red/pink pigmentation under natural or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light exposure after paper-bagging and bag removal treatment. In the present study, we found that in 'Mutsu,' paper bagging-induced red pigmentation was due to the activation of non-transcribed MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, which triggered the expression of downstream anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in a UV-B-dependent manner. By monitoring the epigenetic changes during UV-B-induced pigmentation, no significant differences in DNA methylation and histone modifications in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 were recorded between the UV-B-treated fruit skin (red) and the fruit skin treated only by white light (green). In contrast, bag treatment lowered the DNA methylation in this region of MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles. Similarly, higher levels of histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 4, and lower level of trimethylation of H3 tail at lysine 27 were observed in the 5' upstream region of MdMYB1-2/-3 in the skin of the fruit immediately after bag removal. These results suggest that bagging treatment can induce epigenetic changes, facilitating the binding of trans factor(s) to MdMYB1-2/-3 alleles, resulting in the activation of these MYBs after bag removal.
The adaptive value of autumn colours is still a puzzle for evolutionary biology. It has been suggested that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects that use the trees as a host. I show that aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea) avoid apple trees (Malus pumila) with red leaves in autumn and that their fitness in spring is lower on these trees, which suggests that red leaves are an honest signal of the quality of the tree as a host. Autumn colours are common in wild populations but not among cultivated apple varieties, which are no longer under natural selection against insects. I show that autumn colours remain only in the varieties that are very susceptible to the effects of a common insect-borne disease, fire blight, and therefore are more in need of avoiding insects. Moreover, varieties with red leaves have smaller fruits, which shows that they have been under less effective artificial selection. This suggests a possible trade off between fruit size, leaf colour and resistance to parasites. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects, but not with other hypotheses. PMID:19369261
Saputro, Aldhi; Mizan, Adlan; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman
In the current investigation, the natural dye extracted from red-apple (Malus domestica) skin was used as natural sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The present study was specifically aimed at observing the effect of different solvents, i.e. deionized water, ethanol, and acidified ethanol, on the performance of the natural dye and thus the DSSC. For synthesis purposes, red-apple skin was peeled off, dried, crushed and furthermore extracted with ratio red-apple skin powder to solvent 1:20 w/v for 2 hours at 50°C under mechanical stirring. Subsequently, the resulting natural dyes with different solvents were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to analyze their functional groups, UV-Vis spectroscopy to observe their absorption spectra for a wide range of wavelength, while TiO2 nanoparticle used as the semiconductor oxide layer in the device was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The FTIR results showed that the red-apple skin has anthocyanin group which functions as the sensitizer agent for photon energy absorption from the sunlight. The UV-Vis spectroscopy results showed that ethanol solvent has higher absorption of sunlight wavelength as compared to those of deionized water and acidified ethanol solvents. The performance test of the fabricated DSSC showed the prototype made of the red apple skin dye extracted by ethanol solvent can provide the highest open circuit voltage (Voc) up to 324 mV and efficiency around 0.046%. On the basis of investigation, it has been found that ethanol was the best solvent to extract anthocyanin from the red-apple skin.
Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin
Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Fattahi, Nazir; Rahimi, Rahim; Sharafi, Kiomars; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza
The purpose of this study was to investigate abamectin, diazinon and chlorpyrifos in apple from the Mahabad of Iran. The influences of several parameters including shadow and sun, geographical directions and varieties of apples, whether they are golden or red type, was also taken into account on the residuals of the pesticides in the samples. The results indicated that sun considerably decreased the concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos in samples exposed to it. Geographical directions are showed to be non-influential on diazinon while they are influential on chlorpyrifos ones. This can be attributed to pesticide spraying time and prevailing wind direction in Mahabad. The pesticides in golden and red varieties showed no significant relations. The apple samples from Mahabad did not contain any abamectin while they contained residuals of diazinon and chlorpyrifos. In some samples the diazinon and chlorpyrifos were above allowed limit according to World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Hong-Xu; Wang, Xi-Cun; Yu, Yi; Tan, Xiu-Mei; Cheng, Zai-Quan; Zhang, An-Sheng; Men, Xing-Yuan; Li-Li, Li
Chemical characteristics of normal, woolly apple aphid-damaged, and mechanically damaged twigs of six apple cultivars: Red Fuji, Golden Delicious, Qinguan, Zhaojin 108, Starkrimson, and Red General, were examined in autumn wood to provide abetter understanding of factors related to cultivar resistance to the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Chemical measures examined included soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids, total phenolics, and polyphenol oxidase (that enhances the resistance of plants to insects) and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase (that degrade waste products in plants). Soluble sugar, protein, and amino acid contents in normal (undamaged) twigs of Red Fuji, aphid-susceptible cultivar, were higher than in mechanically damaged and aphid-damaged twigs. Total phenolic compounds, an important group of defensive compounds against aphids, increased by 30.5 and 6.0% in mechanically damaged twigs of Qinguan and Zhaojin 108, respectively, and decreased by 21.7 and 16.1% in aphid-damaged twigs of Red Fuji and Red General, respectively. Compared with normal twigs, in aphid-damaged twigs, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and polyphenol activity all decreased in Red Fuji. The resistance of some apple cultivars to woolly apple aphid during the growth of autumn shoots was related to several of the physiological indices we monitored. The thin epidermis of callus tissue over healed wounds showed increased susceptibility to the attack by woolly apple aphid. Apple cultivar Qinguan with the highest level of resistance to woolly apple aphid in autumn had increased in amino acid, total phenolic compound levels, and enzyme activity after aphid feeding.
Espley, Richard V; Bovy, Arnaud; Bava, Christina; Jaeger, Sara R; Tomes, Sumathi; Norling, Cara; Crawford, Jonathan; Rowan, Daryl; McGhie, Tony K; Brendolise, Cyril; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C
Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit volatile production is regulated by a variety of factors including storage conditions. Although controlled atmosphere (CA) technology extends apple fruit storage life, improper storage conditions can adversely affect volatile production and increase the risk of ...
Lv, Jidong; Xu, Liming
This work proposed a method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from red apple image in orchard. To acquire fruit image, R-G image was extracted from the RGB image for corrosive working, hole filling, subregion removal, expansive working and opening operation in order. Finally, fruit image was acquired by threshold segmentation. To acquire leaf image, fruit image was subtracted from RGB image before extracting 2G-R-B image. Then, leaf image was acquired by subregion removal and threshold segmentation. To acquire branch image, dynamic threshold segmentation was conducted in the R-G image. Then, the segmented image was added to fruit image to acquire adding fruit image which was subtracted from RGB image with leaf image. Finally, branch image was acquired by opening operation, subregion removal and threshold segmentation after extracting the R-G image from the subtracting image. Compared with previous methods, more complete image of fruit, leaf and branch can be acquired from red apple image with this method.
Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele
Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wang, Nan; Zheng, Yi; Duan, Naibin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Jiang, Shenghui; Sun, Shasha; Yang, Long; Bai, Yang; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen
Transcriptome profiles of the red- and white-fleshed apples in an F1 segregating population of Malus sieversii f.Niedzwetzkyana and M.domestica 'Fuji' were generated using the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology and compared. A total of 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, of which 88 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in red-fleshed apples. The 88 up-regulated genes were enriched with those related to flavonoid biosynthetic process and stress responses. Further analysis identified 22 genes associated with flavonoid biosynthetic process and 68 genes that may be related to stress responses. Furthermore, the expression of 20 up-regulated candidate genes (10 related to flavonoid biosynthesis, two encoding MYB transcription factors and eight related to stress responses) and 10 down-regulated genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. After exploring the possible regulatory network, we speculated that flavonoid metabolism might be involved in stress responses in red-fleshed apple. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for further enriching gene resources associated with flavonoid synthesis and stress responses of fruit trees and for breeding elite apples with high flavonoid content and/or increased stress tolerances.
Wang, Nan; Zheng, Yi; Duan, Naibin; Zhang, Zongying; Ji, Xiaohao; Jiang, Shenghui; Sun, Shasha; Yang, Long; Bai, Yang; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen
Transcriptome profiles of the red- and white-fleshed apples in an F1 segregating population of Malus sieversii f.Niedzwetzkyana and M.domestica ‘Fuji’ were generated using the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology and compared. A total of 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, of which 88 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in red-fleshed apples. The 88 up-regulated genes were enriched with those related to flavonoid biosynthetic process and stress responses. Further analysis identified 22 genes associated with flavonoid biosynthetic process and 68 genes that may be related to stress responses. Furthermore, the expression of 20 up-regulated candidate genes (10 related to flavonoid biosynthesis, two encoding MYB transcription factors and eight related to stress responses) and 10 down-regulated genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. After exploring the possible regulatory network, we speculated that flavonoid metabolism might be involved in stress responses in red-fleshed apple. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for further enriching gene resources associated with flavonoid synthesis and stress responses of fruit trees and for breeding elite apples with high flavonoid content and/or increased stress tolerances. PMID:26207813
Scafuri, Bernardina; Marabotti, Anna; Carbone, Virginia; Minasi, Paola; Dotolo, Serena; Facchiano, Angelo
We investigated the potential role of apple phenolic compounds in human pathologies by integrating chemical characterization of phenolic compounds in three apple varieties, computational approaches to identify potential protein targets of the compounds, bioinformatics analyses on data from public archive of gene expression data, and functional analyses to hypothesize the effects of the selected compounds in molecular pathways. Starting by the analytic characterization of phenolic compounds in three apple varieties, i.e. Annurca, Red Delicious, and Golden Delicious, we used computational approaches to verify by reverse docking the potential protein targets of the identified compounds. Direct docking validation of the potential protein-ligand interactions has generated a short list of human proteins potentially bound by the apple phenolic compounds. By considering the known chemo-preventive role of apple antioxidants’ extracts against some human pathologies, we performed a functional analysis by comparison with experimental gene expression data and interaction networks, obtained from public repositories. The results suggest the hypothesis that chemo-preventive effects of apple extracts in human pathologies, in particular for colorectal cancer, may be the interference with the activity of nucleotide metabolism and methylation enzymes, similarly to some classes of anticancer drugs. PMID:27587238
Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261
Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G
'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum.
Koutsos, Athanasios; Lima, Maria; Conterno, Lorenza; Gasperotti, Mattia; Bianchi, Martina; Fava, Francesca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Tuohy, Kieran M.
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties—Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady—were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5.5–6.0, 37 °C) inoculated with feces from three healthy donors. Inulin and cellulose were used as a readily and a poorly fermentable plant fiber, respectively. Fecal microbiota composition was measured by 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing (V3-V4 region) and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyphenol microbial metabolites were determined. The three apple varieties significantly changed bacterial diversity, increased Actinobacteria relative abundance, acetate, propionate and total SCFAs (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada and Golden Delicious significantly decreased Bacteroidetes abundance and increased Proteobacteria proportion and bifidobacteria population (p < 0.05). Renetta Canada also increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, butyrate levels and polyphenol microbial metabolites (p < 0.05). Together, these data suggest that apples, particularly Renetta Canada, can induce substantial changes in microbiota composition and metabolic activity in vitro, which could be associated with potential benefits to human health. Human intervention studies are necessary to confirm these data and potential beneficial effects. PMID:28538678
Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio
Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.
Wolfe, Kelly; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated. The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 +/- 83.2 and 500.2 +/- 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 +/- 6.7 and 303.2 +/- 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 +/- 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 +/- 9.8 micromol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels). Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG(2) human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 +/- 0
Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A
The red table grape varieties Flame, Red Globe, Crimson, and Napoleon, as well as the white varieties Superior, Dominga, and Moscatel Italica, were irradiated with a previously optimized UV-C postharvest irradiation protocol (510 W, 40 cm, 60 s). The induction kinetics of the stilbenes trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-piceatannol, trans-astringin, and viniferins was followed by using HPLC-DAD/MS/MS. The most inducible stilbenes were trans-resveratrol, trans-piceatannol, and viniferins. Both quantitative and qualitative differences were observed in both the stilbene induction kinetics and stilbene content in the seven table grapes analyzed here. The total resveratrol content ranged from 0.69 mg/100 g fw (Dominga) to 2.3 mg/100 g fw (Red Globe). The net resveratrol induction ranged from 3.4-fold (Flame) to 2315-fold (Red Globe). The highest viniferins content was observed in the variety Flame (0.73 mg/100 g fw), although the variety Red Globe presented the highest viniferins induction (175-fold). The highest content and induction of piceatannol (0.17 mg/100 g fw and 173-fold, respectively) was observed in the variety Flame. It should be stressed that taking into account the health-beneficial effects claimed for stilbenes, the UV-C irradiated table grapes can be considered as new functional fruits that can supply (a serving of unpeeled 200 g table grapes) the resveratrol content (depending on the variety) equivalent to more than seven glasses of red wine ( approximately 1.5 L) with high resveratrol content.
...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...
Valentini, N; Me, G; Ferrero, R; Spanna, F
The research was designed to characterize the phenological behaviour of different apple varieties and to compare different bioclimatic indexes in order to evaluate their adaptability in describing the phenological phases of fruit species. A field study on the requirement for chilling units (winter chilling requirement) and the accumulation of growing degree hours of 15 native apple cultivars was carried out in a fruit-growing area in North West Italy (Cuneo Province, Piedmont). From 1991 to 1993, climatic data were collected at meteorological stations installed in an experimental orchard (Verzuolo, Cuneo). Four methods were compared to determine the winter chilling requirement: Hutchins, Weinberger-Eggert, Utah and North Carolina. The Utah method was applied to determine the time when the chilling units accumulated become effective in meeting the rest requirements. A comparison of the different methods indicated that the Weinberger-Eggert method is the best: as it showed the lowest statistical variability during the 3 years of observations. The growing degree hour requirement (GDH) was estimated by the North Carolina method with two different base temperatures: 4.4 degrees C and 6.1 degrees C. More difficulties were met when the date of rest completion and the beginning of GDH accumulation was determined. The best base temperature for the estimation of GDH is 4.4 degrees C. Phenological and climatic characterizations are two basic tools for giving farmers and agricultural advisors important information about which varieties to choose and which are the best and the most correct cultivation practices to follow.
Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.
Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab
Chagné, David; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V.; Volz, Richard K.; How, Natalie M.; Rouse, Simon; Brendolise, Cyril; Carlisle, Charmaine M.; Kumar, Satish; De Silva, Nihal; Micheletti, Diego; McGhie, Tony; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Storey, Roy D.; Velasco, Riccardo; Hellens, Roger P.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Allan, Andrew C.
Anthocyanin accumulation is coordinated in plants by a number of conserved transcription factors. In apple (Malus × domestica), an R2R3 MYB transcription factor has been shown to control fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin pigmentation (MYB10) and fruit skin color (MYB1). However, the pattern of expression and allelic variation at these loci does not explain all anthocyanin-related apple phenotypes. One such example is an open-pollinated seedling of cv Sangrado that has green foliage and develops red flesh in the fruit cortex late in maturity. We used methods that combine plant breeding, molecular biology, and genomics to identify duplicated MYB transcription factors that could control this phenotype. We then demonstrated that the red-flesh cortex phenotype is associated with enhanced expression of MYB110a, a paralog of MYB10. Functional characterization of MYB110a showed that it was able to up-regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The chromosomal location of MYB110a is consistent with a whole-genome duplication event that occurred during the evolution of apple within the Maloideae family. Both MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved function in some cultivars, but they differ in their expression pattern and response to fruit maturity. PMID:23096157
Sommella, Eduardo; Pepe, Giacomo; Pagano, Francesco; Ostacolo, Carmine; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Maria Teresa; Novellino, Ettore; Manfra, Michele; Campiglia, Pietro
Annurca apple, a Southern Italian cultivar, possesses not only a particular taste and flavor, different from other types of apple, but also several healthy properties. With the aim to thoroughly elucidate the polyphenolic profile of this variety, listed as Protected Geographical Indication product, an extensive qualitative profiling of Annurca apple polyphenolic peel extract was carried out, by employing a combination of ultra high performance reversed phase (RP-UHPLC) and hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF) mass spectrometry. A total of 63 compounds were tentatively identified, 25 of which not reported in Annurca apple extract so far. Furthermore, thanks to the different selectivity obtained with the HILIC, in combination with accurate mass measurements, an improved separation and detection of procyanidins, was obtained. Moreover, the obtained profiles were compared with those of a conventional variety, such as Red Delicious (RD), highlighting their differences. This work contributes to increase the knowledge about the polyphenolic fingerprint of this typical apple variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S
Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lucarini, Massimo; D'Evoli, Laura; Tufi, Sara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Paoletti, Sara; Di Ferdinando, Sandra; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra
Green leafy vegetables contribute greatly to the total intake of nitrates from the daily diet. This study evaluates the influence of different cultivation systems on nitrate accumulation in leafy vegetables. Two varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) (Lattuga Romana, Foglia di Quercia) and two varieties of red radicchio of Treviso (Cychorium intibus L.) (Early, Late) were selected. Lettuce varieties were both organically and biodynamically grown; red radicchio varieties were conventionally grown both in the field and in spring water. Both lettuce varieties biodynamically grown accumulated 1.3-2 times less nitrate than the respective organically grown plants. The two lettuce varieties showed differences in nitrate accumulating capacity: Foglia di Quercia was almost three times richer in nitrate than Lattuga Romana. The traditional growing systems applied to the red radicchio of Treviso varieties strongly influenced nitrate accumulation in leaves, the Early variety having up to 15 times higher nitrate than the Late variety. Our findings on nitrate levels in both lettuce and red radicchio of Treviso varieties suggest that both genetic factors and cultivation systems strongly affect the nitrate accumulation capacity. This study also highlights how the cultivation strategy can reduce nitrate levels in leafy vegetables, suggesting the possibility of modulating the N supply along the harvesting time. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Fanzone, Martín; Zamora, Fernando; Jofré, Viviana; Assof, Mariela; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Peña-Neira, Álvaro
Knowledge of the chemical composition of wine and its association with the grape variety/cultivar is of paramount importance in oenology and a necessary tool for marketing. Phenolic compounds are very important quality parameters of wines because of their impact on colour, taste and health properties. The aim of the present work was to study and describe the non-flavonoid and flavonoid composition of wines from the principal red grape varieties cultivated in Mendoza (Argentina). Sixty phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids/derivatives, stilbenes, anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and dihydroflavonols, were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). Marked quantitative differences could be seen in the phenolic profile among varieties, especially in stilbenes, acylated anthocyanins and other flavonoids. The polyphenolic content of Malbec wines was higher compared with the other red varieties. Dihydroflavonols represent a significant finding from the chemotaxonomic point of view, especially for Malbec variety. This is the first report on the individual phenolic composition of red wines from Mendoza (Argentina) and suggests that anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids exert a great influence on cultivar-based differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo
A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.
Background Some apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) varieties have attractive striping patterns, a quality attribute that is important for determining apple fruit market acceptance. Most apple cultivars (e.g. 'Royal Gala') produce fruit with a defined fruit pigment pattern, but in the case of 'Honeycrisp' apple, trees can produce fruits of two different kinds: striped and blushed. The causes of this phenomenon are unknown. Results Here we show that striped areas of 'Honeycrisp' and 'Royal Gala' are due to sectorial increases in anthocyanin concentration. Transcript levels of the major biosynthetic genes and MYB10, a transcription factor that upregulates apple anthocyanin production, correlated with increased anthocyanin concentration in stripes. However, nucleotide changes in the promoter and coding sequence of MYB10 do not correlate with skin pattern in 'Honeycrisp' and other cultivars differing in peel pigmentation patterns. A survey of methylation levels throughout the coding region of MYB10 and a 2.5 Kb region 5' of the ATG translation start site indicated that an area 900 bp long, starting 1400 bp upstream of the translation start site, is highly methylated. Cytosine methylation was present in all three contexts, with higher methylation levels observed for CHH and CHG (where H is A, C or T) than for CG. Comparisons of methylation levels of the MYB10 promoter in 'Honeycrisp' red and green stripes indicated that they correlate with peel phenotypes, with an enrichment of methylation observed in green stripes. Conclusions Differences in anthocyanin levels between red and green stripes can be explained by differential transcript accumulation of MYB10. Different levels of MYB10 transcript in red versus green stripes are inversely associated with methylation levels in the promoter region. Although observed methylation differences are modest, trends are consistent across years and differences are statistically significant. Methylation may be associated with the presence
Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun
Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.
Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana
The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740
Savino, María J; Sánchez, Leandro A; Saguir, Fabiana M; de Nadra, María C Manca
We investigated the potentiality of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from two apples variety to utilize arginine at different initial pH values. Apples surface contained average levels of bacteria ranging from log 2.49 ± 0.53 to log 3.73 ± 0.48 cfu/ml for Red Delicious and Golden Delicious varieties, respectively. Thirty-one strains able to develop in presence of arginine at low pH were phenotypically and genotipically identified as belonging to Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc genera. In general, they did not produce ammonia from arginine when cultivated in basal medium with arginine (BMA) at pH 4.5 or 5.2. When this metabolite was quantified only six strains belonging to Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum species formed higher ammonia amounts in BMA as compared to control. This was correlated with arginine utilization and it was more pronounced at pH 4.5 than 5.2. Analysis of citrulline production confirmed the arginine utilization in these bacteria by the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. Maxima citrulline production was observed for Lactobacillus brevis M15 at the two pH values. In this strain ammonia was formed at higher rate than citrulline, which was detected in concentration lower than 1 mM. Thus, main LAB species found on apple surfaces with abilities to degrade arginine by the ADI pathway under different conditions were reported here at the first time. The results suggested that the ADI pathway in apples LAB might not be mainly relevant for their survival in the acid natural environmental, despite leading to the ammonia formation, which may contribute to the increase in pH, coping the acid stress.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States...
A reported allele-specific dCAP PCR marker associated with apple fruit red skin color was tested in 18 elite breeding parents and two apple cross populations. Among all tested cultivars except one, a consistent relationship was observed between red fruit color and the presence of allele. In both pop...
Ciurzyńska, Agnieszka; Cichowska, Joanna; Kowalska, Hanna; Czajkowska, Kinga; Lenart, Andrzej
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of osmotic dehydration conditions on the properties of osmotically pre-treated dried apples. The scope of research included analysing the most important mass exchange coefficients, i.e. water loss, solid gain, reduced water content and water activity, as well as colour changes of the obtained dried product. In the study, apples were osmotically dehydrated in one of two 60% solutions: sucrose or sucrose with an addition of chokeberry juice concentrate, for 30 and 120 min, in temperatures of 40 and 60°C. Ultrasound was also used during the first 30 min of the dehydration process. After osmotic pre-treatment, apples were subjected to innovative convective drying with the puffing effect, and to freeze-drying. Temperature and dehydration time increased the effectiveness of mass exchange during osmotic dehydration. The addition of chokeberry juice concentrate to standard sucrose solution and the use of ultrasound did not change the value of solid gain and reduced water content. Water activity of the dried apple tissue was not significantly changed after osmotic dehydration, while changes in colour were significant.
Šavikin, Katarina P; Ðorđević, Boban S; Ristić, Mihailo S; Krivokuća-Ðokić, Dragana; Pljevljakušić, Dejan S; Vulić, Todor
Currant seeds, a by-product of juice production, are recognized as a valuable source of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. We have evaluated 28 currant varieties for their oil content and fatty-acid composition. The oil content in the seeds ranged from 18.2-27.7%, and no statistical difference between varieties of different fruit color were recorded. Furthermore, the estimated oil yields in the field production ranged from 26.4-212.4 kg/ha. The GC and GC/MS chemical profiles of the seed oils extracted from all examined varieties were common for currants. Linoleic acid (LA) was the major component, with contents ranging from 32.7-46.9% of total fatty acids, followed by α-linolenic acid (ALA; 2.9-32.0 %), oleic acid (OA; 9.8-19.9%), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 3.3-18.5%), palmitic acid (PA; 4.4-8.1%), stearidonic acid (SDA; 2.2-4.7%), and stearic acid (SA; 1.2-2.4%). Quantitative differences in the fatty-acid profiles between varieties of different fruit color were observed. Blackcurrant varieties showed significantly higher contents of LA, GLA, and PA than red and white currant varieties, whereas significantly higher amounts of ALA and OL were detected in the red and white varieties. Cluster analysis based on the chemical oil profiles joined the blackcurrants in one group, while most of the red and white cultivars joined in a second group at the same linkage distance. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E
Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study
... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within the...
... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within the...
Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar
In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within the...
Andre, Christelle M; Larsen, Lesley; Burgess, Elaine J; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Evers, Danièle; Zhang, Jingli; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A
Three triterpene-caffeates have been isolated from skins of a russeted apple cultivar "Merton Russet" and identified by LC-MS and NMR as betulinic acid-3-cis-caffeate, betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate were also found in russeted pear skins. These compounds have not been previously reported in apples or pears, or in any other foods. Their presence was related to suberized tissue as they were only found in russet portions of the partially russeted apple cultivar "Cox's Orange Pippin" and were not detected in the waxy apple cultivar "Royal Gala". High concentrations of betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate were found in the bark of both "Merton Russet" and "Royal Gala" trees. The three triterpene-caffeates showed anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, inhibiting NF-κB activation with IC50's of 6-9 μM. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, the predominant compound in the apples, was immuno-modulatory at around 10 μM in the in vitro and ex vivo bioassays, boosting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Savelyeva, E N; Kudryavtsev, A M
The first molecular genetic analysis of the apple species and varieties from Russian collections with the AFLP marker system was performed in order to study the genetic diversity of the genus Malus, as well as to clarify the phylogeny and solve some systematic issues of the genus. Nienty-one apple accessions, including species from five sections of the genus Malus and hybrid species, were examined. The level of polymorphism constituted 90.2%. It was demonstrated that the classical taxonomy of the genus Malus, which identifies five sections based on differences in their morphological characters, is valid and may be used to classify apple species. The species assignment of the Antonovka landraces was established. All of them belonged to the species M. domestica. It was demonstrated that the Yakutskaya apple variety was a domesticated species of the section Gymnomeles, presumably, M. baccata. AFLP analysis confirmed the hybrid nature of many species. The relationships between apple varieties of the Golden group with American wild species were demonstrated. The data suggest that the species M. sieversii was the ancestor of not only the domestic apple but also of other species of the Malus sections.
Bąkowski, Marek; Piekarska-Boniecka, Hanna; Dolańska-Niedbała, Ewa
This study was conducted in 2008–2010 in three apple orchards in western Poland and involved a massive catch of the red-belted clearwing moth, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), and its parasitoid Liotryphon crassiseta (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in yellow Moericke traps. The flight time for both species was correlated and fell in the first half of July. However, the correlation between the occurrences of both species was statistically significant only in 2008, when most specimens were caught. A total of 7960 S. myopaeformis were caught, with a 2:1 male:female sex ratio, and 415 adult L. crassiseta. No correlation between the numbers of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta in relation to age, variety of trees, or orchard surface area was noted. Significant differences between the catches of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta were reported in particular years. Furthermore, clear differences in the yields of S. myopaeformis and L. crassiseta between traps situated in the orchard and those on its edges were recorded, particularly in the orchard surrounded by cultivated fields. Yellow pan-traps could be used more widely in order to monitor and control the abundance of S. myopaeformis, especially by catching its females. PMID:23879220
Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H
A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.
Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Couto, Marcelo; Judacewski, Priscila; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Nogueira, Alessandro
The effect of variety and ripening stage on the distribution of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Gala, Fuji Suprema and Eva apples were evaluated. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were assessed in the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp of three varieties at three ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent). The Fuji Suprema variety distinguished by its content of flavonols at senescent stage, while Eva variety distinguished by its content of dihydrochalcones (unripe stage) and anthocyanins (ripe stage). In general, phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased with ripening in the epicarp and endocarp. However, in the mesocarp, the effect of ripening was related with the apple variety. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the influence of ripening in the apple tissue. The evolution of these compounds during ripening occurred irregularly and it was influenced by the variety.
Sheng, Lina; Edwards, Katheryn; Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Hanrahan, Ines; Zhu, Mei-Jun
Fresh apples are typically stored for up to 1 year commercially; different apple varieties require different storage temperatures to maintain their quality characteristics. There is sparse information available about Listeria monocytogenes survival on fresh apples under various storage temperatures. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effect of storage temperature on apple fruit decay and L. monocytogenes survival. Unwaxed apple fruits of selected varieties (Fuji and Granny Smith) were dip inoculated in a three-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail to establish ∼3.5 and 6.0 Log 10 CFU/apple. Twenty-four hours post-inoculation, apples were subjected to 1, 4, 10, or 22°C storage for up to 3 months. Apples under the different storage treatments were sampled at 1-, 4-, 7- and 14-day for short-term storage under all four tested temperatures, and 2-, 4-, 8-, and 12-week for long-term storage at 1, 4, and 10°C. A set of uninoculated and unwaxed apples were simultaneously subjected to the previously mentioned storage temperatures and sampled biweekly for their total bacterial count (TPC) and yeasts/molds (Y/M) count. During the 2-week short-term storage, L. monocytogenes population on organic Granny Smith apples stored at 1, 4, or 10°C was reduced by 0.2-0.3 Log. When apples were stored at 22°C, there was a 0.5-1.2 Log 10 CFU/apple reduction 14-day post storage dependent on the initial inoculation level. During the 12-week cold storage under 1, 4, and 10°C, L. monocytogenes count on organic Granny Smith apples decreased by 0.5-1.5 Log 10 CFU/apple for both inoculation levels. L. monocytogenes had similar survival pattern on conventional Granny Smith and Fuji apples with 0.8-2.0 Log 10 CFU/apple reduction over a 3-month cold storage period. Interestingly, both TPC and Y/M count were stable regardless of apple variety or cultivation practice during the 12-week storage at all tested temperatures. In summary, while L. monocytogenes did not
Hassini, Ismahen; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Carvajal, Micaela; Boughanmi, Neziha; Martinez Ballesta, Maria Del Carmen
Brassica spp. sprouts are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially glucosinolates and phenolic acid derivatives, and the composition of these young germinating seeds can be altered by several external factors. In this study two cabbage varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, red and white) were studied using seed priming (KCl 50 mmol L -1 ; NaCl 150 mmol L -1 ) and MeJA spraying (25 µmol L -1 ) to elicit the phytochemical content of edible sprouts. The red variety was richer in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds than the white one but not in mineral nutrients. Seed priming enhanced the potassium (K) content and flavonols in both varieties, while the total content of glucosinolates was reduced after seed priming only in the red variety. The white variety responded better than the red one to KCl seed priming, increasing the flavonols (89%). Salinity did not induce any change in the phytochemical content of these two varieties. Elicitation with sprayed MeJA was effective in significantly increasing the content of indolic glucosinolates glucobrassicin (5.7-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.7-fold) in the red cultivar. In the white variety, in addition to glucobrassicin (19.4-fold) and neoglucobrassicin (9.4-fold), 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (2.3-fold) was also enhanced. MeJA also elicited significant amounts of anthocyanins (41%) and chlorogenic acid derivatives (329%) in the white variety. KCl seed priming and MeJA elicitation promoted the phytochemical composition of the cabbage varieties, especially in the white variety. The application of NaCl resulted in less efficient elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C
Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.
... on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions... apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to protect against the...
Kowalska, Hanna; Marzec, Agata; Kowalska, Jolanta; Samborska, Kinga; Tywonek, Małgorzata; Lenart, Andrzej
For develop of apple chips technology without chemical preservation osmotic dehydration in cherry or apple juice concentrates or fructooligosaccharide solutions and convection drying were used. Studies included the effect of dehydration on the mass transfer in apples and the quality of the final product. The temperature, type of osmotic solution and its concentration were changeable. The fruit were tested on mass transfer indicators, stability (water activity), texture (breaking test) and nutritional value (polyphenol content, acidity). Sensory evaluation was also performed. On this basis, the verification of all options was made and the most acceptable samples were selected. Concentration of osmotic solutions at 25°Brix limited solids gain in apples. Under these conditions, the phenomenon of osmosis caused 8-10 times greater water loss than solids gain. Increasing the concentration of solutions up to 50°Brix had a significantly greater impact on mass exchange in apples, compared to increasing the temperature from 40 to 60 °C. Osmotic dehydration before drying did not significantly affect the water activity but increase of the temperature negatively affected on breaking force of the chips. Chips obtained by osmotic dehydration of apples in a cherry concentrate solution contained significantly more polyphenols, and were characterized by a higher acidity than the variants obtained by dehydration in concentrated apple juice. Furthermore, they were marked by red color which has been thought as part of the attractiveness of the product. The least sensory acceptable chips were prepared using osmotic pre-treatment in cherry concentrated juice solution with the addition of fructooligosaccharide.
Gobin, B; Misotten, C; Creemers, P
Scab (Venturia inaequalis) is the principal disease endangering both integrated and organic apple production. Scab pressure tends to build up over the years and organic farmers rely mainly on copper and sulphur treatments for control. The use of Cu in crop protection received scrutiny in recent years as this metal tends to accumulate in soil and substrates. A number of alternative organic control substances have been proposed, with variable success in scab control. We investigated the effect of these alternative organic scab control measures on several apple varieties with low scab susceptibility. The choice of scab treatments had important effects on the mineral composition of leaves and fruits. As these values affect current and future yield in perennial crops, as well as storage quality, the use of certain scab control agents requires corrective application of nutrients during and in-between growth seasons.
Nadulski, Rafał; Kobus, Zbigniew; Wilczyński, Kamil; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Grochowicz, Józef; Guz, Tomasz
The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples. The juice was obtained using a laboratory basket press. It was determined that the pretreatment of the pulp as well as the varietal characteristics of the fruits have a significant impact on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp, irrespective of the temperature at which it was conducted, significantly increased the efficiency of the process. No effect of the temperature (25 or 45 °C) of enzymatic treatment on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process was found. Pretreatment of the pulp based on freezing and thawing contributes to the increase of efficiency of pressing in the case of two apple cultivars, that is, Idared and Red Delicious. It was showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, the soluble solids content and juice acidity (pH) depend on the pretreatment of the pulp and the varietal characteristics of apples. Following the application of pretreatment of the pulp, an increase was observed in the content of polyphenols and in the antioxidant activity of the juices obtained. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Shi, J; Li, F F; Ma, H; Li, Z Y; Xu, J Z
In this experiment, the test materials were 'Red Fuji' apple trees grafted onto three interstocks (No. 53, No. 111, and No. 236), which were chosen from SH40 seeding interstocks. The content of malic acid, the enzyme activities, and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism were determined during fruit development.The results showed that malic acid content in the ripe fruit on interstock No. 53 was higher than that in the interstock No. 111 fruit. The malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) activity in apples on interstock No. 53 was highest on Day 30, Day 100, and Day 160 after bloom, and the malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity in apples on interstock No. 111 was higher than in the interstock No. 53 fruit from Day 70 to Day 100 after bloom. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in interstock No. 53 fruit was higher than in No. 236 fruit on Day 100 after bloom, but the relative expression of NADP-ME in No. 236 interstock fruit was lower than in No. 53 fruit. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in No. 53 interstock fruit was highest on Day 160 after bloom. This might have been the main reason for the difference in the accumulation of malic acid in the ripe apples.There was a positive correlation between the relative expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the malic acid content of the fruit, and the content of malic acid in the apples was affected by the PEPC activity during the early developmental stage.
Fan, Panhui; Huber, Donald J; Su, Zihan; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; Li, Min; Shi, Xuequn; Zhang, Zhengke
Fresh-cut (FC) red pitaya fruit were treated with 5ga.i.l -1 apple polyphenols (APP) and then stored at 20°C for up to 4days to evaluate the effects on attributes. Results showed that FC pitaya fruit with APP treatment showed greater colour retention, delayed softening, reduced loss of soluble solids content, titratable acidity, betacyanin and total phenolics compared with untreated FC fruit. APP treatment also maintained antioxidant activity, as indicated by higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power compared with untreated FC pitaya fruit. APP treatment strongly suppressed microbial growth, contributing to improvement of product safety. Because APP is a natural product, we propose that application of APP could be a convenient, safe and low-cost approach to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life of FC red pitaya fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880
The present study described the microbiota associated with three apple varieties, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Honey Crisp’, and two rootstocks, M.9, and M.M.111. The objectives were to 1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties, and 2) determine if...
Wang, Nan; Xu, Haifeng; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Lu, Ninglin; Qiu, Huarong; Qu, Changzhi; Wang, Yicheng; Wu, Shujing; Chen, Xuesen
Flavonoids are major polyphenol compounds in plant secondary metabolism. Wild red-fleshed apples (Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana) are an excellent resource because of their much high flavonoid content than cultivated apples. In this work, R6R6, R6R1 and R1R1 genotypes were identified in an F 1 segregating population of M. sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana. Significant differences in flavonoid composition and content were detected among the three genotypes by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Furthermore, two putative flavonoid-related genes encoding R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated MYB12 and MYB22, were cloned and characterized. The expression patterns of MYB12 and MYB22 directly correlated with those of leucoanthocyanidin reductase and flavonol synthase, respectively. Their roles in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified by overexpression in apple callus and ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. MYB12 expression in the Arabidopsis TT2 mutant complemented its proanthocyanidin-deficient phenotype. Likewise, MYB22 expression in an Arabidopsis triple mutant complemented its flavonol-deficient phenotype. MYB12 could interact with bHLH3 and bHLH33 and played an essential role in proanthocyanidin synthesis. MYB22 was found to activate flavonol pathways by combining directly with the flavonol synthase promoter. Our findings provide a valuable perspective on flavonoid synthesis and provide a basis for breeding elite functional apples with a high flavonoid content. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
He, Qian-Qian; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei
Ten compounds were isolated and purified from the peels of gold-red apple (Malus domestica) for the 1st time. The identified compounds are 3β, 20β-dihydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyoleanolic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3), 3-O-p-coumaroyl tormentic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), linolic acid (9), and α-linolenic acid (10). Their structures were determined by interpreting their nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 is new, and compound 2 is herein reported for the 1st time for the genus Malus. α-Glucosidase inhibition assay revealed 6 of the triterpenoid isolates as remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitors, with betulinic acid showing the strongest inhibition (IC50 = 15.19 μM). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS analysis of the fruit peels, pomace, flesh, and juice revealed that the peels and pomace contained high levels of triterpenes, suggesting that wastes from the fruit juice industry could serve as rich sources of bioactive triterpenes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui
As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin
MdMYB1 is a crucial regulator of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, it was found that MdMYB1 protein accumulated in the light but degraded via a ubiquitin-dependent pathway in the dark. Subsequently, the MdCOP1-1 and MdCOP1-2 genes were isolated from apple fruit peel and were functionally characterized in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cop1-4 mutant. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that MdMYB1 interacts with the MdCOP1 proteins. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that MdCOP1s are necessary for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdMYB1 protein in the dark and are therefore involved in the light-controlled stability of the MdMYB1 protein. Finally, a viral vector-based transformation approach demonstrated that MdCOP1s negatively regulate the peel coloration of apple fruits by modulating the degradation of the MdMYB1 protein. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. PMID:22855936
Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C
Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.
Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Jovančićević, Branimir S; Radovanović, Blaga C; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zvezdanović, Jelena B
Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Serbian red wines produced from different international Vitis vinifera grape varieties and their correlation with contents of phenolic compounds were studied by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The antioxidant activity of red wines was estimated through their ability to scavenge 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•) ). The red wines, gallic acid, (+)-catechin and quercetin were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains using microdilution and disc diffusion techniques. Excellent correlations between the contents of quercetin-3-glucoside (R(2) = 0.9463) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.9337) and DPPH(•) -scavenging ability of the red wines were found. Serbian red wines exhibited significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Micrococcus flavus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella sonnei strains, which was in correlation with their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The compounds gallic acid, quercetin and (+)-catechin showed high activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. lutea and M. flavus Gram-positive and S. enteritidis and P. aeruginosa Gram-negative strains. The results show that quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin concentrations can be used as markers for the determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of red wines. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bouayed, Jaouad; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten
In the present study, an in vitro model simulating gastrointestinal (GI) digestion, including dialysability, was adapted to assess free soluble polyphenols from apples (four varieties). Results indicated that polyphenol release was mainly achieved during the gastric phase (ca. 65% of phenolics and flavonoids), with a slight further release (<10%) during intestinal digestion. Anthocyanins present after the gastric phase (1.04-1.14mg/100g) were not detectable following intestinal digestion. Dialysis experiments employing a semipermeable cellulose membrane, presenting a simplified model of the epithelial barrier, showed that free soluble dialysable polyphenols and flavonoids were 55% and 44% of native concentrations, respectively, being approximately 20% and 30% lower than that of the GI digesta. Similar results were found for the antioxidant capacity of dialysable antioxidants, being 57% and 46% lower compared to total antioxidants in fresh apples (FRAP and ABTS test, respectively). It is suggested that some polyphenols are bound to macromolecular compounds that are non-dialysable, that the presented method allowed the study of free soluble polyphenols available for further uptake, and that both chemical extraction and concentrations in final digesta would overestimate polyphenol availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wurm, Lothar; Gössinger, Manfred; Wendelin, Silvia; Martina, Kieler; Thomas, Rühmer; Walter, Brandes; Kathrin, Sigl
Between 2006 and 2013 the old apple varieties 'Ananas Reinette', 'llzer Rosenapfel', 'Kronprinz Rudolf', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Ribston Pepping', 'Steirische Schafnase', 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Florianer Rosmarin' (from 2009 on also 'Roter Berlepsch', 'Cox Orange' and 'Kanada Reinette') were tested for their fresh market suitability at the experimental orchard Haschhof of the HBLA and BA für Wein- und Obstbau Klosterneuburg under organic and integrated cultivation (IP) conditions trained as slender spindle. In 2010 the effect of an organic and a combined "integrated-organic summer" plant protection strategie on fruit quality and pesticide residues was tested in addition. No pesticide residues were detected in fruits of both plant protection strategies, expect on fruits of "integrated-organic summer" Schafnase in 2010. At harvest 2010 the bio-variant showed a significantly higher percentage of fruits with skin defects. The losses due to parasitic diseases during storage were strongly depending on the cultivar, but hardly affected by the plant protection strategy in this year. Looking at the entire experimental period, most of the varieties in the organic plot showed a comparable fruiting performance as those in the IP plot. The best fruiting performances were found with 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Kronprinz Rudolf', while the cumulative yield of 'Florianer Rosmarin', 'Himbeerapfel' and 'Lavanttaler Bananenapfel' remained below average. With respect to external fruit quality and storability 'Winterbananenapfel', 'Steirischer Maschanzker', 'Roter Boskoop', 'Kronprinz Rudolf' and 'Ilzer Rosenapfel' showed comparatively good results. With 'Ananas Reinette' the significantly lowest total phenolics contents were determined. 'Kanada Reinette', 'Roter Boskoop' and 'Ananas Reinette' showed a high acidity. High contents of soluble solids were found with 'Goldparmäne', 'Roter
Kootstra, Helmi S; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Dubois, Anthony E J
Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To investigate the allergenicity of a putatively hypoallergenic apple cultivar, the Santana apple, on apple allergic individuals using a method of challenge in which loss of allergenicity is minimized. The study population consisted of 15 apple allergic individuals, who underwent an open oral challenge with 3 different apple cultivars: Santana, Golden Delicious, and Topaz. Food challenges were performed between February 1 and May 31, 2005, during the birch tree pollen season. Sensory perception during challenges was minimized by use of a blindfold and nose clip and randomization of challenge order. Subjective symptoms were scored by a visual analog scale. After challenge with the Santana apple, 8 of 15 study participants (53%) developed no symptoms, which was a significantly greater proportion than after challenge with the Topaz apple (1 participant) and Golden Delicious apple (1 participant) (P = .002). The visual analog scale scores for the Santana apple (dose 1) were significantly lower than that for the Golden Delicious and Topaz apples. A total of 73% of the participants stated they would eat Santana apples in the future. The Santana apple caused significantly fewer allergic symptoms in apple allergic individuals than the Golden Delicious and Topaz apples. The Santana apple may be a good choice for most apple allergic individuals who want to eat apples.
This research developed a multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan fluorescence imaging under violet/blue LED excitation for detection of fecal contamination on Golden Delicious apples. Using a hyperspectral line-scan imaging system consisting of an EMCCD camera, spectrograph, an...
Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....
Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina
In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.
Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Cavalieri, Duccio; Velasco, Riccardo; Goremykin, Vadim
Both the origin of domesticated apple and the overall phylogeny of the genus Malus are still not completely resolved. Having this as a target, we built a 134,553-position-long alignment including two previously published chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) and 45 de novo sequenced, fully colinear chloroplast genomes from cultivated apple varieties and wild apple species. The data produced are free from compositional heterogeneity and from substitutional saturation, which can adversely affect phylogeny reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses based on this alignment recovered a branch, having the maximum bootstrap support, subtending a large group of the cultivated apple sorts together with all analyzed European wild apple (Malus sylvestris) accessions. One apple cultivar was embedded in a monophylum comprising wild M. sieversii accessions and other Asian apple species. The data demonstrate that M. sylvestris has contributed chloroplast genome to a substantial fraction of domesticated apple varieties, supporting the conclusion that different wild species should have contributed the organelle and nuclear genomes to the domesticated apple.
Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii. There is very little information about 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple, so this study is important to inform consumers about an alternative source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y
Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.
Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.
The Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) is a subroutine-based library of communication primitives that is callable from applications written in FORTRAN or C. APPL provides a consistent programmer interface to a variety of distributed and shared-memory multiprocessor MIMD machines. The objective of APPL is to minimize the effort required to move parallel applications from one machine to another, or to a network of homogeneous machines. APPL encompasses many of the message-passing primitives that are currently available on commercial multiprocessor systems. This paper describes APPL (version 2.3.1) and its usage, reports the status of the APPL project, and indicates possible directions for the future. Several applications using APPL are discussed, as well as performance and overhead results.
This study investigated the dual effectiveness of sodium chlorite (SC) for browning inhibition and microbial inactivation on fresh-cut apples. The SC treatment exhibited a strong inhibition on browning reaction of fresh-cut Red Delicious apples during cold storage. Test results from examination of t...
Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro
The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I
Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness.
Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro
Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.
Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro
Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.
Vincent, Jordan; Wang, Hui; Nibouche, Omar; Maguire, Paul
Food fraud, the sale of goods that have in some way been mislabelled or tampered with, is an increasing concern, with a number of high profile documented incidents in recent years. These recent incidents and their scope show that there are gaps in the food chain where food authentication methods are not applied or otherwise not sufficient and more accessible detection methods would be beneficial. This paper investigates the utility of affordable and portable visible range spectroscopy hardware with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) when applied to the differentiation of apple types and organic status. This method has the advantage that it is accessible throughout the supply chain, including at the consumer level. Scans were acquired of 132 apples of three types, half of which are organic and the remaining non-organic. The scans were preprocessed with zero correction, normalisation and smoothing. Two tests were used to determine accuracy, the first using 10-fold cross-validation and the second using a test set collected in different ambient conditions. Overall, the system achieved an accuracy of 94% when predicting the type of apple and 66% when predicting the organic status. Additionally, the resulting models were analysed to find the regions of the spectrum that had the most significance. Then, the accuracy when using three-channel information (RGB) is presented and shows the improvement provided by spectroscopic data.
Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Han, Yuepeng; Wei, Guochao; Korban, Schuyler S
Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus suggesting that this
Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier
The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Smock, R.M.; Sparrow, A.H.
Gamma radiation (cobalt source) of Rhode Island Greening apples did not lower the respiration rate. The 40,000 r lot had a higher than normal rate. This lot also softened more during the holding period at.74 deg F. Dosages over 10,000 r seemed to aggravate mealy breakdown. Dosages of 20,000 amd 40,000 r reduced the production of ethylene and volatiles other than ethylene. The respiration rate of Cortland apples was reduced slightly by gamma radiation. Keeping quality of this variety in storage was not affected, except for the 30,000 r lot which was slightly softer. Weight losses were not affected bymore » radiation. No commercially important benefits were observed with either variety. (auth)« less
Galmarini, M V; Symoneaux, R; Chollet, S; Zamora, M C
Apple consumers' expectations in Argentina and France were studied by comment analysis of open-ended questions. In an on-line survey consumers stated: attributes which defined quality in an apple; visual, flavor and texture characteristics they liked/did not like to find in an apple. Influence of country, consumption frequency and cultivar knowledge were analyzed by contingency tables, Chi-square per cell tests and Multiple Factor Analysis. Consumers' quality expectations were not the same in both countries. Argentineans and French consumers agreed that quality apples should be juicy (most used term in both countries), tasty, firm and fresh. However, for Argentineans quality was more related to visual characteristics, whereas for French it was driven by flavor. Argentineans used more words but French were more specific, particularly for flavour description. Moreover, frequency of consumption, varieties knowledge and the number of terms given were highly related. Frequent consumers knew more varieties and were more prolific in relation to flavour. Less frequent consumers knew fewer apple varieties and gave more words in the visual category. The use of comment analysis allowed identifying the terms that consumers used in their day to day life to describe apples, finding separately likes and dislikes, in spite of the different languages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In years 1986-1989, a total 445 samples apples of late cultivars were examined. Pesticides were extracted with acetone, whereupon they were transferred to dichloromethane. Extracts were analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and a thermo-ionic detector. Moreover, TLC and colorimetric methods were used. The major part of insecticides and fungicides used for orchard protection were examined. Pesticide residues were present in 248 samples; as a rule, they did not exceed 20% of their allowable concentrations in apples. Thus, the occurrence--in the same sample--of two or more pesticides on this level should entail no risk for the consumer's health. In 19 samples the allowable concentrations of pesticide residues were slightly exceeded; in all cases, only MBC was involved.
Noh, Hyun Kwon; Lu, Renfu
Chlorophyll fluorescence has been researched for assessing fruit post-harvest quality and condition. The objective of this preliminary research was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring apple fruit quality. Ultraviolet (UV) and blue light was used as an excitation source for inducing fluorescence in apples. Fluorescence spectra were measured from 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 'Red Delicious' (RD) apples by using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer after one, three, and five minutes of continuous UV/blue light illumination. Standard destructive tests were performed to measure fruit firmness, skin and flesh color, soluble solids and acid content from the apples. Calibration models for each of the three illumination time periods were developed to predict fruit quality indexes. The results showed that fluorescence emission decreased steadily during the first three minutes of UV/blue light illumination and was stable within five minutes. The differences were minimal in the model prediction results based on fluorescence data at one, three or five minutes of illumination. Overall, better predictions were obtained for apple skin chroma and hue and flesh hue with values for the correlation coefficient of validation between 0.80 and 0.90 for both GD and RD. Relatively poor predictions were obtained for fruit firmness, soluble solids content, titrational acid, and flesh chroma. This research demonstrated that fluorescence spectroscopy is potentially useful for assessing selected quality attributes of apple fruit and further research is needed to improve fluorescence measurements so that better predictions of fruit quality can be achieved.
Background Red coloration of fruit is an important trait in apple, and it is mainly attributed to the accumulation of anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoid metabolites. Anthocyanin biosynthesis is genetically determined by structural and regulatory genes. Plant tissue pigmentation patterns are mainly controlled by expression profiles of regulatory genes. Among these regulatory genes are MYB transcription factors (TFs), wherein the class of two-repeats (R2R3) is deemed the largest, and these are associated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Although three MdMYB genes, almost identical in nucleotide sequences, have been identified in apple, it is likely that there are other R2R3 MYB TFs that are present in the apple genome that are also involved in the regulation of coloration of red color pigmentation of the skin of apple fruits. Results In this study, a novel R2R3 MYB gene has been isolated and characterized in apple. This MYB gene is closely related to the Arabidopsis thaliana AtMYB3, and has been designated as MdMYB3. This TF belongs to the subgroup 4 R2R3 family of plant MYB transcription factors. This apple MdMYB3 gene is mapped onto linkage group 15 of the integrated apple genetic map. Transcripts of MdMYB3 are detected in all analyzed tissues including leaves, flowers, and fruits. However, transcripts of MdMYB3 are higher in excocarp of red-skinned apple cultivars than that in yellowish-green skinned apple cultivars. When this gene is ectopically expressed in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petite Havana SR1, flowers of transgenic tobacco lines carrying MdMYB3 have exhibited increased pigmentation and accumulate higher levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than wild-type flowers. Overexpression of MdMYB3 has resulted in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes, including CHS, CHI, UFGT, and FLS. Moreover, peduncles of flowers and styles of pistils of transgenic plants overexpressing MdMYB3 are longer than those of wild-type plants, thus
Aprea, Eugenio; Gika, Helen; Carlin, Silvia; Theodoridis, Georgios; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio
A headspace SPME GC-TOF-MS method was developed for the acquisition of metabolite profiles of apple volatiles. As a first step, an experimental design was applied to find out the most appropriate conditions for the extraction of apple volatile compounds by SPME. The selected SPME method was applied in profiling of four different apple varieties by GC-EI-TOF-MS. Full scan GC-MS data were processed by MarkerLynx software for peak picking, normalisation, alignment and feature extraction. Advanced chemometric/statistical techniques (PCA and PLS-DA) were used to explore data and extract useful information. Characteristic markers of each variety were successively identified using the NIST library thus providing useful information for variety classification. The developed HS-SPME sampling method is fully automated and proved useful in obtaining the fingerprint of the volatile content of the fruit. The described analytical protocol can aid in further studies of the apple metabolome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou
An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.
Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka
The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties. The low browning index, 25.5 and high whitening index, 63.7, proved the good retention of the color of the apple chips. The instrumental characteristics of the apple chips were correlated with the sensory characteristics of the product. The new product was accepted by the 95 % of the panelists. The stored apple chips under modified atmosphere showed no significant changes in the quality parameters over 6 month period.
García-Carpintero, Eva Gómez; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Gómez Gallego, Manuel A; González-Viñas, Miguel A
The effect of winemaking using blends of red grape varieties cultivated in La Mancha region (Spain) on the aroma profile of wines was researched by chemical characterization. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction using dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively, as solvents in elution and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Free and bound volatile compounds were analyzed in Cencibel, Bobal, and Moravia Agria monovarietal wines, and in 3 wines obtained with the blending of grapes: Cencibel (50%) + Bobal (50%); Cencibel (50%) + Moravía Agria (50%); Cencibel (33%) + Bobal (33%) + Moravía Agria (33%). Aroma compounds were studied in terms of odor activity values (OAVs). Ninety free aroma compounds and sixty-five bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified. The odor activity values for the different compounds were classified into 7 odorant series. The fruity and sweet series contributed most strongly to the aroma profile of all wines, independently of the winemaking technique used. In general, co-winemaking wines present a more complex chemical profile than monovarietal wines. Practical Application: Some grape varieties could benefit from this process with the presence of other varieties that might have an excess of aroma compounds. In this study, the wines were elaborated by blending different grape varieties together; this process implies co-maceration and co-fermentation steps. The co-winemaking technique could benefit from additional molecules provided by the other varieties, which results in a more complex formation than in the case of monovarietal wines. This technique provides a viable alternative to traditional winemaking methods for improving and enhancing the sensory profile of elaborated wines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa
The Vitis vinifera L. cv Graciano is often used as an integral component of Rioja wines because it is considered to contribute significantly to the quality of Tempranillo based wines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the incorporation of the Graciano variety on the colour and pigment composition of Tempranillo based wine and to evaluate the possible differences between blending Tempranillo with Graciano varietal wine (W wine) in contrast to a wine obtained by mixing these two grape varieties in the prefermentative maceration step (M wine). Results indicated that pigment extraction and retention in M wine was higher than in Tempranillo (T) wine. Colour differences (DeltaE(ab)(*)) between wines at the end of the study (after 12 months in bottles) were detectable by the human eye (DeltaE(ab)(*) > or = 3) in all cases except for T and W. These wines have indistinguishable colours even when using analytical methods (DeltaE(ab)(*) < or = 1). Regarding hue h(ab), T and W presented higher values (more orange-red) than Graciano (G) and M (more blue-red). PCA allowed the colour and composition analytical data to be reduced to a small number of principal components that could separate successfully between T and G wines and between the different steps of the winemaking process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Song, Xiaomin; Weng, Kai; Shen, Yawen; Li, Youmei; Zhao, Caiping; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a commercially important fruit worldwide. Detailed information on genomic DNA polymorphisms, which are important for understanding phenotypic traits, is lacking for the apple. We re-sequenced two elite apple varieties, ‘Nagafu No. 2’ and ‘Qinguan,’ which have different characteristics. We identified many genomic variations, including 2,771,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 82,663 structural variations (SVs), and 1,572,803 insertion/deletions (INDELs) in ‘Nagafu No. 2’ and 2,262,888 SNPs, 63,764 SVs, and 1,294,060 INDELs in ‘Qinguan.’ The ‘SNP,’ ‘INDEL,’ and ‘SV’ distributions were non-random, with variation-rich or -poor regions throughout the genomes. In ‘Nagafu No. 2’ and ‘Qinguan’ there were 171,520 and 147,090 non-synonymous SNPs spanning 23,111 and 21,400 genes, respectively; 3,963 and 3,196 SVs in 3,431 and 2,815 genes, respectively; and 1,834 and 1,451 INDELs in 1,681 and 1,345 genes, respectively. Genetic linkage maps of 190 flowering genes associated with multiple flowering pathways in ‘Nagafu No. 2,’ ‘Qinguan,’ and ‘Golden Delicious,’ identified complex regulatory mechanisms involved in floral induction, flower bud formation, and flowering characteristics, which might reflect the genetic variation of the flowering genes. Expression profiling of key flowering genes in buds and leaves suggested that the photoperiod and autonomous flowering pathways are major contributors to the different floral-associated traits between ‘Nagafu No. 2’ and ‘Qinguan.’ The genome variation data provided a foundation for the further exploration of apple diversity and gene–phenotype relationships, and for future research on molecular breeding to improve apple and related species. PMID:27446138
Timoumi, S.; Zagrouba, F.; Mihoubi, D.; Tlili, M. M.
This work is focused on some properties of dried apple (Red Chief) and carrot (Misky). Water sorption isotherms of carrot and apple were investigated at three temperatures: 30, 40 and 60°C, corresponding to drying temperatures, by the static method consisting of the use of different sulphuric acid solutions. Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (G.A.B) model is found to describe the experimental curves better than Henderson, Hasley and Oswin models with a correlation coefficient superior to 0.97 for both products. The hysteresis phenomenon was clearly observed in the case of apple isotherms. The experimental data were also used to determine the isosteric enthalpy of desorption of apple and carrot. The isosteric enthalpy of desorption decreased with increase in moisture content and the trend became asymptotic.
Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Cheon-Jei
The effects of reducing pork fat level from 30 to 25 and 20% by partially substituting pork fat with 1 and 2% apple pomace fiber were investigated based on the evaluation of physicochemical properties and textural properties of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Increased fat level resulted in decreased moisture content, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and yellowness of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages, whereas, an increase in fat content, caloric energy, pH, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness was observed. The results showed that uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausage samples with increased apple pomace fiber level had lower cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, pH, and redness. The results from this study show that inclusion of apple pomace fiber in the formulation will successfully reduce fat content in emulsion sausages, while improving quality characteristics relative to regular-fat (30%) control. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kammerer, Dietmar; Claus, Achim; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas
Phenolic compounds of 14 pomace samples originating from red and white winemaking were characterized by HPLC-MS. Up to 13 anthocyanins, 11 hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, and 13 catechins and flavonols as well as 2 stilbenes were identified and quantified in the skins and seeds by HPLC-DAD. Large variabilities comprising all individual phenolic compounds were observed, depending on cultivar and vintage. Grape skins proved to be rich sources of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, and flavonol glycosides, whereas flavanols were mainly present in the seeds. However, besides the lack of anthocyanins in white grape pomace, no principal differences between red and white grape varieties were observed. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of individual phenolic compounds comprising all polyphenolic subclasses of grapes including a comparison of several red and white pomaces from nine cultivars. The results obtained in the present study confirm that both skins and seeds of most grape cultivars constitute a promising source of polyphenolics.
Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.
Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we
Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G
Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we
Carbone, K; Giannini, B; Picchi, V; Lo Scalzo, R; Cecchini, F
The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of genotype, tissue type and cold storage on the bioactive compounds content and on the antiradical activity (AA) of different apple cultivars (Golden cl. B, Fuji cl. Kiku8, Braeburn cl. Hillwell). The content of analysed phyto-compounds depended on the clone, on the part of fruit, and to a minor extent, on the storage. For EC(50) data, the cultivar represented the main source of variation and the interaction with the type of tissue, was significant. The AA of apples, measured by means of the DPPH test, was highly correlated to the flavan-3-ols content, which represents a good predictor of the apple antiradical power. The new Braeburn's clone, the Hillwell, had the worst AA related to a minor phyto-chemical content. Also, its phenolic content was dramatically reduced after cold storage (flesh: -50%; peels: -20%; p<0.05). Obtained results underlined the key role of the genotype on the content of the nutraceutical power of apples, which is important to improve their quality and consumption benefits, suggesting to the breeders to pay more attention to the potential healthy compounds in the development of new hybrids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agnello, Arthur; Cox, Kerik; Lordan, Jaume; Francescatto, Poliana; Robinson, Terence
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. PMID:28869562
Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo
Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.
The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.
Mehl, Patrick M.; Chao, Kevin; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren
Presence of natural or exogenous contaminations on apple cultivars is a food safety and quality concern touching the general public and strongly affecting this commodity market. Accumulations of human pathogens are usually observed on surface lesions of commodities. Detections of either lesions or directly of the pathogens are essential for assuring the quality and safety of commodities. We are presenting the application of hyperspectral image analysis towards the development of multispectral techniques for the detection of defects on chosen apple cultivars, such as Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, and Gala apples. Separate apple cultivars possess different spectral characteristics leading to different approaches for analysis. General preprocessing analysis with morphological treatments is followed by different image treatments and condition analysis for highlighting lesions and contaminations on the apple cultivars. Good isolations of scabs, fungal and soil contaminations and bruises are observed with hyperspectral imaging processing either using principal component analysis or utilizing the chlorophyll absorption peak. Applications of hyperspectral results to a multispectral detection are limited by the spectral capabilities of our RGB camera using either specific band pass filters and using direct neutral filters. Good separations of defects are obtained for Golden Delicious apples. It is however limited for the other cultivars. Having an extra near infrared channel will increase the detection level utilizing the chlorophyll absorption band for detection as demonstrated by the present hyperspectral imaging analysis
Ting, Valentina J L; Soukoulis, Christos; Silcock, Patrick; Cappellin, Luca; Romano, Andrea; Aprea, Eugenio; Bremer, Phil J; Märk, Tilmann D; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco
Flavor release from 6 commercial apple cultivars (Fuji, Granny Smith, Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Morgen Dallago, and Red Delicious) under static conditions (intact or fresh-cut samples) and during consumption of fresh-cut samples (nosespace) was determined by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Textural (firmness, fracturability, flesh elasticity, and rupture) and physicochemical (pH, acidity, and water content) properties of the apples were also measured. Static headspace analysis of intact fruits revealed Fuji and Granny Smith apples had the lowest concentration for all measured flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and terpenes), whereas Red Delicious apples had the highest. Fresh-cut samples generally showed a significant increase in total volatile compounds with acetaldehyde being most abundant. However, compared to intact fruits, cut Golden and Red Delicious apples had a lower intensity for ester related peaks. Five parameters were extracted from the nosespace data of peaks related to esters (m/z 43, 61), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), and ethanol (m/z 47): 2 associated with mastication (duration of mastication-t(con); time required for first swallowing event-t(swal)), and 3 related with in-nose volatile compound concentration (area under the curve-AUC; maximum intensity-I(max); time for achieving I(max)-t(max)). Three different behaviors were identified in the nosespace data: a) firm samples with low AUC and t(swal) values (Granny Smith, Fuji), b) mealy samples with high AUC, I(max), t(swal) values, and low t(con) (Morgen Dallago, Golden Delicious), and c) firm samples with high AUC and I(max) values (Red Delicious). Strengths and limitations of the methodology are discussed. Volatile compounds play a fundamental role in the perceived quality of food. Using apple cultivars, this research showed that in vivo proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) could be used to determine the relationship between the release of volatile flavor
Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.
Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.
Sarengaowa; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xiu, Zhilong; Feng, Ke
Food preservation is critical for keeping fresh-cut products fresh, nutritious, safe, attractive and available for consumers. To improve the safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits, 15 essential oils (EOs) were screened to test the antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella typhimurium (ST), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC O157:H7). The effect of alginate-based edible coating (EC) incorporating different concentrations thyme oil on fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples was investigated. Results showed that thyme oil, cinnamon oil and oregano oil were more effective in inhibiting the microbes than other EOs. The result showed that the combined usage of 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil incorporated with alginate-based EC could significantly inhibit the microbial growth, respiration, weight loss, firmness and browning of fresh-cut 'Red Fuji' apples. The edible coating and natural additives like thyme oil could be used to preserve the quality of fresh-cut fruits. It revealed that EC incorporated with 0.5 µL mL -1 thyme oil can be a safe preservative for fresh-cut apples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cliff, Margaret A; Stanich, Kareen; Lu, Ran; Hampson, Cheryl R
This research compared four new apple selections with 16 established apples using descriptive analysis (DA), instrumental analyses and preference mapping, in order to identify suitable selections for commercialization and further research. DA revealed that the new apple selections (PARC1, PARC2, PARC3, PARC4) were very similar in texture/mouthfeel (T) but differed in their flavor (F) and appearance (A) characteristics. Preference mapping revealed that consumers' T preferences were driven primarily by crispness, juiciness and lack of skin toughness, while F preferences were driven by sweetness, lack of tartness and presence of fruity flavor. Consumers' A preferences were driven by a high percentage of red color and degree of striping. The majority of consumers had similar T (82-85%) and F (88-92%) preferences for the early- and mid/late-harvest apples. In contrast, consumers' A preferences were differentiated into three subgroups (60%, 24%, 16%) for the early-harvest apples, but not for the mid/late-harvest apples. The new apple selections were among those most liked for T, F and A. This early-stage consumer research confirmed that the new apples were comparable, if not superior, to the established apples. As such, it provided the necessary feedback to industry to proceed with commercialization and optimization of cultural and storage practices. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel
In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity of the bacterial toxin Stx2 produced by E. coli O157:H7 strains. Studies with immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that Stx2 activity was restored when removed from the apple juice. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no difference (P < 0.05) in the densities or molecular weights between Stx2 in either PBS or apple juices. These results suggest that Stx2 may be reversibly bound to small molecular weight constituents in the juice. The Stx2 toxin was not inactivated on exposure to heat programs (63 degrees C for 30 min, 72 degrees C for 15 s, 89 degrees C for 1 s) commonly used to pasteurize apple juice, but lost all activity when exposed to 100 degrees C for 5 min. The results suggest that pasteurization of apple juice used to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 has no effect on Stx2, and that food-compatible and safe antitoxin compounds can be used to inhibit the biological activity of the Shiga toxin.
Szpyrka, Ewa; Walorczyk, Stanisław
Dissipation of fungicide difenoconazole (3-chloro-4-[(2RS,4RS;2RS,4SR)-4-methyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]phenyl 4-chlorophenyl ether) was studied following its application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples (varieties: Jonagold Decosta, Gala and Idared) were sprayed with the formulation to control pathogens causing fungal diseases: powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha ELL et Ev./Salm.) and apple scab (Venturia inaequalis Cooke/Aderh.). A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was highly satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤ 19% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipation of difenoconazole was studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficients of determination, R 2 , ranged between 0.880 and 0.977). The half-life of difenoconazole was 12-21 days in experiments conducted on three apple varieties. In these experiments, the initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg kg -1 in 50-79 days. For the residue levels to remain below 0.01 mg kg -1 (the maximum acceptable concentration for baby foods), difenoconazole must be applied approximately 3 months before harvest, at a dose of 0.2 L ha -1 (50 g of an active ingredient per ha).
Pratt, C.; Einset, J.
Preliminary data are presented from observations on the response of three varieties of apples and one variety of grapes subjected to a wide range of radiation damage at growth stages ramging from seed to matuee plants. Ultimate objectives of the study are the radioinduced production of mutations in apples and grapes. (C.H.)
Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras
Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Chang, Hsueh-Yuan; Vickers, Zata M; Tong, Cindy B S
Loss of crispness in apple fruit during storage reduces the fruit's fresh sensation and consumer acceptance. Apple varieties that maintain crispness thus have higher potential for longer-term consumer appeal. To efficiently phenotype crispness, several instrumental methods have been tested, but variable results were obtained when different apple varieties were assayed. To extend these studies, we assessed the extent to which instrumental measurements correlate to and predict sensory crispness, with a focus on crispness maintenance. We used an apple breeding family derived from a cross between "Honeycrisp" and "MN1764," which segregates for crispness maintenance. Three types of instrumental measurements (puncture, snapping, and mechanical-acoustic tests) and sensory evaluation were performed on fruit at harvest and after 8 weeks of cold storage. Overall, 20 genotypes from the family and the 2 parents were characterized by 19 force and acoustic measures. In general, crispness was more related to force than to acoustic measures. Force linear distance and maximum force as measured by the mechanical-acoustic test were best correlated with sensory crispness and change in crispness, respectively. The correlations varied by apple genotype. The best multiple linear regression model to predict change in sensory crispness between harvest and storage of fruit of this breeding family incorporated both force and acoustic measures. This work compared the abilities of instrumental tests to predict sensory crispness maintenance of apple fruit. The use of an instrumental method that is highly correlated to sensory crispness evaluation can enhance the efficiency and reduce the cost of measuring crispness for breeding purposes. This study showed that sensory crispness and change in crispness after storage of an apple breeding family were reliably predicted with a combination of instrumental measurements and multiple variable analyses. The strategy potentially can be applied to other
Tang, Yamei; Xue, Huali; Bi, Yang; Li, Yongcai; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Shen, Keping
Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied for the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from the apple matrix with methanol/water (80/20, v/v), the concentrated extracts were cleaned-up by PriboFast M270 columns and then analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. T-2 toxin and neosolaniol were effectively separated as unique peaks. The validity of this method was established by its linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9995), precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%), accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection of 2-5 μg kg(-1), limit of quantification of 5-10 μg kg(-1) and average recovery of 73-96%. Levels of T-2 toxin were found in the range 7.1-128.4 µg kg(-1) in the core rot lesion of three cultivars apple (cvs. Red Delicious, Fuji and Ralls). T-2 was detected not only in the lesion, but also in the tissue without any disease symptoms. However, neosolaniol was only detected in the lesion on 'Red Delicious' apples. In addition, the concentration of T-2 toxin in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Fuji) was significantly higher than that in the resistant one (cv. Ralls). This method proved to be suitable at detecting T-2 and neosolaniol simultaneously in apples infected with T. roseum.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...
Hammerstone, J F; Lazarus, S A; Schmitz, H H
Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids found in commonly consumed foods that have attracted increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, little is known regarding their dietary intake levels because detailed quantitative information on the procyanidin profiles present in many food products is lacking. Therefore, the procyanidin content of red wine, chocolate, cranberry juice and four varieties of apples has been determined. On average, chocolate and apples contained the largest procyanidin content per serving (164.7 and 147.1 mg, respectively) compared with red wine and cranberry juice (22.0 and 31.9 mg, respectively). However, the procyanidin content varied greatly between apple samples (12.3-252.4 mg/serving) with the highest amounts on average observed for the Red Delicious (207.7 mg/serving) and Granny Smith (183.3 mg/serving) varieties and the lowest amounts in the Golden Delicious (92.5 mg/serving) and McIntosh (105.0 mg/serving) varieties. The compositional data reported herein are important for the initial understanding of which foods contribute most to the dietary intake of procyanidins and may be used to compile a database necessary to infer epidemiological relationships to health and disease.
Hulasare, Rajshekhar; Payton, Mark E; Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W
The efficacy of low-oxygen atmospheres using low pressure, referred to as hypobaric conditions, to kill egg and third-instar Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in apples was investigated. Infested apples were exposed to 3.33 and 6.67 kPa in glass jars at 25 and 30 degrees C for times ranging from 3 to 120 h. Probit analyses and lethal dose ratio tests were performed to determine differences in lethal time values. Eggs were more tolerant of low pressure compared with third-instar R. pomonella. Mortality of eggs and larvae increased with increase in time of exposure to low pressure and temperature. Lower pressures increased percent mortality of eggs, but these values were not significantly different at the pressures tested in this investigation. The LT99 for R. pomonella eggs at 3.33 kPa was 105.98 and 51.46 h, respectively, at 25 and 30 degrees C, which was a significant effect of the higher temperature on egg mortality. Investigation into consumer acceptance of low-pressure-treated apples was done with 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious'. Apples exposed to 3.33 kPa at 25 and 30 degrees C for 3 and 5 d were stored at 1 degrees C for 2 wk and presented to a sensory panel for evaluation. The panelists rated treated apples with untreated controls for external and internal appearance and taste. Golden Delicious apples were unaffected for all three sensory factors across both temperatures and exposure times. Although taste was unaffected for Red Delicious, the internal and external appearances deteriorated. Use of low pressure for disinfestation and preservation of apples is a potential nonchemical alternative to chemical fumigants such as methyl bromide and phosphine.
Betemps, Débora L; Fachinello, José Carlos; Galarça, Simone P; Portela, Nicácia M; Remorini, Damiano; Massai, Rossano; Agati, Giovanni
The detection of pigments and colourless flavonoids in apples can provide a useful indication of fruit quality. Optical methods are preferable because they are fast and non-destructive. In this study, a fluorescence-based portable sensor was used in order to non-invasively determine the content of chlorophylls, anthocyanins and flavonols in Fuji, Granny Smith and Golden Delicious apple cultivars. The aim was to define new non-destructive optical indices of apple quality. The anthocyanin index (ANTH) in Fuji was higher in the sunny (i.e. sun-exposed) side of the fruit compared to the shady side. For all cultivars, the flavonol index (FLAV) was higher in the sunny side compared with the shady side. The chlorophyll index (CHL) for the shady sides of Granny Smith and Golden Delicious was significantly higher than for the sunny sides. Fine linear regressions were found between the ANTH, FLAV and CHL indices and the actual anthocyanin, flavonol and chlorophyll concentrations, respectively, which were determined destructively on the apple peel extracts. A negative correlation was found between the apple sugar content and the chlorophyll fluorescence in the far-red spectral band. Our results indicate that a single multiparametric fluorescence-based sensor can provide valuable non-destructive markers of ripening and quality in apples. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Soto-Valdéz, H; Trejo-González, A
This study pursued the isolation and partial characterization of the enzyme polyphenoloxidase from apple (Malus domestica Anna variety), grown in the Hermosillo Coast (State of Sonora, Mexico). The effects of pH and temperature as well as its specificity towards substrates, and its behavior under conditions of hydrophobic chromatography, were studied. The enzyme was isolated from a residual powder obtained from ripe apples homogenized with cold acetone. The extract thus prepared was used to characterize the enzyme, and it showed an optimum pH of 5.36 and an optimum temperature of 35 degrees C. The substrate specificity proved to decrease from 4-methyl catechol, chlorogenic acid, catechol, and caffeic acid, to 3,4-dihydroxiphenyl alanine (DOPA). The enzyme resulted to be more thermostable (temperature range: 35 degrees C to 60 degrees C) than the rest of oxidases of plant origin. When the extract was eluted under conditions of hydrophobic chromatography separation, it appeared as a single peak resulting in a 300 fold purification. The phenolase activity characteristics found in the present study were similar to those observed in other apples from temperate climates; however, this particular polyphenoloxidase is more thermostable under natural conditions. This explains why apples of the Anna variety, at the high harvesting temperature, show a very fast formation of brown spots even when there is a minor damage. The content of compounds with phenolic group was high (1.16 g/100 g fresh weight). Further increase of the velocity of fruit enzymatic browning was due to this reason.
Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.
Krapfenbauer, Gottfried; Kinner, Mathias; Gössinger, Manfred; Schönlechner, Regine; Berghofer, Emmerich
Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.
The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...
Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight) of th...
Sitepu, I.R.; Ignatia, L.; Franz, A. K.; Wong, D. M.; Faulina, S.A.; Tsui, M.; Kanti, A.; Boundy-Mills, K.
A rapid and inexpensive method for estimating lipid content of yeasts is needed for screening large numbers of yeasts samples. Nile red is a fluorescent lipophilic dye used for detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets in various biological system including algae, yeasts and filamentous fungi. However, a published assay for yeast is affected by variable diffusion across the cell membrane, and variation in the time required to reach maximal fluorescence emission. In this study, parameters that may influence the emission were varied to determine optimal assay conditions. An improved assay with a high-throughput capability was developed that includes the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to improve cell permeability, elimination of the washing step, the reduction of Nile red concentration, kinetic readings rather than single time-point reading, and utilization of a black 96-well microplate. The improved method was validated by comparison to gravimetric determination of lipid content of a broad variety of ascomycete and basidiomycete yeast species. PMID:22985718
In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...
Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting
Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.
Saenger, Theresa; Hübner, Florian; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich
Urinary biomarkers are used to estimate the nutritional intake of humans. The aim of this study was to distinguish between low, medium, and high apple consumption by quantifying possible intake biomarkers in urine samples after apple consumption by HPLC-MS/MS. Apples were chosen as they are the most consumed fruits in Germany. Thirty subjects took part in 7-day study. They abstained from apples and apple products except for one weighed apple portion resembling one, two, or four apples. Before apple consumption and during the following days spot urine samples were collected. These urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase, diluted, and directly measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Phloretin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and quercetin were detected in urine using Scheduled MRM TM mode. Phloretin was confirmed as a urinary biomarker of apple intake and had the ability to discriminate between low or medium (one or two apples) and high apple consumption (four apples). The groups also differ in the excretion of epicatechin and procyanidin B2. Apple consumption can be monitored by urinary biomarkers for a period of at least 12 h after consumption. Furthermore the amount of apples consumed can be estimated by the concentration of certain biomarkers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E
Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (p<0.05) were observed in both peel and pulp. The levels of total phenolic acids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liebhard, R; Koller, B; Patocchi, A; Kellerhals, M; Pfammatter, W; Jermini, M; Gessler, C
ABSTRACT Breeding of resistant apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) as a disease management strategy relies on the knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of molecular markers and genetic linkage maps enables the detection and the analysis of major resistance genes as well as of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to the resistance of a genotype. Such a genetic linkage map was constructed, based on a segregating population of the cross between apple cvs. Fiesta (syn. Red Pippin) and Discovery. The progeny was observed for 3 years at three different sites in Switzerland and field resistance against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) was assessed. Only a weak correlation was detected between leaf scab and fruit scab. A QTL analysis was performed, based on the genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 chromosomes of apple. With the maximum likelihood-based interval mapping method, eight genomic regions were identified, six conferring resistance against leaf scab and two conferring fruit scab resistance. Although cv. Discovery showed a much stronger resistance against scab in the field, most QTL identified were attributed to the more susceptible parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated a high degree of homozygosity at the scab resistance loci in 'Discovery', preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.
Balogun, Elizabeth Abidemi; Malomo, Sylvia Orume; Adebayo, Joseph Oluwatope; Ishola, Ahmed Adebayo; Soladoye, Ayodele Olufemi; Olatunji, Lawrence Aderemi; Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Oguntoye, Stephen Olubunmi; Babatunde, Abiola Samuel; Akinola, Oluwole Busayo
Phytochemical constituents as well as antimalarial and toxicity potentials of the methanolic extract of the husk fibre of Dwarf Red variety of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in this study. The dried powdered husk fibre was exhaustively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol successively and the methanolic extract was screened for flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and glycosides. A 4-day suppressive antimalarial test was carried out using Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice, to which the extract was administered at doses of 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW). Toxicity of the extract was evaluated in rats using selected hematological parameters and organ function indices after orally administering doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW for 14 d. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones in the extract. Moreover, the extract reduced parasitemia by 39.2% and 45.8% at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively on day 8 post-inoculation. Various hematological parameters evaluated were not significantly altered (P>0.05) at all doses of the extract, except red blood cell count which was significantly elevated (P<0.05) at 100 mg/kg BW. The extract significantly increased (P<0.05) urea, creatinine, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations in the serum as well as atherogenic index, while it reduced albumin concentration significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses compared to the controls. Alanine aminotransferase activity was reduced in the liver and heart significantly (P<0.05) but was increased in the serum significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses of the extract compared to the controls. The results suggest that methanolic extract of the Dwarf red variety has partial antimalarial activity at higher doses, but is capable of impairing normal kidney and liver function as well
Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y
This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.
Kryger, R A
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.
Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong
In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.
Capocchi, Antonella; Bottega, Stefania; Spanò, Carmelina; Fontanini, Debora
Flours of four pigmented (from orange to red and dark red) local Italian corns, studied for their soluble, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenols and flavonoids, showed a prevalence of the insoluble-bound fraction (70-80%). Correlations were found between the flours antioxidant capacity, measured with CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH methods, and soluble phenols and flavonoids content. A correlation was also found between ascorbic acid content and flours antioxidant power. Anthocyanins were present in small amounts in the red/dark red seeds; however, acid-alcohol assays and spectral analyses of pericarp extracts indicated the presence of red-brick phlobaphenes in these varieties. Spectrophotometrically quantified total carotenoids were significantly higher in one of the local varieties (Nano); RP-HPLC analyses indicated that the local varieties contained significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, and lower amounts of lutein, than a commercial line. Among local varieties, Nano expressed the highest levels of zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin.
AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...
Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea
Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa.Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Our findings show that consumption of apple
Hammami, Walid; Al-Thani, Roda; Fiori, Stefano; Al-Meer, Saeed; Atia, Fathy Atia; Rabah, Duha; Migheli, Quirico; Jaoua, Samir
Patulin has raised the international attention because of its health risk. In fact, it has mutagenic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and gastrointestinal effects in animals. In the present work, patulin and patulin-producing Penicillium spp. in apple and apple-based products marketed in Qatar were analysed. Sampling was carried out using apple fruits and apple-based products. Fungi were isolated from undamaged apples, apple juice and baby apple food. DNA extraction was carried out with DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, USA). The molecular identification of fungal isolates was carried out using ITS1-ITS4 PCR. PCR products were sequenced and blasted. Patulin was extracted and analyzed by LC/MS/MS, then quantified using Agilent 1290UHPLC coupled to 6460 triple quadruple mass spectrometer. Forty-five samples of undamaged fresh apple fruits, apple juice and apple-based baby food products sold in different markets in Qatar were surveyed for both fungal and patulin contamination using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometery (LC/MS/MS). Twenty-five Penicillium spp. isolates were selected, including 23 P. expansum and one isolate each of P. brevicompactum and P. commune. All the tested Penicillium spp. isolates produced patulin in vitro (from 40 to 100 μg/g on Malt Yeast Extract agar medium). Patulin was detected in 100% of apple juice samples at levels ranging from 5.27 to 82.21 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained patulin levels higher than European Union recommended limit (50 µg/kg). The average patulin contamination was 30.67 µg/kg and 10.92 µg/kg in baby apple juice and in baby apple compote, respectively.
Han, Zhao-ying; Zhu, Xi-cun; Fang, Xian-yi; Wang, Zhuo-yuan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Yuan-mao
Leaf area index (LAI) is the dynamic index of crop population size. Hyperspectral technology can be used to estimate apple canopy LAI rapidly and nondestructively. It can be provide a reference for monitoring the tree growing and yield estimation. The Red Fuji apple trees of full bearing fruit are the researching objects. Ninety apple trees canopies spectral reflectance and LAI values were measured by the ASD Fieldspec3 spectrometer and LAI-2200 in thirty orchards in constant two years in Qixia research area of Shandong Province. The optimal vegetation indices were selected by the method of correlation analysis of the original spectral reflectance and vegetation indices. The models of predicting the LAI were built with the multivariate regression analysis method of support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). The new vegetation indices, GNDVI527, ND-VI676, RVI682, FD-NVI656 and GRVI517 and the previous two main vegetation indices, NDVI670 and NDVI705, are in accordance with LAI. In the RF regression model, the calibration set decision coefficient C-R2 of 0.920 and validation set decision coefficient V-R2 of 0.889 are higher than the SVM regression model by 0.045 and 0.033 respectively. The root mean square error of calibration set C-RMSE of 0.249, the root mean square error validation set V-RMSE of 0.236 are lower than that of the SVM regression model by 0.054 and 0.058 respectively. Relative analysis of calibrating error C-RPD and relative analysis of validation set V-RPD reached 3.363 and 2.520, 0.598 and 0.262, respectively, which were higher than the SVM regression model. The measured and predicted the scatterplot trend line slope of the calibration set and validation set C-S and V-S are close to 1. The estimation result of RF regression model is better than that of the SVM. RF regression model can be used to estimate the LAI of red Fuji apple trees in full fruit period.
Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin
Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.
Novak, Ivana; Janeiro, Patricia; Seruga, Marijan; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria
Several flavonoids present in red grape skins from four varieties of Portuguese grapes were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD). Extraction of flavonoids from red grape skins was performed by ultrasonication, and hydrochloric acid in methanol was used as extraction solvent. The developed RP-HPLC method used combined isocratic and gradient elution with amperometric detection with a glassy carbon-working electrode. Good peak resolution was obtained following direct injection of a sample of red grape extract in a pH 2.20 mobile phase. Eleven different flavonoids: cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (kuromanin), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (myrtillin), petunidin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside (oenin), (+)-catechin, rutin, fisetin, myricetin, morin and quercetin, can be separated in a single run by direct injection of sample solution. The limit of detection obtained for these compounds by ECD was 20-90 pg/L, 1000 times lower when compared with photodiode array (PDA) limit of detection of 12-55 ng/L. RP-HPLC-ECD was characterized by an excellent sensitivity and selectivity, and appropriate for the simultaneous determination of these electroactive phenolic compounds present in red grape skins.
Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi
Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.
Jing, Chenjuan; Ma, Changqing; Zhang, Juan; Jing, Shujuan; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang
This study examined the effect of debagging time on color and flavor / taste compounds in the non-red apple cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ and red cultivar ‘Qinguan’ at mid and late stages of fruit development. Debagging briefly improved the red color in both cultivars, the peel of ‘Golden Delicious’ presenting pale-pink hue. However, rapid anthocyanin accumulation occurred in apple peel at a specific time (after 179 days after flowering (DAF) in ‘Qinguan’) and was unaltered by debagging time in the red cultivar ‘Qinguan’. Furthermore, untimely debagging had a detrimental effect on the content of anthocyanin. All sugars increased and organic acids decreased in apple pulp at mid to late stages of development. Bagging treatment reduced the content of most sugars and organic acids, as well as, the overall total. However, glucose and citric acid contents were higher in bagged fruit than non-bagged fruit; the maximum occurred in T7 treatment that was no-debagging at DAF 159 / 196 (‘Golden delicious’ / ‘Qinguan’), i.e., 24.35 and 0.07 mg g-1 FW in ‘Golden delicious’, and 38.86 and 0.06 mg g-1 FW in ‘Qinguan’, respectively. In a word, bagging treatment can alter the pattern of peel color development in apple fruit; however, it remains difficult to alter the timing of rapid anthocyanin accumulation as it is regulated solely by development. Moreover, bagging treatment reduced the total accumulation of sugars and organic acids, and even the over total in pulp, but increased the glucose and citric acid contents in apple pulp. PMID:27788164
Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre
The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)
Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W
Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that
Hendry, Archibald W.
Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…
Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Honda, Chikako; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya
Our studies showed that an apple B-box protein, MdCOL11, the homolog of AtBBX22, is involved in UV-B- and temperature-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple peel. Anthocyanin is responsible for the red pigmentation in apple peel and a R2R3 MYB gene, MdMYBA/1/10, a homolog of MdMYBA, controls its accumulation. Arabidopsis PAP1 is under the control of a series of upstream factors involved in light signal transduction and photomorphogenesis, such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and B-box family (BBX) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized the homolog of Arabidopsis BBX22 in apple, designated as MdCOL11. Overexpression of MdCOL11 in Arabidopsis enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. In apples, MdCOL11 was differentially expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in petals and the lowest expression in the xylem. Transcripts of MdCOL11 noticeably accumulated at the ripening stage, concomitant with increases in the expressions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In an in vitro treatment experiment, MdCOL11 was upregulated in an ultra-violet (UV)-B- and temperature-dependent manner, together with the inductions of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes and anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase assay indicated that (1) MdCOL11 regulated the expression of MdMYBA and (2) MdCOL11 was a target of MdHY5. Taken together, our results suggest that MdCOL11 is involved in MdHY5-mediated signal transduction and regulates anthocyanin accumulation in apple peel, which sheds new light on anthocyanin accumulation in apples.
Reinkensmeier, Annika; Steinbrenner, Katrin; Homann, Thomas; Bußler, Sara; Rohn, Sascha; Rawel, Hashadrai M
Minimally processed fruit products such as smoothies are increasingly coming into demand. However, they are often combined with dairy ingredients. In this combination, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and amino compounds could interact. In this work, a model approach is presented where apple serves as a source for a high polyphenoloxidase activity for modulating the reactions. The polyphenoloxidase activity ranged from 128 to 333nakt/mL in different apple varieties. From these, 'Braeburn' was found to provide the highest enzymatic activity. The formation and stability of resulting chromogenic conjugates was investigated. The results show that such adducts are not stable and possible degradation mechanisms leading to follow-up products formed are proposed. Finally, apple extracts were used to modify proteins and their functional properties characterized. There were retaining antioxidant properties inherent to phenolic compounds after adduct formation. Consequently, such interactions may also be utilized to improve the textural quality of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.
Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Inyang, U E; Abah, U J
Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.
Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing
Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.
Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Zhou, Ting
This study evaluated three UVC wavelengths (222, 254, and 282 nm) to degrade patulin introduced into apple juice or apple cider. The average UV fluences of 19.6, 84.3, 55.0, and 36.6 mJ·cm(-2) achieved through exposure to UV lamps at 222-, 254-, and 282-nm wavelengths and the combination of these wavelengths, respectively, resulted in 90% reduction of patulin in apple juice. Therefore, the order of efficiency of the three wavelength lamps was as follows: far UVC (222 nm) > far UVC plus (282 nm) > UVC (254 nm). In terms of color, treatment of apple juice with 222 nm resulted in an increase in the L* (lightness) value but decreases in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values, although the changes were insignificantly different from the values for nontreated controls based on a sensory evaluation. The ascorbic acid loss in juice treated at 222 nm to support 90% reduction of patulin was 36.5%, compared with ascorbic acid losses of 45.3 and 36.1% in samples treated at 254 and 282 nm, respectively. The current work demonstrated that the 222-nm wavelength possesses the highest efficiency for patulin reduction in apple juice when compared with the reductions by 254 and 282 nm, with no benefit gained from using a combination of wavelengths.
Shabtal Cohen; John Bennink; Mel Tyree
Studies showing that rootstock dwarfing potential is related to plant hydraulic conductance led to the hypothesis that xylem properties are also related. Vessel length distribution and other properties of apple wood from a series of varieties were measured using the 'air method' in order to test this hypothesis. Apparatus was built to measure and monitor...
Hao, Lu; Xie, Jipeng; Chen, Shanyi; Wang, Shaojie; Gong, Zhuoqun; Ling, Kai-Shu; Guo, Liyun; Fan, Zaifeng; Zhou, Tao
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, including Apple scar skin viroid, and Apple dimple fruit viroid. Together these viruses and viroids could cause serious damage to apple fruit production worldwide. Rapid and efficient detection methods are pivotal to identify and select the virus-free propagation material for healthy apple orchard management. In this study a multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of the three latent viruses and apscarviroids. With newly designed specific primers for ACLSV, ASGV, APSV, and EF-1α (as an internal control), and a pair of degenerate primers for apscarviroids, optimized parameters for multiplex RT-PCR were determined. The resulting PCR products from each target virus and viroid could be easily identified because their product sizes differ by at least a 100bp. The multiplex RT-PCR method is expected to detect different variants of the viruses as the test results showed that a variety of isolates from different regions in China gave positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this multiplex RT-PCR assay is the first to simultaneously detect multiple viruses and viroids infecting apple trees in a single reaction tube. This assay, therefore, offers a useful tool for routine certification and quarantine programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deutch, Charles E.
Many fruits and vegetables undergo browning when they are cut and the tissue is exposed to the air. This is due to the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 188.8.131.52) with endogenous substrates. In this laboratory experiment, students prepare slices of different varieties of apples and assess the rate of browning. They make a simple…
Unuk, Tatjana; Tijskens, L M M Pol; Germšek, Blaž; Zadravec, Peter; Vogrin, Andrej; Hribar, Janez; Simčič, Marjan; Tojnko, Stanislav
Homogeneity in appearance is one of the quality aspects asked for in the supply chain. Decreasing the biological variation in batches of harvested apples (cultivars Braeburn, Fuji and Gala) becomes increasingly important. Skin colour is one of the aspects that determine both optimal harvest and stage of development. Skin colour is affected by location in the canopy. The rules of development of biological variation are now established and will be used on skin colour data. The Minolta colour aspects a*, b* and L* measured before commercial harvest change in a sigmoidal fashion and can be analysed including the biological variation, with a logistic model in indexed nonlinear regression, obtaining explained parts of above 90%. The mechanism of colour change is not affected by state of development or location in the canopy. The location in the canopy affects the intensity of both red and green colouring compounds. The variation in colouration is not affected by the location in the canopy. The red-coloured apple cultivar (Gala) depends more on the location in the canopy than the less-coloured cultivars (Fuji and Braeburn). The colour development in Fuji apples is considerably slower, with a much larger variation in stage of development. The location in the canopy affects all aspects of biological variation (biological shift factor and asymptotic starting level of colouration) for all three colour aspects L*, a* and b*, but only the mean value, not the standard deviation. The biological shift factors per colour aspects are linearly related. Once induced, variation remains constant during development. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lorenzini, Marilinda; Simonato, Barbara; Zapparoli, Giacomo
Identification of yeasts isolated from apple juices of two cider houses (one located in a plain area and one in an alpine area) was carried out by culture-based method. Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar was used as medium for isolation and preliminary yeasts identification. A total of 20 species of yeasts belonging to ten different genera were identified using both BLAST algorithm for pairwise sequence comparison and phylogenetic approaches. A wide variety of non-Saccharomyces species was found. Interestingly, Candida railenensis, Candida cylindracea, Hanseniaspora meyeri, Hanseniaspora pseudoguilliermondii, and Metschnikowia sinensis were recovered for the first time in the yeast community of an apple environment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a better resolution in identifying Metschnikowia and Moesziomyces isolates than comparative analysis using the GenBank or YeastIP gene databases. This study provides important data on yeast microbiota of apple juice and evidenced differences between two geographical cider production areas in terms of species composition.
Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney
Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).
There are several Central Asian Malus species and varieties in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) apple collection. Malus sieversii is the most comprehensively collected species native to Central Asia. Other taxa such as M. sieversii var. kirghisorum, M. sieversii var. turkmenorum, ...
Hyson, Dianne A.
There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082
Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.
IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant
Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...
Mpai, Semkaleng; du Preez, Rosemary; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Sivakumar, Dharini
Current study was initiated to identify the phytochemicals and the nutritional profile of eleven Kei-apple fruit accessions. Accession FH29 showed the highest level (492.45 mg 100 g -1 fresh weight) of total phenolic content, higher than the referral fruit, blueberry. Pyrogallol was identified as the predominant phenolic compound in all accessions. Accession FH 29 showed the highest (49.75 µmol TEAC g -1 fresh weight) antioxidant capacity. Catechin content was higher in accessions; FH151, FH15, FH14, FH29, FH243, FH 239 and FH 231. Accessions, FH14 and FH232 exhibited higher levels of β-carotene than the referral fruit apples (cv. Top red) and peaches (cv. Excellence). The total sugar (glucose and fructose) was highest (50 mg g -1 fresh weight) in accession FH240. Asparagine (3122.18 mg L -1 ) and gamma-aminobutyric (1688.87 mg L -1 ) were higher in accessions FH239 and FH243 respectively. Overall, the accession Kei-apple FH236 can be regarded as a good source of essential amino acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schlenker, Richard M.
This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to packages...
Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consump...
Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.
Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751
Tyler, Nancy; Stushnoff, Cecil; Gusta, Larry V.
Various empirical prefreezing protocols have been used to facilitate cryopreservation of dormant buds from woody plants. The objective of this research was to determine the quantity of water remaining in liquid phase, under different prefreezing conditions using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of dormant apple (Malus domestica Mill.) buds from three cultivars. During prefreezing, the quantity of water remaining in the liquid phase was less at −40°C<−30°C<−20°C for all cultivars tested. The prefreezing temperature had a greater influence on reducing the quantity of liquid water than the duration of prefreezing. Prefreezing to −40°C for 24 hours was optimal for `Patterson' and `McIntosh,' the hardiest cultivars, compared to −30°C for 24 hours with `Red Delicious.' Cryopreservation of dormant apple buds depends upon the quantity of liquid water during prefreezing, prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen, and upon the cultivar. PMID:16666103
Buta, J G; Moline, H E; Spaulding, D W; Wang, C Y
Prevention of browning of apples slices has been difficult to achieve because of the rapidity of the enzymatic oxidation of phenolic substrates even under reduced atmospheric pressure storage. Combinations of enzymatic inhibitors, reducing agents, and antimicrobial compounds containing calcium to extend storage life were tested to decrease the browning of Red Delicious apple slices stored at 5 and 10 degrees C under normal atmospheric conditions. Treatments were devised to prevent browning for up to 5 weeks at 5 degrees C with no apparent microbial growth using dipping solutions of compounds derived from natural products consisting of 4-hexylresorcinol, isoascorbic acid, a sulfur-containing amino acid (N-acetylcysteine), and calcium propionate. Analyses of organic acids and the major sugars revealed that the slices treated with the combinations of antibrowning compounds retained higher levels of malic acid and had no deterioration in sugar levels at 5 and 10 degrees C, indicating that higher quality was maintained during storage.
Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E
Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P<.001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at
Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel
The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.
Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan
Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081
Dana, Hod; Mohar, Boaz; Sun, Yi; Narayan, Sujatha; Gordus, Andrew; Hasseman, Jeremy P; Tsegaye, Getahun; Holt, Graham T; Hu, Amy; Walpita, Deepika; Patel, Ronak; Macklin, John J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Ahrens, Misha B; Schreiter, Eric R; Jayaraman, Vivek; Looger, Loren L; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S
Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) allow measurement of activity in large populations of neurons and in small neuronal compartments, over times of milliseconds to months. Although GFP-based GECIs are widely used for in vivo neurophysiology, GECIs with red-shifted excitation and emission spectra have advantages for in vivo imaging because of reduced scattering and absorption in tissue, and a consequent reduction in phototoxicity. However, current red GECIs are inferior to the state-of-the-art GFP-based GCaMP6 indicators for detecting and quantifying neural activity. Here we present improved red GECIs based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a), with sensitivity comparable to GCaMP6. We characterized the performance of the new red GECIs in cultured neurons and in mouse, Drosophila, zebrafish and C. elegans in vivo. Red GECIs facilitate deep-tissue imaging, dual-color imaging together with GFP-based reporters, and the use of optogenetics in combination with calcium imaging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12727.001 PMID:27011354
Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.
Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus× domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors. PMID:23585922
Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne
Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.
Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu
This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 μg/mL), while the white variety (90.5 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 μg/mL). However, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their α-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent.
Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia
Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid < total procyanidins < dihydrochalcones and p-coumaric acid < chlorogenic acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.
Jia, Mengfan; Ren, Daoyuan; Nie, Yan; Yang, Xingbin
This study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of Red Fuji apple peel polyphenolic extract (APP) on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver injury in mice fed a high choline diet. The mice were fed 3% dietary choline in drinking water for 8 weeks and displayed vascular dysfunction and liver damage (p < 0.01). The administration of APP at 600 and 900 mg per kg bw significantly elevated serum NO, HDL and 6-Keto-PGF1a levels and lowered serum TC, TG, LDL, ET-1 and TXB2 levels in the HC-fed mice. Besides, APP also caused the reduction of AST, ALT activities and MDA, CRP, TNF-α levels, and increased the hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities of the HC-fed mice. Furthermore, the histopathology of the liver by conventional H&E and oil red O staining confirmed the liver steatosis induced by a choline diet and the hepatoprotective effect of APP. The experiment results indicated that the polyphenolic extract from apple peel might be regarded as a preventive and therapeutic product for the amelioration of HC diet-induced vascular dysfunction and hepatic injury.
Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Driedonks, Nicky; Lewis, David; Shumskaya, Maria; Chen, Xiuyin; Wurtzel, Eleanore T; Espley, Richard V; Allan, Andrew C
Carotenoid compounds play essential roles in plants such as protecting the photosynthetic apparatus and in hormone signalling. Coloured carotenoids provide yellow, orange and red colour to plant tissues, as well as offering nutritional benefit to humans and animals. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY) catalyses the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and has been associated with control of pathway flux. We characterised four PSY genes found in the apple genome to further understand their involvement in fruit carotenoid accumulation. The apple PSY gene family, containing six members, was predicted to have three functional members, PSY1, PSY2, and PSY4, based on translation of the predicted gene sequences and/or corresponding cDNAs. However, only PSY1 and PSY2 showed activity in a complementation assay. Protein localisation experiments revealed differential localization of the PSY proteins in chloroplasts; PSY1 and PSY2 localized to the thylakoid membranes, while PSY4 localized to plastoglobuli. Transcript levels in 'Granny Smith' and 'Royal Gala' apple cultivars showed PSY2 was most highly expressed in fruit and other vegetative tissues. We tested the transient activation of the apple PSY1 and PSY2 promoters and identified potential and differential regulation by AP2/ERF transcription factors, which suggested that the PSY genes are controlled by different transcriptional mechanisms. The first committed carotenoid pathway step in apple is controlled by MdPSY1 and MdPSY2, while MdPSY4 play little or no role in this respect. This has implications for apple breeding programmes where carotenoid enhancement is a target and would allow co-segregation with phenotypes to be tested during the development of new cultivars.
Chagné, David; Gasic, Ksenija; Crowhurst, Ross N; Han, Yuepeng; Bassett, Heather C; Bowatte, Deepa R; Lawrence, Timothy J; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Gardiner, Susan E; Korban, Schuyler S
Molecular markers associated with gene coding regions are useful tools for bridging functional and structural genomics. Due to their high abundance in plant genomes, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are present within virtually all genomic regions, including most coding sequences. The objective of this study was to develop a set of SNPs for the apple by taking advantage of the wealth of genomics resources available for the apple, including a large collection of expressed sequenced tags (ESTs). Using bioinformatics tools, a search for SNPs within an EST database of approximately 350,000 sequences developed from a variety of apple accessions was conducted. This resulted in the identification of a total of 71,482 putative SNPs. As the apple genome is reported to be an ancient polyploid, attempts were made to verify whether those SNPs detected in silico were attributable either to allelic polymorphisms or to gene duplication or paralogous or homeologous sequence variations. To this end, a set of 464 PCR primer pairs was designed, PCR was amplified using two subsets of plants, and the PCR products were sequenced. The SNPs retrieved from these sequences were then mapped onto apple genetic maps, including a newly constructed map of a Royal Gala x A689-24 cross and a Malling 9 x Robusta 5, map using a bin mapping strategy. The SNP genotyping was performed using the high-resolution melting (HRM) technique. A total of 93 new markers containing 210 coding SNPs were successfully mapped. This new set of SNP markers for the apple offers new opportunities for understanding the genetic control of important horticultural traits using quantitative trait loci (QTL) or linkage disequilibrium analysis. These also serve as useful markers for aligning physical and genetic maps, and as potential transferable markers across the Rosaceae family.
Schlenker, Richard M.
This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…
Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.
The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.
Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure
Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively. Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:23579100
Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure
Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively. Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.
Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Mohanty, Indira P; Noratto, Giuliana D
The health benefits of apple bioactive compounds have been extensively reported. However, only few studies have focused on bioactive compounds that are not absorbed and metabolised during gastrointestinal digestion and can induce changes in microbial populations of faeces. We have characterised Braeburn, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, McIntosh and Red Delicious cultivars and found significant differences for extractable phenolics (1.08-9.2mg/g) non-extractable proanthocyanidins (3.28-5.7mg/g), and dietary fibre (20.6-32.2%) among cultivars with Granny Smith having the highest contents. Granny Smith was used after in vitro digestion for fermentation of faeces from diet-induced obese mice. Results showed that relative abundances of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Bifidobacterium in apple cultured faeces tended to resemble the abundance in faeces from lean mice with increased trend in the production of butyric acid. These results suggest that apple non-digestible compounds might help to re-establish a disturbed microbiota balance in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roe, Mark A; Collings, Rachel; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J
Food iron fortification is a sustainable and relatively simple strategy to reduce/prevent iron deficiency but is a challenge for the food industry because of possible adverse organoleptic changes caused by the added iron. A micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate, trademarked as SunActive Fe, has recently been developed. SunActive Fe has a small particle size, is water soluble and may be suitable for fortifying liquid products. To determine the relative bioavailability of SunActive Fe and its suitability for addition to pure apple juice. Iron absorption from SunActive Fe added to pure apple juice (Minute Maid) was compared with absorption from ferrous sulphate, a highly bioavailable form of iron, in 15 women with relatively low iron stores. Both forms of iron were enriched with an iron stable isotope and iron absorption from the apple juice drinks was calculated from the isotopic enrichment of red blood cells 14 days after the last test meal. Although mean absorption of iron from SunActive Fe was significantly lower than from ferrous sulphate (5.5% compared with 9.1%), the mean bioavailability of SunActive Fe iron relative to ferrous sulphate was 0.6, indicating that it is a good source of bioavailable iron. Iron Absorption from SunActive Fe was positively correlated (r = 0.97, P = 0.01) with absorption from ferrous sulphate, and negatively correlated with serum ferritin concentration (ferrous sulphate r = -0.81, P < 0.001; SunActive Fe r = -0.76, P = 0.01). SunActive Fe was well absorbed from apple juice and is a potentially useful fortificant for liquid food products.
Longhi, Sara; Hamblin, Martha T; Trainotti, Livio; Peace, Cameron P; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio
Apple is a widely cultivated fruit crop for its quality properties and extended storability. Among the several quality factors, texture is the most important and appreciated, and within the apple variety panorama the cortex texture shows a broad range of variability. Anatomically these variations depend on degradation events occurring in both fruit primary cell wall and middle lamella. This physiological process is regulated by an enzymatic network generally encoded by large gene families, among which polygalacturonase is devoted to the depolymerization of pectin. In apple, Md-PG1, a key gene belonging to the polygalacturonase gene family, was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-localized within the statistical interval of a major hot spot QTL associated to several fruit texture sub-phenotypes. In this work, a QTL corresponding to the position of Md-PG1 was validated and new functional alleles associated to the fruit texture properties in 77 apple cultivars were discovered. 38 SNPs genotyped by gene full length resequencing and 2 SSR markers ad hoc targeted in the gene metacontig were employed. Out of this SNP set, eleven were used to define three significant haplotypes statistically associated to several texture components. The impact of Md-PG1 in the fruit cell wall disassembly was further confirmed by the cortex structure electron microscope scanning in two apple varieties characterized by opposite texture performance, such as 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith'. The results here presented step forward into the genetic dissection of fruit texture in apple. This new set of haplotypes, and microsatellite alleles, can represent a valuable toolbox for a more efficient parental selection as well as the identification of new apple accessions distinguished by superior fruit quality features.
Background Apple is a widely cultivated fruit crop for its quality properties and extended storability. Among the several quality factors, texture is the most important and appreciated, and within the apple variety panorama the cortex texture shows a broad range of variability. Anatomically these variations depend on degradation events occurring in both fruit primary cell wall and middle lamella. This physiological process is regulated by an enzymatic network generally encoded by large gene families, among which polygalacturonase is devoted to the depolymerization of pectin. In apple, Md-PG1, a key gene belonging to the polygalacturonase gene family, was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-localized within the statistical interval of a major hot spot QTL associated to several fruit texture sub-phenotypes. Results In this work, a QTL corresponding to the position of Md-PG1 was validated and new functional alleles associated to the fruit texture properties in 77 apple cultivars were discovered. 38 SNPs genotyped by gene full length resequencing and 2 SSR markers ad hoc targeted in the gene metacontig were employed. Out of this SNP set, eleven were used to define three significant haplotypes statistically associated to several texture components. The impact of Md-PG1 in the fruit cell wall disassembly was further confirmed by the cortex structure electron microscope scanning in two apple varieties characterized by opposite texture performance, such as ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Granny Smith’. Conclusions The results here presented step forward into the genetic dissection of fruit texture in apple. This new set of haplotypes, and microsatellite alleles, can represent a valuable toolbox for a more efficient parental selection as well as the identification of new apple accessions distinguished by superior fruit quality features. PMID:23496960
Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I
Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B
Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Daramola, Michael; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny
Cashew apple juice (CAJ) is one of the feedstocks used for biofuel production and ethanol yield depends on the physical and chemical properties of the extracted juice. As far as can be ascertained, information on physical and chemical properties of South African cashew apple juice is limited in open literature. Therefore, this study provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the South African cashew apple juice. Physicochemical characteristics of the juice, such as specific gravity, pH, sugars, condensed tannins, Vitamin C, minerals, and total protein, were measured from a mixed variety of cashew apples. Analytical results showed the CAJ possesses specific gravity and pH of 1.050 and 4.52, respectively. The highest sugars were glucose (40.56 gL−1) and fructose (57.06 gL−1). Other chemical compositions of the juice were condensed tannin (55.34 mgL−1), Vitamin C (112 mg/100 mL), and total protein (1.78 gL−1). The minerals content was as follows: zinc (1.39 ppm), copper (2.18 ppm), magnesium (4.32 ppm), iron (1.32 ppm), sodium (5.44 ppm), and manganese (1.24 ppm). With these findings, South African CAJ is a suitable biomass feedstock for ethanol production. PMID:26345160
Waldbauer, Katharina; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Kopp, Brigitte
Apple pomace is a waste product of the apple manufacturing industry that has been in the focus of life sciences as it represents a low-cost source of fruit-derived compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects, and therefore, apple pomace and its constituents raise therapeutic interest. The present work reviews (i) the chemical constituents of apple pomace, (ii) optimized extraction methods of apple pomace compounds, and (iii) biological activities of apple pomace. Current evidence of apple pomace influence on digestion and metabolism, cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis, diabetes, and sex hormones is summarized. Furthermore, studies regarding its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antibacterial and antiviral effects are presented. The review concludes that apple pomace is an underutilized waste product of the apple industry with the potential of being processed for its nutritional and pharmaceutical value. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Malnoy, Mickael; Viola, Roberto; Jung, Min-Hee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Velasco, Riccardo; Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda
The combined availability of whole genome sequences and genome editing tools is set to revolutionize the field of fruit biotechnology by enabling the introduction of targeted genetic changes with unprecedented control and accuracy, both to explore emergent phenotypes and to introduce new functionalities. Although plasmid-mediated delivery of genome editing components to plant cells is very efficient, it also presents some drawbacks, such as possible random integration of plasmid sequences in the host genome. Additionally, it may well be intercepted by current process-based GMO regulations, complicating the path to commercialization of improved varieties. Here, we explore direct delivery of purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to the protoplast of grape cultivar Chardonnay and apple cultivar such as Golden delicious fruit crop plants for efficient targeted mutagenesis. We targeted MLO-7 , a susceptible gene in order to increase resistance to powdery mildew in grape cultivar and DIPM-1, DIPM-2 , and DIPM-4 in the apple to increase resistance to fire blight disease. Furthermore, efficient protoplast transformation, the molar ratio of Cas9 and sgRNAs were optimized for each grape and apple cultivar. The targeted mutagenesis insertion and deletion rate was analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. Our results demonstrate that direct delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs to the protoplast system enables targeted gene editing and paves the way to the generation of DNA-free genome edited grapevine and apple plants.
de Groot, H; de Jong, N W; Vuijk, M H; Gerth van Wijk, R
This study aimed, first, to study the prevalence in The Netherlands of atopy caused by apple, peach, and hazelnut in patients with tree pollinosis, and, second, to compare three extraction procedures for skin prick testing with two different apple strains. Skin prick tests and RAST were performed on 79 consecutive patients with tree pollinosis, visiting the department of allergology during spring 1995. In skin prick tests, we used three different extracts (juice, freeze-dried extract, and low-temperature acetone powder extract) of two apple strains, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith. Case histories for apple, peach, and hazelnut were positive in 35 (44.3%), 23 (29%), and 35 (44.3%) patients, respectively. More than two-thirds of the patients had symptoms characteristic of oral allergy syndrome. Skin prick tests for apple, peach, and hazelnut were positive in 51 (64.6%), 61 (77.2%), and 71 (89.9%) patients, respectively. Granny Smith showed more positive skin reactions and a better agreement with clinical history than Golden Delicious, and juice was superior to the two other extraction procedures for both apple strains. RAST for apple, peach, and hazelnut was positive in 53 (68.8%), 13 (16.9%), and 31 (40.3%) patients, respectively. Concordance between skin prick test and case history was found in 77%, 52%, and 54%, for apple, peach, and hazelnut, respectively. We found a high percentage of concurrence of clinical allergy to birch pollen and apple, peach, and hazelnut, confirmed by both skin prick testing and RAST. Approximately half of these patients had symptoms (especially oral allergy syndrome) after eating these products. We also found an easy extraction procedure (juice extract) suitable for apple skin prick testing, superior even to freeze-dried extraction or the low-temperature acetone powder technique.
Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M
Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather.
Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira
Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.
Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru
Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar
This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P < 0.05) and reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P < 0.05). Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of CR and BR was not affected by the presence of soil, whereas the efficacy of TC and BR was decreased in the presence of soil. Further, no bacteria were detected in the wash solution containing CR and BR; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in the control wash water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned PDAs, especially CR and BR could be used effectively to kill E. coli O157:H7 on apples when used as a wash treatment. Studies on the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with PDAs are needed before recommending their usage. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Mai, Huy; Trucksess, Mary W
A dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine patulin in apple juice and apple-based food. Different dopants, dopant flow rates, and LC separation conditions were evaluated. Using toluene as the dopant, the LC-APPI-MS/MS method achieved a linear calibration from 12.5 to 2000 μg/L (r(2) > 0.99). Matrix-dependent limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 8 μg/L (solvent) to 12 μg/L (apple juice). [(13)C]-Patulin-fortified apple juice samples were directly analyzed by the LC-APPI-MS/MS method. Other apple-based food was fortified with [(13)C]-patulin, diluted using water (1% formic acid), centrifuged, and filtered, followed by LC-APPI-MS/MS analysis. In clear apple juice, unfiltered apple cider, applesauce, and apple-based baby food, average recoveries were 101 ± 6% (50 μg/kg), 103 ± 5% (250 μg/kg), and 102 ± 5% (1000 μg/kg) (av ± SD, n = 16). Using the suggested method, patulin was detected in 3 of 30 collected market samples with concentrations ranging from
Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J
Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.
The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.
Woolley, D. W.
A substance was demonstrated in erythrocytes which antagonized the inhibiting effect of apple pectin on influenza virus hemagglutination. This substance was purified and found to be a water-soluble material, rather labile, and with some properties which suggested that it contained a polysaccharide. It was destroyed in vitro by highly purified preparations of the virus. It occurred in greatest amount in human erythrocytes and to a lesser extent in the red cells of species not susceptible to the virus. It was also found in normal rabbit serum. Calcium ions were found to be essential to the action of apple pectin in causing inhibition of virus hemagglutination. A second substance was purified from an alkaline extract of erythrocytes, and shown likewise to have an effect antagonistic to that of pectin. However, this latter material was not destroyed by the virus, and seemed to owe its effect to the binding of calcium ions. PMID:18099162
Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...
Qu, Dong; Yan, Fei; Meng, Rui; Jiang, Xiaobing; Yang, Huijuan; Gao, Ziyi; Dong, Yonghui; Yang, Yazhou; Zhao, Zhengyang
Bagged fruits of green apple cultivar “Granny Smith” have been found to turn cardinal red after debagging during fruit-ripening in the Loess Plateau region of China. To understand this phenomenon at post-transcriptional level, we have investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to debagging. Three small RNA libraries were primarily constructed from peels of “Granny Smith” apples subjected to bagging followed by sunlight re-exposure treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day) (debagging), and from peels of apples without any bagging treatments (0, 6 h, 1 day). 201 known miRNAs belonging to 43 miRNA families and 220 novel miRNAs were identified via high-throughput sequencing. Some miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed after debagging, which indicated that miRNAs affected anthocyanin accumulation through their target genes in mature apple. To further explore the effect of debagging on miRNAs regulating the expression of anthocyanin regulatory genes, four miRNAs and their target genes regulating anthocyanin accumulation, miR156, miR828, miR858, and miR5072, were compared between green cultivar “Granny Smith” and red cultivar “Starkrimson.” Results showed that mdm-miR828 and mdm-miR858 regulated anthocyanin contents in both apple cultivars, while mdm-miR156 only affected anthocyanin accumulation in “Granny Smith,” and miR5072 affected anthocyanin accumulation in “Starkrimson.” Additional analysis of gene ontology for the differentially expressed miRNAs after debagging treatments and their predicted target genes showed that they were involved in photo-protective response after debagging from 0 h to 1 day; they might play important roles in fruit development and adaptation to high light stress. PMID:26870053
Berrueta, Luis A; Sasía-Arriba, Andrea; Miñarro, Marcos; Antón, María J; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Micheletti, Diego; Gallo, Blanca; Dapena, Enrique
The phenolic profiles of apple cultivars from the SERIDA Asturian cider apple breeding program, including parents and progenies, were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight/mass spectrometer in order to study the relationship between phenols and the resistance of apple tree cultivars to rosy apple aphid (RAA). A pattern recognition technique named partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify apple cultivars based on resistance to RAA, resistant and susceptible, reaching scores with accuracy higher than 97% and 91% respectively. Hydroxycinnamic acids, particularly 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA) and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid (4-pCoQA), were identified as the major player in RAA resistance by the PLS-DA model. Indeed, the isomerisation 5-CQA → 4-CQA is favoured in resistant cultivars, whereas the isomerisation 5-pCoQA → 4-pCoQA is favoured in susceptible cultivars. As a result, resistant cultivars accumulate higher amounts of 4-CQA than susceptible ones, and the opposite occurs for 4-pCoQA. Also, minor isomerisations of 5-CQA to 1-CQA or 3-CQA show opposite behaviour for resistant and susceptible cultivars. Cultivar resistance to RAA is concluded to be related with the phenylpropanoid pathway, the isomerisation reactions being the key metabolic reaction for a cultivar to be resistant or susceptible to RAA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jia; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Norelli, John; Burchard, Erik; Schena, Leonardo; Droby, Samir; Wisniewski, Michael
High-throughput amplicon sequencing spanning conserved portions of microbial genomes (16s rRNA and ITS) was used in the present study to describe the endophytic microbiota associated with three apple varieties, "Royal Gala," "Golden Delicious," and "Honey Crisp," and two rootstocks, M.9 and M.M.111. The objectives were to (1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties and (2) determine if specific rootstock-scion combinations influence the microbiota composition of either component. Results indicated that Ascomycota (47.8%), Zygomycota (31.1%), and Basidiomycota (11.6%) were the dominant fungal phyla across all samples. The majority of bacterial sequences were assigned to Proteobacteria (58.4%), Firmicutes (23.8%), Actinobacteria (7.7%), Bacteroidetes (2%), and Fusobacteria (0.4%). Rootstocks appeared to influence the microbiota of associated grafted scion, but the effect was not statistically significant. Pedigree also had an impact on the composition of the endophytic microbiota, where closely-related cultivars had a microbial community that was more similar to each other than it was to a scion cultivar that was more distantly-related by pedigree. The more vigorous rootstock (M.M.111) was observed to possess a greater number of growth-promoting bacterial taxa, relative to the dwarfing rootstock (M.9). The mechanism by which an apple genotype, either rootstock or scion, has a determinant effect on the composition of a microbial community is not known. The similarity of the microbiota in samples with a similar pedigree suggests the possibility of some level of co-evolution or selection as proposed by the "holobiont" concept in which metaorganisms have co-evolved. Clearly, however, the present information is only suggestive, and a more comprehensive analysis is needed.
... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...
Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T
Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.
Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili
Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungi–host co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity. PMID:24834333
Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L
We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of apples...
Wilson, D. M.; Nuovo, G. J.
Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by P. expansum will contain patulin which may present a health hazard. The results also suggest that patulin may be important in the decay of apples by P. expansum. PMID:4726831
Tan, Yinfei; You, Huihong; Wu, Chao; Altomare, Deborah A.; Testa, Joseph R.
The adaptor protein APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology (PH), phosphotyrosine binding (PTB), and leucine zipper motifs) was first identified as a binding protein of AKT2 by yeast two-hybrid screening. APPL1 was subsequently found to bind to several membrane-bound receptors and was implicated in their signal transduction through AKT and/or MAPK pathways. To determine the unambiguous role of Appl1 in vivo, we generated Appl1 knock-out mice. Here we report that Appl1 knock-out mice are viable and fertile. Appl1-null mice were born at expected Mendelian ratios, without obvious phenotypic abnormalities. Moreover, Akt activity in various fetal tissues was unchanged compared with that observed in wild-type littermates. Studies of isolated Appl1−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed that Akt activation by epidermal growth factor, insulin, or fetal bovine serum was similar to that observed in wild-type MEFs, although Akt activation by HGF was diminished in Appl1−/− MEFs. To rule out a possible redundant role played by the related Appl2, we used small interfering RNA to knock down Appl2 expression in Appl1−/− MEFs. Unexpectedly, cell survival was unaffected under normal culture conditions, and activation of Akt was unaltered following epidermal growth factor stimulation, although Akt activity did decrease further after HGF stimulation. Furthermore, we found that Appl proteins are required for HGF-induced cell survival and migration via activation of Akt. Our studies suggest that Appl1 is dispensable for development and only participate in Akt signaling under certain conditions. PMID:20040596
Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388
Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko
Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding.
Shammugasamy, Balakrishnan; Ramakrishnan, Yogeshini; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah
The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg⁻¹. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black-pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol than non-pigmented rice and red-pigmented rice. Red-pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non-pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non-pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black-pigmented rice. γ-Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound-rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I
Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.
Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo
Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895
Pinzon, NM; Aukema, KG; Gralnick, JA
A method for use in high-throughput screening of bacteria for the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and ketones by monitoring fluorescent light emission in the presence of Nile red is described. Nile red has previously been used to screen for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and fatty acid esters, but this is the first report of screening for recombinant bacteria making hydrocarbons or ketones. The microtiter plate assay was evaluated using wild-type and recombinant strains of Shewanella oneidensis and Escherichia coli expressing the enzyme OleA, previously shown to initiate hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The strains expressing exogenous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia oleA, with increased levels of ketone productionmore » as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were distinguished with Nile red fluorescence. Confocal microscopy images of S. oneidensis oleA-expressing strains stained with Nile red were consistent with a membrane localization of the ketones. This differed from Nile red staining of bacterial PHB or algal lipid droplets that showed intracellular inclusion bodies. These results demonstrated the applicability of Nile red in a high-throughput technique for the detection of bacterial hydrocarbons and ketones. IMPORTANCE In recent years, there has been renewed interest in advanced biofuel sources such as bacterial hydrocarbon production. Previous studies used solvent extraction of bacterial cultures followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantify ketones and hydrocarbons (Beller HR, Goh EB, Keasling JD, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 1212-1223, 2010; Sukovich DJ, Seffernick JL, Richman JE, Gralnick JA, Wackett LP, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 3850-3862, 2010). While these analyses are powerful and accurate, their labor-intensive nature makes them intractable to high-throughput screening; therefore, methods for rapid identification of bacterial strains that are overproducing hydrocarbons are needed. The use of high
Cano-Sancho, G; Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V
This study was conducted to assess patulin exposure in the Catalonian population. Patulin levels were determined in 161 apple juice samples, 77 solid apple-based food samples and 146 apple-based baby food samples obtained from six hypermarkets and supermarkets from twelve main cities of Catalonia, Spain. Patulin was analysed by a well-established validated method involving ethyl acetate extraction and direct analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light detection. Mean patulin levels for positive samples in apple juice, solid apple-based food and apple-based baby food were 8.05, 13.54 and 7.12 µg kg(-1), respectively. No samples exceeded the maximum permitted levels established by European Union regulation. Dietary intake was separately assessed for babies, infants and adults through a Food Frequency Questionnaire developed from 1056 individuals from Catalonia. Babies were the main group exposed to patulin, however no risk was detected at these levels of contamination. Adults and infants consumers were far from risk levels. Another approach to determine estimated exposure was conducted through Monte Carlo simulation that distinguishes variability in exposures from uncertainty of distributional parameter estimates.
Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Semik-Szczurak, Dorota
Style and pace of life make consumers more willing to reach for snack products. This group of processed food includes, among others, fruit chips. Due to the increasing incidence of diseases associated with the excessive exposure to free radicals foods enriched with antioxidant compounds, eg. polyphenols, can be introduced into the sale. The aim of the study was to use the fruit extracts for the production of apple chips with enhanced antioxidant activity. ‘Golden Delicious’ variety of apple fruit was used to produce chips. Apple chips were prepared by slicing, soaking in a sugar solution and pre-drying in a microwave oven. Chips were enriched with extracts prepared from fruits of chokeberry, five-flavor berry, Cornelian cherry, woodland hawthorn, goji berry, Japanese quince and cranberry microcarpa. For this purpose, pre-dried apple slices were soaked (5 min) in ethanolic extract of fruits and then dried to achieve a 5% moisture content. Chips were sensory evaluated and their antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content were determined. All enriched apple chips were characterized by high antioxidant activity and a relatively high value of total polyphenols content. Chips soaked in extracts of five-flavor berry, cranberry and goji berry were characterized by the highest antioxidant potential. Samples obtained by using chokeberry and Cornelian cherry extracts showed the highest content of polyphenols. High sensory attractiveness of enriched chips was also showed. The chips with the addition of fiveflavor berry extract were exceptions. Their taste was not acceptable. Fruit extracts are a valuable material for chips enrichment. Taking into account all the analyzed differentiators, extracts of Japanese quince, goji berry and woodland hawthorn were found to be the best enriching additives. The chips soaked in extract of five-flavor berry, despite their high antioxidant activity, were disqualified due to very low score of sensory evaluation.
Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)
Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach
The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...
A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...
Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram
Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...
Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J
The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties.
Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi
For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g
... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...
Omasheva, M E; Chekalin, S V; Galiakparov, N N
The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination ofthe wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.704; PIC = 0.752; I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel'bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical.
Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert
Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C
RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.
Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C.
RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent. PMID:22949844
Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M
The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
The structure of fruit peel of two apple varieties 'Szampion' and 'Jonagold' was investigated using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were taken immediately after harvest and after 6-month controlled atmosphere storage. The Szampion and Jonagold fruit differed in terms of the surface type, number of lenticels, thickness of the cuticular epithelium, height of epidermal cells and thickness of the hypodermis as well as the amount of crystalline wax and the number of microcracks formed on the fruit surface. The 6-month storage resulted in fruit weight loss, increased numbers and depth of microcracks, thickening of the amorphous wax layer and enhanced production of platelet forms of crystalline wax, which filled the microcracks abundantly. Compared with Jonagold, the Szampion fruit exhibited a fewer lenticels, a bigger number of microcracks, smaller amounts of crystalline wax and more substantial weight loss. The apple varieties studied had a reticulate-lamellate cuticle, and at harvest, the epidermal and hypodermal cells contained numerous amyloplasts filled with starch grains, which were not found after the storage period. Additionally, after storage, the cell protoplasts in the apple peel displayed a disorganised structure, and their vacuoles contained fragments of cell membranes, intravacuolar precipitates and deposits, and spherical bodies. The results may facilitate better understanding of changes occurring in fruits of Szampion and Jonagold during storage and help choose the best storage conditions to reduce loss of weight and prevent impairment of fruit quality.
Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Gleave, Andrew P
Apple acetolactate synthase mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and successfully used as selection marker in tobacco and apple transformation. T-DNA/Apple genome junctions were analysed using genome-walking PCR and sequencing. An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system was developed for apple (Malus × domestica), using mutants of apple acetolactate synthase (ALS) as a selectable marker. Four apple ALS mutants were generated by site-specific mutagenesis and subsequently cloned under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter and ocs 3' terminator, in a pART27-derived plant transformation vector. Three of the four mutations were found to confer resistance to the herbicide Glean(®), containing the active agent chlorsulfuron, in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformation. In apple transformation, leaf explants infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 containing one of the three ALS mutants resulted in the production of shoots on medium containing 2-8 μg L(-1) Glean(®), whilst uninfected wild-type explants failed to regenerate shoots or survive on medium containing 1 and 3 μg L(-1) Glean(®), respectively. Glean(®)-resistant, regenerated shoots were further multiplied and rooted on medium containing 10 μg L(-1) Glean(®). The T-DNA and apple genome-DNA junctions from eight rooted transgenic apple plants were analysed using genome-walking PCR amplification and sequencing. This analysis confirmed T-DNA integration into the apple genome, identified the genome integration sites and revealed the extent of any vector backbone integration, T-DNA rearrangements and deletions of apple genome DNA at the sites of integration.
Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A
Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.
Joshi, A P K; Rupasinghe, H P V; Pitts, N L
The study was carried out to evaluate the selected quality attributes of a prototype nonfried apple snack produced by application of vacuum impregnation (VI) of maple syrup and vacuum drying. When maple syrup concentration was adjusted to 20-40% in the VI solution, vacuum-dried apple slices are resulted in the greatest textural attributes, whiteness index, and desirable moisture content and water activity. Comparison of the VI-treated, vacuum-dried apple slices with commercially fried apple and potato snacks revealed that the consumer acceptability was greater for the fried snack products due to their flavor and texture; however, in addition to higher oil content (>30%), commercial fried apple and potato snacks possessed lower antioxidant capacity than nonfried apple snacks. VI process enhanced the calcium content of the nonfried apple snack products.
Anthocyanins consist of a 2-phenylbenzopyrylium moiety with a variety of polyhydroxyl, polymethoxyl, and glycosolated substituents. Their presence is responsible for the red to purplish colors associated with fresh fruits and berries. There is currently a strong interest in these compounds because...
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore
Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P < 0.001). Our data would reasonably indicate Annurca apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W
Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.
Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.
Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639
Pérez-Romero, L F; Suárez, M P; Dapena, E; Rallo, P
The number of local and traditional fruit cultivars in Andalusia (Southern Spain) has decreased dramatically since the 1970s when new commercial cultivars from breeding programs were introduced, replacing old varieties, and thus decreasing genetic diversity. The present study was included in a genetic resources project with the objective of identifying and preserving traditional fruit tree cultivars in Southern Spain. The goal of this study was to begin the characterization of 29 apple accessions (Malus x domestica Borkh) belonging to 13 traditional cultivar denominations. For molecular characterization studies, 12 simple sequence repeat markers previously developed for apple species were used. Morphological characterization was performed using 33 fruit traits. A total of 115 alleles were amplified for the 12 loci, ranging from 7 (CH01h01, CH01h10, and GD 12) to 13 alleles per locus (CH02c11). Forty-one alleles were unique to specific genotypes. The locus with the highest number of detected unique alleles was CH01f03b with 6 alleles. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.74 for CH01h10 to 0.88 for CH02c11, with an average of 0.82. Observed heterozygosity varied from 0.45 for CH01h01 to 1.0 for CH02d08, with an average of 0.86. Three homonyms were found for accessions belonging to varieties 'Maguillo', 'Pero Minguela', and 'Castellana'. The most discriminant morphological characters studied revealed no homonyms or synonyms among cultivar denominations, although they are useful for describing varietal characteristics that have not been previously defined.
Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)
Miller, Michael J.
Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)
Stoll, Peter F.
In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…
The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...
Trček, Janja; Mahnič, Aleksander; Rupnik, Maja
Unfiltered vinegar samples collected from three oxidation cycles of the submerged industrial production of each, red wine and organic apple cider vinegars, were sampled in a Slovene vinegar producing company. The samples were systematically collected from the beginning to the end of an oxidation cycle and used for culture-independent microbial analyses carried out by denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene variable regions. Both approaches showed a very homogeneous bacterial structure during wine vinegar production but more heterogeneous during organic apple cider vinegar production. In all wine vinegar samples Komagataeibacter oboediens (formerly Gluconacetobacter oboediens) was a predominating species. In apple cider vinegar the acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria were two major groups of bacteria. The acetic acid bacterial consortium was composed of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter with the Komagataeibacter genus outcompeting the Acetobacter in all apple cider vinegar samples at the end of oxidation cycle. Among the lactic acid bacterial consortium two dominating genera were identified, Lactobacillus and Oenococcus, with Oenococcus prevailing with increasing concentration of acetic acid in vinegars. Unexpectedly, a minor genus of the acetic acid bacterial consortium in organic apple cider vinegar was Gluconobacter, suggesting a possible development of the Gluconobacter population with a tolerance against ethanol and acetic acid. Among the accompanying bacteria of the wine vinegar, the genus Rhodococcus was detected, but it decreased substantially by the end of oxidation cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...
Yang, Xiu-Min; Wang, Ou; Wang, Ming-Zhao; Hu, Yan-Xue; Li, Wei-Ning; Wang, Zhi
A method for the determination of metolcarb and diethofencarb in apples and apple juice is developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental conditions of SPME, such as the kind of extraction fiber, extraction time, stirring rate, pH of the extracting solution, and desorption conditions are optimized. The SPME is performed on a 60 microm polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber for 40 min at room temperature with the solution being stirred at 1100 rpm. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fiber are desorbed in the mobile phase into SPME-HPLC interface for HPLC analysis. Separations are carried out on a Baseline C18 column (4.6 i.d. x 250 mm, 5.0 microm) with acetonitrile-water (55/45, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and photodiode-array detection at 210 nm. For apple samples, the method is linear for both metolcarb and diethofencarb in the range of 0.05-1.0 mg/kg (r > 0.99), with a detection limit (S/N = 3 ) of 15 and 5 microg/kg, respectively. For apple juice, the method is linear for both metholcarb and diethofencarb over the range of 0.05-1.0 mg/L (r > 0.99) with the detection limit (S/N = 3 ) of 15 and 3 microg/L, respectively. Excellent recovery and reproducibility values are achieved. The proposed method is shown to be simple, sensitive, and organic solvent-free, and is suitable for the determination of the two pesticides in apples and apple juice.
Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...
Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)
Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L
Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Participants were children aged 2-18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.
ISS029-E-037421 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.
ISS029-E-037417 (2 Nov. 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 29 flight engineer, enjoys eating a fresh apple in the Unity node of the International Space Station.
Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.
Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for
... all-purpose flour 1 and 1/2 tsp baking soda 2 tsp ground cinnamon Directions Preheat oven ... in oil, vanilla, and egg. Sift together flour, baking soda, and cinnamon; stir into apple mixture about ...
Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M
QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P < 0.001. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient showed a strong correlation (r = 0.96; P < 0.001) between the two measurements. There was a total error of 0.034% (1.07 steps) for the Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.
Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...
Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Fulgoni, Victor L.
Background Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms) consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339), from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR) or above the adequate intake (AI) among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01) total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01) total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01) percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001) higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g) compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g). The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples). Conclusion Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children. PMID:26445211
Kiszonas, Alecia M; Fuerst, E Patrick; Morris, Craig F
Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. Potential flavor differences among varieties can be examined using consumption discrimination of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. This study examines consistency and repeatability of the mouse model and potentially, wheat grain flavor. A single elimination tournament design was used to measure relative consumption preference for hard red spring and hard white spring varieties across all 3 experiments in combination with 2 mouse cohorts. Fifteen replicate mice were used in 24-h trials to examine differences in preference among paired wheat varieties until an overall "winner" was established as the most highly preferred variety of wheat. In all 3 experiment-cohort combinations, the same varieties were preferred as the "winner" of both the hard red spring and hard white spring wheat varieties, Hollis and BR 7030, respectively. Despite the consistent preference for these varieties across experiments, the degree (magnitude) to which the mice preferred these varieties varied across experiments. For the hard white spring wheat varieties, the small number of varieties and confounding effects of experiment and cohort limited our ability to accurately gauge repeatability. Conversely, for the hard red spring wheat varieties, consumption preferences were consistent across experiments and mice cohorts. The single-elimination tournament model was effective in providing repeatable results in an effort to more fully understand the mouse model system and possible flavor differences among wheat varieties. The mouse model system used here is effective in identifying wheat varieties that may be more or less desirable to humans in whole wheat foods. The system identifies consistent differences across different mouse cohorts and crop years. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Liao, C-H; Fett, W F
To investigate the resuscitation of acid-injured Salmonella enterica in selected enrichment broths, in apple juice and on cut surfaces of apple and cucumber slices. Following exposure to 2.4% acetic acid for 7 min, S. enterica (serovars Mbandaka, Chester and Newport) cells were used to inoculate enrichment broths, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), apple juice and fruit slices. Injured Salmonella cells resuscitated and regained the ability to form colonies on selective agar (Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol 4) if they were incubated in lactose broth (LB), universal pre-enrichment broth (UPB) or buffered peptone water (BPW), but not in tetrathionate broth, PBS or apple juice. The resuscitation occurred at a significantly (P > 0.05) faster rate in UPB than in LB or BPW. The resuscitation also occurred on the surfaces of fresh-cut cucumber at 20 degrees C, but not at 4 degrees C. Acid-injured Salmonella cells resuscitated in nonselective enrichment broths at different rates, but not in selective enrichment broth, apple juice, PBS or on fresh-cut apple. Pre-enrichment of food samples in UPB prior to selective enrichment is recommended. Injured Salmonella cells have the ability to resuscitate on fresh-cut surfaces of cucumber when stored at abusive temperatures.
Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...
Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha
A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P < 0.0001) and prevalence (P < 0.0001) in fresh cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P < 0.001) total coliform prevalence than the rest of the producers. Overall results show that good sanitation procedures are associated with improved microbial quality of fresh cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider.
Le Bourvellec, Carine; Le Quere, Jean-Michel; Renard, Catherine M G C
The adsorption of procyanidins (condensed tannins) on cell-wall material was quantified by bringing into contact solutions of procyanidins and suspensions of cell-wall material. A model was developed on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm formulation and a factorial experimental design. The parameters that influenced the adsorption were the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, the ionic strength of the solution, the temperature, and the apple cell-wall concentration. The model was applied to partitioning of procyanidins from apple between juice and mash. The parameters to be taken into account are the composition of the apples and, specifically, (i) the concentration and molecular weight of the procyanidins, (ii) their acidity and pH as a determinant of the ionic strength, and (iii) their cell-wall content and the temperature at pressing. To estimate the ability of the model to relate procyanidin concentrations in the juice to their concentration in the apple, apples of three varieties of widely different procyanidin compositions were pressed in conditions that prevent oxidation. In these conditions, yields in the juice were >80% for phenolic acids or catechin monomers but <50% for procyanidins, with the lowest rates obtained for the higher polymers in accordance with the model.
Eisenstecken, Daniela; Panarese, Alessia; Robatscher, Peter; Huck, Christian W; Zanella, Angelo; Oberhuber, Michael
The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose) for two cultivars of apples ("Braeburn" and "Cripps Pink") was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA) a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA) and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS) regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.
Perez-Rodriguez, F; Begum, M; Johannessen, G S
The present work aimed at studying the cross contamination of apples by Salmonella during the processing of commercial fresh apples and its survival capacity on apple at room temperature. For the first study, the typical process of fresh apples was simulated at laboratory scale in which an apple that was artificially contaminated by Salmonella at different concentration levels (8, 6 and 5 log cfu/apple) was introduced in one batch and processed including a simulated transport/washing step and drying step using sponges to simulate the porous material used in the industry. Results indicated that at 8 log cfu/apple, 50% fresh apples were contaminated after processing, with all analysed environmental samples being positive for the pathogen, consisting of washing water and sponges. However, at lower inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/apple) no cross contamination was detected in apples, and only environmental samples showed contamination by Salmonella after processing including both water and sponges. Experiments on the survival of Salmonella on apple showed that the pathogen was capable to survive for 12 days, only showing a significant drop at the end of the experiment. Finally, two-class attribute sampling plans were assessed as tool to detect Salmonella in different contamination scenarios in fresh apple. This analysis indicated that with the highest inoculum level, a total of 16 apples would be needed to reach 95% of detecting Salmonella (i.e. lot rejection). In turn, when low levels were assessed (5-6 log cfu/apple), a large number of apples (n=1021) would have to be sampled to obtain the same confidence level (95%). If the environment is sampled (i.e. water and sponges), a lower number of samples would be needed to detect the pathogen. However, the feasibility of environmental sampling has not been assessed from a practical point of view. Overall, the results in this study evidenced that cross contamination by Salmonella might occur during processing of fresh apples
Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos
Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.
Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe dos Santos
Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective. PMID:28199444
Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Cowell, Sarah J; Sim, Sarah; Basson, Lauren
The issue of whether food miles are a relevant indicator for the environmental impacts associated with foods has received significant attention in recent years. It is suggested here that issues other than the distance travelled need to be considered. The argument is presented by illustrating the case for the provision of apples. The effects of variability in primary energy requirements for apple cultivation and for other life cycle stages, seasonality (timing of consumption) and loss of produce during storage are studied in this paper, by comparing apples from different supplier countries for consumption in Europe. Data sources for primary energy use (PEU) of apple production are identified ranging from 0.4-3.8 MJ/kg apples for European and Southern American countries and 0.4-0.7 MJ/kg for New Zealand. This variability is related to different yields and producer management practices in the different countries. Storage loss may range from 5% to 40% for storage periods between 4 and 10 months, and this has a significant effect on the results (e.g. increasing the total PEU by 8-16% when stored for 5-9 months in Europe as compared with a no loss and no storage situation). The storage periods and related storage losses change markedly through the year for imported (i.e. non-European) versus European apples. The timing of consumption and related storage losses need to be included in the assessment, as this affects the order of preference for locally sourced versus imported apples. The variability in energy requirements in different life cycle stages, but particularly for the fruit production stage, is also significant in this comparative analysis. Overall, it seems that there are similarities in the total PEU ranges for European and New Zealand apples during the Southern Hemisphere's apple season (European spring and summer). However, during the European autumn and winter (Northern Hemisphere apple season) PEU values are generally higher for apples imported from the
Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D
Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.
Schlenker, Richard M.
This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…
Masuda, Isao; Koike, Masato; Nakashima, Shohei; Mizutani, Yu; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Sawada, Yoko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Atsushi; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Sashihara, Koichi; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko
Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis. An in vitro assay revealed that apple polyphenols increased the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases associated with an increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA as well as the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), suggesting the promotion of PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Apple procyanidins also enhanced proteoglycan biosynthesis with aggrecan upregulation in primary chondrocytes. Of note, oral treatment with apple procyanidins prevented articular cartilage degradation in OA model mice induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that apple procyanidins are promising food components that inhibit OA progression by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes.
Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar
Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.
Fan, Sheng; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Gao, Cai; Xin, Mingzhi; Tahir, Muhammad Mobeen; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu
The plant-specific gibberellic acid stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family is critical for plant development. However, little is known about these genes, particularly in fruit tree species. We identified 15 putative Arabidopsis thaliana GASA (AtGASA) and 26 apple GASA (MdGASA) genes. The identified genes were then characterized (e.g., chromosomal location, structure, and evolutionary relationships). All of the identified A. thaliana and apple GASA proteins included a conserved GASA domain and exhibited similar characteristics. Specifically, the MdGASA expression levels in various tissues and organs were analyzed based on an online gene expression profile and by qRT-PCR. These genes were more highly expressed in the leaves, buds, and fruits compared with the seeds, roots, and seedlings. MdGASA genes were also responsive to gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid treatments. Additionally, transcriptome sequencing results revealed seven potential flowering-related MdGASA genes. We analyzed the expression levels of these genes in response to flowering-related treatments (GA 3 , 6-benzylaminopurine, and sugar) and in apple varieties that differed in terms of flowering ('Nagafu No. 2' and 'Yanfu No. 6') during the flower induction period. These candidate MdGASA genes exhibited diverse expression patterns. The expression levels of six MdGASA genes were inhibited by GA 3 , while the expression of one gene was up-regulated. Additionally, there were expression-level differences induced by the 6-benzylaminopurine and sugar treatments during the flower induction stage, as well as in the different flowering varieties. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of the A. thaliana and apple GASA gene families. Our data may provide useful clues for future studies and may support the hypotheses regarding the role of GASA proteins during the flower induction stage in fruit tree species.
Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H
Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.
Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...
Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan
Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study was undertaken to validate the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method using Golden Delicious and Starking Delicious apple matrices spiked at 0.1 maximum residue limit (MRL), 1.0 MRL and 10 MRL levels of the four pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid). For the extraction and cleanup, original QuEChERS method was followed, then the samples were subjected to liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for chromatographic analyses. According to t test, matrix effect was not significant for chlorpyrifos in both sample matrices, but it was significant for dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid in both sample matrices. Thus, matrix-matched calibration (MC) was used to compensate matrix effect and quantifications were carried out by using MC. The overall recovery of the method was 90.15% with a relative standard deviation of 13.27% (n = 330). Estimated method detection limit of analytes blew the MRLs. Some other parameters of the method validation, such as recovery, precision, accuracy and linearity were found to be within the required ranges.
Tian, Ji; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Jie; Song, Tingting; Wan, Huihua; Zhang, Meiling; Yao, Yuncong
The ever-red leaf trait, which is important for breeding ornamental and higher anthocyanin plants, rarely appears in Malus families, but little is known about the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis involved in the red leaves. In our study, HPLC analysis showed that the anthocyanin concentration in ever-red leaves, especially cyanidin, was significantly higher than that in evergreen leaves. The transcript level of McMYB10 was significantly correlated with anthocyanin synthesis between the 'Royalty' and evergreen leaf 'Flame' cultivars during leaf development. We also found the ever-red leaf colour cultivar 'Royalty' contained the known R6 : McMYB10 sequence, but was not in the evergreen leaf colour cultivar 'Flame', which have been reported in apple fruit. The distinction in promoter region maybe is the main reason why higher expression level of McMYB10 in red foliage crabapple cultivar. Furthermore, McMYB10 promoted anthocyanin biosynthesis in crabapple leaves and callus at low temperatures and during long-day treatments. Both heterologous expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis pap1 mutant, and homologous expression in crabapple and apple suggested that McMYB10 could promote anthocyanins synthesis and enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in plants. Interestingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, coupled with yeast one-hybrid analysis, revealed that McMYB10 positively regulates McF3'H via directly binding to AACCTAAC and TATCCAACC motifs in the promoter. To sum up, our results demonstrated that McMYB10 plays an important role in ever-red leaf coloration, by positively regulating McF3'H in crabapple. Therefore, our work provides new perspectives for ornamental fruit tree breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...
De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.
Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)
Se, Chee-Hee; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Mishra, Ankitta; Wickneswari, Ratnam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati
Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11) against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white) using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI) and insulin (II) indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins), indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A) were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden. PMID:27213446
Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare
Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…
Ma, Baiquan; Liao, Liao; Peng, Qian; Fang, Ting; Zhou, Hui; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng
Identifying DNA sequence variations is a fundamental step towards deciphering the genetic basis of traits of interest. Here, a total of 20 cultivated and 10 wild apples were genotyped using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing, and 39,635 single nucleotide polymorphisms with no missing genotypes and evenly distributed along the genome were selected to investigate patterns of genome-wide genetic variations between cultivated and wild apples. Overall, wild apples displayed higher levels of genetic diversity than cultivated apples. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays were observed quite rapidly in cultivated and wild apples, with an r 2 -value below 0.2 at 440 and 280 bp, respectively. Moreover, bidirectional gene flow and different distribution patterns of LD blocks were detected between domesticated and wild apples. Most LD blocks unique to cultivated apples were located within QTL regions controlling fruit quality, thus suggesting that fruit quality had probably undergone selection during apple domestication. The genome of the earliest cultivated apple in China, Nai, was highly similar to that of Malus sieversii, and contained a small portion of genetic material from other wild apple species. This suggested that introgression could have been an important driving force during initial domestication of apple. These findings will facilitate future breeding and genetic dissection of complex traits in apple. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J
Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.
Bazzocco, Sarah; Mattila, Ismo; Guyot, Sylvain; Renard, Catherine M G C; Aura, Anna-Marja
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) in apples are condensed tannins comprised mostly of (-)-epicatechin units with some terminal (+)-catechins. PAs, especially those having a long chain-length, are absorbed in the upper intestine only to a small extent and are passed to the colon. In the colon they are subjected to microbial metabolism by colonic microbiota. In the present article, the ability of human microbiota to ferment apple PAs is studied. Freeze-dried fruit preparations (apple, enzymatically digested apple, isolated cell-walls, isolated PAs or ciders) from two varieties, Marie Ménard and Avrolles, containing PAs of different chain lengths, were compared. Fermentation studies were performed in an in vitro colon model using human faecal microbiota as an inoculum. The maximal extent of conversion to known microbial metabolites, was observed at late time point for Marie Ménard cider, having short PAs. In this case, the initial dose also contributed to the extent of conversion. Long-chain PAs were able to inhibit the in vitro microbial metabolism of PAs shown as low maxima at early time points. Presence of isolated PAs also suppressed SCFA formation from carbohydrates as compared with that from apple cell wall or faecal suspension without substrates. The low maximal extents at early time points suggest that there is a competition between the inhibitory effect of the PAs on microbial activity, and the ability to convert PAs by the microbiota.
Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W
The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed.
Long term storage of apples faces challenges in maintaining fruit quality and reducing losses from postharvest diseases. Currently, the apple industry relies mainly on synthetic fungicides to control postharvest decays. However, the limitations to fungicides such as the development of resistance i...
Jiang, Yonghua; Liu, Cuihua; Yan, Dan; Wen, Xiaohong; Liu, Yanli; Wang, Haojie; Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Ren, Xiaolin
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the ﬂavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple). Moreover, flowers of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC89') overexpressing MdHB1 showed a remarkable reduction in pigmentation. Transient promoter activation assays and yeast one-hybrid results indicated that MdHB1 indirectly inhibited expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes encoding dihydroﬂavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose:ﬂavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT). Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation determined that MdHB1 acted as a homodimer and could interact with MYB, bHLH, and WD40 in the cytoplasm, consistent with its cytoplasmic localization by green fluorescent protein fluorescence observations. Together, these results suggest that MdHB1 constrains MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, and MdTTG1 to the cytoplasm, and then represses the transcription of MdDFR and MdUFGT indirectly. When MdHB1 is silenced, these TFs are released to activate the expression of MdDFR and MdUFGT and also anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in red flesh in 'Granny Smith'. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yauk, Yar-Khing; Chagné, David; Tomes, Sumathi; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Chen, Xiuyin; Maddumage, Ratnasiri; Hunt, Martin B; Rowan, Daryl D; Atkinson, Ross G
Phenylpropenes, such as eugenol and trans-anethole, are important aromatic compounds that determine flavour and aroma in many herbs and spices. Some apple varieties produce fruit with a highly desirable spicy/aromatic flavour that has been attributed to the production of estragole, a methylated phenylpropene. To elucidate the molecular basis for estragole production and its contribution to ripe apple flavour and aroma we characterised a segregating population from a Royal Gala (RG, estragole producer) × Granny Smith (GS, non-producer) apple cross. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; accounting for 9.2 and 24.8% of the variation) on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG2 were identified that co-located with seven candidate genes for phenylpropene O-methyltransferases (MdoOMT1-7). Of these genes, only expression of MdoOMT1 on LG1 increased strongly with ethylene and could be correlated with increasing estragole production in ripening RG fruit. Transient over-expression in tobacco showed that MdoOMT1 utilised a range of phenylpropene substrates and catalysed the conversion of chavicol to estragole. Royal Gala carried two alleles (MdoOMT1a, MdoOMT1b) whilst GS appeared to be homozygous for MdoOMT1b. MdoOMT1a showed a higher affinity and catalytic efficiency towards chavicol than MdoOMT1b, which could account for the phenotypic variation at the LG1 QTL. Multiple transgenic RG lines with reduced MdoOMT1 expression produced lower levels of methylated phenylpropenes, including estragole and methyleugenol. Differences in fruit aroma could be perceived in these fruit, compared with controls, by sensory analysis. Together these results indicate that MdoOMT1 is required for the production of methylated phenylpropenes in apple and that phenylpropenes including estragole may contribute to ripe apple fruit aroma. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Karunaratne, L.B.; Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.
Wetlands often support a variety of juxtaposed habitat patches (e.g., grass-, shrub- or tree-dominated) differentially suited to support the inhabiting fauna. The proportion of available habitat types has been affected by human activity and consequently has contributed to degrading habitat quality for some species. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) has drawn attention as a critical prey item for wetlands wildlife and as an indicator of wetlands restoration success in peninsular Florida, USA. An apparent contradiction has evolved wherein this species appears intolerant of drying events, but these disturbances may be necessary to maintain suitable habitat structure for apple snails. We recently reported that assertions regarding intolerance to dry downs in this species were inaccurate. Here, we compared snail density in habitats with (wet prairie) and without (slough) emergent macrophytes, as well as evaluating the effects of structural attributes within the broad wet prairie habitat type. Snail densities were greater in prairies relative to sloughs (??2= 12.90, df=1, P=0.0003), often by a factor of two to three. Within wet prairie habitats, we found greater snail densities in Panicum hemitomon as compared to Eleocharis cellulosa (??2=31.45, df=1, P=0.0001). Significantly fewer snails were found in dense E. cellulosa as compared to habitats with lower stem density (??2= 10.73, df=1, P=0.011). Our results indicate that wet prairie habitat supports greater snail densities than nymphaea-dominatd slough. Our results have implications for wetlands water management in that continuous inundation has been shown to convert wet prairie to slough habitat, and we suggest this should be avoided in support of apple snails and their predators. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina
In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance...
Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.
Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.
Bélanger, A; Bostanian, N J; Boivin, G; Boudreau, F
Vase-shaped standard apple trees cv. McIntosh were sprayed with azinphos-methyl at pink, pink and 1st cover and 1st cover only. Residue analyses by gas chromatography revealed detectable residues on foliage until mid summer. At harvest, negligible residue levels were found on the peel and the whole apple. On four trees, fluorescein was sprayed in the same manner as the insecticide and maximum levels of the dye were detected on the outside lower canopy along the row. Minimal concentration of fluorescein was detected on the inner upper canopy away from the direction of the row.
Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun
Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.
Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.
Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.
Hagl, Stephanie; Deusser, Hannah; Soyalan, Buelent; Janzowski, Christine; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Albert, Franz Werner; Rohner, Simone; Richling, Elke
The aim of this study was to determine the amounts of polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid reaching the ileostomy bags of probands (and thus the colon in healthy humans) after ingestion of apple smoothie, a beverage containing 60% cloudy apple juice and 40% apple puree. Ten healthy ileostomy subjects each ingested 0.7 L of apple smoothie (a bottle). Their ileostomy bags were collected directly before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after smoothie consumption, and the polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid contents of the ileostomy fluids were examined using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. The total polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acid content of the apple smoothie was determined to be 1955.6±124.6 mg/0.7 L, which is very high compared to cloudy apple juices. The most abundant substances found in the ileostomy bags were oligomeric procyanidins (705.6±197.9 mg), D-(-)-quinic acid (363.4±235.5 mg) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (76.7±26.8 mg). Overall recovery of ingested polyphenols and D-(-)-quinic acid in the ileostomy bags was 63.3±16.1%. The amounts of polyphenol and D-(-)-quinic acids reaching the ileostomy bags are considerably higher after apple smoothie consumption than after the consumption of cloudy apple juice or cider. These results suggest that the food matrix might affect the colonic availability of polyphenols, and apple smoothies could be more effective in the prevention of chronic colon diseases than both cloudy apple juice and apple cider. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang
Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.
Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z
When evaluated in terms of taste, smell or active ingredients, pumpkin in itself is not very attractive as a raw material. Hence, it is recommended to blend pumpkin with other fruits, which are aromatic, have a defined taste, and contain a large quantity of active ingredients and organic acids to improve its palatibility. The pumpkin chosen for the experiments was of the variety Karowita, of species Cucurbita maxima. Ten different of compositions were prepared for the purpose of the study: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry each, or 20 and 30% (w/w) of strawberry and apple each. The puree was then analysed for dry matter, extract, viscosity, colour, vitamin C, total polyphenols, carotenoids and DPPH. The highest content of vitamin C, which was in direct proportion to the quantity of the supplement added (17.88 to 23.43 mg·100 g(-1)), was detected in the quince-enriched puree. The lowest vitamin C content was determined in apple-enriched samples (1.36 to 1.6 mg·100 g(-1)). A similar pattern was observed with total polyphenols: the highest values were measured in quince-enriched puree, and the lowest in the puree supplemented with apple. Taking into account antioxidant properties of the samples, quince-enriched pumpkin puree was found to be the most attractive, and apple-enriched pumpkin puree the least attractive one. The results suggest a wide range of application for pumpkin puree enriched with various additives.
Ball, Stephen J.
This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.
Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R
In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.
Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie
The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS 2 ) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties. Extracts from the fleshy receptacle (flesh), the epiderm (peel) and fruit of three apple varieties were studied by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with UV-vis light detection (HPTLC/UV visible). The peel extracts had high concentrations of triterpenic acids (oleanolic and ursolic acids), reaching 25mgkg -1 , whereas these compounds were not detected in the flesh extracts (<0.05mgkg -1 ). A significant relationship has been found between the levels of these molecules and negative matrix effects in GC/MS 2 . The differences in the behavior of pesticides with respect to matrix effects can be accounted for by the physicochemical characteristics of the molecules (lone pairs, labile hydrogen, conjugation). The HPTLC/UV visible method developed here for the characterization of QuEChERS extracts acts as a complementary clean-up method, aimed to decrease the negative matrix effects of such extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie
The sample matrix can enhance the gas chromatography signal of pesticide residues relative to that obtained with the same concentration of pesticide in solvent. This paper is related to negative matrix effects observed in coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ion trap (GC/MS 2 ) quantification of pesticides in concentrated extracts of apple peel prepared by the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. It is focused on the pesticides most frequently used on the apple varieties studied, throughout the crop cycle, right up to harvest, to combat pests and diseases and to improve fruit storage properties. Extracts from the fleshy receptacle (flesh), the epiderm (peel) and fruit of three apple varieties were studied by high-performance thin-layer chromatography hyphenated with UV-vis light detection (HPTLC/UV visible). The peel extracts had high concentrations of triterpenic acids (oleanolic and ursolic acids), reaching 25mgkg -1 , whereas these compounds were not detected in the flesh extracts (<0.05mgkg -1 ). A significant relationship has been found between the levels of these molecules and negative matrix effects in GC/MS 2 . The differences in the behavior of pesticides with respect to matrix effects can be accounted for by the physicochemical characteristics of the molecules (lone pairs, labile hydrogen, conjugation). The HPTLC/UV visible method developed here for the characterization of QuEChERS extracts acts as a complementary clean-up method, aimed to decrease the negative matrix effects of such extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, I Prem; Namita, I; Afrin, Farhat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar
Present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective ability of total polyphenols extracted from edible portion (epicarp and mesocarp) of apple. Prior administration of apple polyphenols to murine thymocytes significantly countered radiation induced DNA damage (evaluated by alkaline halo assay) and cell death (trypan blue exclusion method) in a dose dependent manner maximally at a concentration of 2 and 0.2 mg/ml respectively. Apple polyphenols in a dose dependent fashion inhibited both radiation or Fenton reaction mediated 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) degradation indicating its ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and this activity was found to be unaltered in presence of simulated gastric juice. Similarly apple polyphenols in a dose dependent fashion scavenged DPPH radicals (maximum 69% at 1 mg/ml), superoxide anions (maximum 88% at 2 mg/ml), reduced Fe(3 +) to Fe(2 +) (maximum at 1 mg/ml) and inhibited Fenton reaction mediated lipid peroxidation (maximum 66% at 1.5 mg/ml) further establishing its antioxidative properties. Studies carried out with plasmid DNA revealed the ability of apple polyphenols to inhibit radiation induced single as well as double strand breaks. The results clearly indicate that apple polyphenols have significant potential to protect cellular system from radiation induced damage and ability to scavenge free radicals might be playing an important role in its radioprotective manifestation.
Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S
Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.
Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai
Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.
Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz
To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in
De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B
Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Abad, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca
The polyphenolic compositions of 31 Basque cider apple cultivars were determined in pulp, peel, and juice by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis of crude extracts and after thiolysis. Total polyphenols are distributed in a wide concentration range depending on the cultivar. Procyanidins are the class of polyphenols that present major concentrations in apple. Their average degrees of polymerization range from 4 to 8 depending on the cultivar. Apple cultivars were technologically classified into bitter and nonbitter categories using different classification systems obtained by applying several pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis, K-nearest neighbors, soft independent modeling of class analogy, partial least-squares, and multilayer feed-forward-artificial neural networks, to apple pulp, peel, or juice data (individual polyphenol concentrations, total procyanidin content, and the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins). Bitter apple cultivars present higher contents of flavan-3-ols and/or dihydrochalcones than nonbitter cultivars. Detailed knowledge of the polyphenolic profile of each apple cultivar affords information about their susceptibility to oxidation, their sensory properties (bitterness, astringency), and their possible influence on the characteristics and quality of the final product (juice, cider) when apples are processed.
Liao, Liao; Fang, Ting; Ma, Baiquan; Deng, Xianbao; Zhao, Li; Han, Yuepeng
Apple is one of the staple fruits worldwide which are a good source of mineral nutrients. However, little is known about genetic variation for mineral nutrition in apple germplasm. In this study, the calcium and zinc contents in mature fruits of 378 apple cultivars and 39 wild relatives were assessed. Mineral concentrations were quantified using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Both calcium and zinc accumulation showed great variation among accessions tested. Overall, wild fruits were significantly richer in zinc than cultivated fruits, while the average concentration of calcium was similar between cultivated and wild fruits. The difference in zinc concentration between wild and cultivated fruits may be an indirect result of artificial selection on fruit characteristics during apple domestication. Moreover, calcium concentration in fruit showed a decreasing trend throughout fruit development of apple, while zinc concentration in fruit displayed a complex variation pattern in the late stages of fruit development. The finding of a wild genetic variation for fruit calcium and zinc accumulation in apple germplasm could be helpful for future research on genetic dissection and improvement of calcium and zinc accumulation in apple fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...
Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).
This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...
Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce
The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.
Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...
Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Tarko, Tomasz; Tuszyński, Tadeusz
Recently, many studies have been oriented towards improving methods and efficiency of antioxidants recovery from different fruit and their wastes.The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant potential of apple seeds and peel, which constitute the fruit industry wastes, and compare it to apple flesh. Antioxidant activity of apples at different maturity and storage stage were analysed too. The Idared and the Šampion cultivars of apples were used in the study. Antioxidant activity was estimated using ABTS and DPPH assays, and polyphenols profile was determined by HPLC method. Seeds of analysed apple cultivars were characterised by a significantly higher antioxidant capacity and by higher concentrations of polyphenols analysed when compared to their peel and flesh. There were present two predominant compounds: phloridzin in seeds (84% and 72%) and quercetin glycosides in peels (54% and 38%, Idared and Šampion cultivars, respectively). No quercetin glycosides in seeds were found. The capacity to scavenge an ABTS radical, but not DPPH, decreased during ripening of apples, while cold storage resulted in enhanced antioxidant potential. It can be concluded that unripe apples together with apple seeds and peel (fruit industry wastes) constitute a valuable source of polyphenols.
Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei
The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.
Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher
The initiation and level of infestation by dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was tracked over three consecutive years in two nonbearing apple (Malus spp.) orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards were planted on a number of rootstock-variety (approximately cultivar) combinations and grown using different cultural practices. Infestations were detected during the first season after planting and continued to increase annually. The amount of burr knot tissue had the greatest impact on dogwood borer populations, because increasing amounts of burr knot tissue resulted in higher infestation rates. The use of plastic spiral wrap tree guards seemed to increase the development of burr knot tissue, resulting in significantly greater infestation compared with trees without tree guards in the West Virginia orchard. Variety also had a significant effect, because 'Idared' trees on M.26 had significantly greater levels of infestation compared with 'Buckeye Gala' on M.26, with or without tree guards, in the Virginia orchard. Mounding soil around the rootstock to a height just above the graft union prevented or tremendously curtailed infestation by dogwood borer, but it led to scion rooting that seemed to have an impact on size-controlling features of dwarfing rootstocks. Removal of the mounds at the beginning of the third growing season resulted in infestation of the rooted tissue during the same season. As long as apple cultivars continue to be planted on size-controlling rootstocks, dogwood borer will likely remain a serious pest, requiring either chemical treatments or a behavioral control strategy, such as mating disruption, to protect trees from infestation and damage.
Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang
Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818
Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…
Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the promotion
Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D
People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.
Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony
"Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…
Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai
Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974
Stephan, George R.
The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.
Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P
Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.
Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng
The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.
Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng
The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507
Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory
Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.
Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.
Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.
Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P
Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.
Li, Chunyang; Huang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Xing-Na; Liu, Wen-Xu
Total antioxidant capacity of different varieties of strawberry (Ningfeng, Ningyu, Zijin 4, Toyonoka, Benihope, Sweet Charlie) in different developmental stages (including green unripe stages, half red stages, and red ripe stages) was investigated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, effects of the antioxidant properties of strawberry stored at 4 °C or -18 °C for a period of five months were studied. The results showed that antioxidant capacity of strawberry changed based on tested part, developmental stage, variety, and time of collection. Calyces had significantly higher ORAC values compared with fruits. Strawberry fruits had higher ORAC values during the green unripe stages than the half red stages and red ripe stages. Strawberries got higher ORAC values during short-time storage, and then decreased during long-time storage. Samples stored at -18 °C exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than those stored at 4 °C, while vacuum treatment could further increase ORAC values. The results indicated the potential market role of strawberries as a functional food and could provide great value in preventing oxidation reaction in food processing and storage for the dietary industry.
Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan
Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P < 0.05) on the fructooligosaccharide content (as a prebiotic), concentration of patulin and the addition of ascorbic acid. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell surface proteins of probiotic strains revealed that surface layer proteins have an important role in patulin removal from apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Qin, Zihan; Petersen, Mikael A; Bredie, Wender L P
The aim of this study was to characterize the flavor profiles of 14 commercial apple ciders from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian region. The flavor properties were established by sensory profiling and analysis of volatile and non-volatile components, including titratable acidity, pH, residual sugars and organic acids. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the 14 apple ciders using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds found in apple ciders were esters and higher alcohols, followed by aldehydes and fatty acids. Sensory characterizations of the aroma and taste of apple ciders were carried out by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis with 23 sensory attributes. The attributes apple, cooked apple, yeasty, sweet and sour were the most predominant sensory descriptors used to describe the similarities and differences in the samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that floral and fruity (fresh apple, banana and pear) odors were highly associated with sweet taste and opposed to the more complex aroma attributes (yeasty, lactic, chemical, mouldy, black pepper and earthy) and sour taste. Most of the UK apple ciders were characterized by these complex odors and taste notes sour, astringent and bitter, whereas ciders from the Scandinavian region had diverse sensory profiles. Partial least squares regression (PLS) based on the sensory and chemical data was able to cluster the ciders according to differences in production methods (oak-aged or spontaneous fermentation; controlled malolactic fermentation; industrial production with flavor modifications). Moreover, this study also suggested that ciders with marked levels of acetate esters were characterized by cooked/fresh apple, citrus and tropical fruit odors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John
Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.
Ginjom, Irine R; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Caffin, Nola A; Gidley, Michael J
Three Australian red wine types (Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot) were analyzed for antioxidant activity and a range of phenolic component contents using various spectral methods. More than half of the total phenolic compounds were tannins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavonols were present in much lesser amounts (<10%). The evolution of phenolic contents and the respective antioxidant activities in wine samples from all stages of winemaking showed progressive changes toward those of commercial wines. The antioxidant activity of the wines in DPPH and ABTS assays was positively correlated with total phenolic contents and tannins. Comparisons of the three wine varieties based on their individual phenolic component groups and antioxidant activities showed limited differences between the different varieties. However, when all of the variables were combined in a principal component analysis, variety differentiation was observed. The three varieties of red wines all contained similar and high concentrations of antioxidants despite differences in grape variety/maturity and winemaking process, suggesting that related health benefits would accrue from all of the red wines studied.
Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; McGhie, Tony K; Andre, Christelle M; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple.
Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Peng, Yankun
Attribute of apple according to geographical origin is often recognized and appreciated by the consumers. It is usually an important factor to determine the price of a commercial product. Hyperspectral imaging technology and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate apple according to geographical origins in this work. Hyperspectral images of 207 Fuji apple samples were collected by hyperspectral camera (400-1000nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on hyperspectral imaging data to determine main efficient wavelength images, and then characteristic variables were extracted by texture analysis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) from dominant waveband image. All characteristic variables were obtained by fusing the data of images in efficient spectra. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the classification model, and showed excellent performance in classification results. The total classification rate had the high classify accuracy of 92.75% in the training set and 89.86% in the prediction sets, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with SVM classifier can be efficiently utilized to discriminate Fuji apple according to geographical origins.
Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q
There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh
Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie
Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…
Angelo, K M; Conrad, A R; Saupe, A; Dragoo, H; West, N; Sorenson, A; Barnes, A; Doyle, M; Beal, J; Jackson, K A; Stroika, S; Tarr, C; Kucerova, Z; Lance, S; Gould, L H; Wise, M; Jackson, B R
Whole apples have not been previously implicated in outbreaks of foodborne bacterial illness. We investigated a nationwide listeriosis outbreak associated with caramel apples. We defined an outbreak-associated case as an infection with one or both of two outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes highly related by whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) from 1 October 2014 to 1 February 2015. Single-interviewer open-ended interviews identified the source. Outbreak-associated cases were compared with non-outbreak-associated cases and traceback and environmental investigations were performed. We identified 35 outbreak-associated cases in 12 states; 34 (97%) were hospitalized and seven (20%) died. Outbreak-associated ill persons were more likely to have eaten commercially produced, prepackaged caramel apples (odds ratio 326·7, 95% confidence interval 32·2-3314). Environmental samples from the grower's packing facility and distribution-chain whole apples yielded isolates highly related to outbreak isolates by wgMLST. This outbreak highlights the importance of minimizing produce contamination with L. monocytogenes. Investigators should perform single-interviewer open-ended interviews when a food is not readily identified.
Batzer, J C; Sisson, A J; Harrington, T C; Mayfield, D A; Gleason, M L
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of about 80 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit in humid regions worldwide. The dark colonies become visible in mid- to late summer, reducing the value of fresh fruit. Although many SBFS species can co-occur in the same orchard and even on the same apple, little is known about temporal patterns of these species, including the timing of colony appearance. To test the hypothesis that colonies of SBFS species appear on apples at characteristic times during the growing season, 50 apples were monitored weekly at three Iowa orchards in 2006 and six orchards in 2007 and 2008. However, a mean of 24.3 apples per orchard was assessed at harvest because of apple drop throughout the season. Colonies were marked with colored pens as they appeared. After harvest and after storage of apples at 2 °C for 3 months, SBFS colonies on each fruit were counted and classified by morphology, and a representative subset of colonies was excised from the fruit and preserved on dried peels for species identification using rDNA. Seventeen species were identified. Stomiopeltis spp. RS1 and RS2 appeared on apples 10 to 14 days before other SBFS taxa. Dissoconium aciculare was generally the last species to appear on apple fruit, and it continued to appear during postharvest storage. The most prevalent taxa in Iowa orchards were also the most abundant. Diversity of SBFS fungi in an orchard was positively correlated with cumulative hours of surface wetness hours due to rainfall or dew, which is believed to favor growth of SBFS fungi. Species-specific information about temporal patterns of appearance on apple fruit may lead to improved SBFS management strategies.
Shen, Xu; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh; Guo, Zhimei
In order to investigate the effect of ultrasound dielectric pretreatment on the oxidation resistance of vacuum-fried apple chips, apple slices were pretreated at ultrasonic powers of 150, 250 and 400 W for times of 10, 20 and 30 min before vacuum frying. The quality and oxidation resistance of fried apple were evaluated by testing the dielectric properties and comparing the moisture content, oil uptake, color, acid value (AV) and peroxide value (PV) of apple chips. Ultrasonic treatment significantly changed the dielectric properties of apple slices. Moisture and oil contents of apple chips decreased with increasing ultrasonic power and time. During storage, the color retention of fried apple chips processed by ultrasound was improved. AV and PV values of fried apple chips processed by ultrasound were lower, which improved their antioxidant properties. The results of the present study indicated that ultrasound dielectric pretreatment improved not only the quality of vacuum-fried apple chips but also their antioxidant properties. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wang, Qi; Mejía Jaramillo, Alejandra; Pavon, Juan J; Webster, Thomas J
Bacterial infections are commonly found on various poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) medical devices (such as orthopedic instruments, spinal fusion devices, and segments in dialysis equipment), and thus, there is a significant need for introducing antibacterial properties to such materials. The objective of this in vitro study was to introduce antibacterial properties to PEEK medical devices by coating them with nanosized selenium. In this study, red selenium (an elemental form of selenium) nanoparticles were coated on PEEK medical devices through a quick precipitation method. Furthermore, with heat treatment at 100°C for 6 days, red selenium nanoparticles were transferred into gray selenium nanorods on the PEEK surfaces. Bacteria test results showed that both red and gray selenium-coated PEEK medical devices significantly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with uncoated PEEK after either 1, 2, or 3 days. Red selenium nanoparticle-coated PEEK showed less bacteria growth on its surface than gray selenium nanorod-coated PEEK after 3 days. This study demonstrated that red, and to a lesser extent gray, nanosized selenium could be used as potential antibacterial coatings to prevent bacteria function on PEEK medical devices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1352-1358, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A
Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.
Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T
This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Aghilinategh, Nahid; Rafiee, Shahin; Hosseinpour, Soleiman; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid
An intermittent microwave convective drying method combined with a real-time computer vision technique was employed to detect the effect of drying parameters on color properties of apple slices. The experiments were performed at air temperature of 40 to 80℃, air velocities of 1-2 m/s, microwave powers of 200-600 W, and pulse ratios (PRs) of 2-6. Drying rate and drying time varied from 0.014 to 0.000001 min -1 and 27 to 244 min, respectively. The normalized lightness values had ascending and descending parabolic trends with decrease in product moisture content. With descending dimensionless moisture content, redness, yellowness, color change, hue angle, and chroma were enlarged. The normalized redness values changed from -4 to 3. Models relating drying parameters with drying time, drying rate, and lightness were obtained and found to be significant (P < 0.01). Results indicated that microwave power and PRs had more influence on lightness and color change than other parameters. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W
Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.
Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui
The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.
Wiedemann, Diana; Burt, D. Michael; Hill, Russell A.; Barton, Robert A.
The presence and intensity of red coloration correlate with male dominance and testosterone in a variety of animal species, and even artificial red stimuli can influence dominance interactions. In humans, red stimuli are perceived as more threatening and dominant than other colours, and wearing red increases the probability of winning sporting contests. We investigated whether red clothing biases the perception of aggression and dominance outside of competitive settings, and whether red influences decoding of emotional expressions. Participants rated digitally manipulated images of men for aggression and dominance and categorized the emotional state of these stimuli. Men were rated as more aggressive and more dominant when presented in red than when presented in either blue or grey. The effect on perceived aggression was found for male and female raters, but only male raters were sensitive to red as a signal of dominance. In a categorization test, images were significantly more often categorized as ‘angry’ when presented in the red condition, demonstrating that colour stimuli affect perceptions of emotions. This suggests that the colour red may be a cue used to predict propensity for dominance and aggression in human males. PMID:25972401
Bai, Xuelian; Zhang, Huawei; Ren, Shuang
Phenolic compounds are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace. However, polyphenols from industrial apple pomace, which usually consists of several cultivars, have not been studied in detail. The present work focused on the antioxidant assay and HPLC analysis of polyphenol-enriched extracts from industrial apple pomace. Six fractions of apple polyphenols, API to APVI, were acquired through extraction and purification using absorbent macroporous resin. Fraction APIII, eluted by 40% aqueous ethanol, had the highest content of total phenolics (1.48 ± 0.03 g gallic acid equivalents g(-1) dry apple pomace), which consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syrigin, procyanidin B2, (-)-epicatechin, cinnamic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin. Antioxidant assays showed that APIII had the strongest antioxidant activity of DPPH radical scavenging rate (90.96% ± 10.23%), ABTS radical inhibition rate (89.78% ± 6.54%) and the strongest reducing power (8.30 ± 0.71 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) dry apple pomace). It also indicated that procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin and quercetin had stronger antioxidant capacity than other phenols. Our data suggested that extracts from industrial apple pomace were rich in phenols and exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Extraction of polyphenols from industrial apple pomace would bring a great benefit and improve development of apple juice and cider industries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Liu, G S; Zhang, Y G; Tao, R; Fang, J G; Dai, H Y
DNA markers are useful tools that play an important role in plant cultivar identification. They are usually based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-simple sequence repeats, and random amplified polymorphic DNA. However, DNA markers were not used effectively in the complete identification of plant cultivars because of the lack of known DNA fingerprints. Recently, a novel approach called the cultivar identification diagram (CID) strategy was developed to facilitate the use of DNA markers for separate plant individuals. The CID was designed whereby a polymorphic maker was generated from each PCR that directly allowed for cultivar sample separation at each step. Therefore, it could be used to identify cultivars and varieties easily with fewer primers. In this study, 60 apple cultivars, including a few main cultivars in fields and varieties from descendants (Fuji x Telamon) were examined. Of the 20 pairs of SSR primers screened, 8 pairs gave reproducible, polymorphic DNA amplification patterns. The banding patterns obtained from these 8 primers were used to construct a CID map. Each cultivar or variety in this study was distinguished from the others completely, indicating that this method can be used for efficient cultivar identification. The result contributed to studies on germplasm resources and the seedling industry in fruit trees.
Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...
Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...
Lin, Long-Ze; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Harnly, James
An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the phenolic components of red mustard greens (Brassica juncea Coss variety) and identified 67 anthocyanins, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned on the basis of direct comparison of the parent flavonoid glycosides with reference compounds. The putative identifications were obtained from tandem mass data analysis and confirmed by the retention time, elution order, and UV–vis and high-resolution mass spectra. Further identifications were made by comparing the UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn data with those of reference compounds in the polyphenol database and in the literature. Twenty-seven acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 24 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5- glucosides, 3 acylated cyanidin triglucoside-5-glucosides, 37 flavonol glycosides, and 10 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were detected for the first time in brassica vegetables. At least 50 of them are reported for the first time in any plant materials. PMID:21970730
Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph
Variety choice is the most important production decision farmers make because high yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional production costs. Therefore, yield improvement has been the major objective for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding programs worldwide, but the current breeding approach (selecting for yield under optimal production conditions) is slow and inconsistent with the needs derived from population demand and climate change. To improve the rate of genetic gain, breeders have used target physiological traits such as leaf chlorophyll content using SPAD chlorophyll meter, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from canopy reflectance in visible and near infra-red (NIR) wavelength bands, and canopy temperature (CT) manually measured with infra-red (IR) thermometers at the canopy level; but its use for routine selection was hampered by the time required to walk hundreds of plots. Recent developments in remote sensing-based high throughput phenotyping platforms using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have shown good potential for future breeding advancements. Recently, we initiated a study for the evaluation of suitability of digital imagery, NDVI, and CT taken from an UAV platform for peanut variety differentiation. Peanut is unique for setting its yield underground and resilience to drought and heat, for which yield is difficult to pre-harvest estimate; although the need for early yield estimation within the breeding programs exists. Twenty-six peanut cultivars and breeding lines were grown in replicated plots either optimally or deficiently irrigated under rain exclusion shelters at Suffolk, Virginia. At the beginning maturity growth stage, approximately a month before digging, NDVI and CT were taken with ground-based sensors at the same time with red, blue, green (RGB) images from a Sony camera mounted on an UAV platform. Disease ratings were also taken pre-harvest. Ground and UAV derived vegetation indices were analyzed for
Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.
This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…
Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir
Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.
Prudente, Sabrina; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Marucci, Antonella; Ludovico, Ornella; Buranasupkajorn, Patinut; Mazza, Tommaso; Hastings, Timothy; Milano, Teresa; Morini, Eleonora; Mercuri, Luana; Bailetti, Diego; Mendonca, Christine; Alberico, Federica; Basile, Giorgio; Romani, Marta; Miccinilli, Elide; Pizzuti, Antonio; Carella, Massimo; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Pascarella, Stefano; Marchetti, Piero; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Di Paola, Rosa; Doria, Alessandro
Diabetes mellitus is a highly heterogeneous disorder encompassing several distinct forms with different clinical manifestations including a wide spectrum of age at onset. Despite many advances, the causal genetic defect remains unknown for many subtypes of the disease, including some of those forms with an apparent Mendelian mode of inheritance. Here we report two loss-of-function mutations (c.1655T>A [p.Leu552∗] and c.280G>A [p.Asp94Asn]) in the gene for the Adaptor Protein, Phosphotyrosine Interaction, PH domain, and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) that were identified by means of whole-exome sequencing in two large families with a high prevalence of diabetes not due to mutations in known genes involved in maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). APPL1 binds to AKT2, a key molecule in the insulin signaling pathway, thereby enhancing insulin-induced AKT2 activation and downstream signaling leading to insulin action and secretion. Both mutations cause APPL1 loss of function. The p.Leu552∗ alteration totally abolishes APPL1 protein expression in HepG2 transfected cells and the p.Asp94Asn alteration causes significant reduction in the enhancement of the insulin-stimulated AKT2 and GSK3β phosphorylation that is observed after wild-type APPL1 transfection. These findings—linking APPL1 mutations to familial forms of diabetes—reaffirm the critical role of APPL1 in glucose homeostasis. PMID:26073777
Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun
Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694
Juarez-Enriquez, Edmundo; Salmerón, Ivan; Gutierrez-Mendez, Nestor; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique
Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. PMID:28231106
Zhang, Lifen; Ye, Xinqian; Ding, Tian; Sun, Xiaoyang; Xu, Yuting; Liu, Donghong
The effects of ultrasound on the molecular weight of apple pectin were investigated. The structure and rheological properties of the degradation products were also tentatively identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC-PAD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Rheometer. The results indicated that the weight-average molecular weight of apple pectin decreased obviously after ultrasound treatment. The molecular weight of degradation products had a uniform and narrow distribution. Ultrasound intensity and temperature play an important role in the degradation reaction. Degradation kinetics model of apple pectin fitted to 1/M(t) - 1/M(0) = kt from 5 to 45 °C. The degree of methylation of apple pectin reduced according to IR analysis when ultrasound was applied. Ultrasound treatment could not alter the primary structure of apple pectin according to the results determined by HPLC, IR and NMR. Meanwhile, the viscosity of apple pectin was 10(3) times as large as that of ultrasound-treated apple pectin. The ultrasound-treated apple pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G' < G") over the same frequency range. The results suggested that ultrasound provided a viable alternative method for the modification of pectin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Maria; Santamaria, Rita; Irace, Carlo; Piccolo, Marialuisa; Maisto, Maria; Novellino, Ettore
Several pharmaceutical products have been formulated over the past decades for the treatment of male and female alopecia, and pattern baldness, but relatively few metadata on their efficacy have been published. For these reasons, the pharmaceutical and medical attention has recently focused on the discovery of new and safer remedies. Particularly, great interest has been attracted by oligomeric procyanidin bioactivity, able to promote hair epithelial cell growth as well as to induce the anagen phase. Specifically, the procyanidin B2, a dimeric derivative extracted from apples, has demonstrated to be one of the most effective and safest natural compounds in promoting hair growth, both in vitro and in humans by topical applications. By evaluating the polyphenolic content of different apple varieties, we have recently found in the apple fruits of cv Annurca (AFA), native to Southern Italy, one of the highest contents of oligomeric procyanidins, and, specifically, of procyanidin B2. Thus, in the present work we explored the in vitro bioactivity of AFA polyphenolic extract as a nutraceutical formulation, named AppleMets (AMS), highlighting its effects on the cellular keratin expression in a human experimental model of adult skin. Successively, testing the effects of AMS on hair growth and tropism in healthy subjects, we observed significant results in terms of increased hair growth, density, and keratin content, already after 2 months. This study proves for the first time the impact of apple procyanidin B2 on keratin biosynthesis in vitro, and highlights its effect as a nutraceutical on human hair growth and tropism.
Bhatti, Shammi; Jha, Gopaljee
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Apple cultivation is heavily dependent on climatic condition and is susceptible to several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, etc. Extensive research work has been carried out to standardize tissue culture protocols and utilize them in apple improvement. We review the in vitro shoot multiplication, rooting, transformation and regeneration methodologies in apple and tabulate various such protocols for easy reference. The utility and limitation of transgenesis in apple improvement have also been summarized. The concepts of marker-free plants, use of non-antibiotic resistance selectable markers, and cisgenic and intragenic approaches are highlighted. Furthermore, the limitations, current trends and future prospects of tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions in apple improvement are discussed.
Liu, Huawei; Wu, Liping; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Peter, Kari; Liu, Zongrang; Mollov, Dimitre; Cao, Mengji; Li, Ruhui
'Rapid Apple Decline' (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the Northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, cracking and canker before collapse in summer. In this study, we discovered and characterized a new luteovirus from apple trees in RAD-affected orchards using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and subsequent Sanger sequencing. Illumina NextSeq sequencing was applied to total RNAs prepared from three diseased apple trees. Sequence reads were de novo assembled, and contigs were annotated by BLASTx. RT-PCR and 5'/3' RACE sequencing were used to obtain the complete genome of a new virus. RT-PCR was used to detect the virus. Three common apple viruses and a new luteovirus were identified from the diseased trees by HTS and RT-PCR. Sequence analyses of the complete genome of the new virus show that it is a new species of the genus Luteovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The virus is graft transmissible and detected by RT-PCR in apple trees in a couple of orchards. A new luteovirus and/or three known viruses were found to be associated with RAD. Molecular characterization of the new luteovirus provides important information for further investigation of its distribution and etiological role.
da Silva Junior, Carlos Antonio; Nanni, Marcos Rafael; Shakir, Muhammad; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Cezar, Everson; de Gois, Givanildo; Lima, Mendelson; Wojciechowski, Julio Cesar; Shiratsuchi, Luciano Shozo
Infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum has remarkable applications in crop studies. Infrared along with Red band has been used to develop certain vegetation indices. These indices like NDVI, EVI provide important information on any crop physiological stages. The main objective of this research was to discriminate 4 different soybean varieties (BMX Potência, NA5909, FT Campo Mourão and Don Mario) using non-imaging hyperspectral sensor. The study was conducted in four agricultural areas in the municipality of Deodápolis (MS), Brazil. For spectral analysis, 2400 field samples were taken from soybean leaves by means of FieldSpec 3 JR spectroradiometer in the range from 350 to 2500 nm. The data were evaluated through multivariate analysis with the whole set of spectral curves isolated by blue, green, red and near infrared wavelengths along with the addition of vegetation indices like (Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI, Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - GNDVI, Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index - SAVI, Transformed Vegetation Index - TVI and Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index - OSAVI). A number of the analysis performed where, discriminant (60 and 80% of the data), simulated discriminant (40 and 20% of data), principal component (PC) and cluster analysis (CA). Discriminant and simulated discriminant analyze presented satisfactory results, with average global hit rates of 99.28 and 98.77%, respectively. The results obtained by PC and CA revealed considerable associations between the evaluated variables and the varieties, which indicated that each variety has a variable that discriminates it more effectively in relation to the others. There was great variation in the sample size (number of leaves) for estimating the mean of variables. However, it was possible to observe that 200 leaves allow to obtain a maximum error of 2% in relation to the mean.
Ting, Valentina J L; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J; Biasioli, Franco
Apples are appreciated for their texture with firmness acting as an indicator of quality. During prolonged storage, apples can soften and their texture can become undesirably mealy. Using an X-ray microcomputer tomography (μ-CT) scanner, the porosity (ratio of intercellular space [IS] to total volume) and the structural arrangement of the parenchyma tissue of 4 apple cultivars (Braeburn, Fuji, Golden Delicious, Jazz) stored under similar conditions for 100 d were visualized via the development of 2D and 3D images. The texture of the apples was also measured using a puncture test. The morphometric and textural measurements revealed that firm Jazz apples (flesh firmness: 29.84N) had a lower porosity (17%) compared to soft Golden Delicious apples (flesh firmness: 14.16N; porosity: 29.8%). In general, firm apples had a higher dry matter (%) and a lower porosity (%), while the reverse was true for softer apples. However, this was not an absolute trend as cultivar specific differences in the microstructural organization and consequent mechanical strength of the parenchyma tissue also influenced firmness. For example, although Fuji apples were firm (28.42N), they had a high porosity (29.3%) due to the presence of numerous small and compact IS. In comparison, soft Golden Delicious apples had a high porosity (29.8%) due to the presence of large, interconnected IS. Imaging technologies have the potential to provide a pictorial or graphical database showing the size range distribution of IS corresponding to different parenchyma tissue types and how they relate to apple texture and eating quality. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta
In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...
Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.
Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964
Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.
Diamante, Lemuel M.; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield. PMID:28239127
Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi
Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.
Gonzales, Carla; Cárdenas-Valencia, Isaias; Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Anza-Ramirez, Cecilia; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F
This study was designed to determine the effect of different varieties of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. 36 female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham and OVX rats treated with vehicle, estradiol (40 microg/kg), black, yellow or red maca (63 mg/ml) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, uterine weight, femoral bone and lumbar vertebra histomorphology were assessed. Ovariectomy reduced weight, diameter and width of the femoral bone. Estradiol, black and red maca treatment reduced the effect of ovariectomy on these variables. Histological analyses revealed that estradiol, black and red maca treatments reversed the effect of ovariectomy by increasing the trabecular bone area in the second lumbar vertebra. Uterine weight was reduced in OVX rats, and estradiol but neither black nor red maca increased uterine weight. Red and black maca have protective effects on bone architecture in OVX rats without showing estrogenic effects on uterine weight. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Askoura, Mohamed Lamine; Piron, Vianney; Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira
The interaction of light with biological materials, such as fruits and vegetables, is a complex process which involves both absorption, and scattering events at different scales. Measuring the optical properties of a fruit allows understanding the physical and chemical characteristics. In this paper, an optical bench based on the use of a continuous laser source and a CCD camera was developed to study the light diffusion inside apple tissue structures. The method refers to the well-known steady-state spatially resolved method. First, the optoelectronics system was tested with a tissue phantom in order to show the optimal sensing range required to obtain the best estimated optical properties. Second, experimental results were obtained using peeled and unpeeled apples as interrogated tissues. The data were confronted with a diffusion model in order to extract the optical properties at two wavelengths of 633, and 852 nm. To better understand the effect of the apple tissue structures, investigations into the propagation of light through a half cut apple were also performed.
Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681
Di Silvestro, Raffaella; Di Loreto, Alessandro; Bosi, Sara; Bregola, Valeria; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Dinelli, Giovanni
Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest in organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management. The soluble fraction of phenolic compounds was mainly determined by the environment, whereas a major genotypic effect was observed for the bound forms, which were present at higher amounts in red grain varieties. Moreover, a predominant effect of genotype was observed for yellow pigment content and antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP method. Despite some changes induced by environment, most genotypes had stable antioxidant properties and different phenolic profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for the old variety Inallettabile, which was the most sensitive to environmental fluctuations. The red grain varieties Andriolo, Gentil rosso and Verna were identified as the most promising breeding material for the development of varieties with high nutraceutical value under low-input management. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ding, Youming; Cao, Yingkang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yemin; Zhang, Deling; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua
Leptin has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, particularly in obese patients. As a multifunctional adaptor protein, APPL1 (containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and a leucine zipper motif 1) plays a critical role in regulating adiponectin and insulin signaling pathways. Currently, high APPL1 level has been suggested to be related to metastases and progression of some types of cancer. However, the intercourse between leptin signaling pathway and APPL1 remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the protein levels and phosphorylation statues of APPL1were highly expressed in tissues from human hepatocellular carcinoma and triple-positive breast cancer. Leptin stimulated APPL1 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in both human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell and breast cancer MCF-7 cell. Overexpression or suppression of APPL1 promoted or attenuated, respectively, leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, and Akt in the cancer cells, accompanied with enhanced or mitigated cell proliferation and migration. In addition, we identified that APPL1 directly bound to both leptin receptor and STAT3. This interaction was significantly enhanced by leptin stimulation. Our results suggested that APPL1 positively mediated leptin signaling and promoted leptin-induced proliferation and migration of cancer cells. This finding reveals a novel mechanism by which leptin promotes the motility and growth of cancer cells.
Singh, R K; Singh, R B; Singh, S P; Sharma, M L
Sugarcane is an important international commodity as a valuable agricultural crop especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Two bulked DNA used to screen polymorphic primers from commercial hybrids (varieties) with moderately resistant and highly susceptible to red rot disease. Among 145 simple sequence repeat and unigene primers screened, 37 (25%) were found to be highly robust and polymorphic with Polymorphism Information Content values ranging from 0.50 to 1.00 with the mean value of 0.82. Among these microsatellites, twenty one were used in the study of genetic relationships and marker identification in sugarcane varieties for red rot resistance. A total of 105 polymorphic DNA bands were identified, with their fragment size ranging from 54 to 1,280 bp. Jaccard's similarity coefficient value recorded between closely related hybrids was 0.986 while lowest coefficient value of 0.341 was detected with distantly related hybrids. The average similarity coefficient among these hybrids was 0.663. Cluster analysis resulted in a dendrogram with two major clusters separating the moderately resistant varieties from highly susceptible varieties. Three group specific fragments amplified by unigene Saccharum microsatellite primers viz; two markers UGSM316(850) and UGSM316(60) were closely associated with moderately resistant varieties by appearing bands in this region but the bands were absent in highly susceptible varieties. Similarly UGSM316(400) marker was tightly linked with highly susceptible varieties by amplifying uniformly in sugarcane varieties showing highly susceptible reaction to red rot but it was absent in moderately resistant varietal groups. Validation of red rot resistance/susceptibility associated markers on a group of different mapping populations for red rot resistant/susceptible traits is in progress.
Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...
Apples contain many kinds of polyphenols, and the main components are oligomeric procyanidins. Applephenon is apple polyphenol extract produced commercially from unripe apples, and has been used as food additive in order to prevent oxidation of components in foods and its application in functional foods is expected. In a lipid metabolism regulation study, administration of Applephenon has the potential to exert strong anti-oxidative activity and to inhibit consumption of vitamin E and anti-oxidative enzymes. Double blind clinical trials of Applephenon on pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, and tests using type I allergic model mice suggested that Applephenon might regulate allergic reactions. We found the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of Applephenon is greater than 2000 mg/kg in a 90~day consecutive oral administration toxicity test in rats, and Applephenon is safe and acceptable based on mutagenicity tests.
Schlenker, Richard M.
The instructional materials included in this document are designed to introduce students to the Apple IIe computer and to the word processing and database portions of the AppleWorks program. The materials are intended for small groups of students, each of whom has use of a computer during class and for short periods between classes. The course…
Page 10.2.4FT-IR Properties of Sodium Polyacrylate ..................................................... 134 10.2.5Effect of SDA on Thick Apple Jelly...Acidified Synthetic Apple Jelly JAW1-56-1 ......... 133 64. FT-IR Spectrum of Sodium Polyacrylate ...135 65. FT-IR Spectrum of Sodium Polyacrylate (1450 to 1760 cm-1) ............................... 135 66. FT-IR Spectra of SDA, Thick
Đorđević, Neda O; Novaković, Miroslav M; Pejin, Boris; Mutić, Jelena J; Vajs, Vlatka E; Pajović, Snežana B; Tešević, Vele V
Samples of the selected red wine varieties grown in Montenegro (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Vranac; vintages 2010-2012) were compared according to total phenolic content, anti-DPPH radical activity, phenolic profile and elemental composition. All the samples showed profound anti-DPPH radical activity, due to high content of total phenolic compounds (R = 0.92). The most abundant phenolics were catechin and gallic acid with the highest values recorded for Merlot 2012 (43.22 and 28.65 mg/L, respectively). In addition to this, the content of essential elements including the potentially toxic ones was within healthy (safe) level for all the samples analysed. This study has actually pointed out Merlot wine variety as the best quality one, though all three varieties may be used as safe and health-promoting nutritional products.
Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...
Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François
Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.
Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E
Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) resistant red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) varieties would offer producers more weed control options, particularly in mixed grass/red clover pastures. In the 1980s, work was initiated in Florida to select for 2,4-D tolerant red clover (Taylor, 1989). This Flo...
Dong, Qinglong; Zhao, Shuang; Duan, Dingyue; Tian, Yi; Wang, Yanpeng; Mao, Ke; Zhou, Zongshan; Ma, Fengwang
Recent studies with Arabidopsis and soybean have shown that a class of valine-glutamine (VQ) motif-containing proteins interacts with some WRKY transcription factors. However, little is known about the evolution, structures, and functions of those proteins in apple. Here, we examined their features and identified 49 apple VQ genes. Our evolutional analysis revealed that the proteins could be clustered into nine groups together with their homologues in 33 species. Historically, the main characteristics of proteins in Groups I, V, VI, VII, IX, and X were thought to have been generated before the monocot-dicot split, whereas those in Groups II, III + IV, and VIII were generated after that split. In the structural analysis, apple MdVQ proteins appeared to bind only with Group I and IIc MdWRKY proteins. Meanwhile, MdVQ1, MdVQ10, MdVQ15, and MdVQ36 interacted with multiple MdVQ proteins to form heterodimers but MdVQ15 formed a homodimer. The functional analysis indicated that overexpression of some apple MdVQs in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants effected their vegetative and reproductive growth. These results provide important information about the characteristics of apple MdVQ genes and can serve as a solid foundation for further studies about the role of WRKY-VQ interactions in regulating apple developmental and defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kern, Melanie; Tjaden, Zeina; Ngiewih, Yufanyi; Puppel, Nicole; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Pahlke, Gudrun; Marko, Doris
The polyphenol-rich extract of a consumer-relevant apple juice blend was found to potently inhibit the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 in vitro. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its subsequent signaling cascade play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation in HT29 cells. The protein tyrosine kinase activity of an EGFR preparation was effectively inhibited by the polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. Treatment of intact cells with this extract resulted in the suppression of the subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Amongst the so far identified apple juice constituents, the proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as quercetin-3-glc (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-gal (hyperoside) were found to possess substantial EGFR-inhibitory properties. However, as to be expected from the final concentration of these potential EGFR inhibitors in the original polyphenol-rich extract, a synthetic mixture of the apple juice constituents identified and available so far, including both proanthocyanidins and the quercetin glycosides, showed only marginal inhibitory effects on the EGFR. These results permit the assumption that yet unknown constituents contribute substantially to the potent EGFR-inhibitory properties of polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. In summary, the polyphenol composition of apple juice possesses promising growth-inhibitory properties, affecting proliferation-associated signaling cascades in colon tumor cells.
Weber, Anderson; Brackmann, Auri; Both, Vanderlei; Pavanello, Elizandra P; Anese, Rogerio O; Schorr, Márcio R W
This work aims at evaluate ethanol effect of acetaldehyde application in post-storage quality of 'Royal Gala' apples maintenance, and to compare them with consolidated storage techniques. Thus two experiments were performed during the years of 2008 and 2009. In the first experiment (2008), the application of ethanol, acetaldehyde or 1-MCP and ethylene scrubbing were tested. Fruits were stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) with 1.0kPa O2 and 2.0kPa CO2 at 0.5°C. In the second experiment (2009), the treatments tested were ethanol application combined or not with low relative humidity (LRH) and LRH alone. In this experiment, apples were stored in CA with 1.2kPa O2 + 2.5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C. After eight months of storage, 0.5 mL ethanol kg-1 apples month-1 or 0.25 mL acetaldehyde kg-1 apples month-1 increased mealiness, flesh browning, and decays incidence and reduced flesh firmness. In contrast, 0.3 mL ethanol kg-1 apples month-1, tested on second experiment, prevented fruit softening and decreased ACC oxidase activity and ethylene production. Although lower relative humidity was not efficient in maintaining post-storage quality, it enhanced the positive effect of ethanol application at 0.3 mL kg-1 apples month-1.
Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (p<0.05). The flavonol-rich fractions inhibited fish oil oxidation by 40-62% at a total phenolic concentration of 200 μg/ml. The fractionated polyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.
In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.
Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Linsmith, Gareth; Muranty, Hélène; Denancé, Caroline; Théron, Anthony; Poncet, Charles; Micheletti, Diego; Kerschbamer, Emanuela; Di Pierro, Erica A; Larger, Simone; Pindo, Massimo; Van de Weg, Eric; Davassi, Alessandro; Laurens, François; Velasco, Riccardo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Troggio, Michela
Cultivated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions, and has great economic and cultural value. The apple genome is highly heterozygous and has undergone a recent duplication which, combined with a rapid linkage disequilibrium decay, makes it difficult to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays offer highly multiplexed assays at a relatively low cost per data point and can be a valid tool for the identification of the markers associated with traits of interest. Here, we describe the development and validation of a 487K SNP Affymetrix Axiom(®) genotyping array for apple and discuss its potential applications. The array has been built from the high-depth resequencing of 63 different cultivars covering most of the genetic diversity in cultivated apple. The SNPs were chosen by applying a focal points approach to enrich genic regions, but also to reach a uniform coverage of non-genic regions. A total of 1324 apple accessions, including the 92 progenies of two mapping populations, have been genotyped with the Axiom(®) Apple480K to assess the effectiveness of the array. A large majority of SNPs (359 994 or 74%) fell in the stringent class of poly high resolution polymorphisms. We also devised a filtering procedure to identify a subset of 275K very robust markers that can be safely used for germplasm surveys in apple. The Axiom(®) Apple480K has now been commercially released both for public and proprietary use and will likely be a reference tool for GWA studies in apple. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.
This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…
... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain...
Botryosphaeria dothidea [Fr. : Moug.] Ces. & De Not. infects over 80 genera of woody plants causing stem cankers on grapevine, apple, pear, and almond trees and also causes white rot on apple fruit in the field and during storage. A B. dothidea isolate was obtained from decayed ‘Fuji’ apple fruit ex...
Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J
Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P < 0.0001); children chose some pieces in 94% of snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P < 0.0002); the mean (±SEM) increase was 31 ± 5 g, about one-sixth the recommended daily amount. Independent of the variety effect, children were less likely to select vegetables than fruit (P < 0.0001), and the mean intake was substantially less for vegetables than for fruit (22 ± 1 compared with 84 ± 3 g). Providing a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.
Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong
Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc
Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple.
Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing
The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485
There were thousands of apples planted in Wyoming’s orchards and homesteads in the 1800s, many of which are still alive today. The purpose of this research was to identify heritage apple cultivars in Wyoming using genetic fingerprinting (microsatellite) techniques and then use this information to su...
Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.
Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290
Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J
Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants.
Peña, María J.; Carpita, Nicholas C.
Growth and maturation of the edible cortical cells of apples (Malus domestica Borkh) are accompanied by a selective loss of pectin-associated (1→4)-β-d-galactan from the cell walls, whereas a selective loss of highly branched (1→5)-α-l-arabinans occurs after ripening and in advance of the loss of firm texture. The selective loss of highly branched arabinans occurs during the overripening of apples of four cultivars (Gala, Red Delicious, Firm Gold, and Gold Rush) that varied markedly in storage life, but, in all instances, the loss prestages the loss of firm texture, measured by both breaking strength and compression resistance. The unbranched (1→5)-linked arabinans remain associated with the major pectic polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and their content remains essentially unchanged during overripening. However, the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching at the rhamnosyl residues also decreases, but only after extensive loss of the highly branched arabinans. In contrast to the decrease in arabinan content, the loss of the rhamnogalacturonan I branching is tightly correlated with loss of firm texture in all cultivars, regardless of storage time. In vitro cell separation assays show that structural proteins, perhaps via their phenolic residues, and homogalacturonans also contribute to cell adhesion. Implications of these cell wall modifications in the mechanisms of apple cortex textural changes and cell separation are discussed. PMID:15247384
Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos
Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars ‘Sampion’ and ‘Spartan’, collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation. PMID:26442012
Liao, Xiong; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yantao; Zhao, Di; Yao, Liping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Guojie; Li, Tianhong
Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6.2 using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Overexpression of MsDREB6.2 increased the expression of a key cytokinin (CK) catabolism gene, MdCKX4a, which led to a significant reduction in endogenous CK levels, and caused a decrease in shoot:root ratio in transgenic apple plants. Overexpression of MsDREB6.2 resulted in a decrease in stomatal aperture and density and an increase in root hydraulic conductance (L 0 ), and thereby enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, manipulating the level of MsDREB6.2 expression altered the expression of two aquaporin (AQP) genes. The effect of the two AQP genes on L 0 was further characterized using the AQP inhibitor HgCl 2 . Based on these observations, we conclude that MsDREB6.2 enhances drought tolerance and that its function may be due, at least in part, to its influence on stomatal opening, root growth, and AQP expression. These results may have applications in apple rootstock breeding programs aimed at developing drought-resistant apple varieties. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Di Guardo, Mario; Bink, Marco C A M; Guerra, Walter; Letschka, Thomas; Lozano, Lidia; Busatto, Nicola; Poles, Lara; Tadiello, Alice; Bianco, Luca; Visser, Richard G F; van de Weg, Eric; Costa, Fabrizio
Fruit texture is a complex feature composed of mechanical and acoustic properties relying on the modifications occurring in the cell wall throughout fruit development and ripening. Apple is characterized by a large variation in fruit texture behavior that directly impacts both the consumer's appreciation and post-harvest performance. To decipher the genetic control of fruit texture comprehensively, two complementing quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches were employed. The first was represented by a pedigree-based analysis (PBA) carried out on six full-sib pedigreed families, while the second was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on a collection of 233 apple accessions. Both plant materials were genotyped with a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped with a sophisticated high-resolution texture analyzer. The overall QTL results indicated the fundamental role of chromosome 10 in controlling the mechanical properties, while chromosomes 2 and 14 were more associated with the acoustic response. The latter QTL, moreover, showed a consistent relationship between the QTL-estimated genotypes and the acoustic performance assessed among seedlings. The in silico annotation of these intervals revealed interesting candidate genes potentially involved in fruit texture regulation, as suggested by the gene expression profile. The joint integration of these approaches sheds light on the specific control of fruit texture, enabling important genetic information to assist in the selection of valuable fruit quality apple varieties. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Di Guardo, Mario; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Guerra, Walter; Letschka, Thomas; Lozano, Lidia; Busatto, Nicola; Poles, Lara; Tadiello, Alice; Bianco, Luca; Visser, Richard G.F.; van de Weg, Eric
Abstract Fruit texture is a complex feature composed of mechanical and acoustic properties relying on the modifications occurring in the cell wall throughout fruit development and ripening. Apple is characterized by a large variation in fruit texture behavior that directly impacts both the consumer’s appreciation and post-harvest performance. To decipher the genetic control of fruit texture comprehensively, two complementing quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approaches were employed. The first was represented by a pedigree-based analysis (PBA) carried out on six full-sib pedigreed families, while the second was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed on a collection of 233 apple accessions. Both plant materials were genotyped with a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped with a sophisticated high-resolution texture analyzer. The overall QTL results indicated the fundamental role of chromosome 10 in controlling the mechanical properties, while chromosomes 2 and 14 were more associated with the acoustic response. The latter QTL, moreover, showed a consistent relationship between the QTL-estimated genotypes and the acoustic performance assessed among seedlings. The in silico annotation of these intervals revealed interesting candidate genes potentially involved in fruit texture regulation, as suggested by the gene expression profile. The joint integration of these approaches sheds light on the specific control of fruit texture, enabling important genetic information to assist in the selection of valuable fruit quality apple varieties. PMID:28338805
Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro
Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Buts, Kim; Hatoum, Darwish; Ho, Quang Tri; Johnston, Jason W; Watkins, Christopher B; Schaffer, Robert J; Gapper, Nigel E; Giovannoni, Jim J; Rudell, David R; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M
Postharvest ripening of apple (Malus x domestica) can be slowed down by low temperatures, and a combination of low O2 and high CO2 levels. While this maintains the quality of most fruit, occasionally storage disorders such as flesh browning can occur. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with a flesh browning disorder related to controlled atmosphere storage using RNA-sequencing techniques. Samples from a browning-susceptible cultivar ('Braeburn') were stored for four months under controlled atmosphere. Based on a visual browning index, the inner and outer cortex of the stored apples was classified as healthy or affected tissue. Over 600 million short single-end reads were mapped onto the Malus consensus coding sequence set, and differences in the expression profiles between healthy and affected tissues were assessed to identify candidate genes associated with internal browning in a tissue-specific manner. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and cell wall modifications were highly modified in the affected inner cortex, while energy-related and stress-related genes were mostly altered in the outer cortex. The expression levels of several of them were confirmed using qRT-PCR. Additionally, a set of novel browning-specific differentially expressed genes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, was validated in apples stored for various periods at different controlled atmosphere conditions, giving rise to potential biomarkers associated with high risk of browning development. The gene expression data presented in this study will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of browning development in apples at controlled atmosphere storage. A conceptual model, including energy-related (linked to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain) and lipid-related genes (related to membrane alterations, and fatty acid oxidation), for browning development in apple is
... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under any...
... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under any...
... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.301 U.S. Fancy. “U.S. Fancy” consists of apples of one variety... injury, visible water core, and broken skins. The apples are also free from damage caused by bruises... variety of apples. Invisible water core shall not be scored against the Fuji variety of apples under any...
Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H
Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.
Malhat, Farag; Kamel, Essam; Saber, Ayman; Hassan, Ehab; Youssef, Ahmed; Almaz, Monir; Hassan, Ayman; Fayz, Abd El-Salam
The dissipation and residual levels of kresoxim methyl in apple under field condition were determined by using HPLC-DAD with QuEChERS method. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1) in apple, it was shown that recoveries were ranged from 91.1% to 96.9% with coefficient variation of the method (CV%) for repeatability ranged from 1.27% to 4.77%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The dissipation rates of kresoxim methyl were described by using first-order kinetics and its half-life, as they are ranged from 4.58 to 4.77 days in apple. The terminal residues of kresoxim methyl were below the FAO/WHO maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.2 mg kg(-1)) in apple when measured 14 days after the final application, which suggested that the use of this fungicide was safe for humans. This study would help in providing the basic information for developing regulation to guard a safe use of kresoxim methyl in apple orchard and to prevent health problem from consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H
Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable.
Luo, Xiao-Cui; Sun, Mei-Hong; Xu, Rui-Rui; Shu, Huai-Rui; Wang, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Shi-Zhong
Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located within the apple genome. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdARFs could be divided into three subfamilies (groups I, II and III). The predicted MdARFs were distributed across 15 of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the analysis of exon-intron junctions and of the intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profile analyses of MdARF genes were performed in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues that were tested, which indicated that MdARFs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this report is the first to provide a genomewide analysis of the apple ARF gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the ARF signal in apple.
Srivastava, Vishal; Dalal, Devjyoti; Kumar, Anuj; Prakash, Surya; Dalal, Krishna
Moisture content is an important feature of fruits and vegetables. As 80% of apple content is water, so decreasing the moisture content will degrade the quality of apples (Golden Delicious). The computational and texture features of the apples were extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. A support vector machine with a Gaussian kernel model was used to perform automated classification. To evaluate the quality of wax coated apples during storage in vivo, our proposed method opens up the possibility of fully automated quantitative analysis based on the morphological features of apples. Our results demonstrate that the analysis of the computational and texture features of OCT images may be a good non-destructive method for the assessment of the quality of apples.
Tian, Yi; Dong, Qinglong; Ji, Zhirui; Chi, Fumei; Cong, Peihua; Zhou, Zongshan
The MADS-box gene family is one of the most widely studied families in plants and has diverse developmental roles in flower pattern formation, gametophyte cell division and fruit differentiation. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding MADS-box genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 146 MADS-box genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six subgroups (MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα, Mβ, Mγ and Mδ) with the MADS-box genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple MADS-box genes were distributed across all 17 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the MADS-box domain, exon length, gene structure and motif compositions of the apple MADS-box genes were analysed. Moreover, the expression of all of the apple MADS-box genes was analysed in the root, stem, leaf, flower tissues and five stages of fruit development. All of the apple MADS-box genes, with the exception of some genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the MADS-box genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple MADS-box gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.